WorldWideScience

Sample records for science communicator dreams

  1. The future of dream science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2017-10-01

    This article describes the future prospects of scientific dream research. Three frontiers of investigation hold special promise: neuroscientific studies of the brain-mind system's activities during sleep (such as during lucid dreaming); systematic analyses of large collections of dream reports from diverse populations of people; and psychotherapeutic explorations of the multiple dimensions of personal and collective meaning woven into the dream experiences of each individual. Several helpful books on the science of sleep and dreaming are mentioned for further study. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Present study of dreaming : Comparing brain science with psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    森田, 修平; 岡本, 祐子

    2013-01-01

    Dream has been brought the stage of scientific research from Freud. After the discovery of REM sleep, The research of dream is shifted from the psychoanalysistic stage to the stage of the view of brain science. Hobson thought there is no sense that interpret dream from the view of brain science, so, he criticized the way of Fruedian's psychoanalysis. However, Solms tried to reexamine the psychoanalysis from the view of brain science. Now, the research of dream recall frequency is done by the ...

  3. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  4. Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永康

    1994-01-01

    People have beliefs since ancient times that dreams were veryimportant. More recently psychiatrist Sigmand Freud believed dreamsshowed a person’s true hidden feelings. He said dreams were theresult of sexual and aggressive needs and represented a person’s deepestdesires. Many psychiatrists now dispute the importance of dreams in

  5. Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Hughes; 徐觉庆

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dreams L.Hughes Hold fast to dreams, For if dreams die, Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams, For when dreams go, Lire is a barren field Frozen with snow. 梦想 徐觉庆 译 紧紧地攥住梦想, 因为梦想一旦天亡, 生活就像折翼的鸟儿 再也不能飞翔. 紧紧地攥住梦想, 因为梦想一旦消逝, 生活犹如荒芜的田地覆盖着雪霜.

  6. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  7. Fermilab | Science | Questions for the Universe | Einstein's Dream of

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces In this Section: Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces Are there dream of an ultimate explanation for everything from the tiniest quanta of particle physics to the

  8. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  9. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  10. Beat Dreams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Two of the founding members of the Beat Generation of the 1950s wrote dream books with almost identical titles: Jack Kerouac's Book of Dreams (1961) and William Burroughs' My Education: A Book of Dreams (1995). This paper queries the function of such dream books, both from a perspective of seeing...... dream writing as a confessional genre, and from the perspective of didacticism implicit in sharing one's dream life with one's readers. What role does memory, politics, fantasies and reality play in communicating with and via dreams?...

  11. The sciences of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  12. THEMES, DREAMS AND REAUTY: THE SCIENCE PROJECT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science Education Project (SEP) is a non-profit making educational trust ... us that many of them fail to survive the rigours of the school and ... environment) emphasis will be placed on in-service training and ... The 'status quo' is safe, everyone.

  13. The sciences of science communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication” brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; a...

  14. Communicating Your Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective science communication can open doors, accelerate your career and even make you a better scientist. Part of being an effective and productive scientist means being an effective science communicator. The scientist must communicate their work in talks, posters, peer-reviewed papers, internal reports, proposals as well as to the broader public (including law makers). Despite the importance of communication, it has traditionally not been part of our core training as scientists. Today's science students are beginning to have more opportunities to formally develop their science communication skills. Fortunately, new and even more established scientists have a range of tools and resources at their disposal. In this presentation, we will share some of these resources, share our own experiences utilizing them, and provide some practical tools to improve your own science communication skills.

  15. Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): Clinical and Basic Science Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casscells, Ward

    1999-01-01

    DREAMS clinical and basic science projects complement the digital EMS effort by investigating the mechanisms of tissue injury in order to minimize the mortality and mortality of trauma and "natural...

  16. NASA science communications strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  17. Team science for science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Strauss, Benjamin H

    2014-09-16

    Natural scientists from Climate Central and social scientists from Carnegie Mellon University collaborated to develop science communications aimed at presenting personalized coastal flood risk information to the public. We encountered four main challenges: agreeing on goals; balancing complexity and simplicity; relying on data, not intuition; and negotiating external pressures. Each challenge demanded its own approach. We navigated agreement on goals through intensive internal communication early on in the project. We balanced complexity and simplicity through evaluation of communication materials for user understanding and scientific content. Early user test results that overturned some of our intuitions strengthened our commitment to testing communication elements whenever possible. Finally, we did our best to negotiate external pressures through regular internal communication and willingness to compromise.

  18. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  19. Dreaming of science: Undocumented Latin[a]s' testimonios across the borderlands of high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford

    This qualitative study uncovers the voices of five Latin students who are high-"achieving" and undocumented and have strong aspirations in science, in a Southern, Title I high school. Through critical race methodology and these students' testimonios/counter-stories, these students' struggles and successes reveal their crossing of cultural and political borderlands and negotiating structures of schooling and science. The students dream of someday pursuing a trajectory in the field of science despite racial, ethnic, and political barriers due to their undocumented status. I use three key theoretical approaches--Borderlands/Anzalduan theory (Anzaldua, 2007), Loving Playfulness/World Traveling (Lugones, 2003), and Latino Critical Race Theory (in which many Latin/Chican studies contribute)--to put a human face on the complex political and educational situations which the students in this study traverse. Data were collected during a full school year with follow-up contact into the present, with over 133 hours immersed in the field, involving 22 individual student interviews, six student focus group interviews, 14 teacher interviews, field notes from over 79 contact hours with participants in formal and informal science education settings, and document review. This study reveals high-"achieving" students flourishing in formal school science and informal science settings, starting a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) club and the first community garden in a Title I high school in their state, to benefit their immigrant-rich community. Each student professes agentic desire to follow a science trajectory but testifies to their struggle with racism, nativism, and state policies of restricted college access. Students persevere in spite of the additional obstacles they face, to "prove" their "worth" and rise above deficit narratives in the public discourse regarding students of their ethnicity and undocumented status, and hold onto hope for legislation such as

  20. Dreaming and immanence: rejecting the dogmatic image of thought in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse; Wallace, Maria F. G.; Higgins, Marc

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we, a multivocal-thinking-assemblage, trouble what we feel is the dogmatic image of thought in science education. Beginning with Lars Bang's (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 2017) dramatic and disruptive imagery of the Ouroboros as a means to challenge scientific literacy we explore the importance of dreams, thinking with both virtual and actual entities, and immanent thinking to science education scholarship. Dreaming as movement away from a dogmatic image of thought takes the authors in multiple directions as they attempt to open Deleuzian horizons of difference, immanence, and self-exploration.

  1. Perceptual and Subliminal Communication: A Business Teacher's Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Elizabeth W.; Gratz, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Aims to increase awareness of and sensitivity to perceptual and subliminal communication by focusing on selected applications of them in present day society. The basic theories are (1) communication is used to try to change a person's behavior and (2) it is being used primarily for deception rather than information. (JOW)

  2. Managing Dreams and Ambitions: A Psychological Analysis of Vision Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Stam (Daan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe communication of inspiring visions is arguably the sine qua non of change-oriented leadership. Visions are images of the future. Vision communication refers to the expression of a vision with the aim of convincing others (usually followers) that the vision is valid. Despite the fact

  3. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, N

    2010-01-01

    ... patterns of communication among scientists, popular communication to the public and science in literature and drama. This three-part framework shows how historical and cultural factors operate in today's complex communication landscape, and should be actively considered when designing and evaluating science communication. Ideal for students and p...

  4. Participatory communication on internal social media - a dream or reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication within organizations with a capability of influencing and moving the organization. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on two exploratory stu...

  5. Portraying Real Science in Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    In both formal and informal settings, not only science but also views on the nature of science are communicated. Although there probably is no singular nature shared by all fields of science, in the field of science education it is commonly assumed that on a certain level of generality there is a consensus on many features of science. In this…

  6. Communicating Science to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  7. What physicians need to know about dreams and dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, James F

    2012-11-01

    An overview of the current status of dream science is given, designed to provide a basic background of this field for the sleep-interested physician. No cognitive state has been more extensively studied and is yet more misunderstood than dreaming. Much older work is methodologically limited by lack of definitions, small sample size, and constraints of theoretical perspective, with evidence equivocal as to whether any special relationship exists between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming. As the relationship between dreams and REM sleep is so poorly defined, evidence-based studies of dreaming require a dream report. The different aspects of dreaming that can be studied include dream and nightmare recall frequency, dream content, dreaming effect on waking behaviors, dream/nightmare associated medications, and pathophysiology affecting dreaming. Whether studied from behavioral, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, pathophysiological or electrophysiological perspectives, dreaming reveals itself to be a complex cognitive state affected by a wide variety of medical, psychological, sleep and social variables.

  8. Delivering effective science communication: advice from a professional science communicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s). In this paper, I present some practical advice for developing, delivering and evaluating effective science communication initiatives, based on over a decade of experience as being a professional science communicator. I provide advice regarding event logistics, suggestions on how to successfully market and advertise your science communication initiatives, and recommendations for establishing effective branding and legacy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Computer Science Can Feed a Lot of Dreams"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Horizons, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Pat Yongpradit is the director of education at Code.org. He leads all education efforts, including professional development and curriculum creation, and he builds relationships with school districts. Pat joined "Educational Horizons" to talk about why it is important to teach computer science--even for non-computer science teachers. This…

  10. Communicating science in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  11. Science communication in European projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachev, Boyko; Stamenov, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Science communication in several resent successful projects of Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE, BAS) from the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of EC is presented: the joint INRNE, BAS project with JRC of EC (FP5 NUSES) and two subsequent Centre of Excellence projects (FP5 HIMONTONET and FP6 BEOBAL) are considered. Innovations and traditional forms development and application are discussed. An overview of presentation and communication of INRNE, BAS contribution to Bulgarian European Project is made. Good practices have been derived. Keywords: Science communication, European projects, Innovations

  12. Communicating science in social settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  13. Communicating science beyond the MMJ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nanotechnology, fracking, and GMOs, just to name a few hot topics of recent years. In Malawi, levels of poverty, literacy, and access to information are challenges to science communication. However, given that the majority of research conducted in Malawi is medical or social science-related and involves human subjects, ...

  14. Innovating science communication

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051192; The ATLAS collaboration; Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia; Shaw, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Education & Outreach project has, over the years, developed a strong reputation for supporting innovation. Animated event displays, musical CDs, 3d movies, 3-storey murals, photo books, data sonifications, multi-media art installations, pub slams, masterclasses, documentaries, pop-up books, LEGO® models, and virtual visits are among the many diverse methods being exploited to communicate to the world the goals and accomplishments of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. This variety of creativity and innovation does not pop out of a vacuum. It requires underlying motivation by the collaboration to communicate with the public; freedom and encouragement to do so in a creative manner; and a support structure for developing, implementing and promoting these activities. The ATLAS Outreach project has built this support structure on a well-defined communication plan, high-quality content, and effective delivery platforms. Most importantly, implementation of the program has been based on the effective engagem...

  15. The Science of Strategic Communication | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one size fits all” and “presenting everything and letting the audience decide what is important”) and specifically focuses on building a communication framework that is composed of three interlinked pillars: (1) Message – Identifying the right content for a given audience and a vehicle, (2) Audience – Identify the right target group for a given message and vehicle, (3) Vehicle – Identifying the right types of media for a given message and audience. In addition to serving as an organizational framework, the physical structure of a Strategic Communication plan also can serve as a way to show an audience where they, the message, and vehicle fit into the larger picture (i.e., “you are here”). This presentation explores the tenets of Strategic Communication and its use in natural resources management as it relates to advancing restoration activities in the Greater Everglades. This presentation is aimed at restoration practitioners and decision makers. This presentation provides an introduction to the field of strategic communication and presents a generalizable framework for use in the natural sciences. The presentation also gives an example of a communication implementation matrix,

  16. Visions of the Future: Dream narratology in (Proto-)Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Dream narration has a lengthy history in the Western literary tradition, functioning as the earliest iteration of the frame story. Dream narratives can be found in the Bible, and in Greek and Latin classical literature, but perhaps reached a zenith during the Medieval period, when dream visions became a central narratological strategy in theological texts and secular romances alike. Deriving from this Medieval tradition, early speculative literature utilises the dream narrat...

  17. Communicating science in politicized environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Arthur

    2013-08-20

    Many members of the scientific community attempt to convey information to policymakers and the public. Much of this information is ignored or misinterpreted. This article describes why these outcomes occur and how science communicators can achieve better outcomes. The article focuses on two challenges associated with communicating scientific information to such audiences. One challenge is that people have less capacity to pay attention to scientific presentations than many communicators anticipate. A second challenge is that people in politicized environments often make different choices about whom to believe than do people in other settings. Together, these challenges cause policymakers and the public to be less responsive to scientific information than many communicators desire. Research on attention and source credibility can help science communicators better adapt to these challenges. Attention research clarifies when, and to what type of stimuli, people do (and do not) pay attention. Source credibility research clarifies the conditions under which an audience will believe scientists' descriptions of phenomena rather than the descriptions of less-valid sources. Such research can help communicators stay true to their science while making their findings more memorable and more believable to more audiences.

  18. Communicating science in politicized environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Many members of the scientific community attempt to convey information to policymakers and the public. Much of this information is ignored or misinterpreted. This article describes why these outcomes occur and how science communicators can achieve better outcomes. The article focuses on two challenges associated with communicating scientific information to such audiences. One challenge is that people have less capacity to pay attention to scientific presentations than many communicators anticipate. A second challenge is that people in politicized environments often make different choices about whom to believe than do people in other settings. Together, these challenges cause policymakers and the public to be less responsive to scientific information than many communicators desire. Research on attention and source credibility can help science communicators better adapt to these challenges. Attention research clarifies when, and to what type of stimuli, people do (and do not) pay attention. Source credibility research clarifies the conditions under which an audience will believe scientists’ descriptions of phenomena rather than the descriptions of less-valid sources. Such research can help communicators stay true to their science while making their findings more memorable and more believable to more audiences. PMID:23940336

  19. Successful Climate Science Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, P.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, efforts to communicate the facts of global change have not successfully moved political leaders and the general public to action. In response, a number of collaborative efforts between scientists and professional communicators, writers, journalists, bloggers, filmmakers, artists and others have arisen seeking to bridge that gap. As a result, a new cadre of science-literate communicators, and media-savvy scientists have made themselves visible across diverse mainstream, traditional, and social media outlets. Because of these collaborations, in recent years, misinformation, and disinformation have been successfully met with accurate and credible rebuttals within a single news cycle.Examples of these efforts is the Dark Snow Project, a science/communication collaboration focusing initially on accelerated arctic melt and sea level rise, and the Climate Science Rapid Response team, which matches professional journalists with appropriate science experts in order to respond within a single news cycle to misinformation or misunderstandings about climate science.The session will discuss successful examples and suggest creative approaches for the future.

  20. Extended cognition in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Crisis Communication (Handbooks of Communication Science Vol. 23)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni

    Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley......Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley...

  2. Communicating knowledge in science, science journalism and art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    Richter. The specialized knowledge about the image is communicated in three very different contexts with three very different outcomes. The paper uses Niklas Luhmann's system theory to describe science, science journalism, and art as autonomous social subsystems of communication. Also, Luhmann's notions...... of irritation and interference are employed to frame an interpretation of the complex relations between communicating knowledge about the image in science, science journalism, and art. Even though the functional differentiation between the communication systems of science, science journalism, and art remains...... that Richter's Erster Blick ends up questioning the epistemological and ontological grounds for communication of knowledge in science and in science journalism....

  3. Memory in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gabriella

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the author discusses a specific type of dreams encountered in her clinical experience, which in her view provide an opportunity of reconstructing the traumatic emotional events of the patient's past. In 1900, Freud described a category of dreams--which he called 'biographical dreams'--that reflect historical infantile experience without the typical defensive function. Many authors agree that some traumatic dreams perform a function of recovery and working through. Bion contributed to the amplification of dream theory by linking it to the theory of thought and emphasizing the element of communication in dreams as well as their defensive aspect. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the predominant aspect of such dreams is the communication of an experience which the dreamer has in the dream but does not understand. It is often possible to reconstruct, and to help the patient to comprehend and make sense of, the emotional truth of the patient's internal world, which stems from past emotional experience with primary objects. The author includes some clinical examples and references to various psychoanalytic and neuroscientific conceptions of trauma and memory. She discusses a particular clinical approach to such dreams and how the analyst should listen to them.

  4. The Credibility of Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen, L. H.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in the media marketplace and an increased need for visibility to secure funding are leading inevitably to faster, simpler and more aggressive science communication. This article presents the results of an exploratory study of potential credibility problems in astronomy press releases, their causes, consequences and possible remedies. The study consisted of eleven open-ended interviews with journalists, scientists and public information officers. Results suggest that credibility issues are central to communication, deeply integrated into the workflow and can have severe consequences for the actors (especially the scientist, but are an unavoidable part of thecommunication process.

  5. Communicating in English for Science and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe

    Communicating in English for Science and Technology covers some of the most important questions in connection with communication models, stylistics and genre conventions within the area of English used in science and technology texts. Moreover,knowledge management, terminology management...

  6. Terahertz Science, Technology, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    The term "terahertz" has been ubiquitous in the arena of technology over the past couple of years. New applications are emerging every day which are exploiting the promises of terahertz - its small wavelength; capability of penetrating dust, clouds, and fog; and possibility of having large instantaneous bandwidth for high-speed communication channels. Until very recently, space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary science, and Earth science missions have been the primary motivator for the development of terahertz sensors, sources, and systems. However, in recent years the emerging areas such as imaging from space platforms, surveillance of person-borne hidden weapons or contraband from a safe stand-off distance and reconnaissance, medical imaging and DNA sequencing, and in the world high speed communications have been the driving force for this area of research.

  7. Fascinating! Popular Science Communication and Literary Science Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    Some see literary Science Fiction as a possible vehicle for critical discussions about the future development and the ethical implications of science-based technologies. According to that understanding, literary Science Fiction constitutes a variety of science communication. Along related lines, ......, popular science communication with science fiction features might be expected to serve a similar purpose. Only, it is far from obvious that it actually works that way.......Some see literary Science Fiction as a possible vehicle for critical discussions about the future development and the ethical implications of science-based technologies. According to that understanding, literary Science Fiction constitutes a variety of science communication. Along related lines...

  8. Science communication at scientific societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, Jeanne

    2017-10-01

    Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scientific Communication and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    Communication is an important part of scientific practice and, arguably, may be seen as constitutive to scientific knowledge. Yet, often scientific communication gets cursory treatment in science studies as well as in science education. In Nature of Science (NOS), for example, communication is rarely mentioned explicitly, even though, as will be…

  10. Ethical issues in communicating science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, J M; Bird, S J

    2000-10-01

    Most of the publicized work on scientific ethics concentrates on establishing professional norms and avoiding misconduct. The successful communication of science is the responsibility of all involved in the process. In one study, the increased incidence of autism and other social developmental disorders in males was investigated by examining individuals with Turner's syndrome (XO females). In the national newspaper this became "Genetic X-factor explains why boys will always be boys". The steps by which a study on developmental disorders, published in a highly prestigious journal, was transformed into an article in the science section which 'explained' the socially expected gender-based behavior of genetically normal children are fascinating and, unfortunately far too typical. The scientists wrote an excellent article that has just one sentence at the end that hesitantly suggests that the findings might, with further study, have some relevance to understanding normal behavior. The general interest article in the front of the journal gave a good account of the research, but suggested more strongly that there could be an in-built biological dimorphism in social cognition. This was misrepresented in the press as proof of gender differences that "undermines the trend towards sexual equality", and both illustrates cultural bias and provides fodder for feminist critiques of science. The study has been made to appear to be biased in favor of justifying the social structure of society, and yet it was the translation from the scientific study to national news that produced this transformation to biased genetic determinism. It is poor communication of the actual science, coupled with a lack of skepticism on the part of the public, that contributes to such a misapplication of science. Scientists should resist the urge to generalize their results to make them more compelling. The science community should not allow misconstructions of scientific facts to go unchallenged

  11. Facial appearance affects science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, Ana I; Callan, Mitchell J; Skylark, William J

    2017-06-06

    First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist's work, and those that create the impression of a "good scientist" who does high-quality research. Apparent competence and morality were positively related to both interest and quality judgments, whereas attractiveness boosted interest but decreased perceived quality. Next, we had members of the public choose real science news stories to read or watch and found that people were more likely to choose items that were paired with "interesting-looking" scientists, especially when selecting video-based communications. Finally, we had people read real science news items and found that the research was judged to be of higher quality when paired with researchers who look like "good scientists." Our findings offer insights into the social psychology of science, and indicate a source of bias in the dissemination of scientific findings to broader society.

  12. Descartes' dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Robert

    2008-11-01

    René Descartes is often regarded as the 'father of modern philosophy'. He was a key figure in instigating the scientific revolution that has been so influential in shaping our modern world. He has been revered and reviled in almost equal measure for this role; on the one hand seen as liberating science from religion, on the other as splitting soul from body and man from nature. He dates the founding of his philosophical methods to the night of 10(th) November 1619 and in particular to three powerful dreams he had that night. This article utilizes Descartes' own interpretations of the dreams, supported by biographical material, as well as contemporary neuroscientific and psychoanalytic theory, to reach a new understanding of them. It is argued that the dreams can be understood as depicting Descartes' personal journey from a state of mind-body dissociation to one of mind-body deintegration. This personal journey may have implications for a parallel journey from Renaissance to modern culture and from modernity to post-modern culture.

  13. Science communication a practical guide for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bowater, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Science communication is a rapidly expanding area and meaningful engagement between scientists and the public requires effective communication. Designed to help the novice scientist get started with science communication, this unique guide begins with a short history of science communication before discussing the design and delivery of an effective engagement event. Along with numerous case studies written by highly regarded international contributors, the book discusses how to approach face-to-face science communication and engagement activities with the public while providing tips to avoid potential pitfalls. This book has been written for scientists at all stages of their career, including undergraduates and postgraduates wishing to engage with effective science communication for the first time, or looking to develop their science communication portfolio.

  14. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  15. Comment on ``Communicating Government Science''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Harry F.

    2006-05-01

    Soroosh Sorooshian's editorial in the 18 April issue of Eos (87(16) 2005) is a timely reminder of the need for unambiguous guidelines governing the interactions between government scientists and the media. His comments implicitly recognize the central role that science plays in a modern democratic society, which includes informing policy at the highest levels of government and educating the general public about the world we inhabit. Federal research scientists, who constitute approximately 15 percent of the AGU's U.S. membership, have a unique public responsibility. They would welcome a consistent policy for the review and approval of publications, oral presentations, and media communications. An example of the value and success that such a policy can have to both science and the nation is evident in the operations of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For more than a century, the USGS has had clear policies and procedures for ensuring the communication of accurate, high-quality, and impartial scientific information. These policies and procedures are set forth in the USGS Manual under sections entitled ``Approval by the director for outside publication and oral presentation,'' ``Review of USGS publications and abstracts of oral presentations for policy-sensitive issues,'' and ``News release and media relations policy.'' These policies are available online at http:// www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/500/500-9.html (.../500-8.html and .../500 5.html).

  16. Perspectives of Science Communication Training Held by Lecturers of Biotechnology and Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    Science communication training for undergraduate science students has been recommended to improve future scientists' ability to constructively engage with the public. This study examined biotechnology lecturers' and science communication lecturers' views of science communication training and its possible inclusion in a biotechnology degree course…

  17. The Science of Science Communication and Protecting the Science Communication Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Promoting public comprehension of science is only one aim of the science of science communication and is likely not the most important one for the well-being of a democratic society. Ordinary citizens form quadrillions of correct beliefs on matters that turn on complicated scientific principles they cannot even identify much less understand. The reason they fail to converge on beliefs consistent with scientific evidence on certain other consequential matters—from climate change to genetically modified foods to compusory adolescent HPV vaccination—is not the failure of scientists or science communicators to speak clearly or the inability of ordinary citizens to understand what they are saying. Rather, the source of such conflict is the proliferation of antagonistic cultural meanings. When they become attached to particular facts that admit of scientific investigation, these meanings are a kind of pollution of the science communication environment that disables the faculties ordinary citizens use to reliably absorb collective knowledge from their everyday interactions. The quality of the science communication environment is thus just as critical for enlightened self-government as the quality of the natural environment is for the physical health and well-being of a society's members. Understanding how this science communication environment works, fashioning procedures to prevent it from becoming contaminated with antagonistic meanings, and formulating effective interventions to detoxify it when protective strategies fail—those are the most critical functions science communication can perform in a democratic society.

  18. NASA/MSFC/NSSTC Science Communication Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Koczor, R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducts a diverse program of Internet-based science communication through a Science Roundtable process. The Roundtable includes active researchers, writers, NASA public relations staff, educators, and administrators. The Science@NASA award-winning family of Web sites features science, mathematics, and space news to inform, involve, and inspire students and the public about science. We describe here the process of producing stories, results from research to understand the science communication process, and we highlight each member of our Web family.

  19. Religiosity, Culture, and Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, R. C.; Kahan, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that cultural commitments influence receptivity to scientific information on risks and related policy-relevant facts. Religiosity is one proxy for such commitments. My presentation will present data from numerous studies (observational and experimental, lab and field) that address how religiosity as a form of cultural affinity shapes engagement with the best available evidence on human-caused climate change. The central conclusion of this research is that a skeptical position on climate change, much like a skeptical position on human evolution, operates as a tacit badge of membership in and loyalty to groups bound together by religious affiliations. Overcoming the distorting impact that this dynamic has on climate-science communication requires engaging members of religious groups not as members of those groups per se but as citizens with a practical stake in addressing the risks that climate change poses to them and their neighbors. Once enlisted into discussion and practical action on these grounds, however, religious individuals can be expected to share their positive experiences and outlooks with other members of their religious communities, thereby demonstrating to them that engaging with this form of science does not conflict with their cultural identities.

  20. Brief communication: a comparison of the place of dreams in institute curricula between 1980-1981 and 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, J L

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of dreams was central in demonstrating Freud's theory of mind and the power of unconscious forces. Many analysts informally comment that dreams no longer seem to hold the same centrality they had for analysts who were trained prior to the 1980s. This paper presents a brief study assessing whether there has been a change in the teaching of dreams in psychoanalytic institutes. Comparison of theoretical and clinical courses on dreams in 1980-1981 and 1998-1999 indicates that the actual number of hours devoted to teaching dreams has in fact decreased. However, there are indications that a renewal of interest in dreams may now be occurring, at least in some institutes. The relationship between views on the role of dreams and perspectives on psychoanalysis itself is discussed.

  1. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    .... This book critically examines the origin of this drive to improve communication, and discusses why simply improving scientists' communication skills and understanding of their audiences may not be...

  2. Science and society: a dialogue without communicators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To give a good public speech is art; but definitely more difficult is to organize a productive exchange of points of views between scientists, experts, non-experts and policy-makers on controversial issues such as a scenario workshop or a consensus conference. Many skills and a deep knowledge both of the topic and of the methodology are required. But this is the future of science communication, a field where the dialogical model will impose new and complex formats of communication and a new sensibility, using also the most traditional media. But are science communicators prepared for that? What is the state of the art of science communicator training?

  3. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  4. The Science of Strategic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one s...

  5. Communication Regulatory Science: Mapping a New Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Cappella, Joseph N; Price, Simani

    2017-12-13

    Communication regulatory science is an emerging field that uses validated techniques, tools, and models to inform regulatory actions that promote optimal communication outcomes and benefit the public. In the opening article to this special issue on communication and tobacco regulatory science, we 1) describe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products in the US; 2) introduce communication regulatory science and provide examples in the tobacco regulatory science realm; and 3) describe the special issue process and final set of articles. Communication research on tobacco regulatory science is a burgeoning area of inquiry, and this work advances communication science, informs and potentially guides the FDA, and may help to withstand legal challenges brought by the tobacco industry. This research has the potential to have a major impact on the tobacco epidemic and population health by helping implement the most effective communications to prevent tobacco initiation and increase cessation. This special issue provides an example of 10 studies that exemplify tobacco regulatory science and demonstrate how the health communication field can affect regulation and benefit public health.

  6. Bringing values and deliberation to science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Thomas

    2013-08-20

    Decisions always involve both facts and values, whereas most science communication focuses only on facts. If science communication is intended to inform decisions, it must be competent with regard to both facts and values. Public participation inevitably involves both facts and values. Research on public participation suggests that linking scientific analysis to public deliberation in an iterative process can help decision making deal effectively with both facts and values. Thus, linked analysis and deliberation can be an effective tool for science communication. However, challenges remain in conducting such process at the national and global scales, in enhancing trust, and in reconciling diverse values.

  7. Scientists' understanding of public communication of science and technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjaer, Carsten Rahbæk; Dahlgaard, Jørgen

    Background Research into the field of science communication has tended to focus on public understanding of science or on the processes of science communication itself, e.g. by looking at science in the media. Few studies have explored how scientists understand science communication. At present...... and technical sciences see science communication. We wanted to map their general interest in using different media of science communication as well as their active participation in current science communication. Moreover, we wanted to find out what they think about future of science communication, and what...... science communication. Results Our respondents indicated interest in doing science communication through media aimed at a broader public. In particular, news media surfaced as the most attractive media of public communication. The respondents preferred to be in charge of science communication themselves...

  8. Reflections on science and the communication sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Reflections on science and the communication sector. In this contribution I will reflect about successes and failures in communicating climate change and air pollution sciences to the general public. These communication efforts included writing popular articles, giving public presentations, working with people from the social scientists and artists. Giving the fact that communication is a very important (economic) sector on its own, the question is to what extent scientists should enter that sector, whether scientists are at all accepted in that sector, whether they should use the expertise in that sector, or whether they should merely provide the knowledge to be used by that sector.

  9. The dream that never dies: the ideals and realities of cosmopolitanism in science, 1870–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fox

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the half-century before the Great War, collaborative international ventures in science became increasingly common. The trend, manifested in scientific congresses and attempts to establish agreement on physical units and systems of nomenclature, had important consequences. One was the fear of information overload. How were scientists to keep abreast of the growing volume of books, journals, and reports? How were they to do so in an era without a common language? Responses to these challenges helped to foster new departures in cataloguing, bibliography, and an interest in Esperanto and other constructed languages. By 1914, the responses had also become involved in wider movements that promoted communication as a force for peace. The Great War dealt a severe blow to these cosmopolitan ideals, and the post-war reordering of international science did little to resurrect them. A “national turn” during the 1920s assumed a darker form in the 1930s, as totalitarian regimes in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Spain associated science ever more closely with national interests. Although the Second World War further undermined the ideal of internationalism in science, the vision of science as part of a world culture open to all soon resurfaced, notably in UNESCO. As an aspiration, it remains with us today, in ventures for universal access to information made possible by digitization and the World Wide Web. The challenge in the twenty-first century is how best to turn aspiration into reality.

  10. Science Communication in Teacher Personal Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, I explore how personal pronouns used by elementary teachers during science inquiry discussions communicate science and frame teacher-student-science relations. A semiotic framework is adopted wherein teacher pronominal choices are viewed as symbolically expressing cognitive meanings (scientific thinking, forms of expression, and concepts) and indexically communicating social meanings (hidden messages about social and personal aspects of science-human agency, science membership, and gender). Through the construction of interactional maps and micro-ethnographic analysis of classroom video-recordings, I focus specifically on participant examples (oral descriptions of actual or hypothetical situations wherein the teacher presents herself and/or her students as characters to illustrate topics under discussion). This analysis revealed that the teacher use of the generalised you communicated to the students how to mean scientifically (i.e. to speak like a scientist), while I communicated scientific ways of thinking and reasoning. Furthermore, teacher pronouns communicated the social nature of science (NOS) (e.g. science as a human enterprise) as well as multiple teacher-student-science relational frames that were inclusive of some students (mainly boys) but excluded girls (i.e. positioned them as science outsiders). Exclusive use of he was taken as indicative of a gender bias. It is argued that science teachers should become more aware of the range of personal pronouns available for science instruction, their advantages and constraints for science discussions, their potential as instructional tools for humanising and personalising impersonal science curricula as well as the risk of 'NOS' miscommunication.

  11. [SCIENCE AND DREAMS IN THE MIDDLE AGES: IL "DE SOMNIIS" DI BOEZIO DI DACIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feti, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Boethius of Dacia's opera "De somnis" can be defined as a brief treaty that partially follows the traditional quaestio scheme. It includes a passage that seems to copy Etienne Tempier's proposition number sixty-five, which condemns the importance attributed to astrology by many medieval authors. Boethius moves off Aristotle's "De somno et vigilia" idea of physiological dreams to assert a new kind of oneiric phenomena linked to constellations, that, according to the author, aren't divinely inspired, whereas they are to be considered as natural events. Boethius isn't the only philosopher who writes about this particular type of dream as another medieval author, Albertus Magnus, in his "Speculum Astronomiae", describes astrology and its relationship to medicine.

  12. Aphotic Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Nassiroghli, Fakhteh

    2012-01-01

    One hour and ten minutes theatre production of Aphotic Dream, written and directed by Fay Nassiroghli. The production took place at Studio T at SFU (Goldcorp Campus). Aphotic Dream was a multidisciplinary piece combining dance, text, lighting, surround audio system and music. Aphotic Dream included a cast of eleven people from diverse cultural and professional backgrounds as well as 4 major collaborators in the areas of lighting, sound and audio design, dramaturgy and directing. The audience ...

  13. Practical science communication strategies for graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M; Twardochleb, Laura A; Fritschie, Keith J; Mims, Meryl C; Lawrence, David J; Gibson, Polly P; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D

    2014-10-01

    Development of skills in science communication is a well-acknowledged gap in graduate training, but the constraints that accompany research (limited time, resources, and knowledge of opportunities) make it challenging to acquire these proficiencies. Furthermore, advisors and institutions may find it difficult to support graduate students adequately in these efforts. The result is fewer career and societal benefits because students have not learned to communicate research effectively beyond their scientific peers. To help overcome these hurdles, we developed a practical approach to incorporating broad science communication into any graduate-school time line. The approach consists of a portfolio approach that organizes outreach activities along a time line of planned graduate studies. To help design the portfolio, we mapped available science communication tools according to 5 core skills essential to most scientific careers: writing, public speaking, leadership, project management, and teaching. This helps graduate students consider the diversity of communication tools based on their desired skills, time constraints, barriers to entry, target audiences, and personal and societal communication goals. By designing a portfolio with an advisor's input, guidance, and approval, graduate students can gauge how much outreach is appropriate given their other commitments to teaching, research, and classes. The student benefits from the advisors' experience and mentorship, promotes the group's research, and establishes a track record of engagement. When graduate student participation in science communication is discussed, it is often recommended that institutions offer or require more training in communication, project management, and leadership. We suggest that graduate students can also adopt a do-it-yourself approach that includes determining students' own outreach objectives and time constraints and communicating these with their advisor. By doing so we hope students will

  14. Science communication for uncertian science and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sanden, M.C.A.; Flipse, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in viewpoints between science and society, like in for example the HPV-vaccination debate, should be considered from a socio-technical system perspective, and not solely from a boundary perspective between the lay public, medical doctors and scientists. Recent developments in the

  15. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  16. Ocean Science Video Challenge Aims to Improve Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    Given today's enormous management and protection challenges related to the world's oceans, a new competition calls on ocean scientists to effectively communicate their research in videos that last up to 3 minutes. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge, named for the number of seconds in 3 minutes, aims to improve ocean science communication while providing high school and middle school teachers and students with new and interesting educational materials about current science topics.

  17. The Chicago guide to communicating science

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Scott L

    2017-01-01

    For more than a decade, The Chicago Guide to Communicating Science has been the go-to reference for anyone who needs to write or speak about their research. Whether a student writing a thesis, a faculty member composing a grant proposal, or a public information officer crafting a press release, Scott Montgomery’s advice is perfectly adaptable to any scientific writer’s needs. This new edition has been thoroughly revised to address crucial issues in the changing landscape of scientific communication, with an increased focus on those writers working in corporate settings, government, and nonprofit organizations as well as academia. Half a dozen new chapters tackle the evolving needs and paths of scientific writers. These sections address plagiarism and fraud, writing graduate theses, translating scientific material, communicating science to the public, and the increasing globalization of research. The Chicago Guide to Communicating Science recognizes that writers come to the table with different needs and...

  18. Expectations and Beliefs in Science Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical–ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention......; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science...

  19. Communication of Science Advice to Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2016-01-01

    There are various ways to construct good processes for soliciting and understanding science. Our critique of advisory models finds that a well-supported chief science advisor (CSA) best ensures the provision of deliberative, informal, and emergency advice to government. Alternatively, bias, increasingly manifest as science-based advocacy, can hinder communication, diminish credibility, and distort scientific evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  1. Dreams Memories & Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  2. Colorful Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉峰; 李永浩; 王雷; 刘玉; 李娜

    2007-01-01

    Every young student has a beautiful dream in his/her heart.In order to make it come true,we work hard.Sometimes we want to give it up when facing difficulties, but we still go on.Dreams make our lives wonderful...

  3. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  4. Communicating Science: The Profile of Science Journalists in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassany, Roger; Cortiñas, Sergi; Elduque, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Science journalists are mainly responsible for publicly communicating science, which, in turn, is a major indicator of the social development of democratic societies. The transmission of quality scientific information that is rigorously researched and understandable is therefore crucial, and demand for this kind of information from both…

  5. Open Science: a first step towards Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Tuddenham, Peter

    2015-04-01

    As Earth Science communicators gear up to adopt the new tools and captivating approaches to engage citizen scientists, budding entrepreneurs, policy makers and the public in general, researchers have the responsibility, and opportunity, to fully adopt Open Science principles and capitalize on its full societal impact and engagement. Open Science is about removing all barriers to basic research, whatever its formats, so that it can be freely used, re-used and re-hashed, thus fueling discourse and accelerating generation of innovative ideas. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy, and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to engaging citizen scientists into the research process, it sets the scene for co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, and raises the general science literacy level of the public. Despite this potential, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available. Open Science can be the first passive step of communicating marine research outside academia. Full and unrestricted access to our knowledge including data, software code and scientific publications is not just an ethical obligation, but also gives solid credibility to a more sophisticated communication strategy on engaging society. The presentation will demonstrate how Open Science perfectly compliments a coherent communication strategy for placing Marine Research in societal context, and how it underpin an effective integration of Ocean & Earth Literacy principles in standard educational, as well mobilizing citizen marine scientists, thus making marine science Open Science.

  6. Students Explaining Science--Assessment of Science Communication Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Science communication competence (SCC) is an important educational goal in the school science curricula of several countries. However, there is a lack of research about the structure and the assessment of SCC. This paper specifies the theoretical framework of SCC by a competence model. We developed a qualitative assessment method for SCC that is…

  7. Improving together: collaborative learning in science communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    Most scientists today recognise that science communication is an important part of the scientific process. Despite this recognition, science writing and communication are generally taught outside the normal academic schedule. If universities offer such courses, they are generally short-term and intensive. On the positive side, such courses rarely fail to motivate. At no fault of their own, the problem with such courses lies in their ephemeral nature. The participants rarely complete a science communication course with an immediate and pressing need to apply these skills. And so the skills fade. We believe that this stalls real progress in the improvement of science communication across the board. Continuity is one of the keys to success! Whilst we wait for the academic system to truly integrate science communication, we can test and develop other approaches. We suggest a new approach that aims to motivate scientists to continue nurturing their communication skills. This approach adopts a collaborative learning framework where scientists form writing groups that meet regularly at different institutes around the world. The members of the groups learn, discuss and improve together. The participants produce short posts, which are published online. In this way, the participants learn and cement basic writing skills. These skills are transferrable, and can be applied to scientific articles as well as other science communication media. In this presentation we reflect on an ongoing project, which applies a collaborative learning framework to help young and early career scientists improve their writing skills. We see that this type of project could be extended to other media such as podcasts, or video shorts.

  8. Revolutionizing Climate Science: Using Teachers as Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Crowley, S.; Wood, J.

    2012-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded program in which K-12 teachers participate in hands-on field research experiences in the Polar Regions. Teachers are the dynamic conduits for communicating climate science. In the PolarTREC final report, researchers found that teachers were vital in refining the language of their science and have shaped the goals of the scientific project. Program data demonstrates that science in classrooms is better understood when teachers have a full-spectrum grasp of project intricacies from defining the project, to field data collection, encountering situations for creativity and critical thinking, as well as participating in data and project analysis. Teachers' translating the authentic scientific process is integral in communicating climate science to the broader public. Teachers playing a major role in polar science revolutionize the old paradigm of "in-school learning". Through daily online journaling and forums, social media communication, live webinars with public, and professional development events, these teachers are moving beyond classrooms to communicate with society. Through teachers, climate policy can be shaped for the future by having scientifically literate students as well as assessable science. New paradigms come as teachers attain proficient levels of scientific understanding paired with the expert abilities for communication with years of experience. PolarTREC teachers are a model for new interactions peer-to-peer learning and mentorship for young scientists. Our programmatic goal is to expand the opportunities for PolarTREC teachers to share their involvement in science with additional formal and informal educators. 'Teaching the teachers' will reach exponential audiences in media, policy, and classrooms. Modeling this program, we designed and conducted a teacher training on climate science in Denali National Park. Utilizing expert university

  9. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Liu

    2014-01-01

    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  10. Climate Communication from a Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Today, the world faces crucial choices in deciding what to do about climate change. Wise policy can be usefully informed by sound science. Scientists who are both climate experts and skilled communicators can provide valuable input into this policy process. They can help the public, media and policymakers learn what science has discovered about climate change. Scientists as a group are widely admired throughout the world. They can often use their prestige as well as their technical knowledge to advantage in publicizing and illuminating the findings of climate science. However, most scientists are unaware of the main obstacles to effective communication, such as the distrust that arises when the scientist and the audience do not have a shared worldview and shared cultural values. Many climate scientists also fail to realize that the jargon they use in their work is a significant barrier to communication, and that their messages requires skilled translation into the everyday language that people understand. Scientists need to recognize that lecturing is almost always poor communication. Speaking in a television interview or a Congressional hearing is completely unlike teaching a class of graduate students. The people whom one is trying to reach are rarely hungry for pure scientific information. Instead, they want to know how climate change will affect them and what can be done about it. Communicating climate science resembles skiing or speaking a foreign language: it is a skill that can be learned, but beginners are well advised to take lessons from expert instructors. Becoming adept at climate communication requires study and practice. Effective professional training in climate communication is available for those scientists who have the time and the willingness to improve as communicators.

  11. Dreams and creative problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2017-10-01

    Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Using Social Media to Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, W.

    2017-12-01

    Social media (SM) is a popular and ubiquitous communication method and as such offers scientists an opportunity to directly interface with the public, improve public perception of science and scientists, and combat the growing tide of scientific misunderstanding and misinformation. It's become increasingly critical for scientists to use their voice and influence to communicate science and address misinformation. More than 60% of US adults get news from SM (1) but studies find that scientists infrequently post about science (2), missing a rich opportunity to combat scientific disinformation. While it may seem like a futile exercise to educate over SM, even passive exposure to new information can change public perceptions and behavior (3). Additionally, scientists, especially early career scientists, have social networks populated largely by non-scientists (2), allowing them an opportunity to speak to an audience that already trusts and values their scientific judgment. Importantly, these networks are often ideologically and politically diverse (4). However, science communication isn't as simple as a presentation of facts, and effective science communication via SM requires both SM competence and science communication proficiency. Thus, a discussion of best practices for both topics would benefit the scientific community. The range of potential topics for discussion is broad and could include scientific storytelling, empathetic communication, crafting a message, using SM to "humanize science", tips and tricks for broad SM information dissemination and how to run an effective SM campaign. (1) Gottfried J, Shearer E. New use across social media platforms: Pew Research Center; 2016. Available from: http://www.journalism.org/2016/05/26/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2016/. (2) McClain, Craig R., Practices and promises of Facebook for science outreach:Becoming a "Nerd of Trust". PLOS Biology 15(6). 2017; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002020(3) Messing S

  13. Science communication methods and strategies for paleoscientists

    OpenAIRE

    Plumpton, Heather; Brahim, Y. Ait; Gowan, Evan; Dassié, E.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why communicate our science? Aside from our duty to let taxpayers, who largely fund our research, know what their money has been spent on, our motivation to communicate stems mainly from a desire to make a contribution towards a more sustainable world. Given the scale of the environmental challenges facing the planet and human societies today, doing only research is not enough. There is a clear need for us, as scientists, and even more as early-career scientists, to communicate to a wider aud...

  14. NASA/MSFC/NSSTC Science Communication Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Koczor, R. J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the last several years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of Internet-based science communication. The Directorate's Science Roundtable includes active researchers, NASA public relations, educators, and administrators. The Science@NASA award-winning family of Web sites features science, mathematics, and space news. The program includes extended stories about NASA science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. Science stories cover a variety of space-related subjects and are expressed in simple terms everyone can understand. The sites address such questions as: what is space weather, what's in the heart of a hurricane, can humans live on Mars, and what is it like to live aboard the International Space Station? Along with a new look, the new format now offers articles organized by subject matter, such as astronomy, living in space, earth science or biology. The focus of sharing real-time science related events has been to involve and excite students and the public about science. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. Information will be provided about each member of the Science@NASA web sites.

  15. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  16. Amphibious environments in Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelfranchi Yurij

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The historian Marshall Berman wrote that living in modern times means "to find ourselves in an environment that promises us adventure, power, joy, growth, transformation [...] and, at the same time, that threatens to destroy everything we have, everything we know". Today - at a time when modernity has become a "reflexive modernity" for some, whilst for others it is already over (and for others still "we have never been modern" - it seems that Berman has grasped an important concept: a part of media narration is characterised by a fluctuation between euphoria and fear, triumphalism and rejection, as regards science and technology as well as other areas (the ambivalence of the "Frankenstein effect" discussed by Jon Turney.

  17. Science communication in policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned...... Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of this qualitative study suggest that the attitude of the scientists towards active participation in policy...... making is dependent on their view of the way science and decision making relate to each other. The respondents who are currently active in policy making seem to be driven by commitment to the public good. However, many respondents feel social pressure from environmental NGOs to withdraw from engagement...

  18. Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal ... Papers should not have been previously published in the same form in any other Journal. 4. The length of manuscript ... Rural Communities. http://www.webology.ir/2006/v3n3/a29.html. Retrieved 15/05/2009.

  19. Léa: at at the crossroads of science and dreams

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    "Léa, un ange dans ma maison" (Léa, an angel in my house) is a film written, directed, produced and self-financed by Jacques Fichet, a member of CERN’s Communications Group. CERN features only as a backdrop, but you may recognise some of the locations from your daily life and some familiar faces. A preview screening is scheduled for this evening at the Cinéma Voltaire (Ferney-Voltaire, France). Other screenings with English subtitles will soon follow at cinemas all over the region.   For film buffs who want to assign the film a genre, it’s a scientific thriller. The life of Abel, an IT technician deeply affected by the death of his wife and only daughter in an accident, is turned upside down by the arrival of Léa. Meanwhile, scientists are conducting experiments on the use of artificial intelligence. The tension mounts when their prototype suddenly escapes. “Science and scientists are certainl...

  20. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  1. Master in science communication: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Ramani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Science, politics, industry, media, state-run and private organisations, private citizens: everyone has their own demands, their own heritage of knowledge, thoughts, opinions, aspirations, needs. Different worlds that interact, question one another, discuss; in one word: they communicate. It is a complicated process that requires professionals «who clearly understand the key aspects of the transmission of scientific knowledge to society through the different essential communication channels for multiple organizations». The purpose of this commentary is to cast some light upon the goals, the philosophy and the organisation behind some European and extra-European Master’s degrees in science communication. We have asked the directors of each of them to describe their founding elements, their origins, their specific features, their structure, their goals, the reasons why they were established and the evolution they have seen over their history.

  2. Using narratives and storytelling to communicate science with nonexpert audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Michael F

    2014-09-16

    Although storytelling often has negative connotations within science, narrative formats of communication should not be disregarded when communicating science to nonexpert audiences. Narratives offer increased comprehension, interest, and engagement. Nonexperts get most of their science information from mass media content, which is itself already biased toward narrative formats. Narratives are also intrinsically persuasive, which offers science communicators tactics for persuading otherwise resistant audiences, although such use also raises ethical considerations. Future intersections of narrative research with ongoing discussions in science communication are introduced.

  3. The cultural side of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L; Bang, Megan

    2014-09-16

    The main proposition of this paper is that science communication necessarily involves and includes cultural orientations. There is a substantial body of work showing that cultural differences in values and epistemological frameworks are paralleled with cultural differences reflected in artifacts and public representations. One dimension of cultural difference is the psychological distance between humans and the rest of nature. Another is perspective taking and attention to context and relationships. As an example of distance, most (Western) images of ecosystems do not include human beings, and European American discourse tends to position human beings as being apart from nature. Native American discourse, in contrast, tends to describe humans beings as a part of nature. We trace the correspondences between cultural properties of media, focusing on children's books, and cultural differences in biological cognition. Finally, implications for both science communication and science education are outlined.

  4. Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate

  5. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Preparing Graduate Students as Science Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, K.; Gutstein, J.

    2012-12-01

    Our presentation introduces our interdisciplinary curriculum that teaches graduate students at our R-1 university to translate their research to general audiences. We also discuss the challenges we have faced and strategies we have employed to broaden graduate education at our campus to include preparation in science communication. Our "Translating Research beyond Academia" curriculum consists of three separate thematically based courses taught over the academic year: Education and Community Outreach, Science Communication and Writing, Communicating with Policy- and Decision-makers. Course goals are to provide professional development training so that graduate students become more capable professionals prepared for careers inside and outside academia while increasing the public understanding of science and technology. Open to graduate students of any discipline, each course meets weekly for two hours; students receive academic credit through a co-sponsoring graduate program. Students learn effective strategies for communicating research and academic knowledge with the media, the general public, youth, stakeholders, and decision- and policy-makers. Courses combine presentations from university and regional experts with hands-on work sessions aimed towards creating effective communications, outreach and policy plans, broader impacts statements, press releases, blogs, and policy briefs. A final presentation and reflections are required. Students may opt for further training through seminars tailored to student need. Initial results of our analyses of student evaluations and work indicate that students appreciate the interdisciplinary, problem-based approach and the low-risk opportunities for learning professional development skills and for exploring non-academic employment. Several students have initiated engaged work in their disciplines, and several have secured employment in campus science communication positions. Two have changed career plans as a direct result of

  7. Innovations to enrich science communication through radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakar Bhaumik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Radio is an instrument of communication that has percolated to all the strata of the diverse Indian society. Its position has been consolidated through history as a regular companion and a source of information and entertainment. Its affordability, accessibility and non-reliance on costly resources have ensured its presence in almost all the households. It has become indispensable from kitchens, family rooms and even workspaces. It is one of the few or rather the only medium of communication after the print media wherein information dissemination still is primary and entertainment a secondary requirement, especially the rural areas. The role of radio in rural India is one that demands prominence and hence has been used as a primary resource for various projects on science communication. A majority of the science radio serial listeners are from the rural areas. The radio therefore is an ideal medium for reaching out to the masses. The radio even with its popularity and huge following is lacking in certain aspects that make science communication complete. Manthan Educational Programme Society developed concepts to make these efforts more effective by ensuring higher involvement and interest in these programs.

  8. Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Archives: Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science. Journal Home > Archives: Communicate: Journal of Library and Information Science. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Scientists and science communication: a Danish survey (Danish original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes key findings from a web-based questionnaire survey among Danish scientists in the natural sciences and engineering science. In line with the Act on Universities of 2003 enforcing science communication as a university obligation next to research and teaching, the respondents take a keen interest in communicating science, especially through the news media. However, they also do have mixed feeling about the quality of science communication in the news. Moreover, a majority of the respondents would like to give higher priority to science communication. More than half reply that they are willing to allocate up to 2% of total research funding in Denmark to science communication. Further, the respondents indicate that they would welcome a wider variety of science communication initiatives aimed at many types of target groups. They do not see the news media as the one and only channel for current science communication.

  11. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Smallsat Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjian, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent NRC panel on "Achieving Science with Cubesats" found that "CubeSats have already proven themselves to be an important scientific tool. CubeSats can produce high-value science, as demonstrated by peer-reviewed publications that address decadal survey science goals." While some science is purely related to the size of the collecting aperture, there are plentiful examples of new and exciting experiments that can be achieved using the relatively inexpensive Cubesat platforms. We will present various potential science applications that can benefit from higher bandwidth communication. For example, on or near Earth orbit, Cubesats could provide hyperspectral imaging, gravity field mapping, atmospheric probing, and terrain mapping. These can be achieved either as large constellations of Cubesats or a few Cubesats that provide multi-point observations. Away from the Earth (up to 1AU) astrophysical variability studies, detections of solar particles between the Earth and Venus, mapping near earth objects, and high-speed videos of the Sun will also be enabled by high bandwidth communications.

  12. Science Communication Training: What Are We Trying to Teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth in public communication of science and technology has led to many diverse training programs. We ask: What are learning goals of science communication training? A comprehensive set of learning goals for future trainings will draw fully from the range of fields that contribute to science communication. Learning goals help decide what to…

  13. Beware of being captured by an analogy: dreams are like many things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2013-12-01

    Classic traditions have linked dreams to memory (e.g., "dreaming is another kind of remembering" [Freud 1918/1955]) and modern notions like implicit memory subsume dreaming by definition. Llewellyn develops the more specific thesis that rapid eye movement (REM) dreams, because of their similarities to mnemonic techniques, have the function of elaboratively encoding episodic memories. This proposal is premature, requiring exigent testing. Other analogs of dreams, for example, jokes, do not invoke function but do contribute to dream science.

  14. clearScience: Infrastructure for Communicating Data-Intensive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Brian M; Burdick, David; Kellen, Michael; Huang, Erich S

    2013-01-01

    Progress in biomedical research requires effective scientific communication to one's peers and to the public. Current research routinely encompasses large datasets and complex analytic processes, and the constraints of traditional journal formats limit useful transmission of these elements. We are constructing a framework through which authors can not only provide the narrative of what was done, but the primary and derivative data, the source code, the compute environment, and web-accessible virtual machines. This infrastructure allows authors to "hand their machine"- prepopulated with libraries, data, and code-to those interested in reviewing or building off of their work. This project, "clearScience," seeks to provide an integrated system that accommodates the ad hoc nature of discovery in the data-intensive sciences and seamless transitions from working to reporting. We demonstrate that rather than merely describing the science being reported, one can deliver the science itself.

  15. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  16. Three Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    1996-01-01

    Once three young men went hunting in the woods and took a-long another to be the cook.They hunted all day long withoutstopping to eat,and when evening came they had caught nothingbut one partridge(鹧鹕).One little bird was hardly enough for four hungry men,sothey hit upon(突然想起)a plan.They would save the partridgefor breakfast,and whoever dreamed the best dream in the nightshould have it.Then they went to sleep.

  17. Dreams Rewired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning; Luksch, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Bidraget kommenterer filmen Dreams Rewired og skaber refleksive spor i det vidt forgrenede film-arkiviske materiale om mere end et århundredes tele- og real-time kommunikation, hvor kropslig bevægelse bl.a gøres til data.......Bidraget kommenterer filmen Dreams Rewired og skaber refleksive spor i det vidt forgrenede film-arkiviske materiale om mere end et århundredes tele- og real-time kommunikation, hvor kropslig bevægelse bl.a gøres til data....

  18. Science in public communication, culture, and credibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Does the general public need to understand science? And if so, is it scientists' responsibility to communicate? Critics have argued that, despite the huge strides made in technology, we live in a "scientifically illiterate" society--one that thinks about the world and makes important decisions without taking scientific knowledge into account. But is the solution to this "illiteracy" to deluge the layman with scientific information? Or does science news need to be focused around specific issues and organized into stories that are meaningful and relevant to people's lives? In this unprecedented, comprehensive look at a new field, Jane Gregory and Steve Miller point the way to a more effective public understanding of science in the years ahead.

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Science Communication Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Kay H.; James, Helen A.; Bowater, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an undergraduate final year science communication module for the Science Faculty at the University of East Anglia. The module focuses specifically on science communication and aims to bring an understanding of how science is disseminated to the public. Students on the module are made aware of the…

  20. Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Squires, Janet E; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor communication among healthcare professionals is a pressing problem, contributing to widespread barriers to patient safety. The word ?communication? means to share or make common. In the literature, two communication paradigms dominate: (1) communication as a transactional process responsible for information exchange, and (2) communication as a transformational process responsible for causing change. Implementation science has focused on information exchange attributes while la...

  1. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  2. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Oedipus Dreaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    2012-01-01

    ’s internal and external worlds. I argue that La Diabolique Tragédie provides us with a unique narrative representation of the early oedipal situation, as defined by Klein, and its final resolution. At the end of the article, I contend such a narrative might approximate the kind of dream that the King...

  4. Just Dreaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Many of the nation's colleges and universities are not sure what the proposed DREAM Act would mean for their institutions--and a number of them are operating amid confusion in trying to serve undocumented students legally in light of the defeat of the measure in the Senate last year to pass the legislation. It would have allowed some immigrants…

  5. Practising science communication in the information age theorising professional practices

    CERN Document Server

    Holliman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of open access on science communication? How can scientists effectively engage and interact with the public? What role can science communication have when scientific controversies arise? Practising science communication in the information age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading scholars and practitioners of science communication. It considers how scientists communicate with each other as part of their professional practice, critically evaluating how this forms the basis of the documenting of scientific knowledge, and investigating how open access publication and open review are influencing current practices. It also explores how science communication can play a crucial role when science is disputed, investigating the role of expertise in the formation of scientific controversy and consensus. The volume provides a theoretically informed review of contemporary trends and issues that are engaging practitioners of science communication, focusing on issues such as the norms...

  6. Dreaming: a gateway to the unconscious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Barrett, Deirdre; Bulkeley, Kelly; Naiman, Rubin

    2017-10-01

    Where do our dreams originate from, and what do they tell us? Is there a universal set of symbols that are common to all dreams, regardless of a person's ethnicity or culture? What does dreaming reveal about the unconscious? Why do some dreams remain etched in our memories, whereas others are almost instantly forgotten? Some scientists have adopted the position that dreams are little more than noise in the brain, without any substantive purpose or function. Yet, such a stance seemingly runs counter to the experience of many people who reflect upon and even analyze their dreams, often in search of clues to their daily lives or insights into their deeper selves. Similarly, in virtually all wisdom traditions, dreams are invoked as an important source of revelation or prophecy. Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion that included psychologist Deirdre Barrett, dream researcher Kelly Bulkeley, and psychologist and sleep/dream medicine specialist Rubin Naiman; they examined dreams from a variety of perspectives to answer these questions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. A Website System for Communicating Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2017-07-01

    The peer review and journal system have shortcomings, and both computers and the Internet have made complementary or alternative systems attractive. In this article, I recommend that we implement a new platform for open communication of psychological science on a dedicated website to complement the current review and journal system, with reader reviews of the articles and with all behavioral scientists being eligible to publish and review articles. The judged merit of articles would be based on the citations and the ratings of the work by the whole scientific community. This online journal will be quicker, more democratic, and more informative than the current system. Although the details of the system should be debated and formulated by a committee of scientists, adding this online journal to the existing publications of a society such as the Association for Psychological Science has few risks and many possible gains. An online journal deserves to be tried and assessed.

  8. Towards a Post-Modern Science Education Curriculum-Discourse: Repetition of a Dream Catcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Kierkegaard's idea of repetition as a dynamic conversation between groups that reveals possible changes in a discourse. Describes an instructor's experiences imparting a science education methods course in a Native American school in Saskatchewan, highlighting the conversation between the instructors' past and Native American culture.…

  9. Using narratives and storytelling to communicate science with nonexpert audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Although storytelling often has negative connotations within science, narrative formats of communication should not be disregarded when communicating science to nonexpert audiences. Narratives offer increased comprehension, interest, and engagement. Nonexperts get most of their science information from mass media content, which is itself already biased toward narrative formats. Narratives are also intrinsically persuasive, which offers science communicators tactics for persuading otherwise resistant audiences, although such use also raises ethical considerations. Future intersections of narrative research with ongoing discussions in science communication are introduced. PMID:25225368

  10. [Unusual dreams in epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyrev, A I

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses bizarre dreams characteristic of epileptics and never occurring in normal subjects which have an important practical implication especially for early detection of epilepsy and the prevention of severe forms of the disease. This group of dreams includes vivid nightmares with vital fear, dreams not infrequently transforming into pro-dream states; persistently repeated stereotyped dreams and dreams with invariably the same unpleasant sensations representing an isolated aura of subsequent epileptic attacks. Diagnostically important may also be dreams with the symptoms of derealization and depersonalization, vague dream images and the deja vu phenomenon.

  11. Supercritical fluids in separation science--the dreams, the reality and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R M

    1999-09-24

    The last 20 years have seen an intense interest in the use of supercritical fluids in separation science. This started with the introduction of commercial instruments first for packed and then for capillary chromatography and it looked as if this would be a technique to rival gas-liquid chromatography and HPLC. The activity developed quite rapidly into packed column supercritical fluid separations then into supercritical fluid extraction. However, in recent years there has been a decline in publications. These later techniques continue to be used but are now principally applied to a limited group of applications where they offer significant advantages over alternative techniques. This review looks back over this period and analyses how these methods were developed and the fluids, detectors and applications that were examined. It suggests why many of the initial applications have vanished and why the initial apparent promise was not fulfilled. The rise and fall of supercritical fluids represents a lesson in the way analysts approach new techniques and how we might view other new separation developments at the end of this millennium. The review looks forward to the future of supercritical fluids and their role at the end of the first century of separation science. Probably the most important idea that supercritical fluids have brought to separation science is a recognition that there is unity in the separation methods and that a continuum exists from gases to liquids.

  12. A Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecile; Fries

    2013-01-01

    <正>The rising sun flames clouds. Through the airplane window I am enjoying the clouds with golden edges. In a few hours I will set foot on the soil of China, a country that has always been in my dreams. Thoughts thronged my mind. Perhaps, in my life I will never have a chance to travel to China, a faraway, strange and mysterious country;

  13. Preparing informal science educators perspectives from science communication and education

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a diverse look at various aspects of preparing informal science educators. Much has been published about the importance of preparing formal classroom educators, but little has been written about the importance, need, and best practices for training professionals who teach in aquariums, camps, parks, museums, etc. The reader will find that as a collective the chapters of the book are well-related and paint a clear picture that there are varying ways to approach informal educator preparation, but all are important. The volume is divided into five topics: Defining Informal Science Education, Professional Development, Designing Programs, Zone of Reflexivity: The Space Between Formal and Informal Educators, and Public Communication. The authors have written chapters for practitioners, researchers and those who are interested in assessment and evaluation, formal and informal educator preparation, gender equity, place-based education, professional development, program design, reflective practice, ...

  14. Communicating the Science from NASA's Astrophysics Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Communicating science from NASA's Astrophysics missions has multiple objectives, which leads to a multi-faceted approach. While a timely dissemination of knowledge to the scientific community follows the time-honored process of publication in peer reviewed journals, NASA delivers newsworthy research result to the public through news releases, its websites and social media. Knowledge in greater depth is infused into the educational system by the creation of educational material and teacher workshops that engage students and educators in cutting-edge NASA Astrophysics discoveries. Yet another avenue for the general public to learn about the science and technology through NASA missions is through exhibits at museums, science centers, libraries and other public venues. Examples of the variety of ways NASA conveys the excitement of its scientific discoveries to students, educators and the general public will be discussed in this talk. A brief overview of NASA's participation in the International Year of Light will also be given, as well as of the celebration of the twenty-fifth year of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. The Need for More Scientific Approaches to Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two possible goals for public science communication are: a) improving the public's in-depth understanding of the scientific subject; and b) fostering the public's belief that scientific efforts make a better world. Although (a) is often a natural target when scientists try to communicate their subject, the importance of (b) is underscored by the NSF, who investigated the "cultural authority of science" to understand science's role in policymaking. Surveys consistently find that there is a huge divergence between "knowledge" and "admiration" of science in society because science literacy has very little to do with public perception of science. However, even if both goals could be achieved, it doesn't necessarily mean that the general public will act on scientific advice. Different parts of society have different criteria for reaching judgments about how to act in their best interests. This makes the study of science communication important when controversies arise requiring public engagement. Climate change, sustainability, and water crises are only a few examples of such controversial subjects. Science communication can be designed carefully to sponsor dialogue and participation, to overcome perceptual obstacles, and to engage with stakeholders and the wider public. This study reviews work in social science that tries to answer: When is science communication necessary? What is involved in science communication? What is the role of media in effective science communication? It also reviews common recommendations for improved public engagement by scientists and science organizations. As part of this effort, I will present some portions of my science films. I will conclude with suggestions on what scientific institutions can focus on to build trust, relationships, and participation across segments of the public. Keywords: informal learning, popular science, climate change, water crisis, science communication, science films, science policy.

  16. Persistent Identifiers, Discoverability and Open Science (Communication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Lehnert, Kerstin; Hanson, Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Early in 2016, the American Geophysical Union announced it was incorporating ORCIDs into its submission workflows. This was accompanied by a strong statement supporting the use of other persistent identifiers - such as IGSNs, and the CrossRef open registry 'funding data'. This was partly in response to funders' desire to track and manage their outputs. However the more compelling argument, and the reason why the AGU has also signed up to the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines (http://cos.io/top), is that ultimately science and scientists will be the richer for these initiatives due to increased opportunities for interoperability, reproduceability and accreditation. The AGU has appealed to the wider community to engage with these initiatives, recognising that - unlike the introduction of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for articles by CrossRef - full, enriched use of persistent identifiers throughout the scientific process requires buy-in from a range of scholarly communications stakeholders. At the same time, across the general research landscape, initiatives such as Project CRediT (contributor roles taxonomy), Publons (reviewer acknowledgements) and the forthcoming CrossRef DOI Event Tracker are contributing to our understanding and accreditation of contributions and impact. More specifically for earth science and scientists, the cross-functional Coalition for Publishing Data in the Earth and Space Sciences (COPDESS) was formed in October 2014 and is working to 'provide an organizational framework for Earth and space science publishers and data facilities to jointly implement and promote common policies and procedures for the publication and citation of data across Earth Science journals'. Clearly, the judicious integration of standards, registries and persistent identifiers such as ORCIDs and International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) to the research and research output processes is key to the success of this venture

  17. Changing the Culture of Science Communication Training for Junior Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S.

    2018-01-01

    Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today’s society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists. PMID:29904538

  18. Changing the Culture of Science Communication Training for Junior Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S

    2018-01-01

    Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today's society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists.

  19. Radio Science from an Optical Communications Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the capability to deploy deep space optical communications links. This creates the opportunity to utilize the optical link to obtain range, doppler, and signal intensity estimates. These may, in turn, be used to complement or extend the capabilities of current radio science. In this paper we illustrate the achievable precision in estimating range, doppler, and received signal intensity of an non-coherent optical link (the current state-of-the-art for a deep-space link). We provide a joint estimation algorithm with performance close to the bound. We draw comparisons to estimates based on a coherent radio frequency signal, illustrating that large gains in either precision or observation time are possible with an optical link.

  20. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  1. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  2. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Interim Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark; Phillips, Michelle; Smith, Anita; Castori, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of seven long-term three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the…

  3. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle; St. John, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of six three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the ISEI (often…

  4. Science communication: Bridging the gap between theory and practise

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will be held at CERN on 1-3 Febraury 2001. Scientists and communication professionals will analyse the state of the art of science communication and the new perception people have about science in the media from newspapers to the Web.   Will communication be able to bridge the gap between Science and Society? What is the impact of science communication on the public? How do novel means of communications change the perception of science for the general public? These and other interesting questions will be addressed at the 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology Meeting, to be held at CERN on 1-3 February 2001. More than 250 people from all over the world are expected to attend the conference which will be an important meeting place for communication professionals covering the social, political, technical and cultural aspects of science and technology communication. Georges Boixader after Gary Larsson. The conferenc...

  5. Einsteins dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein

  6. Science and nuclear technology communication in Cordoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the communication activities conducted nuclear science and technology in 2012 in the scientific, educational and tourist areas of Cordoba. The first is the Promotion of the realization of scientific research school works to present in science and technology fairs. The public exhibitions fairs consist of projects conducted by students from all levels of the education system. To do this, students have the guidance of Advisory Teachers, researchers and technologists of the local scientific community, which involves training them for a period of approximately six months. During this year the courses were conducted in 37 cities in the interior province, which are the sites of Regional Headquarters, which included the promotion of the realization of school scientific research on the peaceful applications of nuclear technology and / or national nuclear activities. During the meetings, made presentations basing pedagogical and didactic aspects to coordination between teaching of conceptual content and activities practical introduction to nuclear scientific methodology. As a result of this initiative, between the months of June and September was reached more than 3,000 teachers, using the infrastructure of the Ministry of Science and Technology and Internet. As a result, a dozen schools have begun to seek assistance to develop projects related to nuclear power. Other activities under the name of Scientific School Research Incursion through Experiences with Natural Radiation, consisted of the design and realization of simple laboratory experiences in laboratory's schools. The objective was to strengthen the curriculum and promote critical thinking about the risks and benefits of nuclear technologies in relation to exposure to ionizing radiation involving them. As a result it has been observed that these activities contribute to a progressive scientific and technological literacy of students, who build original knowledge for themselves and develop

  7. Science communication in the field of fundamental biomedical research (editorial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this special issue on science communication is to inspire and help scientists who are taking part or want to take part in science communication and engage with the wider public, clinicians, other scientists or policy makers. For this, some articles provide concise and accessible advice to individual scientists, science networks, or learned societies on how to communicate effectively; others share rationales, objectives and aims, experiences, implementation strategies and resources derived from existing long-term science communication initiatives. Although this issue is primarily addressing scientists working in the field of biomedical research, much of it similarly applies to scientists from other disciplines. Furthermore, we hope that this issue will also be used as a helpful resource by academic science communicators and social scientists, as a collection that highlights some of the major communication challenges that the biomedical sciences face, and which provides interesting case studies of initiatives that use a breadth of strategies to address these challenges. In this editorial, we first discuss why we should communicate our science and contemplate some of the different approaches, aspirations and definitions of science communication. We then address the specific challenges that researchers in the biomedical sciences are faced with when engaging with wider audiences. Finally, we explain the rationales and contents of the different articles in this issue and the various science communication initiatives and strategies discussed in each of them, whilst also providing some information on the wide range of further science communication activities in the biomedical sciences that could not all be covered here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  9. Catherine Doss joins College of Science as communications manager

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Catherine Doss, of Blacksburg, Va., has been named college communications manager for the College of Science at Virginia Tech. In her new position, Doss will be responsible for planning and communicating the achievements and aspirations of the College of Science to its many audiences, including students, faculty, staff, alumni, and peer research institutions.

  10. Science and society: a dialogue without communicators? (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To give a good public speech is art; but definitely more difficult is to organize a productive exchange of points of views between scientists, experts, non-experts and policy-makers on controversial issues such as a scenario workshop or a consensus conference. Many skills and a deep knowledge both of the topic and of the methodology are required. But this is the future of science communication, a field where the dialogical model will impose new and complex formats of communication and a new sensibility, using also the most traditional media. But are science communicators prepared for that? What is the state of the art of science communicator training?

  11. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capabilities for serving science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of research on potential science applications of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. Discussed here are: (1) general research on communications related issues; (2) a survey of science-related activities and programs in the local area; (3) interviews of selected scientists and associated telecommunications support personnel whose projects have communications requirements; (4) analysis of linkages between ACTS functionality and science user communications activities and modes of operation; and (5) an analysis of survey results and the projection of conclusions to a national scale.

  12. Building a Science Communication Culture: One Agency's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, S.; Tenenbaum, L. F.; Betz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Science communication does not have to be a solitary practice. And yet, many scientists go about it alone and with little support from their peers and organizations. To strengthen community and build support for science communicators, NASA designed a training course aimed at two goals: 1) to develop individual scientists' communication skills, and 2) to begin to build a science communication culture at the agency. NASA offered a pilot version of this training course in 2014: the agency's first multidisciplinary face-to-face learning experience for science communicators. Twenty-six Earth, space and life scientists from ten field centers came together for three days of learning. They took part in fundamental skill-building exercises, individual development planning, and high-impact team projects. This presentation will describe the course design and learning objectives, the experience of the participants, and the evaluation results that will inform future offerings of communication training for NASA scientists and others.

  13. Two-Way Communication between Scientists and the Public: A View from Science Communication Trainers in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shupei; Oshita, Tsuyoshi; AbiGhannam, Niveen; Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C.; Koh, Hyeseung E.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the degree to which two-way communication is applied in science communication contexts in North America, based on the experiences of science communication trainers. Interviews with 24 science communication trainers suggest that scientists rarely focus on applying two-way communication tactics, such as listening to their…

  14. How is safe information about science and technology communicated tangibly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Jun; Funabiki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants hit by the Chuetsu-oki earthquake in 2007 made clear difficulties for engineers to communicate the safe information to the public. Such communication difficulties are common to advanced science in nuclear energy as well as environmental issues, biotechnologies and others. This article introduced 'science editorial guides' established in order to realize tangible expression of science and technology information' on business. Guides consist of (1) 'prepare materials for science communication', (2) arouse concerns', (3) 'encourage understanding' and (4) memorize'. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Fairness in Knowing: Science Communication and Epistemic Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecky, Fabien

    2017-09-22

    Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution (science communication included) brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared (by choosing which topic is communicated), and who gets access to this knowledge (by choosing which audience it is presented to). As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably. This paper presents an overview of issues related to epistemic justice for science communication, and argues that there are two quite distinct ways in which science communicators can be just (or unjust) in the way they distribute knowledge. Both of these paths will be considered before concluding that, at least on one of these accounts, science communication as a field and as a practice is fundamentally epistemically unjust. Possible ways to redress this injustice are suggested.

  16. The Whiteboard Revolution: Illuminating Science Communication in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Florie Anne; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Oksenberg, Nir; Olson, Alexander M

    2016-04-01

    Journal-based science communication is not accessible or comprehensible to a general public curious about science and eager for the next wave of scientific innovation. We propose an alternative medium for scientists to communicate their work to the general public in an engaging and digestible way through the use of whiteboard videos. We describe the process of producing science whiteboard videos and the benefits and challenges therein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: a brief, exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tatalovic

    2009-01-01

    Comics are a popular art form especially among children and as such provide a potential medium for science education and communication. In an attempt to present science comics in a museum exhibit I found many science themed comics and graphic books. Here I attempt to provide an overview of already available comics that communicate science, the genre of ‘science comics’. I also provide a quick literature review for evidence that comics can indeed be efficiently used for promoting scientific li...

  18. Improving Science Communication with Responsive Web Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilverda, M.

    2013-12-01

    Effective science communication requires clarity in both content and presentation. Content is increasingly being viewed via the Web across a broad range of devices, which can vary in screen size, resolution, and pixel density. Readers access the same content from desktop computers, tablets, smartphones, and wearable computing devices. Creating separate presentation formats optimized for each device is inefficient and unrealistic as new devices continually enter the marketplace. Responsive web design is an approach that puts content first within a presentation design that responds automatically to its environment. This allows for one platform to be maintained that can be used effectively for every screen. The layout adapts to screens of all sizes ensuring easy viewing of content for readers regardless of their device. Responsive design is accomplished primarily by the use of media queries within style sheets, which allows for changes to layout properties to be defined based on media types (i.e. screen, print) and resolution. Images and other types of multimedia can also be defined to scale automatically to fit different screen dimensions, although some media types require additional effort for proper implementation. Hardware changes, such as high pixel density screens, also present new challenges for effective presentation of content. High pixel density screens contain a greater number of pixels within a screen area increasing the pixels per inch (PPI) compared to standard screens. The result is increased clarity for text and vector media types, but often decreased clarity for standard resolution raster images. Media queries and other custom solutions can assist by specifying higher resolution images for high pixel density screens. Unfortunately, increasing image resolution results in significantly more data being transferred to the device. Web traffic on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets is on a steady growth trajectory and many mobile devices around

  19. Beginning science teachers' strategies for communicating with families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Nena E.

    Science learning occurs in both formal and informal spaces. Families are critical for developing student learning and interest in science because they provide important sources of knowledge, support and motivation. Bidirectional communication between teachers and families can be used to build relationships between homes and schools, leverage family knowledge of and support for learners, and create successful environments for science learning that will support both teaching and student learning. To identify the communication strategies of beginning science teachers, who are still developing their teaching practices, a multiple case study was conducted with seven first year secondary science teachers. The methods these teachers used to communicate with families, the information that was communicated and shared, and factors that shaped these teachers' continued development of communication strategies were examined. Demographic data, interview data, observations and documentation of communication through logs and artifacts were collected for this study. Results indicated that the methods teachers had access to and used for communication impacted the frequency and efficacy of their communication. Teachers and families communicated about a number of important topics, but some topics that could improve learning experiences and science futures for their students were rarely discussed, such as advancement in science, student learning in science and family knowledge. Findings showed that these early career teachers were continuing to learn about their communities and to develop their communication strategies with families. Teachers' familiarity with their school community, opportunities to practice strategies during preservice preparation and student teaching, their teaching environment, school policies, and learning from families and students in their school culture continued to shape and influence their views and communication strategies. Findings and implications for

  20. Investigating University Students' Preferences to Science Communication Skills: A Case of Prospective Science Teacher in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Nadi; Ku, Chih-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Indonesian university students' preferences to science communication skills. Data collected from 251 students who were majoring in science education program. The Learning Preferences to Science Communication (LPSC) questionnaire was developed with Indonesian language and validated through an exploratory…

  1. Japanese dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building in contempor......This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building...... in contemporary Dutch- and Japanese-language sources, I argue that changing claims and public perceptions of Japan reflected the country’s shifting economic fortunes and international position during the period. The sources consistently framed the Japanese-designed building within a language of dreams. However...

  2. Cultural Communication Learning Environment in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Abdul-Latif, Salwana

    2012-01-01

    Classroom communication often involves interactions between students and teachers from dissimilar cultures, which influence classroom learning because of their dissimilar communication styles influenced by their cultures. It is therefore important to study the influence of culture on classroom communication that influences the classroom verbal and…

  3. Dream emotionality. Selected formal properties of dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywacz Kinga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify hypotheses about time changeability of dream characteristics depending on the participants’ age and affective value of the dream. The study was conducted online. Participants of the study were 68 individuals between the age of 17 and 85. The participants were asked to prepare detailed descriptions of their dreams, next they had to identify elements of the dreams, refer them to their real life, and assess their affective value. In the dreams of late adolescents, and young and middle-aged adults the most frequently recalled period in a positive context turned out to be late adolescence and early adulthood, whereas in a negative context the participants would recall their present developmental phase and the period of late childhood. Unpleasant dreams of older individuals were mainly connected with the period of middle adulthood, whereas those pleasant ones referred to various periods of their entire life.

  4. Costly Signaling Theory of REM Sleep and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of REM sleep dreaming is still unknown. We situate our approach to understanding dream phenomenology and dream function within that part of evolutionary theory known as Costly Signaling Theory (CST. We contend that many of the signals produced by the dreaming brain can be and should be construed as “costly signals”—emotions or mental simulations that produce daytime behavioral dispositions that are costly to the dreamer. For example, often the dreamer will appear in the dream as handicapped in some way (i.e., no clothes, no ID, no money, is under attack, being chased etc.. The dreamer, during waking life, is then influenced by the carry-over effect of the unpleasant dream content. The informational and affective content of the dream creates a mental set in the dreamer that operates during the daytime to facilitate the signaling of a “handicapped” Self. The subtle signaling effect might be via display of the intense emotions or physical demeanor that had first appeared in the dream. When the dreamer shares his dream with others the dream has a more direct impact on waking life and social interactions. In effect, the dreamer uses his or her dreams to adopt a self-handicapping strategy when dealing with significant others. The increased use of costly signals (the self-handicapping strategy during the daytime then facilitates some vital communicative goal of the dreamer.

  5. Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Squires, Janet E; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D

    2015-04-23

    Poor communication among healthcare professionals is a pressing problem, contributing to widespread barriers to patient safety. The word "communication" means to share or make common. In the literature, two communication paradigms dominate: (1) communication as a transactional process responsible for information exchange, and (2) communication as a transformational process responsible for causing change. Implementation science has focused on information exchange attributes while largely ignoring transformational attributes of communication. In this paper, we debate the merits of encompassing both paradigms. We conducted a two-staged literature review searching for the concept of communication in implementation science to understand how communication is conceptualized. Twenty-seven theories, models, or frameworks were identified; only Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations theory provides a definition of communication and includes both communication paradigms. Most models (notable exceptions include Diffusion of Innovations, The Ottawa Model of Research Use, and Normalization Process Theory) describe communication as a transactional process. But thinking of communication solely as information transfer or exchange misrepresents reality. We recommend that implementation science theories (1) propose and test the concept of shared understanding when describing communication, (2) acknowledge that communication is multi-layered, identify at least a few layers, and posit how identified layers might affect the development of shared understanding, (3) acknowledge that communication occurs in a social context, providing a frame of reference for both individuals and groups, (4) acknowledge the unpredictability of communication (and healthcare processes in general), and (5) engage with and draw on work done by communication theorists. Implementation science literature has conceptualized communication as a transactional process (when communication has been mentioned at all), thereby

  6. Brazilian science communication research: national and international contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Caldas, Graça; Gascoigne, Toss

    2017-08-31

    Science communication has emerged as a new field over the last 50 years, and its progress has been marked by a rise in jobs, training courses, research, associations, conferences and publications. This paper describes science communication internationally and the trends and challenges it faces, before looking at the national level. We have documented science communication activities in Brazil, the training courses, research, financial support and associations/societies. By analyzing the publication of papers, dissertations and theses we have tracked the growth of this field, and compared the level of activity in Brazil with other countries. Brazil has boosted its national research publications since 2002, with a bigger contribution from postgraduate programs in education and communication, but compared to its national research activity Brazil has only a small international presence in science communication. The language barrier, the tradition of publishing in national journals and the solid roots in education are some of the reasons for that. Brazil could improve its international participation, first by considering collaborations within Latin America. International publication is dominated by the USA and the UK. There is a need to take science communication to the next level by developing more sophisticated tools for conceptualizing and analyzing science communication, and Brazil can be part of that.

  7. Dreams and acting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L

    1987-01-01

    Dreams can be used as containers that free patients from increased tension. This may be the principal function of certain types of dreams, called "evacuative dreams." They are dreams used for getting rid of unbearable affects and unconscious fantasies, or as a safety valve for partial discharge of instinctual drives. These dreams are observed primarily in borderline and psychotic patients, but can also be seen in the regressive states of neurotic patients during weekends and other periods of separation. Such dreams have to be differentiated from "elaborative dreams," which have a working-through function and stand in an inverse relationship to acting out: the greater the production of elaborative dreams, the less the tendency to act out, and vice versa.

  8. Communicating science better through personal divestment from ideological strongholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    There is an urgent need for the geoscience community to participate as trusted brokers of information in the partisan landscape of science communication. In the current moment of political engagement, academic-industry partnerships, and social justice organizing, the most immediate, inexpensive, and effective change to facilitate public trust-building is through changing the paradigm of professional science communication. Scientists must own the public trust of their intellectual station - and to do so effectively requires a concerted effort to professionally divest from personal ideological positions. Transparency and ideological divestment are hallmarks of public leadership, and yet these values often do not percolate into the existing cannon of communication best practices. However, it is likely that even seasoned communicators rely on a handful of values-based reframing messages to scaffold their science communication in public. Without clear examination of such values, these reframing messages often can function as communicative "tells" or ideological signals, and such signal will actively backfire by disenfranchising audiences with alternate or oppositional ideology. Therefore, it behooves science communicators to actively examine their personal and political ideology, and to build communicative strategies that do not include ideological tells. This practice, while potentially uncomfortable, will strengthen scientists' capacities to communicate evidence and scientific consensus across partisan and rhetorical chasms.

  9. Taking our own medicine: on an experiment in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Maja

    2011-12-01

    In 2007 a social scientist and a designer created a spatial installation to communicate social science research about the regulation of emerging science and technology. The rationale behind the experiment was to improve scientific knowledge production by making the researcher sensitive to new forms of reactions and objections. Based on an account of the conceptual background to the installation and the way it was designed, the paper discusses the nature of the engagement enacted through the experiment. It is argued that experimentation is a crucial way of making social science about science communication and engagement more robust.

  10. High-Rate Laser Communications for Human Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B. S.; Shih, T.; Khatri, F. I.; King, T.; Seas, A.

    2018-02-01

    Laser communication links has been successfully demonstrated on recent near-Earth and lunar missions. We present a status of this development work and its relevance to a future Deep Space Gateway supporting human exploration and science activities.

  11. Press releases — the new trend in science communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Scientific institutions have for a long time known the importance of framing and owning stories about science They also know the effective way of communicating science in a press release This is part of the institution’s public relations. Enhanced competition among research institutions has led...... to a buildup of communicative competences and professionalization of public relations inside the institutions and the press release has become an integrated part of science communication from these institutions. Changing working conditions in the media, where fewer people have to publish more, have made press...... releases from trustworthy scientific institutions into free and easily copied content for the editors. In this commentary I investigate and discuss the communicative ecosystem of the university press release. I especially take a close look at the role of the critical and independent science journalist...

  12. I had a dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By William E. Wright

    2012-01-01

    I had a dream. Like Martin Luther King, Jr. said in a speech memorized by almost all Chinese students, I had a dream. My dream was that one day I would teach in a foreign country. Little did I know how fascinating and rich teaching in the Law School of Shandong University would be.

  13. [Brief history of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, D

    Throughout history dreams have played a crucial role. Dreams have inspired great works of art, solved scientific problems and, because of the premonitory value attached to them, have influenced transcendental decisions. This paper reviews some of the dreams that have been a part of the world's literature and historical tradition.

  14. Communicating Climate Science: A Historic Look to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James; Andronova, Natasha; Rasch, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The June 2013 Chapman Conference brought together a diverse group of researchers, educators, and media for 5 days in Colorado to explore how to better communicate climate science. Multidisciplinary thinking was a key theme of the meeting. Participant expertise included urban planning, science, psychology, philosophy, history, film and documentary production, communications, journalism, public relations, and business. All helped to create a stimulating and inspirational atmosphere. The meeting program accommodated almost 100 submitted abstracts.

  15. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: a brief, exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatalovic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comics are a popular art form especially among children and as such provide a potential medium for science education and communication. In an attempt to present science comics in a museum exhibit I found many science themed comics and graphic books. Here I attempt to provide an overview of already available comics that communicate science, the genre of ‘science comics’. I also provide a quick literature review for evidence that comics can indeed be efficiently used for promoting scientific literacy via education and communication. I address the issue of lack of studies about science comics and their readers and suggest some possible reasons for this as well as some questions that could be addressed in future studies on the effect these comics may have on science communication.

  16. Shifting our focus: Communicating science to a new, nontechnical culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, A.; Hollen, G.; Longshore, A.; Mauzy, A.; Reeves, A.

    1994-07-01

    Congress` decision to close down the $11 billion Superconducting Supercollider is spreading anxiety throughout the scientific community. As funding for the nation`s research laboratories becomes increasingly scarce, technical communicators in these organizations must focus much of their communications efforts on a new culture: Congress and the public. We discuss how to characterize this new audience and the importance of evaluating communication products, and we highlight some strategies for interpreting science to nonscientists more effectively.

  17. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Filevich, E.; Dresler, M.; Brick, T.R.; Kuhn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participant...

  18. So, You Want to be a Science Communicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzilowicz, John G.

    2009-03-01

    The late Carl Sagan opined that somehow we have managed to create a global civilization dependant on science and technology in which almost no one understands science and technology. This is an unacceptable recipe for disaster with social, political and financial implications for the future of scientific research. And so, like it or not, popular science communication, more than ever before, is an important and necessary part of the scientific enterprise. Public outreach programs, media interviews, and popular articles have become required parts of the scientist's professional repertoire. But, what does it take to be a good science communicator? What is needed to develop and deliver meaningful public outreach programs? How do you handle non-technical presentations? And, what help is available in developing the necessary skills for good popular science communication? This presentation will look at the essential components of effective science communication aimed at a broad public audience. The components of successful science communication in programs, presentations and articles will be discussed. Specific attention will be given to how university-museum partnerships can expand the reach and enhance the quality of public outreach programs.

  19. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung [Myungji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society.

  20. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  1. Examining the Nexus of Science Communication and Science Education: A Content Analysis of Genetics News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.

    2015-01-01

    Access to science information via communications in the media is rapidly becoming a central means for the public to gain knowledge about scientific advancements. However, little is known about what content knowledge is essential for understanding issues presented in news media. Very few empirical studies attempt to bridge science communication and…

  2. Core Skills for Effective Science Communication: A Teaching Resource for Undergraduate Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Science communication is a diverse and transdisciplinary field and is taught most effectively when the skills involved are tailored to specific educational contexts. Few academic resources exist to guide the teaching of communication with non-scientific audiences for an undergraduate science context. This mixed methods study aimed to explore what…

  3. Public communication of science 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Hans Peter; Dunwoody, Sharon; Allgaier, Joachim; Lo, Yin-Yueh; Brossard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    he communication between scientists and the public is changing. Major drivers of this change are the rapid evolution of the Internet, now in its web 2.0 version with an abundance of video‐sharing websites, blogging platforms and social networks; the ubiquity of mobile devices; and the merging of individual and public communication. The new infrastructures allow nearly instantaneous access to information and make it much easier for communicators—both professionals and laypersons—to directly ad...

  4. Science Communication Through Art: Objectives, Challenges, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesen, Amy E; Rogan, Ama; Blum, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    The arts are becoming a favored medium for conveying science to the public. Tracking trending approaches, such as community-engaged learning, alongside challenges and goals can help establish metrics to achieve more impactful outcomes, and to determine the effectiveness of arts-based science communication for raising awareness or shaping public policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role by scientific publications in science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabbri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In their contributions to this special issue, the British science writer Jon Turney and the American scholar Bruce Lewenstein discuss the validity of the book as a means for science communication in the era of the Internet, whereas the article by Vittorio Bo deals with scientific publishing in a broader sense.

  6. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark (Danish original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  7. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  8. Science Communication versus Science Education: The Graduate Student Scientist as a K-12 Classroom Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jeff; Shope, Richard E., III; Terebey, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Science literacy is a major goal of science educational reform (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1998; NCLB Act, 2001). Some believe that teaching science only requires pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Others believe doing science requires knowledge of the methodologies of scientific inquiry (NRC, 1996). With these two mindsets, the challenge for science educators is to create models that bring the two together. The common ground between those who teach science and those who do science is science communication, an interactive process that galvanizes dialogue among scientists, teachers, and learners in a rich ambience of mutual respect and a common, inclusive language of discourse . The dialogue between science and non-science is reflected in the polarization that separates those who do science and those who teach science, especially as it plays out everyday in the science classroom. You may be thinking, why is this important? It is vital because, although not all science learners become scientists, all K-12 students are expected to acquire science literacy, especially with the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Students are expected to acquire the ability to follow the discourse of science as well as connect the world of science to the context of their everyday life if they plan on moving to the next grade level, and in some states, to graduate from high school. This paper posits that science communication is highly effective in providing the missing link for K-12 students cognition in science and their attainment of science literacy. This paper will focus on the "Science For Our Schools" (SFOS) model implemented at California State Univetsity, Los Angeles (CSULA) as a project of the National Science Foundation s GK-12 program, (NSF 2001) which has been a huge success in bridging the gap between those who "know" science and those who "teach" science. The SFOS model makes clear the distinctions that identify science, science communication, science

  9. Science communication in regenerative medicine: Implications for the role of academic society and science policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Shineha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the hurdles, motivation, and other issues affecting scientists' active participation in science communication to bridge the gap between science and society. This study analyzed 1115 responses of Japanese scientists regarding their attitudes toward science communication through a questionnaire focusing on the field of stem cell and regenerative medicine. As a result, we found that scientists face systemic issues such as lack of funding, time, opportunities, and evaluation systems for science communication. At the same time, there is a disparity of attitudes toward media discourse between scientists and the public.

  10. What conceptions of science communication are espoused by science research funding bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sarah E; Schibeci, Renato A

    2014-07-01

    We examine the conceptions of science communication, especially in relation to "public engagement with science" (PES), evident in the literature and websites of science research funding bodies in Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Oceania, and Africa. The analysis uses a fourfold classification of science communication to situate these conceptions: professional, deficit, consultative and deliberative. We find that all bodies engage in professional communication (within the research community); however, engagement with the broader community is variable. Deficit (information dissemination) models still prevail but there is evidence of movement towards more deliberative, participatory models.

  11. Outrageous Outreach — Unconventional Ways of Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, O.; Christensen, L. L.

    2011-07-01

    The golden rule of communication, advertising, public relations and marketing is "follow your target group". In this article, we look at how this mantra is applied in science communication and public outreach. Do we really follow our target groups? Do we regularly research the behaviour, interests and preferences of the individuals behind the demographic categories? Or do we just believe that we are following them when in fact we are "preaching to the converted" — the demographic group that is already intrinsically interested in science and actively scours the science sections of the national newspapers?

  12. Communicating Ocean Sciences College Courses: Science Faculty and Educators Working and Learning Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Simms, E.; McDonnell, J. D.; Strang, C.

    2011-12-01

    As the relationship between science and society evolves, the need for scientists to engage and effectively communicate with the public about scientific issues has become increasingly urgent. Leaders in the scientific community argue that research training programs need to also give future scientists the knowledge and skills to communicate. To address this, the Communicating Ocean Sciences (COS) series was developed to teach postsecondary science students how to communicate their scientific knowledge more effectively, and to build the capacity of science faculty to apply education research to their teaching and communicate more effectively with the public. Courses are co-facilitated by a faculty scientist and either a K-12 or informal science educator. Scientists contribute their science content knowledge and their teaching experience, and educators bring their knowledge of learning theory regarding how students and the public make meaning from, and understand, science. The series comprises two university courses for science undergraduate and graduate students that are taught by ocean and climate scientists at approximately 25 universities. One course, COS K-12, is team-taught by a scientist and a formal educator, and provides college students with experience communicating science in K-12 classrooms. In the other course, COSIA (Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences), a scientist and informal educator team-teach, and the practicum takes place in a science center or aquarium. The courses incorporate current learning theory and provide an opportunity for future scientists to apply that theory through a practicum. COS addresses the following goals: 1) introduce postsecondary students-future scientists-to the importance of education, outreach, and broader impacts; 2) improve the ability of scientists to communicate science concepts and research to their students; 3) create a culture recognizing the importance of communicating science; 4) provide students and

  13. Cancer communication science funding trends, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Galica, Kasia; Blake, Kelly D; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-12-01

    Since 2000, the field of health communication has grown tremendously, owing largely to research funding by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This study provides an overview of cancer communication science funding trends in the past decade. We conducted an analysis of communication-related grant applications submitted to the NCI in fiscal years 2000-2012. Using 103 keywords related to health communication, data were extracted from the Portfolio Management Application, a grants management application used at NCI. Automated coding described key grant characteristics such as mechanism and review study section. Manual coding determined funding across the cancer control continuum, by cancer site, and by cancer risk factors. A total of 3307 unique grant applications met initial inclusion criteria; 1013 of these were funded over the 12-year period. The top funded grant mechanisms were the R01, R21, and R03. Applications were largely investigator-initiated proposals as opposed to responses to particular funding opportunity announcements. Among funded communication research, the top risk factor being studied was tobacco, and across the cancer control continuum, cancer prevention was the most common stage investigated. NCI support of cancer communication research has been an important source of growth for health communication science over the last 12 years. The analysis' findings describe NCI's priorities in cancer communication science and suggest areas for future investments.

  14. How to Visualize and Communicate Challenges in Climate and Environmental Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, R.; Schertzer, D. J. M.; Deutsch, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The challenges of climate and environmental sciences need a renewed dialogue with a large spectrum of stakeholders, ranging from the general publics to specialists. This requires a better use of sophisticated visualization techniques to both forward the information and to follow the corresponding flow of information. A particular case of interest is the question of resilience to extreme weather events that also relies on increasing awareness of urban communities. This research looks at the development of exploration techniques of unstructured Big Data. Indeed access to information on environmental and climate sciences has hugely increased in terms of variety and quantity, as a consequence of different factors, among others the development of public relations by research institutes and the pervasive role of digital media (Bucchi 2013; Trench 2008). We are left with unthinkable amounts of information from blogs, social networks postings, public speeches, press releases, articles, etc. It is possible now to explore and visualize patterns followed by digital information with the support of automated analysis tools. On the other hand these techniques can provide important insights on how different techniques of visual communication can impact on urban resilience to extreme weather. The selected case studies correspond to several research projects under the umbrella of the Chair "Hydrology for resilient cities" aimed to develop and test new solutions in urban hydrology that will contribute to the resilience of our cities to extreme weather. These research projects - ranging from regional projects (e.g. RadX@IdF), European projects (e.g. Blue Green Dream and RainGain), to worldwide collaborations (e.g. TOMACS) - include awareness raising and capacity building activities aimed to foster cooperation between scientists, professionals, and beneficiaries. This presentation will explore how visualization techniques can be used in the above mentioned projects in order to support

  15. Communications among data and science centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to electronically access and query the contents of remote computer archives is of singular importance in space and earth sciences; the present evaluation of such on-line information networks' development status foresees swift expansion of their data capabilities and complexity, in view of the volumes of data that will continue to be generated by NASA missions. The U.S.'s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) manages NASA's largest science computer network, the Space Physics Analysis Network; a comprehensive account is given of the structure of NSSDC international access through BITNET, and of connections to the NSSDC available in the Americas via the International X.25 network.

  16. The China Dream and the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAM; A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked"The China Dream"as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China’s future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of20 prominent"China dreamers"in terms of debates over the proper relationship between(1)politics and economics,(2)equality and hierarchy,(3)civilization and civility,and(4)nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary ideals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  17. The China Dream and the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAM A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked "The China Dream" as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China's future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of 20 prominent "China dreamers" in terms of debates over the proper relationship between (1) politics and economics,(2) equality and hierarchy,(3) civilization and civility,and (4) nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary (i)deals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  18. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filevich, E.; Dresler, M.; Brick, T.R.; Kuhn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition.

  19. What does the UK public want from academic science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Illingworth, Sam; Verran, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent's current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the 'common practice' of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals), there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience.

  20. A View of Oral Communication Activities in Food Science from the Perspective of a Communication Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise Ann

    2015-01-01

    Food science researchers have pronounced the Institute of Food Technologists Success Skills to be the most important competency mastered by graduates entering the work force. Much of the content and outcomes of the Success Skills pertains to oral communication skills of public speaking and interpersonal and group communication. This qualitative…

  1. Communicating English for Science and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe

    The book introduces and discusses some of the ideas, stylistics, methods, aids and conventions used in English for Science and Technology. The book centres on a mix of theoretical considerations, examples, drills and texts.......The book introduces and discusses some of the ideas, stylistics, methods, aids and conventions used in English for Science and Technology. The book centres on a mix of theoretical considerations, examples, drills and texts....

  2. Upholding the human right of children in New Zealand experiencing communication difficulties to voice their needs and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Elizabeth; Clendon, Sally

    2018-02-01

    New Zealand Ministry of Education's proposal for an updated service to support children experiencing communication difficulties provides an opportunity to consider the essential criteria required for children to express their opinion, information and ideas as outlined under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This commentary begins with a summary of key policies that provide strategic direction for enhancing children's rights to be actively involved in the development of services designed to support them and to communicate and participate in inclusive environments. The authors use a human rights lens to inform the development of speech-language pathology services that facilitate individuals' contribution and engagement and are responsive to their needs. A review of international literature describing the lived experience of children and young people identifies key factors related to accessible information, service coordination, holistic practice, and partnerships that facilitate co-constructed understanding and decision-making. The commentary concludes with suggested recommendations for structuring services, establishing partnership models, and capability building.

  3. New practices in science communication: Roles of professionals in science and technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrmann, Caroline; Dijkstra, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Science Communication (SC) professionals who are working in the context of science and technology development, have various jobs at universities, government agencies, NGOs and industry. Their positions have changed in recent years, due to developments in science and technology and to

  4. Engagement as a Threshold Concept for Science Education and Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Merryn; Vos, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Science communication and science education have the same overarching aim--to engage their audiences in science--and both disciplines face similar challenges in achieving this aim. Knowing how to effectively engage their "audiences" is fundamental to the success of both. Both disciplines have well-developed research fields identifying…

  5. Gap between science and media revisited: scientists as public communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-08-20

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty--an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science-media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists.

  6. Neurodharma Self-Help: Personalized Science Communication as Brain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    Over the past ten to fifteen years, medical interventions, therapeutic approaches and scientific studies involving mindfulness meditation have gained traction in areas such as clinical psychology, psychotherapy, and neuroscience. Simultaneously, mindfulness has had a very strong public appeal. This article examines some of the ways in which the medical and scientific meaning of mindfulness is communicated in public and to the public. In particular, it shows how experts in the field of mindfulness neuroscience seek to communicate to the public at large the imperative of brain fitness for the promotion of health, wellbeing and happiness. The study identifies claims being made in popular outlets that, by and large, bypass traditional mass media, such as self-help books, websites and online videos. By treating this material as a form of personalized science communication, this article contributes to the body of literature that understands science communication as a continuum and the boundary between science and popularized science as the outcome of human negotiations. The study finds that processes of personalization help to build bridges between scientific findings and their supposed application, that they infuse science with subjective meaning, and turn expert communication with the public into a moral vocation.

  7. Dreaming and insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  8. Innovations to enrich science communication through radio

    OpenAIRE

    Thakar Bhaumik; Kothari Abhay

    2004-01-01

    The Radio is an instrument of communication that has percolated to all the strata of the diverse Indian society. Its position has been consolidated through history as a regular companion and a source of information and entertainment. Its affordability, accessibility and non-reliance on costly resources have ensured its presence in almost all the households. It has become indispensable from kitchens, family rooms and even workspaces. It is one of the few or rather the only medium of communicat...

  9. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  10. Communicating science a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Boxman, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Read this book before you write your thesis or journal paper! Communicating Science is a textbook and reference on scientific writing oriented primarily at researchers in the physical sciences and engineering. It is written from the perspective of an experienced researcher. It draws on the authors' experience of teaching and working with both native English speakers and English as a Second Language (ESL) writers. For the range of topics covered, this book is relatively short and tersely written, in order to appeal to busy researchers.Communicating Science offers comprehensive guidance on: Graduate students and early career researchers will be guided through the researcher's basic communication tasks: writing theses, journal papers, and internal reports, presenting lectures and posters, and preparing research proposals. Extensive best practice examples and analyses of common problems are presented. Advanced researchers who aim to commercialize their research results will be introduced to business plans and pat...

  11. How-to establish PCST. Two handbooks on science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Delfanti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 two collections were published: the Handbook of Public Communication of Science and Technology, edited by Massimiano Bucchi and Brian Trench, and Communicating Science in Social Contexts: New models, new practices, edited by Donghong Cheng and five other scholars from China, Canada, Belgium and Australia. These books try to define and draw the boundaries of science communication’s field from both a theoretical and empirical point of view. But do we need to establish it as a distinct research field? For a number of decades, a growing community of scholars and communicators is trying to reply positively to this question, but the need to look outside the disciplinary boundaries, to other academic fields, is still vital.

  12. Science Communication in the Post-Expert Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luers, A.

    2014-12-01

    The digital age has given rise to a post-expert world, which is poses challenges for science communication. Mass communication is shifting from a "broadcast" to "conversation" model, while audiences increasingly are finding information with search tools that create personalized filters showing only news they want to see. Such changes dilute expert voices and strengthen insular "tribal" discourse. We argue that these changes in communication pose particular challenges for science communication around politically charged issues such as climate change, because they create mini-echo chambers that can feed cultural wars. To overcome these challenges the scientific community must rethink how we engage the public. In the post-expert world, we need to shift our mindset from reporting the facts to joining diverse conversations.

  13. Communicating Ocean Science at the Lower-Division Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Ocean Literacy for Youth, Publics, Professionals, and Scientists (POLYPPS) is an NSF-funded collaboration between the University of Hawai`i and the Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) - California, which is based at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California - Berkeley. One of the objectives of this project is to instutionalize ocean science communications courses at colleges and universities in Hawai`i. Although the focus of most of these communications courses has been on training graduate students and scientists, lower-division students interested in the ocean sciences are finding this background helpful. At the University of Hawai`i Maui College there are several marine science courses and certificate programs that require students to interact with the public through internships, research assistantships, and course-related service-learning projects. Oceanography 270, Communicating Ocean Science, is now offered to meet the needs of these students who engage with the public in informal educational settings. Other students who enroll in this course have a general interest in the marine environment and are considering careers in K-12 formal education. This course gives this group of students an opportunity to explore formal education by assisting classroom teachers and preparing and presenting problem-based, hands-on, inquiry activities. Employers at marine-related businesses and in the tourist industry have welcomed this course with a focus on communication skills and indicate that they prefer to hire local people with strong backgrounds in marine and natural sciences. A basic premise of POLYPPS is that science education must draw not only from the latest advances in science and technology but also from the cultural contexts in which the learners are embedded and that this will achieve increased understanding and stewardship of ocean environments. Students in Oceanography 270 integrate traditional Hawaiian knowledge into their

  14. The nuts and bolts of evaluating science communication activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    Since 2008 there has been a focus on fostering a culture of public engagement in higher education plus an impact agenda that demands scientists provide evidence of how their work, including their science communication, is making a difference. Good science communication takes a significant amount of time to plan and deliver so how can you improve what you are doing and demonstrate if you are having an impact? The answer is to evaluate. Effective evaluation needs to be planned so this paper takes you step by step through the evaluation process, illustrated using specific examples. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

  16. Science and the media alternative routes in scientific communication

    CERN Document Server

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    1998-01-01

    In the days of global warming and BSE, science is increasingly a public issue. This book provides a theoretical framework which allows us to understand why and how scientists address the general public. The author develops the argument that turning to the public is not simply a response to inaccurate reporting by journalists or to public curiosity, nor a wish to gain recognition and additional funding. Rather, it is a tactic to which the scientific community are pushed by certain "internal" crisis situations. Bucchi examines three cases of scientists turning to the public: the cold fusion case, the COBE/Big Bang issue and Louis Pasteur's public demonstration of the anthrax vaccine, a historical case of "public science." Finally, Bucchi presents his unique model of communications between science and the public, carried out through the media. This is a thoughtful and wide-ranging treatment of complex contemporary issues, touching upon the history and sociology of science, communication and media studies. Bucchi...

  17. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).

  18. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  19. Science Communications: Providing a Return on Investment to the Taxpayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horack, John M.; Borchelt, Rick E.

    1999-01-01

    Nowhere is the disconnect between needing to better communicate science and technology and the skills and techniques used for that communication more evident than in the Federal research enterprise. As Federal research budgets stagnate or decline, and despite public clamor for more and better scientific information, communication of basic research results continues to rank among the lowest agency priorities, mortgaged against traditional public-relations activities to polish an agency's image or control negative information flow to the press and public. Alone among the Federal agencies, NASA articulates in its strategic plan the need "...to advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding..." These words emphasize the reality that if new knowledge is generated but not communicated, only half the job has been done. This is a reflection of the transition of NASA from primarily an engineering organization used to help win the Cold War to a producer of new knowledge and technology in the National interest for the 21st century.

  20. Identifying Relevant Anti-Science Perceptions to Improve Science-Based Communication: The Negative Perceptions of Science Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science communicators and scholars have struggled to understand what appears to be increasingly frequent endorsement of a wide range of anti-science beliefs and a corresponding reduction of trust in science. A common explanation for this issue is a lack of science literacy/knowledge among the general public (Funk et al. 2015. However, other possible explanations have been advanced, including conflict with alternative belief systems and other contextual factors, and even cultural factors (Gauchat 2008; Kahan 2015 that are not necessarily due to knowledge deficits. One of the challenges is that there are limited tools available to measure a range of possible underlying negative perceptions of science that could provide a more nuanced framework within which to improve communication around important scientific topics. This project describes two studies detailing the development and validation of the Negative Perceptions of Science Scale (NPSS, a multi-dimensional instrument that taps into several distinct sets of negative science perceptions: Science as Corrupt, Science as Complex, Science as Heretical, and Science as Limited. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the NPSS is described. The sub-dimensions of the NPSS are associated with a range of specific anti-science beliefs across a broad set of topic areas above and beyond that explained by demographics (including education, sex, age, and income, political, and religious ideology. Implications for these findings for improving science communication and science-related message tailoring are discussed.

  1. [Elucidating! But how? Insights into the impositions of modern science communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuh, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The talk promotes the view that science communication should abandon the claim that scientific information can convince others. This is identified as one of the impositions modern science communication is exposed to. Instead of convin cing others, science communication should focus on identifying societally relevant scientific knowledge and on communicating it accurately and coherently.

  2. Using immersive media and digital technology to communicate Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    A number of technologies in digital media and interactivity have rapidly advanced and are now converging to enable rich, multi-sensoral experiences which create opportunities for both digital art and science communication. Techniques used in full-dome film-making can now be deployed in virtual reality experiences; gaming technologies can be utilised to explore real data sets; and collaborative interactivity enable new forms of public artwork. This session will explore these converging trends through a number of emerging and forthcoming projects dealing with Earth science, climate change and planetary science.

  3. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  4. On the Desirability of an Interpretive Science of Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Phillip K.

    Concerned with imprecision in researchers' use of the word, "interpretive," this report draws from the work of Max Weber to describe the characteristics of an interpretive science of organizational communication and then briefly lists some advantages of following the interpretive approach. First examining the role of subjective meaning…

  5. In-Service Science Teachers' Attitude towards Information Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the attitude of in-service science teachers towards information communication technology (ICT) in education. The study explores the relationship between in-service teachers and four independent variables: their attitudes toward computers; their cultural perception of computers; their perceived computer…

  6. Author Impact Metrics in Communication Sciences and Disorder Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Faucette, Sarah P.; Thomas, William Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to examine author-level impact metrics for faculty in the communication sciences and disorder research field across a variety of databases. Method: Author-level impact metrics were collected for faculty from 257 accredited universities in the United States and Canada. Three databases (i.e., Google Scholar, ResearchGate,…

  7. Fundamental Approaches in Molecular Biology for Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Jette, Marie E.; King, Suzanne N.; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has…

  8. Public Communication of Science in Blogs: Recontextualizing Scientific Discourse for a Diversified Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzón, María José

    2013-01-01

    New media are having a significant impact on science communication, both on the way scientists communicate with peers and on the dissemination of science to the lay public. Science blogs, in particular, provide an open space for science communication, where a diverse audience (with different degrees of expertise) may have access to science…

  9. The application of science communication modes in China's nuclear and radiation safety science popularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yali; Wang Erqi; Wang Xiaofeng; Zhang Ying

    2014-01-01

    The studies of the application of science communication theory in the nuclear and radiation safety will help to enhance the level of science popularization work in the field of nuclear and radiation safety. This paper firstly describes the definition and the evolvement process of science communication models, then analyzes the current status of the nuclear and radiation safety science popularization, finally discusses on the suitability of science communication mode of its application in the field of nuclear and radiation safety. (authors)

  10. The marginalisation of dreams in clinical psychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Linda; Dawson, Drew

    2018-04-22

    The longstanding human interest in dreams has led to a significant body of psychological and philosophical discourse, including research. Recently, however, dreams have been relegated to the periphery of clinical psychological practice. This is potentially problematic as clients continue to bring dreams to therapy and many psychologists lack the confidence or competence to respond effectively to dream material. Building on the structural, professional and research cultures surrounding psychology using a cultural-historical activity theory framework, we argue the marginalisation of dreams is due to cultural-historical factors. These factors include the political and economic context in which psychology developed; psychology's early attempts to differentiate from psychoanalysis by identifying with behaviourism and the natural sciences; and a discipline-specific definition of what constitutes evidence-based practice. These factors led to professional discourses within which dreams are seen as of little clinical or therapeutic value, or that dream work is only for long-term therapy and requires extensive therapist training. However, there are diverse models of dream work consistent with most theoretical orientations within contemporary psychological practice. We conclude with recommendations on how to rebuild clinical confidence and competence in the use of dream material within the current professional environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Master in science communication: an overview (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Ramani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Science, politics, industry, media, state-run and private organisations, private citizens: everyone has their own demands, their own heritage of knowledge, thoughts, opinions, aspirations, needs. Different worlds that interact, question one another, discuss; in one word: they communicate. It is a complicated process that requires professionals «who clearly understand the key aspects of the transmission of scientific knowledge to society through the different essential communication channels for multiple organizations». The purpose of this commentary is to cast some light upon the goals, the philosophy and the organisation behind some European and extra-European Master’s degrees in science communication. We have asked the directors of each of them to describe their founding elements, their origins, their specific features, their structure, their goals, the reasons why they were established and the evolution they have seen over their history.

  12. The "art" of science communication in undergraduate research training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, F. R.; Stockwell, J.; Pinheiro, V.; White, B.

    2016-12-01

    Student creation of well-designed and engaging visuals in science communication can enhance their deep learning while streamlining the transmission of information to their audience. However, undergraduate research training does not frequently emphasize the design aspect of science communication. We devised and implemented a new curricular component to the Lake Champlain NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in Vermont. We took a holistic approach to communication training, with a targeted module in "art and science". Components to the module included: 1) an introduction to environmental themes in fine art, 2) a photography assignment in research documentation, 3) an overview of elements of design (e.g., color, typography, hierarchy), 4) a graphic design workshop using tools in Powerpoint, and 5) an introduction to scientific illustration. As part of the REU program, students were asked to document their work through photographs, and develop an infographic or scientific illustration complementary to their research. The "art and science" training culminated with a display and critique of their visual work. We report on student responses to the "art and science" training from exit interviews and survey questions. Based on our program, we identify a set of tools that mentors can use to enhance their student's ability to engage with a broad audience.

  13. iBiology: communicating the process of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah S

    2014-08-01

    The Internet hosts an abundance of science video resources aimed at communicating scientific knowledge, including webinars, massive open online courses, and TED talks. Although these videos are efficient at disseminating information for diverse types of users, they often do not demonstrate the process of doing science, the excitement of scientific discovery, or how new scientific knowledge is developed. iBiology (www.ibiology.org), a project that creates open-access science videos about biology research and science-related topics, seeks to fill this need by producing videos by science leaders that make their ideas, stories, and experiences available to anyone with an Internet connection. © 2014 Goodwin. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Using Twitter to communicate conservation science from a professional conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, Sara P; Farr, Cooper M; Gallo, H Travis; Mangan, Anna M; Stinson, Lani T; Kaushik, Monica; Pejchar, Liba

    2016-02-01

    Scientists are increasingly using Twitter as a tool for communicating science. Twitter can promote scholarly discussion, disseminate research rapidly, and extend and diversify the scope of audiences reached. However, scientists also caution that if Twitter does not accurately convey science due to the inherent brevity of this media, misinformation could cascade quickly through social media. Data on whether Twitter effectively communicates conservation science and the types of user groups receiving these tweets are lacking. To address these knowledge gaps, we examined live tweeting as a means of communicating conservation science at the 2013 International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB). We quantified and compared the user groups sending and reading live tweets. We also surveyed presenters to determine their intended audiences, which we compared with the actual audiences reached through live tweeting. We also asked presenters how effectively tweets conveyed their research findings. Twitter reached 14 more professional audience categories relative to those attending and live tweeting at ICCB. However, the groups often reached through live tweeting were not the presenters' intended audiences. Policy makers and government and non-governmental organizations were rarely reached (0%, 4%, and 6% of audience, respectively), despite the intent of the presenters. Plenary talks were tweeted about 6.9 times more than all other oral or poster presentations combined. Over half the presenters believed the tweets about their talks were effective. Ineffective tweets were perceived as vague or missing the presenters' main message. We recommend that presenters who want their science to be communicated accurately and broadly through Twitter should provide Twitter-friendly summaries that incorporate relevant hashtags and usernames. Our results suggest that Twitter can be used to effectively communicate speakers' findings to diverse audiences beyond conference walls. © 2015

  15. Dream and Creative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2015-01-01

    Freud asserts that the unconscious will express its suppressed wishes and desires. The unconscious will then redirect andreshape these concealed wishes into acceptable social activities, presenting them in the form of images or symbols in our dreams and/or our writings. Dream is the unconscious which promotes the creative writing.

  16. Innovation and Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉娟

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is to attempt to discover the relationship between Carrie's American dream and American social innvoation by the end of 19th century. The purpose is to discuss Carrie's dream-searching while she stepped up to the peak of her life and career.

  17. Chasing the Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    People’s pursuit of better lives pushes the nation forward The belief that anyone can live a better life in the United States through hard workis called the American Dream. Many European settlers were drawn to the new continent by the American Dream.

  18. My Dream, My World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph DeVeto; 赵惠妙

    2005-01-01

    @@ I often dream the same dream: I am driving together with my mother on a stretched straight path1.The birds are singing and playing2 around the car, the flowers are opening3 richly4 which decorate5 the land.The breeze is flirting with ourhair, my long, black waterfall and my mother's short gray hair6.

  19. Dreams, Daydreams and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. A.; Luckcock, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    It has been discovered that dreams and daydreams can be productive states in the process of scientific innovation. An attempt is made to provide some typical examples of insights which have come to scientists during dream-like states and in sleep. (Author/MA)

  20. New Roles for Scientists and Science Societies to Improve Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    Should North American Scientists and Science Societies continue with current communication programs or is there a need for expanded and or altered roles in Science Communication? If current practices are working, why is discourse outside of science societies so often misinformed and distorted on environmental change issues that are clearly defined and described within the science community? Climate change is one example there is virtual unanimity and overwhelming evidence from the scientific community that the Earth is warming rapidly and humans are an important cause, but there is confusion in the media and the public, in part due to disinformation campaigns by greenhouse gas polluters and privately funded "Think Tanks." A summary discussion will be presented that addresses many of the ideas and issues brought forward by colleagues in science, science communication and education. Scientists and Science Societies must re-establish objectivity in science information communication to educators, the media and the public. Recommendations on directions will be a key outcome of this presentation.

  1. Using and choosing digital health technologies: a communications science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Wu, Albert; Street, Richard; Thimbleby, Harold; Thilo, Friederike; Hannawa, Annegret

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a non-technical overview for leaders and researchers about how to use a communications perspective to better assess, design and use digital health technologies (DHTs) to improve healthcare performance and to encourage more research into implementation and use of these technologies. Design/methodology/approach Narrative overview, showing through examples the issues and benefits of introducing DHTs for healthcare performance and the insights that communications science brings to their design and use. Findings Communications research has revealed the many ways in which people communicate in non-verbal ways, and how this can be lost or degraded in digitally mediated forms. These losses are often not recognized, can increase risks to patients and reduce staff satisfaction. Yet digital technologies also contribute to improving healthcare performance and staff morale if skillfully designed and implemented. Research limitations/implications Researchers are provided with an introduction to the limitations of the research and to how communications science can contribute to a multidisciplinary research approach to evaluating and assisting the implementation of these technologies to improve healthcare performance. Practical implications Using this overview, managers are more able to ask questions about how the new DHTs will affect healthcare and take a stronger role in implementing these technologies to improve performance. Originality/value New insights into the use and understanding of DHTs from applying the new multidiscipline of communications science. A situated communications perspective helps to assess how a new technology can complement rather than degrade professional relationships and how safer implementation and use of these technologies can be devised.

  2. A Social Science Guide for Communication on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.

  3. Using an interdisciplinary MOOC to teach climate science and science communication to a global classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.

    2016-12-01

    MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are a powerful tool, making educational content available to a large and diverse audience. The MOOC "Making Sense of Climate Science Denial" applied science communication principles derived from cognitive psychology and misconception-based learning in the design of video lectures covering many aspects of climate change. As well as teaching fundamental climate science, the course also presented psychological research into climate science denial, teaching students the most effective techniques for responding to misinformation. A number of enrolled students were secondary and tertiary educators, who adopted the course content in their own classes as well as adapted their teaching techniques based on the science communication principles presented in the lectures. I will outline how we integrated cognitive psychology, educational research and climate science in an interdisciplinary online course that has had over 25,000 enrolments from over 160 countries.

  4. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  5. Effect of science communication with the public on inference of risk perception of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study showed a big difference between expert's own risk perception and experts' inference of the public risk perception about technologies. So, this study tried to clarify the effect of the perceived distance in risk perception between the public and experts themselves on forwardness in science communication to the public. The questionnaire survey results reaffirmed that experts were inclined to feel larger difference in risk perception between the public and themselves on the subject of their own specialty than of non-specialty. The result also suggested the tendency that the bigger experts recognized difference in risk perception from the public, the less they actually had experiences of science communication including communication with the public. Moreover, the result showed that experiences of science communication had positive effects on belief of the public's scientific literacy. (author)

  6. Lucid Dreaming in Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy Settings: University hospital sleep disorder unit Design: Case-control study Participants: Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls Methods: Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Results: Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P dreams/month (P dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Conclusion: Narcoleptics have a high propensity for lucid dreaming without differing in REM sleep characteristics from people without narcolepsy. This suggests narcolepsy patients may provide useful information in future studies on the nature of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dodet P, Chavez M, Leu-Semenescu S, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2015;38(3):487–497. PMID:25348131

  7. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coping with stress: dream interpretation in the Mapuche family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarrod, L N

    1990-06-01

    Dreams are shared and interpreted daily within the family unit among the Mapuche Indians of Chile. This anthropological study examines the communicative aspect of dream sharing and interpreting among Mapuche families undergoing emotional and physical stress. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which the Mapuche dream interpretation system provides the family members with another means of interaction and a way of solving their problems. It also examines how individuals influence their attitudes towards one another by communally participating in the dream interpretation process, and in its narrative performance. The data used in this research consists of dreams and of their interpretations, collected in the natural setting, from two families with members suffering of witchcraft, and fear of death. This information was collected over a period of 17 months from October 1985 to March 1987 with a Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation Grant.

  9. Teaching, Practice, Feedback: 15 years of COMPASS science communication training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, L.; Smith, B.; McLeod, K.; English, C. A.; Baron, N.

    2014-12-01

    COMPASS is focused on helping scientists build the skills and relationships they need to effectively participate in public discourse. Founded in 2001 with an emphasis on ocean science, and since expanding to a broader set of environmental sciences, we have advised, coached, and/or trained thousands of researchers of all career stages. Over the years, our primary work has notably shifted from needing to persuade scientists why communication matters to supporting them as they pursue the question of what their communication goals are and how best to achieve them. Since our earliest forays into media promotion, we have evolved with the state of the science communication field. In recent years, we have adapted our approach to one that facilitates dialogue and encourages engagement, helps scientists identify the most relevant people and times to engage, tests our own assumptions, and incorporates relevant social science as possible. In this case study, we will discuss more than a decade of experience in helping scientists find or initiate and engage in meaningful conversations with journalists and policymakers.

  10. The National Climate Assessment as a Resource for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) is scientifically authoritative and features major advances, relative to other assessments produced by several organizations. NCA3 is a valuable resource for communicating climate science to a wide variety of audiences. Other assessments were often overly detailed and laden with scientific jargon that made them appear too complex and technical to many in their intended audiences, especially policymakers, the media, and the broad public. Some other assessments emphasized extensive scientific caveats, quantitative uncertainty estimates and broad consensus support. All these attributes, while valuable in research, carry the risk of impeding science communication to non-specialists. Without compromising scientific accuracy and integrity, NCA3 is written in exceptionally clear and vivid English. It includes outstanding graphics and employs powerful techniques aimed at conveying key results unambiguously to a wide range of audiences. I have used NCA3 as a resource in speaking about climate change in three very different settings: classroom teaching for undergraduate university students, presenting in academia to historians and other non-scientists, and briefing corporate executives working on renewable energy. NCA3 proved the value of developing a climate assessment with communication goals and strategies given a high priority throughout the process, not added on as an afterthought. I draw several lessons. First, producing an outstanding scientific assessment is too complex and demanding a task to be carried out by scientists alone. Many types of specialized expertise are also needed. Second, speaking about science to a variety of audiences requires an assortment of communication skills and tools, all tailored to specific groups of listeners. Third, NCA3 is scientifically impeccable and is also an outstanding example of effective communication as well as a valuable resource for communicators.

  11. Legal Research Methodology and the Dream of Interdisciplinarity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legal Research Methodology and the Dream of Interdisciplinarity. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Whilst the natural sciences employ a mostly empiricist methodology and the human ...

  12. Political Science and Speech Communication--A Team Approach to Teaching Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Stephen J.; Fogel, Norman

    This paper proposes making speech communication more interdisciplinary and, in particular, combining political science and speech in a team-taught course in election campaigning. The goals, materials, activities, and plan of such a course are discussed. The goals include: (1) gaining new insights into the process of contemporary campaigns and…

  13. Style and Ethics of Communication in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Jay D

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and engineers seek to discover and disseminate knowledge so that it can be used to improve the human condition. Style and Ethics of Communication in Science and Engineering serves as a valuable aid in this pursuit-it can be used as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate courses on technical communication and ethics, a reference book for senior design courses, or a handbook for young investigators and beginning faculty members. In addition to presenting methods for writing clearly and concisely and improving oral presentations, this compact book provides practical guidelines for pr

  14. Institutional repository in communication: the REPOSCOM project implemented in the digital libraries federation of communication science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Mara Soares Pinto Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the conceptualization, characterization and context of the institutional repositories (IR this paper discuss the procedures, policies and strategies delineated to the implementation of IR in a research environment. The object of discussion is the project called Reposcom - Institutional Repository of Intercom (Brazilian Society of Interdisciplinary Studies of Communication – which is part of a broader project managed by the Portcom – Information Network in Communication Sciences of Countries of Portuguese Language – and called Digital Libraries Federation in the Communication Sciences. Aiming to share the knowledge and experience acquired with the implementation of the Reposcom, this paper describes its work activities, the decisions made, the customization of the software DSpace (the technological solution and the initial results achieved with the project.

  15. Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science: PLACES Impact Assessment Case Study of Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filáček, Adolf; Pechlát, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2013), s. 29-54 ISSN 1210-0250 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : science communication policy * regional dimension of science communication * city of scientific culture Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. The impact of dreams of the deceased on bereavement: a survey of hospice caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott T; Kerr, Christopher W; Doroszczuk, Nicole M; Kuszczak, Sarah M; Hang, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L

    2014-03-01

    Many recently bereaved persons experience vivid and deeply meaningful dreams featuring the presence of the deceased that may reflect and impact the process of mourning. The present study surveyed 278 bereaved persons regarding their own perspective of the relationship between dreams and the mourning process. Fifty eight percent of respondents reported dreams of their deceased loved ones, with varying levels of frequency. Most participants reported that their dreams were either pleasant or both pleasant and disturbing, and few reported purely disturbing dreams. Prevalent dream themes included pleasant past memories or experiences, the deceased free of illness, memories of the deceased's illness or time of death, the deceased in the afterlife appearing comfortable and at peace, and the deceased communicating a message. These themes overlap significantly with previous models of bereavement dream content. Sixty percent of participants felt that their dreams impacted their bereavement process. Specific effects of the dreams on bereavement processes included increased acceptance of the loved one's death, comfort, spirituality, sadness, and quality of life, among others. These results support the theory that dreams of the deceased are highly prevalent among and often deeply meaningful for the bereaved. While many counselors are uncomfortable working with dreams in psychotherapy, the present study demonstrates their therapeutic relevance to the bereaved population and emphasizes the importance for grief counselors to increase their awareness, knowledge, and skills with regards to working with dreams.

  17. Public Science Education and Outreach as a Modality for Teaching Science Communication Skills to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arion, Douglas; OConnell, Christine; Lowenthal, James; Hickox, Ryan C.; Lyons, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University is working with Carthage College, Dartmouth College, and Smith College, in partnership with the Appalachian Mountain Club, to develop and disseminate curriculum to incorporate science communication education into undergraduate science programs. The public science education and outreach program operating since 2012 as a partnership between Carthage and the Appalachian Mountain Club is being used as the testbed for evaluating the training methods. This talk will review the processes that have been developed and the results from the first cohort of students trained in these methods and tested during the summer 2017 education and outreach efforts, which reached some 12,000 members of the public. A variety of evaluation and assessment tools were utilized, including surveys of public participants and video recording of the interactions of the students with the public. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number 1625316.

  18. Dream as a projection of future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Masyuk

    2014-12-01

    The results can be used to improve the teaching of subjects such as «Philosophy», «Psychology», «Management», «Political Science». Understanding dreams is valuable for marketing research and management of social processes.

  19. Time for Change? Climate Science Reconsidered: Report of the UCL Policy Commission on Communicating Climate Science, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Rapley, C. G.; De Meyer, K.; Carney, J.; Clarke, R.; Howarth, C.; Smith, N.; Stilgoe, J.; Youngs, S.; Brierley, C.; Haugvaldstad, A.; Lotto, B.; Michie, S.; Shipworth, M.; Tuckett, D.

    2014-01-01

    The UCL Policy Commission on the Communication of Climate Science, chaired by Professor Chris Rapley comprises a cross-disciplinary project group of researchers from psychology, neuroscience, science and technology studies, earth sciences and energy research. The Commission examined the challenges faced in communicating climate science effectively to policy-makers and the public, and the role of climate scientists in communication. / The Commission explored the role of climate scientists in c...

  20. In science communication, why does the idea of the public deficit always return? Exploring key influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldovsky, Brianne

    2016-05-01

    Despite mounting criticism, the deficit model remains an integral part of science communication research and practice. In this article, I advance three key factors that contribute to the idea of the public deficit in science communication, including the purpose of science communication, how communication processes and outcomes are conceptualized, and how science and scientific knowledge are defined. Affording science absolute epistemic privilege, I argue, is the most compelling factor contributing to the continued use of the deficit model. In addition, I contend that the deficit model plays a necessary, though not sufficient, role in science communication research and practice. Areas for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives.

  2. Citizen voices performing public participation in science and environment communication

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Anabela; Doyle, Julie

    2012-01-01

    How is "participation" ascribed meaning and practised in science and environment communication? And how are citizen voices articulated, invoked, heard, marginalised or silenced in those processes? Citizen Voices takes its starting point in the so-called dialogic or participatory turn in scientific and environmental governance in which practices claiming to be based on principles of participation, dialogue and citizen involvement have proliferated. The book goes beyond the buzzword of "participation" in order to give empirically rich, theoretically informed and critical accounts of how citizen participation is understood and enacted in mass mediation and public engagement practices. A diverse series of studies across Europe and the US are presented, providing readers with empirical insights into the articulation of citizen voices in different national, cultural and institutional contexts. Building bridges across media and communication studies, science and technology studies, environmental studies and urban pl...

  3. International Conference on Computer, Communication and Computational Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Krishn; Tiwari, Shailesh; Singh, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Exchange of information and innovative ideas are necessary to accelerate the development of technology. With advent of technology, intelligent and soft computing techniques came into existence with a wide scope of implementation in engineering sciences. Keeping this ideology in preference, this book includes the insights that reflect the ‘Advances in Computer and Computational Sciences’ from upcoming researchers and leading academicians across the globe. It contains high-quality peer-reviewed papers of ‘International Conference on Computer, Communication and Computational Sciences (ICCCCS 2016), held during 12-13 August, 2016 in Ajmer, India. These papers are arranged in the form of chapters. The content of the book is divided into two volumes that cover variety of topics such as intelligent hardware and software design, advanced communications, power and energy optimization, intelligent techniques used in internet of things, intelligent image processing, advanced software engineering, evolutionary and ...

  4. Comparing the Chinese Dream with the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David S.Pena

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of the Chinese Dream with the American Dream reveals that the Chinese Dream has four main themes:national rejuvenation,common prosperity,democracy,and the people's happiness;whereas,the American Dream emphasizes personal liberty,individual success,and upward social and economic mobility.Investigation of the historical origins and development of the two dreams,conjoined with an account of their aims and purposes,shows that full realization of the Chinese Dream is achieved by successfully building socialism with Chinese characteristics;the American Dream,by contrast,serves as an ideological prop for a particularly aggressive,predatory,and imperialistic form of capitalism.Furthermore,a comparison of each dream in actual practice shows that the Chinese Dream of fully developed socialism has been more successful at promoting common prosperity and peaceful,sustainable development,while the American Dream of unbridled capitalism encourages unsustainable development,growing poverty and inequality,and imperialist wars.Finally,an enumeration of the fundamental differences between the Chinese and American Dreams concludes that the Chinese Dream is fundamentally benign,whereas the American Dream is basically malignant.In order for the American Dream to shed its harmful characteristics,it must reject its capitalist underpinnings and adopt socialism as its ultimate goal.

  5. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.

  6. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Önnerth, Lars; Neubert, Mikkel; Omerbasic, Dejan; Heyman, Minch; Kimberly, Marie; Nielsen, Lyngbo; Mynte, Anne; Hørlyck Kaastrup, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon that is the American Dream and its effect on the working and upper class citizens in American society. To give context to the American dream and its origin, we have made use of professor Jim Cullen’s book “The American Dream: A Short Story of an Idea that Shaped a Nation” from 2003. We have identified what we decided to call the “the traditional dream” and “the modern dream”, both representing different outlooks on lives and ethical standards. We have done t...

  7. FameLab provides competition and coaching on science communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, Daniella; Weiss, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In today's media-intensive environment, the ability to convey science can reshape the face of scientific exploration and discovery. Many early-career scientists could benefit from training on how to communicate their work effectively to all stakeholders along their career paths, from deans and political representatives to neighbors and students, and perhaps even to public audiences through the lens of a camera or the voice of a blog.

  8. Using Sentiment Analysis to Observe How Science is Communicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David; Illingworth, Sam

    2016-04-01

    'Citizen Science' and 'Big data' are terms that are currently ubiquitous in the field of science communication. Whilst opinions differ as to what exactly constitutes a 'citizen', and how much information is needed in order for a data set to be considered truly 'big', what is apparent is that both of these fields have the potential to help revolutionise not just the way that science is communicated, but also the way that it is conducted. However, both the generation of sufficient data, and the efficiency of then analysing the data once it has been analysed need to be taken into account. Sentiment Analysis is the process of determining whether a piece of writing is positive, negative or neutral. The process of sentiment analysis can be automated, providing that an adequate training set has been used, and that the nuances that are associated with a particular topic have been accounted for. Given the large amounts of data that are generated by social media posts, and the often-opinionated nature of these posts, they present an ideal source of data to both train with and then scrutinize using sentiment analysis. In this work we will demonstrate how sentiment analysis can be used to examine a large number of Twitter posts, and how a training set can be established to ensure consistency and accuracy in the automation. Following an explanation of the process, we will demonstrate how automated sentiment analysis can be used to categorise opinions in relation to a large-scale science festival, and will discuss if sentiment analysis can be used to tell us if there is a bias in these communications. We will also investigate if sentiment analysis can be used to replace more traditional, and invasive evaluation strategies, and how this approach can then be adopted to investigate other topics, both within scientific communication and in the wider scientific context.

  9. Criteria for evaluating internet tutorials in speech communication sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Bowerman, Chris; Eriksson, Anders; Huckvale, Mark; Rosner, Mike; Tatham, Mark; Wolters, Maria

    1999-01-01

    The Computer Aided Learning (CAL) working group of the SOCRATES thematic network in Speech Communication Science have studied how the Internet is being used and could be used for the provision of self-study materials for education. In this paper we follow up previous recommendations for the design of Internet tutorials with recommendations for their evaluation. The paper proposes that evaluation should be seen as a necessary quality assurance mechanism operating within the life-cycle of CAL m...

  10. The DEVELOP National Program's Strategy for Communicating Applied Science Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Favors, J.; Kelley, C.; Miller, T. N.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's DEVELOP National Program conducts rapid feasibility projects that enable the future workforce and current decision makers to collaborate and build capacity to use Earth science data to enhance environmental management and policy. The program communicates its results and applications to a broad spectrum of audiences through a variety of methods: "virtual poster sessions" that engage the general public through short project videos and interactive dialogue periods, a "Campus Ambassador Corps" that communicates about the program and its projects to academia, scientific and policy conference presentations, community engagement activities and end-of-project presentations, project "hand-offs" providing results and tools to project partners, traditional publications (both gray literature and peer-reviewed), an interactive website project gallery, targeted brochures, and through multiple social media venues and campaigns. This presentation will describe the various methods employed by DEVELOP to communicate the program's scientific outputs, target audiences, general statistics, community response and best practices.

  11. A need for a code of ethics in science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, R. E.

    2009-09-01

    The modern western civilization and high standard of living are to a large extent the 'fruits' of scientific endeavor over generations. Some examples include the longer life expectancy due to progress in medical sciences, and changes in infrastructure associated with the utilization of electromagnetism. Modern meteorology is not possible without the state-of-the-art digital computers, satellites, remote sensing, and communications. Science also is of relevance for policy making, e.g. the present hot topic of climate change. Climate scientists have recently become much exposed to media focus and mass communications, a task for which many are not trained. Furthermore, science, communication, and politics have different objectives, and do not necessarily mix. Scientists have an obligation to provide unbiased information, and a code of ethics is needed to give a guidance for acceptable and unacceptable conduct. Some examples of questionable conduct in Norway include using the title 'Ph.D' to imply scientific authority when the person never had obtained such an academic degree, or writing biased and one-sided articles in Norwegian encyclopedia that do not reflect the scientific consensus. It is proposed here that a set of guide lines (for the scientists and journalists) and a code of conduct could provide recommendation for regarding how to act in media - similar to a code of conduct with respect to carrying out research - to which everyone could agree, even when disagreeing on specific scientific questions.

  12. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  13. Dreaming and Neuroesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaro, Umberto; Paoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which is limited to the art of painting, aims to support the idea that a substantial insertion of concepts and methods drawn on dream psychology and dream neuroscience can contribute to the advancements of Neuroesthetics. The historical and scientific reasons are discussed that have determined the so far poor role played by the dream phenomenon in the developments of Neuroesthetics. In the light of recent advancements in psychophysiological research, a method of analyzing artistic products is proposed that is based on the recognition of precise features proper of the dreaming experience. Four examples are given for application of this method, regarding works by Giorgione, Leonardo da Vinci, Vermeer, and Millais, respectively. PMID:26157373

  14. Using Storytelling to Communicate Science to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderazzo, J.

    2014-12-01

    "Science is the greatest of all adventure stories," says physicist Brian Greene, author of The Elegant Universe. "It's been unfolding for thousands of years as we have sought to understand ourselves and our surroundings . . . and needs to be communicated in a manner that captures this drama." Carl Sagan and Neil deGrasse Tyson, the old and new storytelling hosts of Cosmos, would agree. So would Rachel Carson, who used one of the oldest and simplest of all story forms, the fable, to coax her readers into a complicated tale of pesticides, chemistry, and ecological succession. Silent Spring may well be the most influential science book of the last fifty years. More than ever, scientists need to communicate clearly and passionately to the public, the media, and decision-makers. Not everyone can be as articulate as a Jane Goodall or an Alan Rabinowitz. But humans are storytelling animals, and recent communications research suggests that information conveyed in story form activates more parts of the brain than when it is conveyed by bullet point or other non-narrative ways. Even a shy and retiring researcher can easily learn to use, at minimum, small and subtle techniques to find common ground with an audience who will not forget the message. Additionally, much recent communications research suggests strongly that the most memorable and effective way to coomunicate with the public is by conveying shared values or common ground. Stories--common to virtually every human society over time--inherently do that. As a literary and nonfiction writer for 40 years, and a university teacher of nonfiction and science/nature wiritng for the last 30, I know this first hand as well as through core scholarship about literature and narrative theory. Among other things, my talk will explore how some of the above science communication stars have used these sometimes-buried communication strategies--and how others can, too. Not crucial, but a brief interactive excerise I could conduct would

  15. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains.

  16. [Have you eaten any DNA today? Science communication during Science and Technology Week in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possik, Patricia Abrão; Shumiski, Lívia Cantisani; Corrêa, Elisete Marcia; Maia, Roberta de Assis; Medaglia, Adriana; Mourão, Lucivana Prata de Souza; Pereira, Jairo Marques Campos; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; Rufier, Myrthes; Santos, Marcelo; Sobreira, Marise; Elblink, Marcia Triunfol

    2013-11-30

    During the first National Science and Technology Week held in 2004, science centers and museums, universities and schools engaged in activities with the idea of divulging science to the people. Demonstrations of the extraction of DNA from fruits were conducted in supermarkets in 11 Brazilian cities by two institutions, DNA Vai à Escola and Conselho de Informação e Biotecnologia. This article describes the formation of a national network of people interested in communicating information about genetics to the lay public and the implementation of a low-cost science communication activity in different parts of the country simultaneously. It also analyzes the impact caused by this initiative and the perceptions of those involved in its organization.

  17. Communicating the Future: Best Practices for Communication of Science and Technology to the Public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Gail

    2002-09-30

    To advance the state of the art in science and technology communication to the public a conference was held March 6-8, 2002 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD. This report of the conference proceedings includes a summary statement by the conference steering committee, transcripts or other text summarizing the remarks of conference speakers, and abstracts for 48 "best practice" communications programs selected by the steering committee through an open competition and a formal peer review process. Additional information about the 48 best practice programs is available on the archival conference Web site at www.nist.gov/bestpractices.

  18. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  19. Pulp science: education and communication in the paperback book revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    Paperback books on scientific topics were a hot commodity in the United States from the 1940s to 1960s providing a vehicle for science communication that transformed science education. Well-known scientists authored them, including Rachel Carson, Theodosius Dobzhansky, George Gamow, Fred Hoyle, Julian Huxley, and Margaret Mead. A short history of 'the paperback revolution' that began in the 1930s is provided before concentrating on one publishing company based in New York City, the New American Library of World Literature (NAL), which produced Signet and Mentor Books. The infrastructure that led to the production and consumption of paperback books is described and an underexplored and not-previously identified genre of educational books on scientific topics, what the author refers to as pulp science, is characterized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Science, news, and the public tackling the 'red shift' in science communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, An; Thompson, Shelley

    2019-01-01

    As the rate of scientific discoveries and developments accelerates, it becomes increasingly difficult to understand and relate these events to our everyday lives. The day-to-day activities of science now lie obscured behind an ever-thickening screen of corporate, civil and military secrecy, whilst the news media the only major space left for public engagement in science development represent it in a way that tends to drive people away from science rather than attract them to its issues and debates. This book explores this shift in science news communication. It demonstrates that journalism needs to change the way it deals with science altering its traditional mindsets and abandoning its much discredited techniques if it is to maintain or regain its role as a principal force that encourages discussion and understanding of science in the public sphere."

  1. Research and Teaching: Encouraging Science Communication in an Undergraduate Curriculum Improves Students' Perceptions and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Train, Tonya Laakko; Miyamoto, Yuko J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to effectively communicate science is a skill sought after by graduate and professional schools as well as by employers in science-related fields. Are content-heavy undergraduate science curricula able to incorporate opportunities to develop science communication skills, and is promoting these skills worth the time and effort? The…

  2. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. University hospital sleep disorder unit. Case-control study. Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Narcolepsy is a novel, easy model for studying lucid dreaming. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Glacier Research Digital Science Communication Evolution 1996-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will focus on the changes in communicating science in the last 20 years from the perspective of the same research project. Essentially the rapid innovation in online communication requires the scientist learning and utilizing a new platform of communication each year. To maintain relevant visibility and ongoing research activities requires finding synergy between the two. I will discuss how digital communication has inspired my research efforts. This talk will also examine overall visitation and media impact metrics over this period. From developing a highly visible glacier research web page in 1996, to writing more than 400 blog posts since 2008, and in 2014 utilizing a videographer and illustration artist in the field, this is the story of one scientist's digital communication-media evolution. The three main observations are that: 1) Overall visitation has not expanded as rapidly in the last decade. 2) Contact and cooperation with colleagues has expanded quite rapidly since 2008. 3) Media impact peaked in 2005, but is nearing that peak again. The key factors in visibility and media impact for a "small market" research institution/project has been providing timely and detailed content to collaborative sites, such as RealClimate, BAMS State of the Climate, Climate Denial Crock of the Week, and Skeptical Science that can then be repurposed by the media. A review of the visitor metrics to the digital glacier sites I have maintained from 1996-2014 indicate visibility of each platform has a similar growth curve, transitioning to a plateau, but overall visitation does not increase in kind with the increase in number of platforms. Media metrics is more event driven and does not follow the visitor metric pattern.

  4. Promoting open access to science through effective communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Geology is a difficult subject to communicate effectively. Many people associate geology with memorizing rock and mineral names and not with dynamic earth processes. Even more challenging for the non-geologist is the concept of deep time, and why processes that happened millions of years ago are important to us today. Additionally, many people view science itself as inaccessible and difficult. And yet, geology is a naturally accessible subject, as it is all around us. In order to communicate effectively, geologists must convince others that their work is both accessible and relevant, even though it may not directly generate economic benefits or lend insight into solutions for our modern problems like climate change. As scientists, we know the connections are there, but convincing others requires creating face-to-face, positive interactions through the use of active techniques to help bring the audience to an understanding of the process of science in addition to the subject matter itself. My overarching motive for creating and participating in communication activities with a broad audience is thus to demonstrate that science is accessible to everyone, that a scientific way of thinking can be both fun and useful, and that a little knowledge about geology can give you a new perspective on the world. Using this motivation as a guiding principle regardless of the specific audience, two techniques are important to make the communication effective. First, whenever possible, I conduct activities in the field (broadly speaking), or at least bring the field into the talk, and model the scientific process by asking for participation. This allows the audience to fully understand how geologic work is done, including the mundane and the mistakes. Second, I take my audience seriously, including all questions and observations, in order to build confidence in everyone that they are able to contribute to and understand both geology and the scientific process in general. Despite the

  5. A Function of Dream Narratives in Fairy Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Gulyás

    2007-01-01

    In Hungarian variants of some fairy tale types (especially ATU 315,707, 725) the operation of a peculiar dream narrative can be observed: the characters use an embedded dream narrative to communicate information. The agent of knowledge conveys information to a mediating person and in doing so (s)he also governs that when the mediator conveys information to the actual addressee (recipient), the mediator must explain the origin of the conveyed knowledge to the recipient by referring to a fictio...

  6. Do mechanical doctors dream of electric sheep? Using science fiction to look into the future of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, G; Gelatti, U

    2010-06-01

    At a first glance, it may seem that science fiction (SF) and public health have not much in common. To enlighten that this could be untrue, this paper starts up from their shared 'community perspective' and focuses on several implications of technological development, which can have a great impact on health and have been in some ways anticipated by SF stories. For example, SF has-more or less directly-discussed about the complex relationship between society, medicine and happiness, and it has anticipated several reflections in the field of advances in genetic technology. Beside tackling specific issues, SF has made a deep reflection about technology itself, the way it frightens and the way it could potentially change people and society. While facing these issues, SF raises questions that can be useful to public health as well, in order to rediscover its role in a world rapidly changing.

  7. Are Science Comics a Good Medium for Science Communication? The Case for Public Learning of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Lee, Ling; Yore, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Comic books possessing the features of humour, narrative, and visual representation are deemed as a potential medium for science communication; however, empirical studies exploring the effects of comics are scarce. The purposes of this study were to examine and compare the impacts of a comic book and a text booklet on conveying the concepts of…

  8. CHINA DREAM or CHINESE DREAM based on COCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Meng-qing

    2016-01-01

    There has a lot of discussion about the correct expression of CHINESE DREAM or CHINA DREAM. This paper aims to make well use of COCA, a free online corpus, to clear this question. After contrast, we finally find that the exact expression is CHINESE DREAM instead of the original CHINA DREAM. The application of corpus can also be a new pattern for us to pur-sue our study career and will also be an effective way to help us in research field.

  9. [Dream in the land of paradoxical sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pire, E; Herman, G; Cambron, L; Maquet, P; Poirrier, R

    2008-01-01

    Paradoxical sleep (PS or REM sleep) is traditionally a matter for neurophysiology, a science of the brain. Dream is associated with neuropsychology and sciences of the mind. The relationships between sleep and dream are better understood in the light of new methodologies in both domains, particularly those of basic neurosciences which elucidate the mechanisms underlying SP and functional imaging techniques. Data from these approaches are placed here in the perspective of rather old clinical observations in human cerebral lesions and in the phylogeny of vertebrates, in order to support a theory of dream. Dreams may be seen as a living marker of a cognitivo-emotional process, called here "eidictic process", involving posterior brain and limbic structures, keeping up during wakefulness, but subjected, at that time, to the leading role of a cognitivo-rational process, called here "thought process". The last one is of instrumental origin in human beings. It involves prefrontal cortices (executive tasks) and frontal/parietal cortices (attention) in the brain. Some clinical implications of the theory are illustrated.

  10. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  11. The dream in contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M F

    2001-03-01

    This article offers selective reviews of cogent sectors of research regarding the dream in contemporary psychiatry. First, the author discusses relatively recent research (1953-1999) on the neurobiology and clinical psychophysiology of dreaming sleep; second, he reviews experimental cognitive neuroscientific studies of perception, emotion, and memory and the putative interrelationships among them in generating dream imagery; and third, he interprets psychoanalytic studies (1900-1999) on related aspects of dreams and the dream process. Exploration for interrelationships among information from these three areas entails discussion of the mind/brain problem. These considerations illuminate some of the logical and interpretive dilemmas that enter into debates about Freud's theory of the dream. The author proposes a preliminary psychobiologic concept of the dream process and discusses, in light of the foregoing considerations, the importance of collaborative research for developing a realistic perspective concerning the proper place of the dream in contemporary psychiatry.

  12. Dreaming, fenfluramine, and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, A; Wilson, C W; Wilson, B P

    1977-01-08

    The effect of increasing doses of fenfluramine on dream patterns was studied in 20 patients receiving a reducing diet with or without a controlled dietary intake of vitamin C daily. The dream pattern was unchanged in six patients and dreams disappeared in another who normally dreamed often. In 13 patients dreams increased in frequency and intensity, and in five the dreams assumed frightening proportions. There was a significant straight-line relation between response and the size of the dose. When placebo tablets were given to four patients their dreams disappeared or assumed their pretreatment normal pattern. Absence of vitamin C from the diet did not significantly affect the dream pattern. That fenfluramine has dose-related cerebral effects should be remembered in patients with a history of mental illness.

  13. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  14. The use of dreams in spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranahan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions.

  15. Weaving a Webb story: Communicating Science for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s next great observatory is an impressive and complex mission with many tales to tell. Science is a collection of stories and Webb will be a storytelling machine. How are we preparing to share the scientific news to come from this amazing telescope? From news releases to multimedia content to a vast online presence, the stories of the James Webb Space Telescope will require crafting in order to impact the widest audience. We discuss the art of storytelling based on messaging, goals, mediums, and audience, and how you can apply the same principles to communicating your own research.

  16. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueni, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  17. Communicating Climate Change: Sometimes It's Not about the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an overwhelming scientific consensus that humans are driving modern day climate change, a significant portion of Americans are not convinced. This gap in understanding challenges both instructors and students who wish to effectively communicate climate change science. Individuals subconsciously resist factual information that threatens their worldview. Their misperceptions are reinforced by journalistic false balance, coordinated misinformation campaigns, and incorrect or misleading information that is easily accessible via social media. Here the author presents effective refutation strategies that avoid the most common backfire effects while also offering strategies to properly frame the discussion to audiences holding diverse worldviews.

  18. The Social Life of Dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Adriënne

    The Social Life of Dreams: Thousand Years of Negotiated Meanings in Iceland is the first anthropological work that discusses how dreams, remembered upon awakening, motivate human action and influence social relations in contemporary Europe. Through detailed anthropological analyses of the ways...... in which many Icelanders see dreams as legitimate sources of knowledge, this book argues that sleeping and dreaming -- activities which are often considered to be psychological and “non-social”-- should be included in the analysis of social life....

  19. Handbook of public communication of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Trench, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive yet accessible, this key handbook provides an up-to-date overview of the fast growing and increasingly important area of 'public communication of science and technology', from both research and practical perspectives. As well as introducing the main issues, arenas and professional perspectives involved, it presents the findings of earlier research and the conclusions previously drawn. Unlike most existing books on this topic, this unique volume couples an overview of the practical problems faced by practitioners with a thorough review of relevant literature and research. The practical handbook format ensures it is a student-friendly resource, but its breadth of scope and impressive contributors means that it is also ideal for practitioners and professionals working in the field. Combining the contributions of different disciplines (media and journalism studies, sociology and history of science), the perspectives of different geographical and cultural contexts, and by selecting key contributions ...

  20. Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnakat, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste

  1. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  2. The function of dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, H

    2001-01-01

    Theories on the function of REM sleep and dreaming, with which it has a contingent relationship, remain diverse. They include facilitation of memory storage, reverse learning, anatomical and functional brain maturation, catecholamine restoration, psychoanalytical (wish fulfilment or otherwise). It is possible that one function is grafted onto another as the personality develops. Given a close relationship between REM sleep and dreaming, and given that the neonate spends 18 hours asleep per day, of which 12 hours are spent in REM sleep, it is logical to look in the neonate for a primary function of dreaming. The two constants in the dreaming process are: 1) the dreamer is always present as first person observer; 2) there is always a topographical setting. Based on the foregoing, it is proposed that a major function of REM sleep is the development and maintenance of a sense of personal identity, through creating a 'being there' environment at regular intervals during prolonged periods of absence from a waking state in topographical surrounds. The infant cannot forget who he/she is. Thus, he/she develops a clear sense of his/her own identity, or the 'I'ness of me', and a sense of his/her separateness from the topographical world. At the same time, by largely forgetting the dreams, he/she is not burdened by the need for an elaborate method of storage of the vicarious and bizarre experiences.

  3. Engaging in Effective Science Communication: A Response to Blancke et al. on Deproblematizing GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Asheley R; Hallman, William K

    2017-05-01

    As science communication scholars, we encourage interdisciplinary efforts such as those by Blancke, Grunewald, and De Jaeger to engage with the public on GMOs and genetic engineering broadly. We extend the advice given by these scholars with tips based on what we know from the science of science communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Living the Behavioral Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Most of us have had a workday where we left a bit frustrated about one thing or another and thought "if I was in charge, I know I could do it better." We dream of a better tomorrow where we tell our employer goodbye and become our own boss. Is that not the American Dream? We are told from early childhood that anything is possible and we can be anything we want to be if we just work hard. Somewhere between those naive childhood years and today we probably have come to realize these grand promises are more myths than truths and we become content with an approximation of this dream. To some individuals, however, approximations are not close enough.

  5. Dreaming in the Classroom: Practices, Methods, and Resources in Dream Education. SUNY Series in Dream Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Philip; Bulkeley, Kelly; Welt, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Dreaming in the Classroom" provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about…

  6. Using communication technology to support professional development in teaching science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Cheryl White

    The impact of collaboration via communication technology on follow-up to on-site professional development was the central focus of this hypothesis-generating study. The study used a combination of quantitative methodology and qualitative methodology. A convenient sample of 18 teachers was drawn from 208 teachers in an existing professional development program in science in a southeastern state. The statewide professional development program focused on energy education with a strong emphasis on using technology to enhance learning. Data sources included E-mail messages, lesson plans, photographs, workshop evaluations, surveys, and the report of an external reviewer. The study focused on two on-site workshops, February and June 2000 that were designed to model constructivist pedagogy and instruct teachers in effective utilization of computer-based laboratories in science classrooms. Follow-up to the on-site workshops was facilitated with several communication technologies (Internet, E-mail, telephone, and mail). The research found E-mail was the preferred mode for follow-up to on-site workshops because of the convenience of the medium. Barriers to effective distance professional development were time constraints, equipment failure, and lack of consistent Internet access to teachers in rural and under-served areas. Teacher characteristics of the sample, teacher efficacy, technical skill, experience, and constructivist pedagogy did not appear to impact the use of communication technologies as a means of follow-up to on-site professional development workshops. However, teacher efficacy might have negatively impacted effective implementation of calculator-based laboratory technology in the classroom. The study found E-mail was the most convenient and efficient way to facilitate follow-up to on-site professional development. Teacher characteristics (efficacy, technical skill, experience, and constructivist pedagogy) did not appear to impact the use of E-mail to facilitate

  7. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351082-07$15.00/0.

  8. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  9. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  10. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    OpenAIRE

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical ske...

  11. COMUNICA Project: a commitment for strategic communication on Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Picas, Jordi; Diaz, Jordi; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis

    2016-04-01

    The Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera (ICTJA-CSIC) has just celebrated its 50-year anniversary last year. It is a reference research center on Earth Sciences both national and international level. The Institute includes 4 research groups which focus their scientific activity on the structure and dynamics of the Earth, the environmental changes in the geological record, geophysical and geochemical modelling and crystallography and optical properties. Only when large geological disasters happens, mainly earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, some interaction between ICTJA-CSIC researchers and traditional media occurs, which is limited by the fact that the aim of the Institute is the scientific research and it has no responsibilities in the area of civil protection. This relationship reduces the knowledge of our activity to the general public. To overcome this situation, the ICTJA-CSIC has decided to take an active role in the social dissemination of geological and geophysical knowledge. Thus, the ICTJA-CSIC has launched the COMUNICA Project. The project is aimed to increase the social visibility of the ICTJA-CSIC and to promote the outreach of researchers. Therefore ICTJA-CSIC has created the Communication Unit, which is in charge of designing communication strategies to give to different audiences (media, students of secondary and higher education, general public) an overview of the scientific and institutional activity of the ICTJA-CSIC. A global communication plan is being designed to define the strategic actions, both internal and external. An important role has been reserved for digital channels, to promote ICTJA-CSIC activity on social networks such as Twitter, Facebook or Youtube, besides making a major effort in the renovation and maintenance of the corporate website. A strong effort will be done to collect and spread through press releases the major scientific milestones achieved by the researchers, to promote the interest of mass media. Communication

  12. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  13. Television: Stuff of Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Jon

    The fluctuating effects of media can be observed by a data collection technique which reveals patterns of audience response similar to those which C.G. Jung observed in his analyses on word association and dreaming. The technique is known as Continuous Response Movement (CRM). A typical CRM training session automates the audience feedback process…

  14. Science communication from women in nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    In India, nuclear fuel is required for operating both nuclear research reactors and power reactors. Indian women are extensively involved in nuclear fuel research and production activities. However, the nature and extent of their involvement differs based only on the job required and not on any gender basis. Excluding a few specific safety and security issues, therefore, science and technology communication really does not change according to the gender of the scientist or technologist. Presently in India, nuclear grade uranium metal is required for fuelling research reactors and nuclear grade uranium oxide is being utilized as fuel for power reactors. Hydrometallurgical operations using specific solvents are being used for achieving 'nuclear grade' in both sectors. For production of uranium oxide, purified uranium compounds need to get calcined and reduced for obtaining uranium dioxide of various qualities

  15. Doomsday 2012 and Cosmophobia: Challenges and Opportunities for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.; Larsen, K.; Mendez, B.; Morrison, D.; Van Stone, M.

    2013-04-01

    Hollywood movies, cable-channel documentaries, and countless books and websites have convinced a significant fraction of the U.S. public that some kind of catastrophe awaits us around the winter solstice of 2012, and that the cause of this catastrophe will be an astronomical or geophysical event. “Doomsday 2012” represents both a challenge and opportunity for science communication and education. This plenary panel discussed the basic ideas of the 2012 scenario and considered what is being done and what could be done to help the public understand what is real and what isn't. These lessons can be applied to future pseudoscientific predictions about the end of the world.

  16. Conference proceedings on science communication addressing women's issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, A.P.

    2013-03-01

    One of the most dynamic campaigns of National Centre for Science Communicators (NCSC) is its intensive interaction with teaching community to inculcate excitement regarding science education and scientific method of knowledge transfer. The conference focused on the theme engaging women in science and science communication, challenges -education, gender differences etc., myths and misconceptions: women related issues, and health awareness in women. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Science communication on YouTube: Factors that affect channel and video popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Dustin J; Grant, Will J

    2016-08-01

    YouTube has become one of the largest websites on the Internet. Among its many genres, both professional and amateur science communicators compete for audience attention. This article provides the first overview of science communication on YouTube and examines content factors that affect the popularity of science communication videos on the site. A content analysis of 390 videos from 39 YouTube channels was conducted. Although professionally generated content is superior in number, user-generated content was significantly more popular. Furthermore, videos that had consistent science communicators were more popular than those without a regular communicator. This study represents an important first step to understand content factors, which increases the channel and video popularity of science communication on YouTube. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  19. Bridging the Gap: Embedding Communication Courses in the Science Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandciu, Eric; Stewart, Jaclyn J.; Stoodley, Robin; Birol, Gülnur; Han, Andrea; Fox, Joanne A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a model for embedding science communication into the science curriculum without displacing science content. They describe the rationale, development, design, and implementation of two courses taught by science faculty addressing these criteria. They also outline the evaluation plan for these courses, which emphasize broad…

  20. Investigating science communication in the information age implications for public engagement and popular media

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelegg, Elizabeth; Scanlon, Eileen; Smidt, Sam; Thomas, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    How are recent policy changes affecting how scientists engage with the public? How are new technologies influencing how scientists disseminate their work and knowledge? How are new media platforms changing the way the public interact with scientific information? Investigating Science Communication in the Information Age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading science communication scholars. It addresses current theoretical, practical and policy developments in science communication, including recent calls for greater openness and transparency; and engagement and dialogue on the part of professional scientists with members of the public. It provides a timely and wide-ranging review of contemporary issues in science communication, focusing on two broad themes. The first theme critically reviews the recent dialogic turn and ascendant branding of 'public engagement with science' It addresses contemporary theoretical and conceptual issues facing science communication researchers, and draws on a r...

  1. Attitudes and perceptions of Conacyt researchers towards public communication of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Merino, Noemí; Tarhuni Navarro, Daniela H

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to explore the perceptions and attitudes toward Public Communication of Science and Technology of the researchers of the National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt), in order to provide a diagnosis about the ways the Mexican scientists are involved in public communication and to contribute to the visibility of researchers' needs in being able to popularize science. The results show significant differences among the researchers' opinions with respect to their perceptions about science communication, the ways they participate in PUS activities and their identified needs. In general, the researchers of Conacyt perceived public communication as very important. However, lack of time and of academic recognition stood out as determining factors in their low contribution to science popularization. We conclude that, to achieve a culture of Public Engagement in public communication of science and technology among R&D institutions, the Mexican Administration should address the above-mentioned unfavorable professional circumstances.

  2. Effective Use of Social Media in Communicating Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.

  3. Students Explaining Science—Assessment of Science Communication Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2013-12-01

    Science communication competence (SCC) is an important educational goal in the school science curricula of several countries. However, there is a lack of research about the structure and the assessment of SCC. This paper specifies the theoretical framework of SCC by a competence model. We developed a qualitative assessment method for SCC that is based on an expert-novice dialog: an older student (explainer, expert) explains a physics phenomenon to a younger peer (addressee, novice) in a controlled test setting. The explanations are video-recorded and analysed by qualitative content analysis. The method was applied in a study with 46 secondary school students as explainers. Our aims were (a) to evaluate whether our model covers the relevant features of SCC, (b) to validate the assessment method and (c) to find characteristics of addressee-adequate explanations. A performance index was calculated to quantify the explainers' levels of competence on an ordinal scale. We present qualitative and quantitative evidence that the index is adequate for assessment purposes. It correlates with results from a written SCC test and a perspective taking test (convergent validity). Addressee-adequate explanations can be characterized by use of graphical representations and deliberate switches between scientific and everyday language.

  4. Glacial hazards: communicating the science and managing the risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    these scientific applications. Communicating the science to students and trying to excite them to the fun of applying these scientific disciplines in the field are important as part of science outreach. It is also important to communicate the science to those in government (local and national) within those countries affected by such hazards and to international funding agencies. There are two issues here: (a) using the media to a positive effect without alarming vulnerable and sensitive communities, and (b) providing the appropriate authorities with the necessary technical information about the hazards, their potential effects if catastrophe strikes, and how to manage the risk in an effective and timely fashion. For (a) where this is not handled correctly, the media are still ever too keen to headline potential catastrophes and unwittingly cause alarm among local communities. The so-called Palcacocha fiasco in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in April 2003 and the Imja Tsho media flurry of May 2008 in Nepal are but two recent examples. For (b) there needs to be a programme of interaction through workshops between the scientific community and key stakeholders in affected countries. Where these have been undertaken, such as in Bhutan, Nepal and Peru, the outcomes have been extremely productive and beneficial. However, much remains to be done in ensuring that authorities and funding agencies, for example, are aware of existing international guidelines on the assessment of glacial hazards that use objective methodologies, such as those funded by the British Government and published in 2003 (see www.geologyuk.com/mountain_ hazards_group/dfid.htm from which the guidelines can be downloaded in PDF format). Similar workshops, for example, are also being developed separately in Austria by the Glacier and Permafrost Hazard (GAPHAZ) Working Group and in Bhutan by the UNDP.

  5. A mars communication constellation for human exploration and network science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Francesco; Simonetto, Andrea; Martini, Roberto; Lavagna, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of exploiting a small spacecrafts constellation around Mars to ensure a complete and continuous coverage of the planet, for the purpose of supporting future human and robotic operations and taking advantage of optical transmission techniques. The study foresees such a communications mission to be implemented at least after 2020 and a high data-rate requirement is imposed for the return of huge scientific data from massive robotic exploration or to allow video transmissions from a possible human outpost. In addition, the set-up of a communication constellation around Mars would give the opportunity of exploiting this multi-platform infrastructure to perform network science, that would largely increase our knowledge of the planet. The paper covers all technical aspects of a feasibility study performed for the primary communications mission. Results are presented for the system trade-offs, including communication architecture, constellation configuration and transfer strategy, and the mission analysis optimization, performed through the application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm to two models of increasing difficulty for the low-thrust trajectory definition. The resulting communication architecture is quite complex and includes six 530 kg spacecrafts on two different orbital planes, plus one redundant unit per plane, that ensure complete coverage of the planet’s surface; communications between the satellites and Earth are achieved through optical links, that allow lower mass and power consumption with respect to traditional radio-frequency technology, while inter-satellite links and spacecrafts-to-Mars connections are ensured by radio transmissions. The resulting data-rates for Earth-Mars uplink and downlink, satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-surface are respectively 13.7 Mbps, 10.2 Mbps, 4.8 Mbps and 4.3 Mbps, in worst-case. Two electric propulsion modules are foreseen, to be placed on a C3˜0 escape orbit with two

  6. Spotlight on dream recall: the ages of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiaruga, Anastasia; Scarpelli, Serena; Bartolacci, Chiara; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most of all, the lack of longitudinal psychophysiological studies seems to be the main issue. As a main message, we suggest that future longitudinal studies should collect dream reports

  7. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  8. Mapping science communication scholarship in China: Content analysis on breadth, depth and agenda of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linjia; Huang, Biaowen; Wu, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the cause and relation between government, scholars, disciplines, and societal aspects, presenting data from a content analysis of published research with the key word "science communication" (Symbol: see text) in the title or in the key words, including academic papers published in journals and dissertations from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Of these, 572 articles were coded using categories that identified science topics, theory, authorship, and methods used in each study to examine the breadth and depth that Science Communication has achieved since its inception in China. This study explored the dominance of History and Philosophy of Science scholars rather than Communication scholars. We also explored how science communication research began from theories and concepts instead of science report analysis and the difficulties of the shift from public understanding of science to public engagement in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Dreams and fantasies in psychodynamic group psychotherapy of psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate

    2013-09-01

    Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness.

  10. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Elizabeth Malinowski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep, as reflected by dreams. We propose that emotions act as marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorising around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here we offer a synthesised view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains.

  11. Communicating Science; a collaborative approach through Art, Dance, Music and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Sarah-Jane; Mortimer, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    A collaborative approach to communicating our amazing science. RAL Space at the Rutherford Appleton Lab, has initiated a unique collaboration with a team of award-winning performing artists with the aim of making space science research engaging and accessible to a wide audience. The collaboration has two distinct but connected strands one of which is the development of a contemporary dance work inspired by solar science and including images and data from the Space Physics Division of STFC RAL Space. The work has been commissioned by Sadler's Wells, one of the world's leading dance venues. It will be created by choreographer Alexander Whitley, video artist Tal Rosner and composers Ella Spira and Joel Cadbury and toured throughout the UK and internationally by the Alexander Whitley Dance Company (AWDC). The work will come about through collaboration with the work of the scientists of RAL Space and in particular the SOHO, CDS and STEREO missions, taking a particular interest in space weather. Choreographer Alexander Whitley and composers Ella Spira and Joel Cadbury will take their inspiration from the images and data that are produced by the solar science within RAL Space. Video artist Tal Rosner will use these spectacular images to create an atmospheric backdrop to accompany the work, bringing the beauty and wonder of space exploration to new audiences. Funding for the creation and touring of the work will be sought from Arts Council England, the British Council, partner organisations, trusts and foundations and private donors.The world premiere of the work will take place at Sadler's Wells in June 2017. It will then tour throughout the UK and internationally to theatres, science conferences and outreach venues with the aim of bringing the work of STFC RAL Space and the science behind solar science and space weather to new audiences. An education programme will combine concepts of choreography and space science aimed at young people in year 5 Key Stage 2 and be

  12. Persuading Girls to Take Elective Physical Science Courses in High School: Who Are the Credible Communicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies communicators whom eighth-grade girls perceive as credible regarding reasons for taking elective physical science courses in high school. Finds that father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student are ranked highly. Attributes associated with the communicators were classified as prestige, trustworthiness, similarity,…

  13. CURRENT DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH IN INFORMATION- COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE FIELD OF PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Spirin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the publication modern research areas of information-communication technologies in pedagogical science are identified. The basic requirements of the new passport for the specialty 13.00.10 - Information and Communication Technologies in Education are described. On this specialty the defence of the degree of doctor and candidate of pedagogical science may be carried out.

  14. In Science Communication, why does the Idea of a Public Deficit Always Return?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, science communication has been widely perceived, irrespective of context, as a didactic enterprise. That understanding does not accommodate a political category of science communication, featuring citizens on an equal footing – some of them scientists – who share responsibility...

  15. Teaching Scientists to Communicate: Evidence-Based Assessment for Undergraduate Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Communication skills are one of five nationally recognised learning outcomes for an Australian Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree. Previous evidence indicates that communication skills taught in Australian undergraduate science degrees are not developed sufficiently to meet the requirements of the modern-day workplace--a problem faced in the UK and…

  16. Identifying the Essential Elements of Effective Science Communication: What Do the Experts Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Belinda; France, Bev; Gilbert, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Experts in science communication were asked to identify the essential elements of a science communication course for post-graduate students. A Delphi methodology provided a framework for a research design that accessed their opinions and allowed them to contribute to, reflect on and identify 10 essential elements. There was a high level of…

  17. Measuring University Students' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Science Communication in Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shaohui; Liu, Xiufeng; Gardella, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Service learning typically involves university students in teaching and learning activities for middle and high school students, however, measurement of university students' self-efficacy in science communication is still lacking. In this study, an instrument to measure university students' perceived self-efficacy in communicating science to…

  18. Student Perceptions of Communication Skills in Undergraduate Science at an Australian Research-Intensive University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy D.; Matthews, Kelly E.

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions globally are acknowledging the need to teach communication skills. This study used the Science Student Skills Inventory to gain insight into how science students perceive the development of communication skills across the degree programme. Responses were obtained from 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a Bachelor…

  19. Using design science and artificial intelligence to improve health communication: ChronologyMD case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L; Morrison, Kathleen; Athanasoulis, Marcos; Kirienko, Nikolai; Van Brunt, Deryk

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes how design science theory and methods and use of artificial intelligence (AI) components can improve the effectiveness of health communication. We identified key weaknesses of traditional health communication and features of more successful eHealth/AI communication. We examined characteristics of the design science paradigm and the value of its user-centered methods to develop eHealth/AI communication. We analyzed a case example of the participatory design of AI components in the ChronologyMD project intended to improve management of Crohn's disease. eHealth/AI communication created with user-centered design shows improved relevance to users' needs for personalized, timely and interactive communication and is associated with better health outcomes than traditional approaches. Participatory design was essential to develop ChronologyMD system architecture and software applications that benefitted patients. AI components can greatly improve eHealth/AI communication, if designed with the intended audiences. Design science theory and its iterative, participatory methods linked with traditional health communication theory and methods can create effective AI health communication. eHealth/AI communication researchers, developers and practitioners can benefit from a holistic approach that draws from theory and methods in both design sciences and also human and social sciences to create successful AI health communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A consideration of ketamine dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejja, P; Galloon, S

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to see whether covering of the eyes during and after ketamine anaesthesia would reduce the incidence of dreams. One hundred and fifty patients, randomly divided into three groups, underwent therapeutic abortion with ketamine as the sole anaesthesia. One hundred patients had their eyes completely covered, 50 in the operating room only and 50 in the operating room and in the recovery room. The third 50 were controls, with their eyes uncovered. All patients were questioned post-operatively about dreams, nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness and experiences, and also how frequently they dreamed at home. Although covering the eyes in the recovery room only reduced the incidence of dreams marginally, it became obvious that the patients who dreamed after ketamine (in all 3 groups) were those who normally dreamed at home. There were 82 patients who were recorded as not being home-dreamers, and only two of these dreamed after ketamine. In contrast, of the 68 home-dreamers, 50 dreamed after ketamine, and 17 of these had unpleasant dreams. In the home-dreamers, covering the eyes reduced the incidence of dreams from 86 per cent in Group 1 to 72 per cent in Group 2 and 64 per cent in Group 3. It is suggested that goggles may be advantageous when dealing with home-dreamers, and a question about the patient's tendency to dream should be included in the preoperative questioning. Alterations in premedication and the use of a quiet dark room during recovery may even further reduce unpleasant dreams in this group.

  1. The lure of rationality: Why does the deficit model persist in science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simis, Molly J; Madden, Haley; Cacciatore, Michael A; Yeo, Sara K

    2016-05-01

    Science communication has been historically predicated on the knowledge deficit model. Yet, empirical research has shown that public communication of science is more complex than what the knowledge deficit model suggests. In this essay, we pose four lines of reasoning and present empirical data for why we believe the deficit model still persists in public communication of science. First, we posit that scientists' training results in the belief that public audiences can and do process information in a rational manner. Second, the persistence of this model may be a product of current institutional structures. Many graduate education programs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields generally lack formal training in public communication. We offer empirical evidence that demonstrates that scientists who have less positive attitudes toward the social sciences are more likely to adhere to the knowledge deficit model of science communication. Third, we present empirical evidence of how scientists conceptualize "the public" and link this to attitudes toward the deficit model. We find that perceiving a knowledge deficit in the public is closely tied to scientists' perceptions of the individuals who comprise the public. Finally, we argue that the knowledge deficit model is perpetuated because it can easily influence public policy for science issues. We propose some ways to uproot the deficit model and move toward more effective science communication efforts, which include training scientists in communication methods grounded in social science research and using approaches that engage community members around scientific issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Strategic Communication and its Utility in Ecosystem Service Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one s...

  3. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How to be more attractive… when communicating science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocko, I.

    2015-12-01

    Let's face it; we live in a culture that is captivated by attractive things. Beautiful celebrities, sleek smartphones, fancy cars, high fashion, stunning architecture, and more. Research even shows that we pay more attention to people and objects we find attractive. This talk is about taking advantage of this reality by applying it to science communication; luring in an audience and keeping their attention is essential to effective knowledge transfer. When the material is presented in an attractive and engaging format, the audience, lay or even expert, is more interested and thus educated and informed.Visuals, in particular, are powerful communication tools, as they: transmit messages faster; improve comprehension; trigger emotions; increase a learner's attention; stick in long-term memory; motivate learners; and promote widespread sharing of content. Experts suggest that more than half of the U.S. public prefers to learn visually; 90% of information transmitted to the brain is visual; people are much more inclined to spend the time learning something if it is presented in a visual format; and visuals increase retention scores from 10% to 90% after three days of learning the material. One study even suggested that individuals respond markedly better to infographic messages than text-based messages regardless of their learning style or visual literacy. In 2012, Google Search scored the keyword "infographic" with the highest possible trend score of 100.Attractive visuals are an excellent and beneficial complement to presentations, blog posts, news articles, scientific articles, reports, and memos. While various challenges often inhibit scientists from incorporating visuals (time commitment, skillset, software, etc.)—thus leading to missed opportunities—there are many simple strategies that can be used to circumvent common obstacles.

  5. Dreams and Psychedelics: Neurophenomenological Comparison and Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,Ndimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. The aim of this review is to introduce readers to the similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and night dreams, and to draw conclusions related to therapeutic applications of psychedelics in psychiatry. Research literature related to psychedelics and dreaming is reviewed, and these two states of consciousness are systematically compared. Relevant conclusions with regard to psychedelicassisted therapy will be provided. Common features between psychedelic states and night dreams include perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body. Differences between these two states are related to differential perceptual input from the environment, clarity of consciousness and meta-cognitive abilities. Therefore, psychedelic states are closest to lucid dreaming which is characterized by a mixed state of dreaming and waking consciousness. The broad overlap between dreaming and psychedelic states supports the notion that psychedelics acutely induce dreamlike subjective experiences which may have long-term beneficial effects on psychosocial functioning and well-being. Future clinical studies should examine how therapeutic outcome is related to the acute dreamlike effects of psychedelics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Communication of Science Plans in the Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Albrecht; Grieger, Björn; Völk, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to rendez-vous with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in mid-2014. The trajectories and their corresponding operations are both flexible and particularly complex. To make informed decisions among the many free parameters, novel ways to communicate operations to the community have been explored. To support science planning by communicating operational ideas and disseminating operational scenarios, the science ground segment makes use of Web-based visualisation technologies. To keep the threshold to analysing operations proposals as low as possible, various implementation techniques have been investigated. An important goal was to use the Web to make the content as accessible as possible. By adopting the recent standard WebGL and generating static pages of time-dependent three-dimensional views of the spacecraft as well as the corresponding field-of-views of instruments, directly from the operational and for-study files, users are given the opportunity to explore interactively in their Web browsers what is being proposed in addition to using the traditional file products and analysing them in detail. The scenes and animations can be viewed in any modern Web browser and be combined with other analyses. This is to facilitate verification and cross-validation of complex products, often done by comparing different independent analyses and studies. By providing different timesteps in animations, it is possible to focus on long-term planning or short-term planning without distracting the user from the essentials. This is particularly important since the information that can be displayed in a Web browser is somewhat related to data volume that can be transferred across the wire. In Web browsers, it is more challenging to do numerical calculations on demand. Since requests for additional data have to be passed through a Web server, they are more complex and also require a more complex infrastructure. The volume of data that

  7. Communication, The Essence of Science Facilitating Information Exchange Among Librarians, Scientists, Engineers and Students

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, W D

    1979-01-01

    Communication: The Essence of Science provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of scientific communication. This book focuses on those information-exchange activities that take place mainly among scientists actively involved on the research front. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the psychologists' description of the communication structure of science. This text then examines the relationship among spanning, connecting, and integrating the various streams of activities involved in the production of information. Other chapters consider some of

  8. On the Ocean, Communicating Science Through Radio Broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, M.; Campbell, L.

    2016-02-01

    The outcomes of oceanic research are of critical importance to the general public. Communicating these results in a relatable and efficient manner however, is no simple task. To further the cause of scientific outreach done for the benefit of society, a weekly radio show was created at Texas A&M University, taking cutting edge research and translating it into applicable, interesting radio segments. The show, named "On the Ocean", was created by the Department of Oceanography to inform and entertain listeners of the general public on marine issues affecting their lives. On the Ocean is an effort to present high-level research without sacrificing the complexity of the science conducted. On the Ocean is a uniquely designed module with a systematic approach in teaching a new oceanographic concept each month. On the Ocean has a format of monthly topics with a two minute show each week. The first monthly installment is general, introducing the topic and its relevancy. The second and third shows are cause or effect, or possibly something very interesting the public would not already know. The fourth installment highlights how researchers study the topic, with the contributing professor's specific research methods emphasized. All shows are co-created with, and inspected for validity, by Texas A&M University professors, and edited for radio adaption by graduate students. In addition to airing on public broadcast radio to the College Station/Bryan TX area, the show also includes a globally accessible interactive website with podcasts, additional figures, and links to better elaborate on the material presented, as well as credit the contributing professors. The website also allows these professors the opportunity to present their research visually and link to their current work. Overall, On the Ocean is a new tool to deliver applicable science.

  9. 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Table of Content Preface 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication “Space Science for Sustainability” The present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents contributions from participants of the 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace2017) held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 3-5, 2017. The conference was organized by Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) with a theme on “Space Science for Sustainability”. IconSpace2017 is the fifth series of conferences devoted to bringing researchers from around the world together to present and discuss their recent research results related to space science and communication, and also to provide an international platform for future research collaborations. This biennial international conference is an open forum where members in the field and others can meet in one place to discuss their current research findings. The technical program of this conference includes four keynote speakers, invited speakers, and the presentation of papers and poster. The track of the session includes Astrophysics and Astronomy, Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Sciences, Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Satellite and Communication Technology, and Interdisciplinary Space Science. Apart from the main conference, there will be a special talk on “Space Exploration & Updates” on 5 May 2017. More than 100 scientists and engineers from various academic, government, and industrial institutions in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas attended the conference. The papers for this conference were selected after a rigorous review process. The papers were all evaluated by international and local reviewers and at least two reviewers were required to evaluate each paper. We should like to offer our thanks for the professionalism of the organizing committee, authors, reviewers, and volunteers deserve much

  10. 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Table of Content Preface 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication “Space Science for Sustainability” The present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents contributions from participants of the 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace2017) held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 3-5, 2017. The conference was organized by Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) with a theme on “Space Science for Sustainability”. IconSpace2017 is the fifth series of conferences devoted to bringing researchers from around the world together to present and discuss their recent research results related to space science and communication, and also to provide an international platform for future research collaborations. This biennial international conference is an open forum where members in the field and others can meet in one place to discuss their current research findings. The technical program of this conference includes four keynote speakers, invited speakers, and the presentation of papers and poster. The track of the session includes Astrophysics and Astronomy, Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Sciences, Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Satellite and Communication Technology, and Interdisciplinary Space Science. Apart from the main conference, there will be a special talk on “Space Exploration and Updates” on 5 May 2017. More than 100 scientists and engineers from various academic, government, and industrial institutions in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas attended the conference. The papers for this conference were selected after a rigorous review process. The papers were all evaluated by international and local reviewers and at least two reviewers were required to evaluate each paper. We should like to offer our thanks for the professionalism of the organizing committee, authors, reviewers, and volunteers deserve much

  11. The public communication of science in public health graduate programs in Brazil: From the coordinators' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C. A.; Gallo, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction - The elaboration process of public policies for science and technology in knowledge societies should include not only experts, but all society members. There are studies on lay people's perception of science and technology. However, what is the scientists' perspective on public communication of science? Objectives - To describe and characterize the concepts that coordinators of Brazilian public health graduate programs have about public communication of science. Methods - This is an analytical and descriptive report of an exploratory research (doctoral study). The answers of fifty-one coordinators to two questionnaires were submitted for content analysis. The categories were transformed into variables that allowed the data processing by the Hiérarchique Classificatoire et Cohésitive (CHIC®) software. Results - Similarity analysis strongly suggested (0,99) that coordinators understand public communication as a communication directed to academic peers and students, also as a form of participation in scientific events and communication by scientific papers. Likewise, the implication analysis suggested a strong implication (0,98) between scientific communication understood as public communication. Conclusion - The notion of public communication of science as a social right and as a commitment and responsibility of researchers and research centers is not explicitly present in the narrative of the coordinators, although in general the coordinators conceive it as a relevant activity. This study thus contributes to a reflection on the role of scientists, researchers and research centers in public communication of science and technology.

  12. The Process of Science Communications at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horack, John M.; Treise, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    The communication of new scientific knowledge and understanding is an integral component of science research, essential for its continued survival. Like any learning-based activity, science cannot continue without communication between and among peers so that skeptical inquiry and learning can take place. This communication provides necessary organic support to maintain the development of new knowledge and technology. However, communication beyond the peer-community is becoming equally critical for science to survive as an enterprise into the 21st century. Therefore, scientists not only have a 'noble responsibility' to advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding to audiences within and beyond the peer-community, but their fulfillment of this responsibility is necessary to maintain the survival of the science enterprise. Despite the critical importance of communication to the viability of science, the skills required to perform effective science communications historically have not been taught as a part of the training of scientist, and the culture of science is often averse to significant communication beyond the peer community. Thus scientists can find themselves ill equipped and uncomfortable with the requirements of their job in the new millennium.

  13. Science communication: a career where PhDs can make a difference

    OpenAIRE

    Irion, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Among careers for biologists with PhDs, science communication is one of the most diverse and rewarding pathways. Myriad options exist, from traditional journalism to new media, from writing for specialists to working in public outreach. Textbooks, mass-market books, and freelance writing that combines many of these pursuits are all viable choices. Communicating about science allows researchers to step away from the minutiae of a subdiscipline and to once again explore the breadth of science m...

  14. Crafting interactivity for stakeholder engagement: transforming assumptions about communication in science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakhus, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The International Radiation Protection Association's guiding principles for stakeholder engagement focus on fostering, facilitating, and enabling interaction among stakeholders that is inclusive and fosters competent decision making. Implicit in these standards is a call to cultivate knowledge and competence in designing communication for stakeholder engagement among radiation protection professionals. Communication as design is an approach to risk communication in science and policy that differs from, yet complements, the more well-known communication practices of informing and persuading. Design focuses on the recurring practical problem faced by professionals in making communication possible among stakeholders where it has otherwise been difficult, impossible, or even unimagined. The knowledge and competence associated with design involves principles for crafting interactivity across a variety of mediated and non-mediated encounters among stakeholders. Risk communication can be improved by cultivating expertise in scalable communication design that embraces the demands of involvement without abandoning the need for competence in science and policy communication.

  15. From the dreams of a generation to the theory of dreams: Freud's Roman dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghnagi, David

    2011-06-01

    In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud's interpretation of oedipal desires does not occur at the expense of historical and personal desires, which are always there as a backdrop. In the relentless examination of his own dreams that Freud makes in order to show the mechanisms inherent in all oneiric deformation, we are also led to another, specifically historical, aspect of the issue of Jewish emancipation, which he experiences at first hand. By analysing his own dreams, Freud not only shows us the mechanisms governing dream formation, but also develops a pointed critique of his contemporary society and its prejudices. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Communicating uncertainties in earth sciences in view of user needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; Heuvelink, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties are inevitable in all results obtained in the earth sciences, regardless whether these are based on field observations, experimental research or predictive modelling. When informing decision and policy makers or stakeholders, it is important that these uncertainties are also communicated. In communicating results, it important to apply a "Progressive Disclosure of Information (PDI)" from non-technical information through more specialised information, according to the user needs. Generalized information is generally directed towards non-scientific audiences and intended for policy advice. Decision makers have to be aware of the implications of the uncertainty associated with results, so that they can account for it in their decisions. Detailed information on the uncertainties is generally intended for scientific audiences to give insight in underlying approaches and results. When communicating uncertainties, it is important to distinguish between scientific results that allow presentation in terms of probabilistic measures of uncertainty and more intrinsic uncertainties and errors that cannot be expressed in mathematical terms. Examples of earth science research that allow probabilistic measures of uncertainty, involving sophisticated statistical methods, are uncertainties in spatial and/or temporal variations in results of: • Observations, such as soil properties measured at sampling locations. In this case, the interpolation uncertainty, caused by a lack of data collected in space, can be quantified by e.g. kriging standard deviation maps or animations of conditional simulations. • Experimental measurements, comparing impacts of treatments at different sites and/or under different conditions. In this case, an indication of the average and range in measured responses to treatments can be obtained from a meta-analysis, summarizing experimental findings between replicates and across studies, sites, ecosystems, etc. • Model predictions due to

  17. Climate adaptation policy, science and practice - Lessons for communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    In climate change adaptation research, policy, and practice, institutional culture produces distinct conceptualizations of adaptation, which in turn affect how adaptation work is undertaken. This study examines institutional culture as the four domains of norms, values, knowledge, and beliefs that are held by adaptation scientists, policy- and decision-makers, and practitioners in Western Canada. Based on 31 semi-structured interviews, this article traces the ways in which these four domains interact, intersect, converge, and diverge among scientists, policy- and decision-makers, and practitioners. By exploring the knowledge, backgrounds, goals, approaches, assumptions, and behaviours of people working in adaptation, these interviews map the ways in which institutional culture shapes adaptation work being carried out by local, provincial, and federal governments, nongovernmental organizations, and an international community of scientists (including Canadian scientists). Findings suggest that institutional culture both limits and enables adaptation actions for these actors in important ways, significantly influencing how climate change adaptation is being planned for, and carried out on the ground. As a result, this paper asserts that there is an urgent need to better understand the role that institutional culture plays in order to advance climate change adaptation, both now and in the future. Important lessons for communicating about climate science, climate impacts and adaptation will be presented.

  18. Toward High-Performance Communications Interfaces for Science Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Sharon L.; Cohen, Adrienne O.

    2010-12-01

    From a theoretical viewpoint, educational interfaces that facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students' effort associated with constructing new schemas. In addition, interfaces that minimize working memory demands due to the interface per se, for example by mimicking existing non-digital work practice, can preserve students' attentional focus on their learning task. In this research, we asked the question: What type of interface input capabilities provide best support for science problem solving in both low- and high- performing students? High school students' ability to solve a diverse range of biology problems was compared over longitudinal sessions while they used: (1) hardcopy paper and pencil (2) a digital paper and pen interface (3) pen tablet interface, and (4) graphical tablet interface. Post-test evaluations revealed that time to solve problems, meta-cognitive control, solution correctness, and memory all were significantly enhanced when using the digital pen and paper interface, compared with tablet interfaces. The tangible pen and paper interface also was the only alternative that significantly facilitated skill acquisition in low-performing students. Paradoxically, all students nonetheless believed that the tablet interfaces provided best support for their performance, revealing a lack of self-awareness about how to use computational tools to best advantage. Implications are discussed for how pen interfaces can be optimized for future educational purposes, and for establishing technology fluency curricula to improve students' awareness of the impact of digital tools on their performance.

  19. The Process of Science Communications at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horack, John M.; Treise, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    The communication of new scientific knowledge and understanding is an integral component of science research, essential for its continued survival. Like any learning- based activity, science cannot continue without communication between and among peers so that skeptical inquiry and learning can take place. This communication provides necessary organic support to maintain the development of new knowledge and technology. However, communication beyond the peer-community is becoming equally critical for science to survive as an enterprise into the 21st century. Therefore, scientists not only have a 'noble responsibility' to advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding to audiences within and beyond the peer-community, but their fulfillment of this responsibility is necessary to maintain the survival of the science enterprise. Despite the critical importance of communication to the viability of science, the skills required to perform effective science communications historically have not been taught as a part of the training of scientist, and the culture of science is often averse to significant communication beyond the peer community. Thus scientists can find themselves ill equipped and uncomfortable with the requirements of their job in the new millennium. At NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, we have developed and implemented an integrated science communications process, providing an institutional capability to help scientist accurately convey the content and meaning of new scientific knowledge to a wide variety of audiences, adding intrinsic value to the research itself through communication, while still maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process. The process utilizes initial communication through the world-wide web at the site http://science.nasa.gov to strategically leverage other communications vehicles and to reach a wide-variety of audiences. Here we present and discuss the basic design of the science communications process, now in

  20. Simulating Earthquakes for Science and Society: Earthquake Visualizations Ideal for use in Science Communication and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has been developing groundbreaking computer modeling capabilities for studying earthquakes. These visualizations were initially shared within the scientific community but have recently gained visibility via television news coverage in Southern California. Computers have opened up a whole new world for scientists working with large data sets, and students can benefit from the same opportunities (Libarkin & Brick, 2002). For example, The Great Southern California ShakeOut was based on a potential magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault. The visualization created for the ShakeOut was a key scientific and communication tool for the earthquake drill. This presentation will also feature SCEC Virtual Display of Objects visualization software developed by SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology interns. According to Gordin and Pea (1995), theoretically visualization should make science accessible, provide means for authentic inquiry, and lay the groundwork to understand and critique scientific issues. This presentation will discuss how the new SCEC visualizations and other earthquake imagery achieve these results, how they fit within the context of major themes and study areas in science communication, and how the efficacy of these tools can be improved.

  1. A comparative study on communication structures of Chinese journals in the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, P.; Su, X.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas—political science and Marxism, library and information science, and economics—are compared with their

  2. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic Response of the Environment at the Moon (DREAM): Providing Opportunities for Students and Teachers to Learn About the Solar-lunar Environmental Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L.; Weir, H. M.; Twu, Y.; Farrell, W. M.; Gross, N. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Dynamic Response of the Environment at the Moon (DREAM) team is one of seven teams comprising the NASA Lunar Science Institute. DREAM’s goal is to reveal, advance, and test the extremes of the solar-lunar environmental connection. DREAM’s education and outreach (E/PO) program is focused on student and teacher participation with scientists. The primary component of the DREAM E/PO program is two Lunar Extreme Workshops (LEWs) and the supporting materials developed for each LEW. The workshops will bring together scientists and modelers from the DREAM team with advanced high school and/or community college students and their teachers. The LEWs will allow student/teacher participants to interact directly with the scientists and to experience the process of science in action. Participation in LEWs and pre-LEW training will expose students to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers and engage them in learning new STEM content. During the two LEWs, the new, integrated lunar models developed by the DREAM team will be tested using extreme environmental drivers. These extreme events include: 1) solar storms and human excursion into Shackleton Crater and 2) human activity/lunar excavation and impact cratering. Although the LEWs will be complex in nature, the students and teachers will receive extensive pre-LEW training via access to online curricular resources already in development and Webinars with DREAM science team members, during which the students/teachers will get to know the team members and put their new knowledge into context. The curricular materials will include resources and activities pertaining to space weather, plasma, electricity, circuits, magnetism, magnetospheres, exospheres, impact cratering, and modeling. The activities are being mapped to the National Science Education Standards and the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Students will be encouraged to read and review

  4. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  5. The 'credibility paradox' in China's science communication: Views from scientific practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to increasing debates on China's rising status as a global scientific power, issues of China's science communication remain under-explored. Based on 21 in-depth interviews in three cities, this article examines Chinese scientists' accounts of the entangled web of influence which conditions the process of how scientific knowledge achieves (or fails to achieve) its civic authority. A main finding of this study is a 'credibility paradox' as a result of the over-politicisation of science and science communication in China. Respondents report that an absence of visible institutional endorsements renders them more public credibility and better communication outcomes. Thus, instead of exploiting formal channels of science communication, scientists interviewed were more keen to act as 'informal risk communicators' in grassroots and private events. Chinese scientists' perspectives on how to earn public support of their research sheds light on the nature and impact of a 'civic epistemology' in an authoritarian state. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Ethical Implications of Seismic Risk Communication in Istanbul - Insights from a Transdisciplinary, Film-based Science Communication Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, Johanna; Stewart, Iain S.

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade, social science studies indicate that there is little or no correlation between the provision of scientific information about geohazards and risks and the adaptive changes in individual or community behaviour that would reduce risk. Bridging that gap to effectively convey hazard science 'the last mile' to those communities at risk raises a number of ethical issues about the role and responsibilities of geoscientists as communicators. Those issues emerge from a methodological shift away from the dominant interpretation of seismic risk communication as a transfer of scientific facts to "the public", towards more inclusive transdisciplinary communication strategies that incorporate peer-role models, adopt social network-based strategies and directly engage with communities in motivating preparedness actions. With this methodological shift comes ethical dilemmas. What are the target-groups that should be prioritised? What are the professional expectations and levels of personal engagement required of geo-communicators? How able and willing are geoscientists to include other forms of knowledge (e.g. from local communities or other disciplines)? What media formats can reconcile argumentative, informational "matters of fact" with sociocultural and psychological "matters of concern"? How should scientists react to political controversies related to risk mitigation and its communication? In the context of these ethical concerns, many geoscientist struggle to switch from conventional communication modes in which they are the technical 'experts' to more community-centered, participatory modes of public engagement. We examine this research question through a case study on seismic risk communication challenges in Istanbul, a megacity with one of the highest seismic vulnerabilities in the world. Currently, there are few formal mechanisms to facilitate interchange between academic geoscientists and the general public in Istanbul. In order to reduce the city

  7. Scientists' motivation to communicate science and technology to the public: surveying participants at the Madrid Science Fair

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Sempere , María José; Garzón-García , Belén; Rey-Rocha , Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates what motivates scientists to communicate science and technology in a science event involving a direct relationship and interaction with the public. A structured questionnaire survey was administered through face-to-face interviews to 167 research practitioners (researchers, technicians, support staff and fellows) at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) who part...

  8. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  9. Play and dream your city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    tool to investigate the creative fi eld between the digital and the analogue. There is an incompatibility embedded in the sketching process. The analogue sketch represents the known and open-ended, the digital the more concrete, while the cave technology is a more open and free dream room...... for experience. 5. Keywords: Analog, digital, game, dream, cave, intuition, and hermeneutic....

  10. The genius of the dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, S R

    1983-01-01

    In Act V of A Midsummer Night's Dream, Theseus and Hippolyta exchange views on the dreamlike adventures reported by the young lovers. Theseus dismisses their stories as fantasies of wish fulfillment, but Hippolyta points out that despite their strangeness, the tales reflect an adaptive change in the psychic reality of the lovers. The dramatic action of the play supports Hippolyta's view. The release of Demetrius from his transferential infatuation with Hermia comes at the moment of awakening from a dream in which he has matched his current feelings for Hermia with a repressed libidinal fantasy of childhood. This example of a correction dream illustrates how condensation in dreams functions adaptively in matching a new experience with previously stored representations of related events in the past. It also illustrates the ability of the matching process to go beyond the narrow logical categories of waking thought to reach deeper levels of experience otherwise inaccessible to the dreamer. This ability accounts for the important role played by dreaming in the creative process generally and in the day-to-day working-through process of psychoanalytic therapy. The adaptive function of dreaming is subject at many points to interference from the censorship mechanisms discovered and emphasized by Freud. A theory of dreaming combining these antagonistic processes is more consistent with the data of the sleep laboratory than the traditional psychoanalytic theory alone. It also provides a better fit with the introspective date more familiar to the analyst as illustrated by Freud's well-documented analysis of his own dreams.

  11. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  12. Spotlight on dream recall: the ages of dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiaruga A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Mangiaruga, Serena Scarpelli, Chiara Bartolacci, Luigi De Gennaro Department of Psychology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most

  13. SUstaiNability: a science communication website on environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2015-04-01

    analysis showed that social network users mainly were from Campania and they were 18-44 years old. In the observation period, almost 62600 users were reached thanks to social networks; while the number of website visualization was lower (3306). However, social buttons revealed that people appreciated website articles more than Facebook posts and tweets. Data suggest that social networks could be useful to reach many web users interested in environmental topics, but science communication needs more space than that available in social networks. Therefore, an institutional website is more suitable and qualified to refer scientific topics to common audience, including all essential information.

  14. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  15. The Use of Dream Discussions in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the historical underpinnings of dream theories and suggests that discussions of dreams in counseling can aid in setting up and maintaining therapeutic contact with clients. A number of theoretical positions on the function of dreams are discussed. Specific dream counseling techniques are also delineated. (JAC)

  16. Beyond DreamWeaving: Honoring Our Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Martha M.

    DreamWeavers listen for the dreams within themselves and within others. The process of career counseling, career management coaching and career/life planning invites practitioners to consistently listen for the dreams, understand that dreams are visions and that visions guide us to action. This paper highlights how career practitioners are called…

  17. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  18. Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rak, M.; Beitinger, P.; Steiger, A.; Schredl, M.; Dresler, M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Nightmares are a frequent symptom in narcolepsy. Lucid dreaming, i.e., the phenomenon of becoming aware of the dreaming state during dreaming, has been demonstrated to be of therapeutic value for recurrent nightmares. Data on lucid dreaming in narcolepsy patients, however, is

  19. A stepwise procedure for science communication in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisancioglu, Kerim; Paasche, Øyvind

    2017-04-01

    Communicating and disseminating earth science to laypersons, high-school students and their teachers are becoming increasingly important considering the overwhelming impact human civilization have on the planet. One of the main challenges with this type of dissemination arises from the cross-disciplinary nature of the Earth system as it encompasses anything from cloud physics to the geological evidence of ice ages being played out on millennial time scales. During the last four years we have tested and developed an approach referred to as «Turspor» which can be translated to 'Trail Tracks'. The ambition with "Turspor" is to inspire participants to seek in-depth knowledge relating to observations of features made in the field (glacial moraines, active permafrost, clouds, winds and so forth) as we have come to learn that observations made in the field enhances students capability to grasp the bare essentials related to the phenomena in question. By engaging master and PhD students in the process we create a platform where students can improve their teaching and communicative skills through a stepwise procedure. The initial concept was tested on 35 high school students during the summer of 2012 in the mountainous area of Snøheim on Dovre, Southern Norway. Before the arrival of the high school students, the university students prepared one page written summaries describing relevant geological or meteorological features and trained on how to best disseminate a basic scientific understanding of these. Specific examples were patterned ground caused by permafrost, glacier flour, katabatic winds, and equilibrium line altitude of glaciers. Based on the success of the program over the past 4 years with field trips together with local schools, we are in the process of developing the concept to be offered as a course at the master and PhD level, including a week of training in didactics applied to topics in the geosciences as well as practical training in the field. The

  20. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  1. ["... my friend Leopold was percussing her through her bodice...". Leopold von Auenbrugger in Sigmund Freud's dream of Irma's injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicheneder, Johann Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a psychoanalytic interpretation of an element in the Irma dream that Freud had ignored in his own interpretation. The allusion to Leopold von Auenbrugger, the originator of percussion as a method of clinical investigation, which appears in the manifest dream reflects Freud's hopes and fears about how his Interpretation of Dreams and the new human science established there would be received by his medical colleagues.

  2. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2016-06-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society.

  3. System of Interactions of Social Actors in Public Communication of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Graciela Miquilena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research aimed at explaining the system of interactions of social actors in Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST, in the context of a social web defined by the novel systems of communication sustained on informational and communication technologies. The study’s theoretical framework highlights the strategic importance of a Public Communication  which focuses on promoting public appropriation of Science and Technology, going beyond the role of Journalism and Science Communication that informs a qualified public, to one that stablishes a bond with policies and decision making in the area, made with participation of international agencies, governments, producers of science and technology, journalists’ associations, educational institutions, and citizens. The research relies on Explicative Methodology. A revision of pertinent bibliography leads to the conclusion that the system of social interactions mediated by personal, interpersonal and grupal global communications, define the relationships in the communicational exchange of the social actor with regard to public communication of science and technology and policies aimed at its appropriation.

  4. Doing science in order to communicate about science from 1st course of ESO: learning to think, to read, to make, to communicate and to write science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Menoyo Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This  article  presents  the  project  \\Doing  science  in  order  to  communicate  about  science  from  1st  course of ESO : learning to think, to read, to make to communicate and to write science", awarded with “Ethics and Science for schools" second price in 2015 by the Foundation Victor Grífols i Lucas. The project's aim is twofold: the first one is that students gradually achieve during the whole ESO's itinerary a high-quality scientific alphabetization from all the areas and thus acquiring scientific and linguistic competencies that qualify  them  to  ask  themselves  questions  that  can  be  answered  through  by  research.  Its  second  goal  is  to encourage  students  to  ethically  process  sources  of  information  and  data  gathering  as  well  as  to  make  a sustainable use of the available resources. Communication and external dissemination of the process and results of the research is encouraged in two main ways. The first one, is achieved by using Juan Manuel Zafra  high-school's  website  as  teaching-learning  tool:  both  in  the  private  area  (Moodle  and  the  public area (with an on-line magazine, news, tweets and blogs. Moreover, students are encouraged to participate in  young  researchers  meetings,  as  Exporecerca  Jove,  Jóvenes  Investigadores,  Galiciencia  among  others research seminars. This article propounds a progression of the scientific and linguistic competences along the  four  courses  of  ESO  as  well  as  proposing  frames  in  which  the  student  body  can  be  initiated  in  the research process.

  5. Teaching Scientists to Communicate: Evidence-based assessment for undergraduate science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise

    2015-07-01

    Communication skills are one of five nationally recognised learning outcomes for an Australian Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree. Previous evidence indicates that communication skills taught in Australian undergraduate science degrees are not developed sufficiently to meet the requirements of the modern-day workplace-a problem faced in the UK and USA also. Curriculum development in this area, however, hinges on first evaluating how communication skills are taught currently as a base from which to make effective changes. This study aimed to quantify the current standard of communication education within BSc degrees at Australian research-intensive universities. A detailed evidential baseline for not only what but also how communication skills are being taught was established. We quantified which communication skills were taught and assessed explicitly, implicitly, or were absent in a range of undergraduate science assessment tasks (n = 35) from four research-intensive Australian universities. Results indicate that 10 of the 12 core science communication skills used for evaluation were absent from more than 50% of assessment tasks and 77.14% of all assessment tasks taught less than 5 core communication skills explicitly. The design of assessment tasks significantly affected whether communication skills were taught explicitly. Prominent trends were that communication skills in tasks aimed at non-scientific audiences were taught more explicitly than in tasks aimed at scientific audiences, and the majority of group and multimedia tasks taught communication elements more explicitly than individual, or written and oral tasks. Implications for science communication in the BSc and further research are discussed.

  6. New and innovative exhibition concepts at science centres using communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistgaard, Nana; Kahr-Højland, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Will new communication technologies mean the death of science centres, as Bradburne predicted 12 years ago-or are they alive and kicking? And if science centres do survive, what role could they possibly play in today's society? What mechanisms underlie the development of science centres...... direction, e.g., regarding the emphasised importance of facilitating scientific literacy and critical reflection. We argue that new communication technologies hold potential to accommodate new trends and that science centres have shown to be enterprising in their use of such technologies, e.g., mobile...

  7. Dimensions of Communication in Urban Science Education: Interactions and Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper is birthed from my lifelong experiences as student, teacher, administrator, and researcher in urban science classrooms. This includes my years as a minority student in biology, chemistry, and physics classrooms, 10 tears as science teacher and high school science department chair, 5-years conducting research on youth experiences in…

  8. From Scientific Innovation to Popularization of Science: a Theoretical Model TOC \\o "1-5" \\h \\z of Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Medvedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Science communication is process of promotion of scientific ideas from a scientist through scientific community to muss public. Now this research area attracts a lot of attention from scientists. At the same time science communication suffers from the lack of theoretical framework, which can integrate it. In this article we try to contribute to the further theoretical integration of this area. Here we discuss a model of motion and transformation of ideas from the moment of their generation to the time of their appearance in public movies and literature. The model consists of 5 elements: phase of a scientist (generation of ideas; phase of scientific community (promotion of the ideas among scientists; phase of interested groups (communication with business and government, education of future scientists; phase of popular science (promotion of ideas into mass culture; phase of fiction (subject of communication becomes not scientific knowledge, but myth about science. Each phase is conceived as equal in value stage of existence of scientific ideas. There is a consistent interaction between all phases. The ideas can flow sequentially through all five phases. But independent communication among separate stages is also possible. Furthermore, the ideas can flow in both directions from scientific community to public and visa verse. As a result, scientific communication becomes a real dialogue with equal partners.

  9. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Strategic Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Strategic Communication has written this report within the context of a larger study, the DSB 2007 Summer Study on Challenges to Military Operations in Support of National Interests...

  10. Creating Communication Training Programs for Graduate Students in Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M.; Lewenstein, B.; Weiss, M.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and engineers in all disciplines are required to communicate with colleagues, the media, policy-makers, and/or the general public. However, most STEM graduate programs do not equip students with the skills needed to communicate effectively to these diverse audiences. In this presentation, we describe a science communication course developed by and for graduate students at Cornell University. This training, which has been implemented as a semester-long seminar and a weekend-long workshop, covers popular science writing, science policy, print and web media, radio and television. Here we present a comparison of learning outcomes for the semester and weekend formats, a summary of lessons learned, and tools for developing similar science communication programs for graduate students at other institutions.

  11. Informing, involving or engaging? Science communication, in the ages of atom-, bio- and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Monika; Gisler, Priska

    2009-09-01

    Science communication has shifted considerably in Europe over the last decades. Three technology controversies on atoms, genes, and nanoscale sciences and nanotechnologies (NST) turned the style of communication from one-way information, participation and dialogues to the idea of an early and more democratic engagement of the public. Analyzing science communication developing over the three controversies, this article shows that what happened in one technology field fed forward to and contributed to shaping the subsequent field and that communication was initiated at a progressively earlier stage of technology development. The article concludes with an empirical analysis of six public engagement projects in NST, saying that the shift towards more democratic engagement of the public hasn't been as profound and complete as has been thought. This is particularly due to the continuing adoption of a simplistic contrast structure that opposes science and the public as two self-contained, antagonistic social entities.

  12. Sociological and communication-theoretical perspectives on the commercialization of the sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then

  13. Einstein's Last Dream: The Space–Time Unification of Fundamental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Einstein's Last Dream: The Space – Time Unification of Fundamental Forces. Abdus Salam. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 81-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Bizarreness effect in dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, C; Bolzani, R; Cornoldi, C; De Beni, R; Fagioli, I

    1993-02-01

    This study aimed to ascertain a) whether morning reports of dream experience more frequently reproduce bizarre contents of night reports than nonbizarre ones and b) whether this effect depends on the rarity of bizarre contents in the dream or on their richer encoding in memory. Ten subjects were awakened in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep three times per night for 4 nonconsecutive nights and asked to report their previous dream experiences. In the morning they were asked to re-report those dreams. Two separate pairs of judges scored the reports: the former identified the parts in each report with bizarre events, characters or feelings and the latter parsed each report into content units using transformational grammar criteria. By combining the data of the two analyses, content units were classified as bizarre or nonbizarre and, according to whether present in both the night and corresponding morning reports, as semantically equivalent or nonequivalent. The proportion of bizarre contents common to night and morning reports was about twice that of nonbizarre contents and was positively correlated to the quantity of bizarre contents present in the night report. These findings support the view that bizarreness enhances recall of dream contents and that this memory advantage is determined by a richer encoding at the moment of dream generation. Such a view would seem to explain why dreams in everyday life, which are typically remembered after a rather long interval, appear more markedly bizarre than those recalled in the sleep laboratory.

  15. Actinide AMS at DREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenruecker, Rene [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Pavetich, Stefan [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); ANU, Canberra (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclides such as {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were introduced into the environment by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, reactor accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima), releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities (Sellafield, La Hague), radioactive waste disposal, and accidents with nuclear devices (Palomares, Thule) [1]. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method to measure these actinides. The DREsden AMS (DREAMS) facility is located at a 6 MV accelerator, which is shared with ion beam analytics and implantation users, preventing major modifications of the accelerator and magnetic analyzers. DREAMS was originally designed for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I. To modify the system for actinide AMS, a Time-of-Flight (TOF) beamline at the high-energy side has been installed and performance tests are on-going. Ion beam and detector simulations are carried out to design a moveable ionization chamber. Especially, the detector window and anode dimensions have to be optimized. This ionization chamber will act as an energy detector of the system and its installation is planned as closely as possible to the stop detector of the TOF beamline for highest detection efficiency.

  16. Older people's experiences of dream coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadensten, Barbro

    2009-12-01

    Recalling and talking about dreams could initiate dream work among older people and provide an opportunity for self-confrontation and personal growth, which could in turn promote gerotranscendental development. The present article describes older people's opinions about participating in a dream-coaching group; it also briefly describes the theoretical foundation of dream coaching. The study aim was to investigate older people's experience of participating in a dream-coaching group based on Jungian psychology. A descriptive design was used. Retrospective interviews were explored using qualitative content analysis. The participants were satisfied with the arrangement of the dream-coaching groups. All participants believed that they had recalled their dreams and thought much more about their dreams during the period in which the dream-coaching group met. Three diverse appraisals of participating in a dream-coaching group, which had different effects on the participants, were identified: "An activity like any other activity," "An activity that led to deeper thoughts about the meaning of dreams," and "An activity that led to deeper thoughts both about the meaning of dreams and about how dreams can improve one's understanding of the life situation." It is possible to arrange dream-coaching groups for older people and could be a way to promote personal development using this type of intervention. The study provides some guidance as to how such a group could be organized, thus facilitating use of dream-coaching groups in gerontological care.

  17. Science Café Course: An Innovative Means of Improving Communication Skills of Undergraduate Biology Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Goldina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To help bridge the increasing gap between scientists and the public, we developed an innovative two-semester course, called Science Café. In this course undergraduate biology majors learn to develop communication skills to be better able to explain science concepts and current developments in science to non-scientists. Students develop and host outreach events on various topics relevant to the community, thereby increasing interactions between budding scientists and the public. Such a Science Cafe course emphasizes development of science communication skills early, at the undergraduate level and empowers students to use their science knowledge in every day interactions with the public to increase science literacy, get involved in the local community and engage the public in a dialogue on various pressing science issues. We believe that undergraduate science majors can be great ambassadors for science and are often overlooked since many aspire to go on to medical/veterinary/pharmacy schools. However, science communication skills are especially important for these types of students because when they become healthcare professionals, they will interact with the public as part of their everyday jobs and can thus be great representatives for the field.

  18. Sleep and dream habits in a sample of French college students who report no sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Raphael; Eskinazi, Mickael; Nicolas, Alain; Ruby, Perrine

    2018-02-06

    There is a lack of up-to-date data on sleep and dream habits of college students. To fill in this gap, we used an online questionnaire sent to the student mailing lists of two major universities of Lyon (Lyon 1 and Lyon 2) for the recruitment of an functional magnetic resonance imaging study with sleep disorders as exclusion criteria. In the sample (1,137 French college students, 411 males, mean age = 22.2 ± 2.4 years, body mass index = 22.0 ± 3.2 kg m -2 ), on average, the participants reported spending about 8 hr in bed during weekdays, 9 hr during the weekends, and 90.9% of them reported no difficulty falling asleep. Less than 0.4% of students reported to have sleep-walking episodes regularly, but nearly 7% reported regular sleep-talking episodes. The average dream recall frequency was about 3 mornings per week with a dream in mind. Dream recall frequency was positively correlated with the clarity of dream content and the frequency of lucid dreaming, and was negatively correlated with age. Fourteen percent of the students reported frequent lucid dreams, and 6% reported frequent recurrent dreams. We found a gender effect for several sleep and dream parameters, including dream recall frequency and time in bed, both of which were higher in women than in men. We have also observed differences between academic disciplines, namely humanities students (Lyon 2) reported spending more time in bed than sciences students (Lyon 1). These results confirm a gender difference for several sleep and dream parameters, and suggest a link between academic disciplines and sleep duration. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility-A Personal Philosophy for Communicating Science in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, E Paul

    2016-01-01

    Many think that communicating science is a necessary and rewarding activity. Yet finding compelling, relevant, and timely points of linkage between challenging scientific concepts and the experiences and interests of the general public can be difficult. Since science continues to influence more and more aspects of daily life and knowledge, there is a parallel need for communication about science in our society. Here I discuss the "middle-ground hypothesis" using popular culture for science communication and applying the "FUNnel model," where popular culture is used as a lead-in and wrap-up when discussing science. The scientific knowledge we find in our hands does not belong to us-we just had it first. We can honor that knowledge best by sharing it as widely as possible using the most creative means at our disposal.

  20. With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility—A Personal Philosophy for Communicating Science in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many think that communicating science is a necessary and rewarding activity. Yet finding compelling, relevant, and timely points of linkage between challenging scientific concepts and the experiences and interests of the general public can be difficult. Since science continues to influence more and more aspects of daily life and knowledge, there is a parallel need for communication about science in our society. Here I discuss the “middle-ground hypothesis” using popular culture for science communication and applying the “FUNnel model,” where popular culture is used as a lead-in and wrap-up when discussing science. The scientific knowledge we find in our hands does not belong to us—we just had it first. We can honor that knowledge best by sharing it as widely as possible using the most creative means at our disposal. PMID:27642632

  1. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested.

  2. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested. PMID:24223542

  3. Reporting dream experience:Why (not to be skeptical about dream reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Michelle Windt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested.

  4. The Art of Talking about Science: Beginning to Teach Physiology Students How to Communicate with Nonscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andrew M.; Dunbar, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to clearly disseminate scientific knowledge is a skill that is necessary for any undergraduate student within the sciences. Traditionally, this is accomplished through the instruction of scientific presentation or writing with a focus on peer-to-peer communication at the expense of teaching communication aimed at a nonscientific…

  5. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  6. Theoretical trajectories: Dreams and dreaming from Freud to Bion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinocur Fischbein, Susana; Miramón, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at comparing Freud's and Bion's conceptual models on dreams and dreaming. Beyond both authors' shared disposition vis-à-vis problems posed by knowledge, a critical gap opens regarding their differing clinical practices. It is hypothesized that their ideas do not belong to irreconcilable paradigms, but that there are continuities besides discontinuities more frequently highlighted between Freudian statements on psychic functioning--described in his theory on dreams--and Bion's findings in his development of both the original theory and the connections between dreaming and thinking. Firstly, Freud's and Bion's epistemological sources are examined as well as their creative use and historical environment. Then certain general theoretical and clinical issues are considered concerning their theories on dreams, the evolution of their ideas and corresponding clinical contexts. In a third section, their confluences and dissimilarities are dealt with, including clinical vignettes belonging to the authors to illustrate their interpretative modes of working. This is meant to show both an implicit theoretical-clinical complementarity and the fact that, though their routes bifurcate about the function of dreams, there remain connecting paths. Lastly, the final remarks review certain issues that have frequently been controversial between these lines of thought. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  7. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  8. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  9. Why did the proton cross the road? Humour and science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Hauke

    2015-10-01

    The use of humour in public discourse about science has grown remarkably over the past few years, and when used in science communication activities is being seen as a great way to bring science to the public through laughter. However, barely any research has been published either on the often-assumed beneficial learning effects of humour in informal science education, or on the wider social functions and effects of humour about science and how humorous public discourse about science can influence the public understanding of science and the science-society relationship. This research note reviews some of the literature on the psychology and sociology of humour and comedy and tries to apply some of its insights to the effects humour might have when used in science communication. Although not intended to be anti-humour, this note attempts at least to start a more critical conversation on the value of humour in the communication of science. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Text Linguistics in the Context of the Communication Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Serban

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyse the conditions of emerging of text linguistics, taking into consideration the rootsof the preoccupations in its domain, originated in the framework of the communication studies. Thus, the change ofthe perspective on communication, from the mechanistic transmission to interactivity and the exchange of themeanings, led to the pragmatic orientation of the linguistic researches, not just to the message itself, but also to theelements of the communicative act and to the context where the exchange of the meanings takes place. As a result,text linguistics defines the text as communicational occurrence, involving both the members of the communicationand the conditions of the production and the reception of the message, unlike conventional linguistics which studiesthe text in abstracto, just the message itself, ignoring the world that the text refers to, or the users of the message, thetransmitter and the receiver.

  11. Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by Agricultural Science and Extension Teachers in Abuja, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olugbenga Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by agricultural science and extension teachers in Abuja, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives are to: identify the background and demographic characteristics of agricultural science and extension teachers in the study area; examine the factors influencing adoption…

  12. The role by scientific publications in science communication (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabbri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In their contributions to this special issue, the British science writer Jon Turney and the American scholar Bruce Lewenstein discuss the validity of the book as a means for science communication in the era of the Internet, whereas the article by Vittorio Bo deals with scientific publishing in a broader sense.

  13. Developing Oral and Written Communication Skills in Undergraduate Computer Science and Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…

  14. Impact of Secondary Students' Content Knowledge on Their Communication Skills in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The "expert blind spot" (EBS) hypothesis implies that even some experts with a high content knowledge might have problems in science communication because they are using the structure of the content rather than their addressee's prerequisites as an orientation. But is that also true for students? Explaining science to peers is a crucial…

  15. Computer Support for Knowledge Communication in Science Exhibitions: Novel Perspectives from Research on Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, Kristin; Mayr, Eva; Zahn, Carmen; Schwan, Stephan; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the potentials of advanced technologies for learning in science exhibitions are outlined. For this purpose, we conceptualize science exhibitions as "dynamic information space for knowledge building" which includes three pathways of knowledge communication. This article centers on the second pathway, that is, knowledge…

  16. Supporting Communication and Argumentation in Urban Science Education: Hip-Hop, the Battle, and the Cypher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on an exploration of communication and argumentation in urban science classrooms, and provides a description of the role that Hip-hop based education plays in supporting these major components of science education. The paper is intended to both support, and critique conventional uses of hip-hop based education, and provide…

  17. Algab animafilmide festival "Animated dreams"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nukufilmi stuudio ja animafilmide festival "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) korraldavad Nukufilmi 50. juubeli tähistamiseks 22.-24. novembrini rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Voodoo hing". Filmiprogrammist tutvustavalt

  18. Shattering a Cartesian Sceptical Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hetherington

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Scepticism about external world knowledge is frequently claimed to emerge from Descartes’s dreaming argument. That argument supposedly challenges one to have some further knowledge — the knowledge that one is not dreaming that p — if one is to have even one given piece of external world knowledge that p. The possession of that further knowledge can seem espe-cially important when the dreaming possibility is genuinely Cartesian (with one’s dreaming that p being incompatible with the truth of one’s accompany-ing belief that p. But this paper shows why that Cartesian use of that possi-bility is not at all challenging. It is because that putative sceptical challenge reduces to a triviality which is incompatible with the sceptic’s having de-scribed some further piece of knowledge which is needed, if one is to have the knowledge that p.

  19. Between Research and Society. Recommendations for optimal science communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Verbeek, P.P.; Putten, M. van

    Science has become an integral part of society. The wide-scale application of scientific knowledge and its role in politics and policy make it necessary for everyone to be aware of scientific results and to be able to arrive at a well-founded opinion regarding the impact of science on personal

  20. The Manchester Fly Facility: Implementing an objective-driven long-term science communication initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjai; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is increasingly important for scientists, although research, teaching and administration activities tend to eat up our time already, and budgets for science communication are usually low. It appears impossible to combine all these tasks and, in addition, to develop engagement activities to a quality and impact that would make the efforts worth their while. Here we argue that these challenges are easier addressed when centering science communication initiatives on a long-term vision with a view to eventually forming outreach networks where the load can be shared whilst being driven to higher momentum. As one example, we explain the science communication initiative of the Manchester Fly Facility. It aims to promote public awareness of research using the model organism Drosophila, which is a timely, economic and most efficient experimental strategy to drive discovery processes in the biomedical sciences and must have a firm place in the portfolios of funding organisations. Although this initiative by the Manchester Fly Facility is sustained on a low budget, its long-term vision has allowed gradual development into a multifaceted initiative: (1) targeting university students via resources and strategies for the advanced training in fly genetics; (2) targeting the general public via science fairs, educational YouTube videos, school visits, teacher seminars and the droso4schools project; (3) disseminating and marketing strategies and resources to the public as well as fellow scientists via dedicated websites, blogs, journal articles, conference presentations and workshops - with a view to gradually forming networks of drosophilists that will have a greater potential to drive the science communication objective to momentum and impact. Here we explain the rationales and implementation strategies for our various science communication activities - which are similarly applicable to other model animals and other areas of academic science - and share our

  1. The Petrochemical Dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Soler, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The article tries about the construction and setting in march of a petrochemical complex of olefins and polyethylene, in Mamonal, and to integrate it with the refinery of Cartagena of ECOPETROL and with the petrochemical industries already existent and in operation, in such way that the Promoter of Olefins of the Caribbean was founded in 1995. The central axis of this development constitutes it the petrochemical complex of olefins that acquires new life with the potential supply of raw matters resultant of the amplification of the Refinery of Cartagena with its Main Development Plan (MDP). This is the way as the managers of the petrochemical sector have caressing the dream of the integration of the productive chain that would allow the conformation of the petrochemical cluster and the development of an industry of plastics of tip technology, high added value, competitive and exporter

  2. Aqueous reprocessing - some dreams!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    India has been pursuing a aqueous reprocessing based closed fuel cycle for both thermal and fast reactor fuels employing the PUREX process. Though the country has more than six decades of experience, the dreams or wish lists such as, a highly efficient process with textbook specifications of 99.9% recovery of U and Pu, a DF of more than 10 7 for both U and Pu from the fission products, operating with name plate capacity with high safety, low waste generation, recovery of useful fission products and minor actinides from high level waste are never ceasing and ever growing. The talk will cover safety precautions and actions to be taken in the steps listed below, to ensure a safe and successful process

  3. Not in front of the children! The controversies of science and science communication for children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Massarani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dialogue in science communication is a necessity - everybody agrees on it - because science and technology issues are involved in so many aspects of the citizens life, and in so many cases can raise suspects, fears, worries or, on the contrary, expectations and hopes. But who are the possible interlocutors for scientists and policy-makers? Everybody, says Luisa Massarani, beginning with children and teenagers. Also in such controversial and sensitive issues like AIDS or GMO.

  4. Not in front of the children! The controversies of science and science communication for children and youth (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Massarani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dialogue in science communication is a necessity - everybody agrees on it - because science and technology issues are involved in so many aspects of the citizens life, and in so many cases can raise suspects, fears, worries or, on the contrary, expectations and hopes. But who are the possible interlocutors for scientists and policy-makers? Everybody, says Luisa Massarani, beginning with children and teenagers. Also in such controversial and sensitive issues like AIDS or GMO.

  5. The Super DREAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Despite the fact that DOE provided only a fraction of the requested funds, the goals we defined in the proposal on which award ER41783 was based were essentially all met. This was partially due to the fact that other funding agencies, which supported our collaborators (especially from Italy and Korea) contributed as well, and partially due to the effective solutions that were developed to compensate for the fact that the detector we had proposed to build had to be scaled down. The performance of the SuperDREAM calorimeter is better than anything that has been built or proposed so far. This has of course not gone unnoticed in the scientific community. Scientists who are preparing experiments for the proposed new generation of particle accelerators (FCCee, CPEC,..) are all very seriously considering the technology developed in this project. Several new collaborations have formed which aim to adapt the dual-readout calorimeter principles to the demands of a 4 environment. Preliminary measurements using silicon photomultipliers as light sensors have already been carried out. This type of readout would make it possible to operate this detector in a magnetic field, and it would also allow for a longitudinal segmentation into electromagnetic and hadronic sections, if so desired. In addition, SiPM readout would eliminate the need for “forests” of fibers sticking out of the rear end of the calorimeter (Figure 1), and obtain an arbitrary fine lateral segmentation, which might be very important for recognizing electrons inside jets. The improvements in our understanding of the fundamental structure of matter and the forces that govern its behavior have always hinged on the availability of detectors that make it possible to explore the possibilities of new, more powerful particle accelerators to the fullest extent. We believe that the SuperDREAM project has created a quantum leap in detector technology, which may turn out to be crucially important for future discoveries in

  6. Integrating design science theory and methods to improve the development and evaluation of health communication programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2014-12-01

    Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promotion issues are complex, changeable, and highly related to the specific needs and contexts of the intended audiences. It is a daunting challenge to effectively influence health behaviors, particularly culturally learned and reinforced behaviors concerning lifestyle factors related to diet, exercise, and substance (such as alcohol and tobacco) use. Too often, program development and evaluation are not adequately linked to provide rapid feedback to health communication program developers so that important revisions can be made to design the most relevant and personally motivating health communication programs for specific audiences. Design science theory and methods commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other fields can address such program and evaluation weaknesses. Design science researchers study human-created programs using tightly connected build-and-evaluate loops in which they use intensive participatory methods to understand problems and develop solutions concurrently and throughout the duration of the program. Such thinking and strategies are especially relevant to address complex health communication issues. In this article, the authors explore the history, scientific foundation, methods, and applications of design science and its potential to enhance health communication programs and their evaluation.

  7. Status of High Data Rate Intersatellite Laser Communication as an Enabler for Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, F.; Zech, H.; Motzigemba, M.

    2017-12-01

    Space based laser communication is supporting earth observation and science missions with Gbps data download capabilities. Currently the Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 spacecrafts from the Copernicus earth observation program of the European Commission are using the Gbps laser communication links developed by Tesat Spacecom to download low latency data products via a commercial geostationary laser relay station- the European Data Relay Service- (EDRS) as a standard data path, in parallel to the conventional radio frequency links. The paper reports on the status of high bandwidth space laser communication as an enabler for small and large space science missions ranging from cube sat applications in low earth orbit to deep space missions. Space based laser communication has left the experimental phase and will support space science missions with unprecedented data rates.

  8. The molecules we eat: Food as a medium to communicate science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowat Amy C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Creative, inquiry-driven approaches in science education help to address the growing need to effectively engage students and promote the public understanding of science. Here we describe an interactive format using food that can be applied both in a course for undergraduate students, as well as in a lecture for the general public. Communicating science through food may also dispel fear of naturally occurring chemicals as well as scientific misconceptions that are propagated by the media.

  9. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES FOR EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE. REPORTS AND PAPERS ON MASS COMMUNICATION, NO. 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHRAMM, WILBUR

    THE TECHNOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION SATELLITES IS SUFFICIENTLY ADVANCED THAT CONCERNED AGENCIES, SUCH AS UNESCO, SHOULD BEGIN TO PLAN FOR THEIR USE IN EXCHANGE OF DATA, NEWS TRANSMISSION, CULTURAL EXCHANGE, AND EDUCATION. GROUNDWORK IN TECHNOLOGY, IN THE DESIGN OF A SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, IN VALUE JUDGMENTS, IN AGREEMENTS OF COOPERATION AND…

  10. The Hands-On Guide For Science Communicators A Step-By-Step Approach to Public Outreach

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg

    2007-01-01

    Lars Lindberg Christensen is a science communication specialist and works in Munich, Germany, as head of communication for the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in Europe. Many people know something about communication – it is after all an innate human ability – but a full comprehension of how to do science communication effectively is not acquired easily. This Guide touches upon all aspects of science communication, revealing a tightly interwoven fabric of issues: product types, target groups, written communication, visual communication, validation processes, practices of efficient workflow, distribution, promotion, advertising and much more. New science communicators will find this Guide both helpful and inspirational. "I am overwhelmed at how thorough and how well thought-through this book is. Even with my regular relationships with popular communication and with public relations officers, I hadn’t realized how well documented the field could be until I saw it done here." -Jay M. Pasachoff, Williams Co...

  11. Improving together: collaborative learning in science communication, ClimateSnack case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, C.; Reeve, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Most scientists today recognize that science communication is an important part of the scientific process, yet science writing and communication are often taught outside the normal academic schedule. If universities offer such courses, they are generally intensive but short-term: the participants rarely complete a science communication course with an immediate and pressing need to apply these skills. So the skills fade, stalling real progress in science communication. Continuity is key to success! Whilst waiting for the academic system to truly integrate science communication, other methods can be tested. ClimateSnack / SciSnack is a new approach that aims to motivate scientists to develop their communication skills. It adopts a collaborative learning framework where scientists voluntarily form writing groups that meet regularly at different institutes around the world. The members of the groups learn, discuss and improve together. The participants produce short posts, which are published online, where they are further discussed and improved by the global ClimateSnack community. This way, the participants learn and cement basic science communication skills. These skills are transferrable, and can be applied both to scientific articles and broader science media. Some writing groups are highly productive, while others exist no more. The reasons for success are here investigated with respect to issues both internal and external to the different groups, in particular leadership strategies. Possible further development, in particular using the online community, is suggested. ClimateSnack is one solution to fill the critical gap left by a lack of adequate teaching in early-career scientists' curriculum.

  12. Nanoethics, Science Communication, and a Fourth Model for Public Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a fourth model of public engagement with science, grounded in the principle of nurturing scientific agency through participatory bioethics. It argues that social media is an effective device through which to enable such engagement, as it has the capacity to empower users and transforms audiences into co-producers of knowledge, rather than consumers of content. Social media also fosters greater engagement with the political and legal implications of science, thus promoting the value of scientific citizenship. This argument is explored by considering the case of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as an exemplar for how emerging technologies may be handled by the scientific community and science policymakers.

  13. Anthropology and Genre: Science Fiction – Communication of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Genre production uses the shared nature of cultural communication in order to establish certain kinds and models of cultural identity, and these identities go on to have a social and cultural existence outside genre communication. Anthropology insists on the shared nature of cultural communication, more precisely, on the fact that those who shape the information transmitted in this way have to share its code with the intended recipients. The anthropological study of genres is actually the study of certain cultural artefacts characteristic of the societies and cultures in which they have been created. on the fact that those who shape the information transmitted in this way have to share its code with the intended recipients. The anthropological study of

  14. What does the UK public want from academic science communication? [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Redfern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent’s current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the ‘common practice’ of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals, there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience.

  15. THE SCIENCE OF COMMUNICATION AND NEGOTIATION IN MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes to contribute in clarifying a subject of great actuality and social importance: why does the contemporary society need such mediation and mediators and what are the psycho-social premises of making the process of mediaton more efficient. In the first part, this study keeps the track of identifying the connections and the distinctions between communication-negotiation and mediation. The intercession carries forward with the analysis of the communicational and negotiative abilities of the mediator – premises of efficient mediation. The final part consists in an argument towards the imperative need of mediation felt by the contemporary society at all its levels.

  16. Science Communication in the Post-Expert Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luers, Amy; Kroodsma, David

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Popular Science disabled its online comments. In explaining this decision, the magazine cited research that showed that online comments, especially uncivil ones, strongly influence readers, often leading to misleading or incorrect interpretations of the articles. Popular Science wrote, "If you carry out those results to their logical end…you start to see why we feel compelled to hit the `off' switch" [Labarre, 2013].

  17. Communicating the role of science in managing giant sequoia groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Pilrto; Robert R. Rogers; Mary Chislock Bethke

    1997-01-01

    Management of giant sequoia groves has been and continues to be a hotly debated issue. The debate has reached Congress, with all parties seeking resolution as to what constitutes an ecologically and publicly acceptable management approach. Determining the correct management approach and communicating that approach to the general public is the crux of the problem....

  18. Communicating Science for Impact: Radio for Reaching Farmers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will test the effectiveness of interactive radio programs and mobile phones in communicating and sharing research results and products. ... A target of 80,000 of the total listeners are expected to act on the radio campaign's knowledge and innovations to improve production, marketing, consumption, and income.

  19. Science Communication and Desalination Research: Water Experts' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, R. A.; Williams, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water is a major problem for many people across the world. Desalination is being increasingly used in many countries to provide this important resource. Desalination technology has received varying degrees of support in the communities in which this technology has been adopted. Productive communication suggests we…

  20. Dream Recall and Dream Content in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Sartorius, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep is widely investigated in children with ADHD, dream studies in this group are completely lacking. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming stating that waking life is reflected in dreams would predict that waking-life symptoms are reflected in the dreams of such children. 103 children with ADHD and 100 controls completed a dream…

  1. Experiencing biodiversity as a bridge over the science-society communication gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinard, Yves; Quétier, Fabien

    2014-06-01

    Drawing on the idea that biodiversity is simply the diversity of living things, and that everyone knows what diversity and living things mean, most conservation professionals eschew the need to explain the many complex ways in which biodiversity is understood in science. On many biodiversity-related issues, this lack of clarity leads to a communication gap between science and the general public, including decision makers who must design and implement biodiversity policies. Closing this communication gap is pivotal to the ability of science to inform sound environmental decision making. To address this communication gap, we propose a surrogate of biodiversity for communication purposes that captures the scientific definition of biodiversity yet can be understood by nonscientists; that is, biodiversity as a learning experience. The prerequisites of this or any other biodiversity communication surrogate are that it should have transdisciplinary relevance; not be measurable; be accessible to a wide audience; be usable to translate biodiversity issues; and understandably encompass biodiversity concepts. Biodiversity as a learning experience satisfies these prerequisites and is philosophically robust. More importantly, it can effectively contribute to closing the communication gap between biodiversity science and society at large. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Investigating the need for scholarly communications positions in Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries member institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Kim; Bandy, Sandra L

    2017-04-01

    The role of health sciences librarians has expanded in the scholarly communications landscape as a result of the increase in federal public access mandates and the continued expansion of publishing avenues. This has created the need to investigate whether academic health sciences libraries should have scholarly communications positions to provide education and services exclusively related to scholarly communication topics. A nine-question online survey was distributed through the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) email discussion list to gather preliminary findings from and opinions of directors of health sciences libraries on the need for scholarly communications positions. The survey received a 38% response rate. The authors found that AAHSL members are currently providing scholarly communications services, and 46% of respondents expressed the need to devote a full-time position to this role. Our survey reveals a juxtaposition occurring in AAHSL member libraries. While administrators acknowledge the need to provide scholarly communications services, they often experience budget challenges in providing a full-time position for these services.

  3. Broadening the voice of science: Promoting scientific communication in the undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Lauren A; Emberts, Zachary; Joseph, Paul N; Allen, Pablo E; Lopatto, David; Miller, Christine W

    2017-12-01

    Effective and accurate communication of scientific findings is essential. Unfortunately, scientists are not always well trained in how to best communicate their results with other scientists nor do all appreciate the importance of speaking with the public. Here, we provide an example of how the development of oral communication skills can be integrated with research experiences at the undergraduate level. We describe our experiences developing, running, and evaluating a course for undergraduates that complemented their existing undergraduate research experiences with instruction on the nature of science and intensive training on the development of science communication skills. Students delivered science talks, research monologues, and poster presentations about the ecological and evolutionary research in which they were involved. We evaluated the effectiveness of our approach using the CURE survey and a focus group. As expected, undergraduates reported strong benefits to communication skills and confidence. We provide guidance for college researchers, instructors, and administrators interested in motivating and equipping the next generation of scientists to be excellent science communicators.

  4. Issues in Informal Education: Event-Based Science Communication Involving Planetaria and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whitt, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the last several years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of Internet-based science communication. The program includes extended stories about NASA science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. The focus of sharing real-time science related events has been to involve and excite students and the public about science. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. Panel participation will be used to communicate the problems and lessons learned from these activities over the last three years.

  5. Application of expert-notice dialogue (END) method to assess students’ science communication ability on biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyati, S.; Amelia, D. N.; Soniyana, G. T.

    2018-05-01

    Student’s science communication ability can be assessed by the Expert-Notice Dialogue (END) method which focusing on verbal explanations using graphs or images as a tool. This study aims to apply the END method to assess students’ science communication ability. The study was conducted in two high schools with each sample of one class at each school (A and B). The number of experts in class A is 8 students and 7 in class B, the number of notice in class A 24 students and 30 in class B. The material chosen for explanation by expert is Ecosystem in class A and plant classification in class B. Research instruments are rubric of science communication ability, observation rubric, notice concept test and notice questionnaire. The implementation recorded with a video camera and then transcribed based on rubric science communication ability. The results showed that the average of science communication ability in class A and B was 60% and 61.8%, respectively, in enough categories. Mastery of the notice concept is in good category with 79.10 averages in class A and 94.64 in class B. Through the questionnaire notice it is known that the END method generally helps notice in understanding the concept.

  6. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drilling Students’ Communication Skill through Science, Environment, Technology, and Society (SETS)-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farisi, B. L.; Tjandrakirana; Agustini, R.

    2018-01-01

    Student’s communication skill paid less attention in learning activity at school, even though communication skill is needed by students in the 21st century based on the demands of new curriculum in Indonesia (K13). This study focuses on drilling students’ communication skill through science, environment, technology, and society (SETS)-based learning. The research is a pre-experimental design with a one-shot case study model involving 10 students of ninth-grader of SMPN 2 Manyar, Gresik. The research data were collected through observation method using communication observation sheet. The data were analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The result showed that students’ communication skill reached the completeness of skills decided both individually and classically in the curriculum. The fundamental result of this research that SETS-based learning can be used to drill students’ communication skill in K13 context.

  8. The challenges of science journalism: The perspectives of scientists, science communication advisors and journalists from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Douglas James

    2016-04-01

    The news media play an important role in informing the public about scientific and technological developments. Some argue that restructuring and downsizing result in journalists coming under increased pressure to produce copy, leading them to use more public relations material to meet their deadlines. This article explores science journalism in the highly commercialised media market of New Zealand. Using semi-structured interviews with scientists, science communication advisors and journalists, the study finds communication advisors and scientists believe most media outlets, excluding public service media, report science poorly. Furthermore, restructuring and staff cuts have placed the journalists interviewed under increasing pressure. While smaller newspapers appear to be printing press releases verbatim, metropolitan newspaper journalists still exercise control over their use of such material. The results suggest these journalists will continue to resist increasing their use of public relations material for some time to come. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The language of science and communication with Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Grace F.

    2011-11-01

    "There are in fact two things, science and opinion; the former begets knowledge, the latter, ignorance." So stated Hippocrates back in 400 C.E. Today we find ourselves in a tug of war between science and opinion as we try to fashion a path forward on many important societal issues, including the use of science in addressing the water, energy, and climate change issues that are growing in importance. Our job in Congress is making sure we use the knowledge gained from asking questions and apply the responses properly in the decision-and policy-making processes. While that all sounds good in theory, the application is at best cumbersome, often leaving us with more questions than answers.

  10. Communicating uncertainty media coverage of new and controversial science

    CERN Document Server

    Dunwoody, Sharon; Rogers, Carol L

    1997-01-01

    This work, by the editors of "Scientists and Journalists: Reporting Science as News", explores scientific uncertainty and media coverage of it in such major public issues as AISA, biotechnology, dioxin, global warming, and nature vs. nurture. It examines the interrelations of the major actors in constructing and explaining uncertainty: scientists, journalists, scholars, and the larger public. Part 1 examines participants in the scientific uncertainty arena and how the major actors react to, cope with and manage uncertain issues. It also describes how scientists and journalists vie for control over uncertain science. The panel discussion at the end of this section is a spirited discourse on how they handle scientific uncertainty. Part 2 explores instances of scientific uncertainty in the public arena, highlighting studies involving uncertainty and biotechnology, dioxin, human resources for science, and human behaviour. The panel discussion concluding this section reacts to several of these specific issues and ...

  11. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  12. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2014-10-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  15. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.

  16. Is there a need for a code of ethics in science communication and Communicating Uncertainties on Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegnar, T.; Benestad, R.; Billard, C.

    2010-09-01

    The EMS Media team recognises that: Scientific knowledge is valuable for society, but it also becomes fragile in a media-dominated society where the distortion of facts clouds the validity of the information. The use of scientific titles in communication normally brings expectations of high standards regarding the information content. Freedom of speech is fragile in the sense that it can be diluted by a high proportion of false information. The value of scientific and scholastic titles is degraded when they are used to give the impression of false validity. Science communication is powerful, and implies a certain responsibility and ethical standard. The scientific community operates with a more or less tacit ethics code in all areas touching the scientists' activities. Even though many scientific questions cannot be completely resolved, there is a set of established and unequivocal scientific practices, methods, and tests, on which our scientific knowledge rests. Scientists are assumed to master the scientific practices, methods, and tests. High standard in science-related communication and media exposure, openness, and honesty will increase the relevance of science, academies, and scientists in the society, in addition to benefiting the society itself. Science communication is important to maintain and enhance the general appreciation of science. The value of the role of science is likely to increase with a reduced distance between scientists and the society and a lower knowledge barrier. An awareness about the ethical aspects of science and science communication may aid scientists in making decisions about how and what to say. Scientists are often not trained in communication or ethics. A set of guide lines may lower the barrier for scientists concerned about tacit codes to come forward and talk to the media. Recommendations: The mass media should seek more insight into scientific knowledge, history, principles, and societies. Journalists and artists should be

  17. Using Visualization Science to Evaluate Effective Communication of Climate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Wolfinger, F.; Lloyd, A.

    2015-12-01

    Indicators are observations or calculations that are used to track social and environmental conditions over time. For a large coupled system such as the economy and environment, the choice of indicators requires a structured process that involves co-production among facilitators, subject-matter experts, decision-makers, and the general public. This co-production is needed in part because such indicators serve a duel role of scientifically tracking change and of communicating to non-scientists important changes and information that may be useful in decision contexts. Because the goal is to communicate and inform decisions it is critical that indicators be understood by non-scientific audiences, which may require different visualization techniques than for scientific audiences. Here we describe a process of rigorously evaluating visual communication efficacy by using a simplified taxonomy of visualization design problems and trade-offs to assess existing and redesigned indicator images. The experimental design is three-part. It involves testing non-scientific audiences' understandability of scientific images found in the literature along with similar information shaped by a partial co-production process that informed the U.S. Global Change Research Program prototype indicators system, released in Spring 2015. These recommendations for physical, natural, and societal indicators of changes and impacts involved input from over 200 subject-matter experts, organized into 13 technical teams. Using results from the first two parts, we then explore visualization design improvements that may increase understandability to non-scientific audiences. We anticipate that this work will highlight important trade-offs in visualization design when moving between audiences that will be of great use to scientists who wish to communicate their results broader audiences.

  18. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  19. What are the memory sources of dreaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore A; Stenstrom, Philippe

    2005-10-27

    Investigators since Freud have appreciated that memories of the people, places, activities and emotions of daily life are reflected in dreams but are typically so fragmented that their predictability is nil. The mechanisms that translate such memories into dream images remain largely unknown. New research targeting relationships between dreaming, memory and the hippocampus is producing a new theory to explain how, why and when we dream of waking life events.

  20. To search new technology of dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Chang Uk

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with new technology of dream like cold nuclear fusion is possible, alchemy of the 21 century, cold transmutation of element, cold nuclear fusion on the desk, fire of multiarc recalling earth environment, like miracle fire and multiarc device, field fulfilling of dream, pioneers of anti gravity research, dream of anti gravity which is realized by mobius, N-machine and space energy, challenge for infinite power unit like engine of dream, Kawai magnet motor and attaching magnet on the motorcycle.

  1. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  2. Innovating science communication: the structure supporting ATLAS Education & Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven; Marcelloni, Claudia; Shaw, Kate; ATLAS Experiment

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS Education & Outreach project has, over the years, developed a strong reputation for supporting innovation. Animated event displays, musical CDs, 3d movies, 3-storey murals, photo books, data sonifications, multi-media art installations, pub slams, masterclasses, documentaries, pop-up books, LEGO® models, and virtual visits are among the many diverse methods being exploited to communicate to the world the goals and accomplishments of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. This variety of creativity and innovation does not pop out of a vacuum. It requires underlying motivation by the collaboration to communicate with the public; freedom and encouragement to do so in a creative manner; and a support structure for developing, implementing and promoting these activities. The ATLAS Outreach project has built this support structure on a well-defined communication plan, high-quality content, and effective delivery platforms. Most importantly, implementation of the program has been based on the effective engagement of the participating institutes and other key partners, not only to leverage modest human resources and funding, but also to take advantage of the rich imagination and inspiration of a diverse, global human collaboration. We present our current plan, on-going activities, and a few more fun innovations for the future.

  3. On the pedagogy of pharmacological communication: a study of final semester health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterqvist, Ann; Aronsson, Patrik; Hägg, Staffan; Kjellgren, Karin; Reis, Margareta; Tobin, Gunnar; Booth, Shirley

    2015-10-26

    There is a need to improve design in educational programmes for the health sciences in general and in pharmacology specifically. The objective of this study was to investigate and problematize pharmacological communication in educational programmes for the health sciences. An interview study was carried out where final semester students from programmes for the medical, nursing and specialist nursing in primary health care professions were asked to discuss the pharmacological aspects of two written case descriptions of the kind they would meet in their everyday work. The study focused on the communication they envisaged taking place on the concerns the patients were voicing, in terms of two features: how communication would take place and what would be the content of the communication. A phenomenographic research approach was used. The results are presented as outcome spaces, sets of categories that describe the variation of ways in which the students voiced their understanding of communication in the two case descriptions and showed the qualitatively distinct ways in which the features of communication were experienced. The results offer a base of understanding the students' perspectives on communication that they will take with them into their professional lives. We indicate that there is room for strengthening communication skills in the field of pharmacology, integrating them into programmes of education, by more widely implementing a problem-based, a case-oriented or role-playing pedagogy where final year students work across specialisations and there is a deliberate effort to evoke and assess advanced conceptions and skills.

  4. Minding the dream self: perspectives from the analysis of self-experience in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be fruitful by suggesting new perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming as well an altered perspective on the efficacy of AAOM itself.

  5. Knowledge, responsibility and culture: food for thought on science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Quaranta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The past few decades have been marked by a rapid scientific and technological development. One of the most paradoxical, and perhaps more disturbing, features of this process is the growing divide between the increased importance science has acquired in economic and social life and a society persistently showing spreading signs of contempt, mistrust and, most of all, disinterest in research.

  6. Ebola Crisis: Improving Science-Based Communication and Local ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a long-term goal, the project aims to strengthen journalism associations in Africa through country and regional exchanges using a Web-based platform devoted to science and health journalism. This will help increase access to health knowledge and evidence, improve monitoring and reporting of priority health issues in ...

  7. IDRC hosts the Science Writers and Communicators of Canada ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-20

    Sep 20, 2017 ... Marie Lambert-Chan, editor-in-chief of Québec Science, Scott Hannant, former ... Although Canada's Periodical Fund provides financial assistance to ... During the IDRC World Café, IDRC Program Management Officer Laura ...

  8. Sustainable Infrastructures for Life Science Communication: Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth Stallman; Yeung, Laurence; Sawyer, Keegan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the life sciences--from the human genome to biotechnology to personalized medicine and sustainable communities--have profound implications for the well-being of society and the natural world. Improved public understanding of such scientific advances has the potential to benefit both individuals and society through enhanced quality of…

  9. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitrelli Nico

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  10. Education, Communication, and Science in the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, John Dewey and Walter Lippmann both wrote important books examining whether the public was capable of playing a constructive role in policy, particularly when specialized knowledge was involved. This essay uses the Lippmann-Dewey debate to identify new challenges for science education and to explore the relationship between science…

  11. The gap in scientific knowledge and role of science communication in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Sei-Hill; Kang, Myung-Hyun; Shim, Jae Chul; Ma, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of South Koreans, this study explores the role of science communication in enhancing three different forms of scientific knowledge ( factual, procedural, and subjective). We first assess learning effects, looking at the extent to which citizens learn science from different channels of communication (interpersonal discussions, traditional newspapers, television, online newspapers, and social media). We then look into the knowledge gap hypothesis, investigating how different communication channels can either widen or narrow the gap in knowledge between social classes. Television was found to function as a "knowledge leveler," narrowing the gap between highly and less educated South Koreans. The role of online newspapers in science learning is pronounced in our research. Reading newspapers online indicated a positive relationship to all three measures of knowledge. Contrary to the knowledge-leveling effect of television viewing, reading online newspapers was found to increase, rather than decrease, the gap in knowledge. Implications of our findings are discussed in detail.

  12. Best practice in communications training for public engagement with science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bultitude

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective training in key communications skills is critical for successful public engagement. However, what are the secrets to designing and delivering an effectual training course? This paper outlines key findings from a research study into communication training programmes for public engagement with STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The research focused on training in direct communication methods, (as separate from media training and encompassed both trainers and trainees, the latter group spanning across both scientists and explainers. The findings indicated that training courses are effective at increasing involvement in science communication events and trainees feel more confident and able to engage due to training. An interactive style was found to be a key element of training courses. Demonstrations of good practice followed by own performance with feedback were also important, preferably involving a ‘real’ audience. A list of guidelines on best practice has been developed which offers practical advice.

  13. Measuring mumbo jumbo: A preliminary quantification of the use of jargon in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Aviv J; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2014-07-01

    Leaders of the scientific community encourage scientists to learn effective science communication, including honing the skill to discuss science with little professional jargon. However, avoiding jargon is not trivial for scientists for several reasons, and this demands special attention in teaching and evaluation. Despite this, no standard measurement for the use of scientific jargon in speech has been developed to date. Here a standard yardstick for the use of scientific jargon in spoken texts, using a computational linguistics approach, is proposed. Analyzed transcripts included academic speech, scientific TEDTalks, and communication about the discovery of a Higgs-like boson at CERN. Findings suggest that scientists use less jargon in communication with a general audience than in communication with peers, but not always less obscure jargon. These findings may lay the groundwork for evaluating the use of jargon.

  14. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  15. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  16. Unraveling reported dreams with text analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, Iris; Onrust, Louis; Kunneman, Florian; Hürriyetoglu, Ali; Stoop, Wessel; van den Bosch, A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate what distinguishes reported dreams from other personal narratives. The continuity hypothesis, stemming from psychological dream analysis work, states that most dreams refer to a person’s daily life and personal concerns, similar to other personal narratives such as diary entries.

  17. The Abdus Salam dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichichi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The frontiers in Physics are dominated by the contributors of Abdus Salam in terms of new basic ideas. These contributions have their most fascinating synthesis in the following question: does the Superworld exist? The only possible answer to this question is to review the most basic results of Super-Grand unification. We focus the attention on two specific models and their predictions. These two models represent an example of a direct comparison between a traditional unified-theory and a string-inspired approach to the solution of the many open problems of the Standard Model. Viable models must satisfy all available experimental constraints and be as simple as theoretically possible. The two well defined supergravity models, SU(5) and SU(5) x U(1), can be described in terms of only a few parameters (five and three respectively) instead of the more than twenty needed in the MSSM model, i.e., the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. A case of special interest is the strict no-scale SU(5) x U(1) supergravity where all predictions depend on only one parameter (plus the top-quark mass). A general consequence of these analyses is that the Superworld can be at the verge of discovery, lurking around the corner at present and near future facilities. This is in fact the projection of Salam's dream in the real axis. (author). 45 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  18. Where are you, my beloved? On absence, loss, and the enigma of telepathic dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ofra

    2006-12-01

    The subject of dream telepathy (especially patients' telepathic dreams) and related phenomena in the psychoanalytic context has been a controversial, disturbing 'foreign body' ever since it was introduced into psychoanalysis by Freud in 1921. Telepathy- suffering (or intense feeling) at a distance (Greek: pathos + tele)-is the transfer or communication of thoughts, impressions and information over distance between two people without the normal operation of the recognized sense organs. The author offers a comprehensive historical review of the psychoanalytic literature on this controversial issue, beginning with Freud's years-long struggles over the possibility of thoughttransference and dream telepathy. She then describes her own analytic encounter over the years with five patients' telepathic dreams-dreams involving precise details of the time, place, sensory impressions, and experiential states that the analyst was in at that time, which the patients could not have known through ordinary sensory perception and communication. The author's ensuing explanation combines contributory factors involving patient, archaic communication and analyst. Each of these patients, in early childhood, had a mother who was emotionally absent-within-absence, due to the absence of a significant figure in her own life. This primary traumatic loss was imprinted in their nascent selves and inchoate relating to others, with a fixation on a nonverbal, archaic mode of communication. The patient's telepathic dream is formed as a search engine when the analyst is suddenly emotionally absent, in order to find the analyst and thus halt the process of abandonment and prevent collapse into the despair of the early traumatization. Hence, the telepathic dream embodies an enigmatic 'impossible' extreme of patient-analyst deep-level interconnectedness and unconscious communication in the analytic process. This paper is part of the author's endeavour to grasp the true experiential scope and

  19. A graduate course for science communicators: a Mexican approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Reynoso Haynes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the UNAM (The National Autonomous University of Mexico there is an institution, the Dirección General de Divulgación de la Ciencia (DGDC devoted to the popularization of science through different media such as museums, exhibitions, journals, books, radio and TV programs, internet, workshops for children, demos, shows, plays, summer courses and outreach programs. Most of these products and materials are planned, designed and manufactured by a multidisciplinary team of professionals in the DGDC. Some of our most outstanding projects are: the creation and operation of two science museums, UNIVERSUM (on the university campus, and the Museo de la Luz (Museum of Light in the center of the city, many temporary and traveling exhibitions, museums in other parts of the country and abroad and a monthly publication for young readers called ¿Cómo ves?

  20. Automatic jargon identifier for scientists engaging with the public and science communication educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapnik, Noam; Yosef, Roy; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012–2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1) comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2) a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3) a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and be implemented

  1. Automatic jargon identifier for scientists engaging with the public and science communication educators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzipora Rakedzon

    Full Text Available Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012-2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1 comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2 a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3 a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and

  2. Facilitating awareness of philosophy of science, ethics and communication through manual skills training in undergraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordahl, Hilde Lund; Fougner, Marit

    2017-03-01

    Professional health science education includes a common theoretical basis concerning the theory of science, ethics and communication. Former evaluations by first-year students of the bachelor physiotherapy program at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA) show that they find it hard to understand the relation between these particular topics and future professional practice. This challenge is the starting point for a pedagogical development project that aims to develop learning contexts that highlight the relevance of these theoretical concepts. The aim of the study is to explore and present findings on the value of using Sykegrep manual skills classes as an arena in which students can be encouraged to think about, reflect on and appreciate the role and value of the philosophical perspectives that inform their practice and contributes to practise knowledge. A qualitative study with data collection through focus groups was performed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Eighteen first-year undergraduate students, who had completed the manual skills course, participated in the study. Analysis of the data yielded three categories of findings that can be associated with aspects of philosophy of science, ethics and communication. These are as follows: 1) preconceived understanding of physiotherapy; 2) body knowledge perspectives; and 3) relational aspects of interactions. Undergraduate students' understanding and experience of philosophy of science, ethics and communication may be facilitated by peer collaboration, reflection on intimacy and touch and the ethical aspects of interaction during manual skills training. Practical classes in Sykegrep provide a basis for students' discussions about the body as well as their experiences with the body in the collaborative learning context. The students' reflections on their expectations of manual skills in physiotherapy and experiences of touch and being touched can facilitate an awareness of

  3. Automatic jargon identifier for scientists engaging with the public and science communication educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakedzon, Tzipora; Segev, Elad; Chapnik, Noam; Yosef, Roy; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012-2015. The validation of results by the jargon identifier, the De-jargonizer, involved three mini studies: (1) comparison and correlation with existing frequency word lists in the literature; (2) a comparison with previous research on spoken language jargon use in TED transcripts of non-science lectures, TED transcripts of science lectures and transcripts of academic science lectures; and (3) a test of 5,000 pairs of published research abstracts and lay reader summaries describing the same article from the journals PLOS Computational Biology and PLOS Genetics. Validation procedures showed that the data classification of the De-jargonizer significantly correlates with existing frequency word lists, replicates similar jargon differences in previous studies on scientific versus general lectures, and identifies significant differences in jargon use between abstracts and lay summaries. As expected, more jargon was found in the academic abstracts than lay summaries; however, the percentage of jargon in the lay summaries exceeded the amount recommended for the public to understand the text. Thus, the De-jargonizer can help scientists identify problematic jargon when communicating science to non-experts, and be implemented by

  4. State of the Art of Information and Communication Science in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Michel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The great Theories from Robert Escarpit and Abraham Moles in the 70' have not successors. Between Global and local approaches Information and Communication science are very fragmented in France. They try to built models in their own environment but not in a global perspective. Systemic theory is not well known but some researches are oriented in this vision. The speech will explain the structuring of Information and Communication science and show their paradigms and some of their leaders into an epistemological approach.

  5. When 'paradigms' differ: scientific communication between skepticism and hope in recent philosophy of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coletto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The first half of this article illustrates how contemporary humanist philosophy of science got caught up in a gradual loss of confidence concerning the possibility of sound communication among scholars holding on to different paradigms or presuppositions. The second half is dedicated to the responses provided by a Christian school of philosophy to the bleak possibility of a communication crisis. The resources deployed by the reformational school of philosophy are argued to constitute valuable instruments to create a more hopeful attitude towards scientific dialogue. A final note is dedicated to the possible causes of the difficulties experienced in this area of reflection by contemporary humanist philosophy of science.

  6. Public communication of science in Mexico: past, present and future of a profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mora, Carmen; Reynoso-Haynes, Elaine; Sánchez Mora, Ana María; Tagüeña Parga, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we offer an analysis of the evolution of the professional field of public communication of science in Mexico, particularly at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the influences it has received from other countries, the impact it has on Mexican society and some of its relationships with other Latin American countries. We present examples of successful programmes in different mass media and an analysis of the evolution and diversification of science communicators over the last four decades. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Stepping Up: Empowering Science Communicators at UW's College of the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. J.; Graumlich, L. J.; McCarthy, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    At the University of Washington's College of the Environment, we strive to expand the reach of our science through better communication. While sharing science broadly is often handled through a press office, there are other avenues for disseminating research results that impact society. By empowering scientists to speak authentically about their work and why it matters, we can daylight new outlets and connections where their work can create change in our world. Scientists are experts at sharing their findings with peers, yet available pathways to reaching broader audiences can often be a black box. On the advice of a Science Communication Task Force and guided by college leadership, we launched a science communication program in 2014 as a vehicle to assist our researchers. Whether the goal is to increase public appreciation for science or help shape natural resource policy, we provide support to amplify the impact of our scientist's work. This includes events and networking opportunities, trainings and workshops, one-on-one coaching and consulting, and making connections to outlets where their work can have impact. We continue to refine and expand our program, striking a balance between creating a solid foundation of best communication practices while offering resources to address current needs of the day. We will share the successes and challenges of our program and demonstrate how our model can be implemented at other institutions.

  8. Opportunities for Inquiry Science in Montessori Classrooms: Learning from a Culture of Interest, Communication, and Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Carol R.; Gimbel, Steven J.; Haskell, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    Although classroom inquiry is the primary pedagogy of science education, it has often been difficult to implement within conventional classroom cultures. This study turned to the alternatively structured Montessori learning environment to better understand the ways in which it fosters the essential elements of classroom inquiry, as defined by prominent policy documents. Specifically, we examined the opportunities present in Montessori classrooms for students to develop an interest in the natural world, generate explanations in science, and communicate about science. Using ethnographic research methods in four Montessori classrooms at the primary and elementary levels, this research captured a range of scientific learning opportunities. The study found that the Montessori learning environment provided opportunities for students to develop enduring interests in scientific topics and communicate about science in various ways. The data also indicated that explanation was largely teacher-driven in the Montessori classroom culture. This study offers lessons for both conventional and Montessori classrooms and suggests further research that bridges educational contexts.

  9. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39–44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  10. Dreams of the rarebit fiend: Food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore eNielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines 3 aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: 1 assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; 2 determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and 3 explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreaming. 396 students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; dairy products were the most frequently blamed food type (39%-44%. Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that include poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting. Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest 4 explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: 1 food specific effects; 2 food-induced distress; 3 folklore influences, and 4 causal misattributions. Clinical implications are

  11. [Generation and functions of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano-Martínez, Pablo; Ramos-Platón, M José

    2014-10-16

    Over the last decade an ever-increasing number of articles have been published on dreams, which reflects the interest that several fields of neuroscience have in the topic. In this work we review the main scientific theories that have contributed to the body of knowledge on how they are produced and what function they serve. The article discusses the evolution of their scientific study, following a neurophysiological and neurocognitive approach. The first of these two methods seeks to determine the neurobiological mechanisms that generate them and the brain structures involved, while the second considers dreams to be a kind of cognition interacting with that of wake-fulness. Several different hypotheses about the function of dreams are examined, and more particularly those in which they are attributed with a role in the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotional states. Although the exact mechanism underlying the generation of dreams has not been determined, neurobiological data highlight the importance of the pontine nuclei of the brainstem, several memory systems, the limbic system and the brain reward system and a number of neocortical areas. Neurocognitive data underline the relation between the cognitive and emotional processing that occurs during wakefulness and during sleep, as well as the influence of the surroundings on the content of dreams. With regard to their function, one point to be stressed is their adaptive value, since they contribute to the reprocessing of the information acquired in wakefulness and the control of the emotions. This suggests that dreams participate in the development of the cognitive capabilities.

  12. Science as Performance: Communicating and Educating through Theater, Music, and Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian B.

    2010-01-01

    Theater, music, dance, the literary and the visual arts can convey the joys and controversies of science. We describe a program at the Graduate Center entitled Science & the Arts which is designed to communicate to the public the excitement and wonder of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Over the past few years there have been major successes in communicating science to the public through the arts. This is especially evident in theater, film and opera with such recent plays as Copenhagen, the Oscar winning film A Beautiful Mind and the opera Doctor Atomic at the Met. The performance series Science & the Arts has been developed and tested at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY) in mid-Manhattan for more than nine years, see http://web.gc.cuny.edu/sciart/ . We have established working relationships with actors, playwrights, dancers, choreographers, musicians, composers, artists and scientists who work at the intersection of science and the arts. In this presentation we will illustrate many of our collaborations in theater, dance, music and art. Faculty members, professionals and students from the university, other educational institutions, museums, theaters and government laboratories as well as the public with an interest science and arts programs should find this presentation of particular interest. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation, NSF PHY-0431660.

  13. Dreaming and Interventional Cardiology: Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafal Sztembis[1] Joanna Sztembis[2] Andrzej Przybylski[2] Janusz Romanek[2

    2017-01-01

    Sleep and dreaming play important physiological and psychological role in human life. And though dreams playedimportant role and sometimes even changed course of mankind history, very seldom both doctors and patientstalked about it. Article is case report of precongnitive dream of patient with heart attack and analysis of populationof consecutive 100 patients admitted to hospital with heart attack in relation to presence and meaning ofprecognitive dreams. Our study proves that we can talk about precognitive dreams in population of patients withheart attack however what may be their influence on patients' wellbeing is matter of open questions.

  14. I Had a Dream: AAAI Presidential Address

    OpenAIRE

    Bledsoe, Woody

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago I had a dream, a daydream, if you will. A dream shared with many of you. I dreamed of a special kind of computer, which had eyes and ears and arms and legs, in addition to its "brain." I did not dream that this new computer friend would be a means of making money for me or my employer or a help for my country - though I loved my country then and still do, and I have no objection to making money. I did not even dream of such a worthy cause as helping the poor and handicap...

  15. Integrated assessment, water resources, and science-policy communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, E.G.R.; Akhtar, M.K.; McBean, G.A.; Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional climate change modeling neglects the role of feedbacks between different components of society-biosphere-climate system. Yet, such interconnections are critical. This paper describes an alternative, Integrated Assessment (IA) model that focuses on feedbacks not only within individual elements of the society-biosphere-climate system, but also on their interconnections. The model replicates the relevant dynamics of nine components of the society-biosphere- climate system at the sectoral, or single-component, level: climate, carbon cycle, hydrological cycle, water demand, water quality, population, land use, energy and economy. The paper discusses the role of the model in science-policy dialogue. (author)

  16. The narrative of dream reports

    OpenAIRE

    Blagrove, Mark Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Two questions are addressed: 1) whether a dream is meaningful as a whole, or whether the scenes are separate and unconnected, and 2) whether dream images are an epiphenomenon of a functional physiologicaL process of REM sleep, or whether they are akin to waking thought. Theories of REM sleep as a period of information-processing are reviewed. This is Linked with work on the relation...

  17. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  18. The termination phase of psychoanalysis as seen through the lens of the dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenell, Gary

    2002-01-01

    The decision about when to terminate analysis has long been underpinned by a theory-driven criterion model, which may steer the analytic dialogue away from its customary activities of free association, empathic listening, and interpretation. As a remedy to this situation, the author proposes that by paying careful attention to less consciously crafted patient communications such as dreams, the analytic dyad can consider readiness to set a termination date from a perspective that is context-sensitive and less encumbered by preordained criteria. Tracing the dreams of one analysand from the vantage point of contemporary dream theory, the author demonstrates how careful attention to the dream elucidated the patient's readiness to terminate and her complex feelings about the termination process. Finally, the author challenges the notion that the termination phase is of greater evaluative than therapeutic importance, and provides clinical material as evidence that this is not the case.

  19. In science communication, why does the idea of a public deficit always return? How do the shifting information flows in healthcare affect the deficit model of science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Henry

    2016-05-01

    The healthcare field contains a multitude of opportunities for science communication. Given the many stakeholders dancing together in a multidirectional tango of communication, we need to ask how much does the deficit model apply to the health field? History dictates that healthcare professionals are the holders of all knowledge, and the patients and other stakeholders are the ones that need the scientific information communicated to them. This essay argues otherwise, in part due to the rise of shared decision-making and patients and other stakeholders acting as partners in healthcare. The traditional deficit model in health held that: (1) doctors were experts and patients were consumers, (2) it is impossible for the public to grasp the many disciplines of knowledge in medicine, (3) if experts have trouble keeping up with medical research then the public surely can't keep up, and (4) it is safer for healthcare professionals to communicate to the public using a deficit model. However, with the rise of partnerships with patients in healthcare decision-making, the deficit model might be weakening. Examples of public participation in healthcare decision-making include: (1) crowd-sourcing public participation in systematic reviews, (2) public participation in health policy, (3) public collaboration in health research, and (4) health consumer groups acting as producers of health information. With the challenges to the deficit model in science communication in health, caution is needed with the increasing role of technology and social media, and how these may affect the legitimacy of healthcare information flows away from the healthcare professional. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Dreaming of you: client and therapist dreams about each other during psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Knox, Sarah; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E; Hess, Shirley A; Miles, Joe; Spangler, Patricia T; Pudasaini, Sakar

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the frequency of therapists' dreams about their clients and clients' dreams about their therapists, to determine how therapists and clients who had such dreams differed from those who did not have such dreams, whether therapy process and outcome differed for those who had and did not have such dreams, and to describe the content and consequences of these dreams. Thirteen doctoral student therapists conducted psychodynamic psychotherapy with 63 clients in a community clinic. Therapists who had dreams about clients had higher estimated and actual dream recall than did therapists who did not dream about clients. Qualitative analyses indicated that therapists' dreams yielded insights about the therapist, clients, and therapy; therapists used insights in their work with the clients. Among the clients, only two (who were particularly high in attachment anxiety and who feared abandonment from their therapists) reported dreams that were manifestly about their therapists. Therapists-in-training dreamed more about their clients than their clients dreamed about them. Dreams about clients can be used by therapists to understand themselves, clients, and the dynamics of the therapy relationship.