Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence
The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…
Curry, Kathy S.
This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.
Patanella, Daniel Francis
The utility of traditional predictors of both science grades and career goals (SAT and GPA) was compared to psychological predictors such as Piagetian stage (as measured by the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking), sex-role schema (as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and self-schema in students enrolled in either psychology classes (n = 123) or biology classes (n = 56). While the overall predictive ability of the model was high (R = .73), the strongest predictors of grade in science class were traditional variables and not psychological ones as predicted. Prediction of career goal, while more modest (R = .19), was best served by the psychological variable of self-schema. Subsequent analyses indicated that Piagetian stage was best conceptualized as a mediating variable and that sex-role schema as measured played almost no role in either grade or career goal, as well as verifying the internal validity of the self-schema measure used. Biology students were more likely to possess a science self-schema than psychology students (chi2 (1,179) = 7.34, p < .01) and outperformed psychology students on the Piagetian questions (t(177) = 3.01, p < .01). Response latency was recorded for all participants' answer to the Piagetian questions; contrary to prediction however, the inclusion of response latency did not add to the predictive ability of the Piagetian measure used.
Stehney, Ann K.
Forty-eight mathematicians in industry, business, and government replied to a questionnaire on the relative merits of the traditional undergraduate curriculum, advanced topics in pure mathematics, computer programing, additional computer science, and specialized or applied topics. They favored programing and applied mathematics, along with a…
Wu, Ling Ting; Wang, Wenru; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lopez, Violeta; Liaw, Sok Ying
Globally more registered nurses need to be recruited to meet the needs of aging populations and increased co-morbidity. Nursing recruitment remains challenging when compared to other healthcare programs. Despite healthcare students having similar motivation in joining the healthcare industry, many did not consider nursing as a career choice. This study aims to identify the deterrents to choosing nursing among healthcare undergraduates by examining the differences in the factors influencing healthcare career choices and nursing as a career choice. A cross sectional study was conducted using a 35-parallel items instrument known as Healthcare Career Choice and Nursing Career Choice scale. Six hundred and four (n = 604) first year medical, pharmacy, dentistry and social science students from a university in Singapore completed the survey. Nursing as a career was perceived by healthcare students to be more likely influenced by prior healthcare exposure, the nature of the work, job prospects, and social influences. Lack of autonomous decision making, perceived lower ability to make diagnosis, having to attend to patients' hygiene needs, engendered stigma, and lack of parental support were identified as deterring factors to choosing nursing as a career. An understanding of the deterrents to choosing nursing as career allows policy makers and educational leaders to focus on recruitment strategies. These include providing more exposure to nurses' roles in early school years, helping young people to overcome the fear of providing personal hygiene care, promoting nurses' autonomous nursing practice, addressing gender stigma, and overcoming parental objection.
Full Text Available The relationships between personality and career decision making in undergraduates are analyzed in this work. The hypothesis is that efficient personality is associated with the more mature process of career decision making. For this hypothesis, the Questionnaire of Efficient Personality and the Inventory of Career Factors was administered to 497 students in their final year of undergraduate school. The collected data was put under factorial analysis, analysis of differences of averages, and analysis of variance. The results confirm that an effective personality is tied to career decision making based as much on one´s knowledge of oneself as an understanding of the working world.
Women remain disproportionately underrepresented in certain science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and occupations. Stereotypes of scientists may be contributing factors in this phenomenon. However, this relationship has not yet been empirically examined. This is partly because of the dearth of literature addressing the…
Schleigh, S.; Manda, A. K.
"Those who don't know or can't do, teach". This is a well known statement accepted by many as an adage. It is a statement that implies that the teachers of our science content really do not understand the science. In this study, we examined whether there was some truth in this statement by comparing undergraduates heading towards science careers and undergraduates heading toward science teaching careers. Do teachers really have a different understanding for science than scientists? If so, do they learn differently from each other? Our study examines content knowledge gains and ability to apply and engage in science using the content that is being addressed. We questioned (1)if students in one track engage and develop knowledge and skills more proficiently than another; (2)if the PBL approach is more effective for a particular group of learners; (3)if the PBL environment (virtual/physical) impacts the development and understanding for NOS; and (4) how the engagement of learning through PBL transfers to classroom practice. We used the Problem Based Approach (PBL) in undergraduate courses that covered the science content related to climate change. Project-based learning (PBL) is an approach to science education that has been shown to support student understanding for science concepts by allowing them to apply knowledge to real-world, relevant applications. Recent research has focused on developing teachers' understanding for science by engaging them in learning events that are found in PBL and authentic research approaches (AR)( e.g. Abd-El-Khalick and Lederman, 2000). We used mixed methods to answer each of our questions. Our instruments included a likert scale for the nature of science as argumentation, a concept mapping activity, a written essay, a content exam and an observation protocol for the teaching practice. In this study we included a total of 40 pre-service teachers (online) 30 pre-service teachers (physical classroom) and 35 undergraduates (physical
Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.
The problem of improving diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce—still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines—can only be addressed by first recruiting and engaging a more diverse student population into the discipline, then retaining them in the workforce. California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) is home to the Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. As an HSI with strong ties to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system, the Monterey Bay REU is uniquely positioned to address the crucial recruitment and engagement of a diverse student body. Eleven sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students develop scientific self-efficacy and literacy skills through rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two
from field selection, marketing and recruitment potentialities to interests and other ... 29. 12. Social Science. Tourism Management. 18. -. Geography. -. -. History. 18 ..... therapy on irrational career thoughts among secondary school students in ...
School of Psychology, College of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. ... to take more demanding courses and development and use of career plans (Day as cited in. Yilfashewa, 2011). .... decision-making style, integration of life roles, value expression, and life-role self-concepts. (Herr et ...
The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…
Jagoda, Sue; Cremer, Bob
Summarizes proceedings and student experiences at the 1980 Science Career Workshop for Physically Disabled Students at the Lawrence Hall of Science (University of California). Includes a description of the key-note speaker's topics, and other workshop activities. (DS)
Ogunde, Jared C.; Overton, Tina L.; Thompson, Christopher D.; Mewis, Ruth; Boniface, Suzanne
This study investigated undergraduate chemistry students' career aspirations and how these vary from one educational system to another in different geographic regions. The participants of this study were undergraduate chemistry students from various institutions located in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. The study took place in the form of an…
In 2010 women represented half of the US population and over half of current graduates from college (57%) but less than a third of undergraduate degrees in science and engineering (STEM). This underrepresentation is worse in certain fields such as physics (21%), and engineering (22%) compared to 52% in chemistry. This underrepresentation is not only a social and cultural issue, but it is also cause for alarm in regard to the United States' ability to maintain its technological and economic dominance in the global economy. STEM fields provide valuable contributions to the nation's economic and environmental security (Augustine, 2005; Chang, 2009; Riegle-Crumb and King, 2010; Robelen, 2010; Tessler, 2008), paying practitioners well and bringing in revenue for successful businesses and governments (National Science Board [NSB], 2008; Riegle-Crumb and King). Consequently, addressing the underrepresentation of women and increasing their persistence in STEM fields will increase the number of scientists and engineers contributing to these fields, which could, in turn, improve the nation's economy, safety, and technological revenues. Research indicates that there are internal and external factors that affect the ability of women to see future success in STEM and to identify with the STEM and consequently persist. This presentation will summarize the current literature on issues affecting undergraduate women's retention in STEM as well as present strategies to improve this retention. Part of this presentation will draw from my own research studies in this area. The findings from my study and others reveal that only women who participate in redefinition strategies related to their marginalized status are able to persist; those who cannot redefine their marginality in relation to the dominant discourse of STEM begin to lose interest or doubt their competence in the field, resulting in their departure from STEM.
Manoogian, Margaret M; Cannon, Melissa L
As our global older adult populations are increasing, university programs are well-positioned to produce an effective, gerontology-trained workforce (Morgan, 2012; Silverstein & Fitzgerald, 2017). A gerontology curriculum comprehensively can offer students an aligned career development track that encourages them to: (a) learn more about themselves as a foundation for negotiating career paths; (b) develop and refine career skills; (c) participate in experiential learning experiences; and (d) complete competency-focused opportunities. In this article, we discuss a programmatic effort to help undergraduate gerontology students integrate development-based career planning and decision-making into their academic programs and achieve postgraduation goals.
Full Text Available This paper aims to classify career aspirations by identifying career anchors and self-monitoring for a second-year undergraduates studying at two top of range universities in St. Petersburg. The participants major in strategical professions. The study involved 202 people from the following bachelor programs: «Logistics and Supply chain management» (n=98, «Sociology» (n=92 and «Human Resource Management» (n=22. The findings illustrate that peculiarities of undergraduates’ career aspirations are possible to estimate using career anchors developed by Schein and level of self-monitoring developed by Snyder which are varied for students studying at different educational programs. The results also indicate the significant differences of career aspirations between young girls and young men at each bachelor’s program. The male groups, having the same level of self-monitoring with female ones, demonstrate some differences in career anchors.
Polasek, Ozren; Mavrinac, Martina; Jović, Alan; Dzono Boban, Ankica; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores; Glivetić, Tatjana; Vasilj, Ivan; Petrovecki, Mladen
The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the undergraduate grade point average in prediction of scientific production of research trainees during their fellowship and later in career. The study was performed in 1320 research trainees whose fellowships from the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports were terminated between 1999 and 2005. The data were analyzed using logistic regression. The results indicated that undergraduate grade point average was negatively associated with scientific productivity both during and after the fellowship termination. Other indicators, such as undergraduate scientific productivity exhibited much stronger positive association with scientific productivity later in career and should be given more weight in candidate selection process in science and research.
Park, Heerak; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min
Given the central role of career stress in college students' lives, this research examined whether career stress mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and career attitude maturity in a sample of 185 undergraduate students in South Korea. The results indicated that career ambiguity stress, as measured by a career stress…
Levy, C.; Yih, T.C.; Ebadian, M.A.
OAK-B135 Minority Undergraduate Training for Energy-Related Careers (MUTEC). First, all the co-investigators would like to thank the Department of Energy's Minority Impact Office for awarding FIU with the MUTEC grant for the past five years. We believe it has made a difference, especially in the creation of a new, streamlined curriculum that began with the Mechanical Engineering Program and has now become college wide. Second, we have given 774 students an introduction to engineering, something that did not exist 3 years ago. Third, we have given FLAME the opportunity to participate in this program through the equivalent introduction to engineering course. Over 150 of those students have participated and have a 100% record of completing the program once, they start. Over 80% of those students have gone on to college. Fourth, we have aided 32 undergraduates continue in their engineering studies. Of those half have already graduated, and half of those have gone on to graduate school. One of these graduate school students has graduated with an MSME and another has won an NSF Scholarship. Fifth, we have created a bank of 51 2-hour tapes in 10 science and engineering science areas and covered the spectrum of math courses from geometry/trigonometry to differential equations. Sixth, we have created two examinations for use in preparation for entry into the engineering programs and in preparation for the EIT. Seventh, we have created a streamlined curriculum and four options, two of which are energy related. From these points, we believe that the program was very successful and for that we wish to thank the Department of Energy and specifically Ms. Estela Romo for her unwavering support
Hall, Robert N., Ed.
The theme of this issue of "The ACA Bulletin" is the education of speech undergraduates and graduates for careers other than teaching. Included in this issue are such articles as "Employment of Speach Communication Graduates: A Rewiew of Problems and Prospects" by Robert Hall; "Employer Images of Speech Communication Majors: A Question of…
... for a second career, working in health sciences librarianship might be the right career for you! Read ... MLA's most revered leaders speaks about the health librarianship profession Read about things of interest to a ...
Apturkar, D. K.; Dandekar, Usha K.; Dandkar, Kundankumar Narayan; Jorwekar, Golul Jayant; Baviskar, Padmakar Kashinath
Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergra...
Brevik, Eric C.; Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas
Several studies have demonstrated that undergraduate students benefit from research experiences. Benefits of undergraduate research include 1) personal and intellectual development, 2) more and closer contact with faculty, 3) the use of active learning techniques, 4) creation of high expectations, 5) development of creative and problem-solving skills, 6) greater independence and intrinsic motivation to learn, and 7) exposure to practical skills. The scientific discipline also benefits, as studies have shown that undergraduates who engage in research experiences are more likely to remain science majors and finish their degree program (Lopatto, 2007). Research experiences come as close as possible to allowing undergraduates to experience what it is like to be an academic or research member of their profession working to advance their discipline. Soils form in the field, therefore, field experiences are very important in developing a complete and holistic understanding of soil science. Combining undergraduate research with field experiences can provide extremely beneficial outcomes to the undergraduate student, including increased understanding of and appreciation for detailed descriptions and data analysis as well as an enhanced ability to see how various parts of their undergraduate education come together to understand a complex problem. The experiences of the authors in working with undergraduate students on field-based research projects will be discussed, along with examples of some of the undergraduate research projects that have been undertaken. In addition, student impressions of their research experiences will be presented. Reference Lopatto, D. 2007. Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning. CBE -- Life Sciences Education 6:297-306.
The objective of this book is to expose junior and senior high school students to the science and technology fields. It also will convey the importance of getting a general education in science and mathematics while still in high school and of continuing such studies in college. This is intended to encourge students, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, to consider and prepare for careers in science and technology. This book attempts to point out the increasing importance of such knowledge in daily life regardless of occupational choice. This book is intended to be used by junior and senior high school students, as a classroom reference by teachers, and by scientist and engineers participating in outreach activities.
Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.; Christ, A. J.; Ehrenfeucht, S.
The current structure of many undergraduate programs, particularly those at large research universities, requires students to engage with a major or academic emphasis early in their university careers. This oftentimes curbs exploration outside the major and can inhibit interdisciplinary collaboration. The Boston University Research Education and Communication of Science (BURECS) program seeks to bridge this institutional divide by fostering interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration on climate change-related issues by students from across Boston University (B.U.). Every year, approximately fifteen first-year students from B.U.'s College of Arts and Sciences, College of Communication, and School of Education are selected to join BURECS, which includes a climate science seminar, a hands-on lab course, a supported summer internship with Boston-area researchers, and the opportunity to participate in Antarctic field work during subsequent B.U. Antarctic Research Group expeditions. Currently in its third year, BURECS is funded through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Professors Program.
Frantz, Kyle J; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K; Britner, Shari L; Carruth, Laura L; Williams, Brian A; Pecore, John L; DeHaan, Robert L; Goode, Christopher T
Undergraduate research experiences confer benefits on students bound for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers, but the low number of research professionals available to serve as mentors often limits access to research. Within the context of our summer research program (BRAIN), we tested the hypothesis that a team-based collaborative learning model (CLM) produces student outcomes at least as positive as a traditional apprenticeship model (AM). Through stratified, random assignment to conditions, CLM students were designated to work together in a teaching laboratory to conduct research according to a defined curriculum led by several instructors, whereas AM students were paired with mentors in active research groups. We used pre-, mid-, and postprogram surveys to measure internal dispositions reported to predict progress toward STEM careers, such as scientific research self-efficacy, science identity, science anxiety, and commitment to a science career. We are also tracking long-term retention in science-related career paths. For both short- and longer-term outcomes, the two program formats produced similar benefits, supporting our hypothesis that the CLM provides positive outcomes while conserving resources, such as faculty mentors. We discuss this method in comparison with course-based undergraduate research and recommend its expansion to institutional settings in which mentor resources are scarce. © 2017 K. J. Frantz et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen
Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authori...
Careers in Focus: Library and Information Science, Second Edition profiles 19 careers for professionals interested in this field. Job profiles include:. -Acquisitions librarians. -Book conservators. -Children's librarians. -Corporate librarians. -Film and video librarians. -Law librarians. -Library assistants. -Library media specialists. -Medical librarians. -Research assistants.
@ 10:00 am - 2:00 pm Wisconsin Room, UWM Student Union Register today! Engineering Careers Careers in Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering
Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.
The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through
Manley, P. L.; Ambos, E. L.
Undergraduate research (UR) is one of the most authentic and effective ways to promote student learning, and is a high-impact educational practice that can lead to measurable gains in student retention and graduation rates, as well as career aspirations. In recent years, UR has expanded from intensive summer one-on-one faculty-student mentored experiences to application in a variety of educational settings, including large lower division courses. The Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR), founded in 1978, is a national organization of individual (8000) and institutional members (650) within a divisional structure that includes geosciences, as well as 10 other thematic areas. CUR's main mission is to support and promote high-quality undergraduate student-faculty collaborative research and scholarship that develops learning through research. CUR fulfills this mission through extensive publication offerings, faculty and student-directed professional development events, and outreach and advocacy activities that share successful models and strategies for establishing, institutionalizing, and sustaining undergraduate research programs. Over the last decade, CUR has worked with hundreds of academic institutions, including two-year colleges, to develop practices to build undergraduate research into campus cultures and operations. As documented in CUR publications such as Characteristics of Excellence in Undergraduate Research (COEUR), strategies institutions may adopt to enhance and sustain UR often include: (1) the establishment of a central UR campus office, (2) extensive student and faculty participation in campus-based, as well as regional UR celebration events, (3) development of a consistent practice of assessment of UR's impact on student success, and, (4) establishment of clear policies for recognizing and rewarding faculty engagement in UR, particularly with respect to mentorship and publication with student scholars. Three areas of current focus within the
P. Avila Jr
Full Text Available The knowledge of scientific method provides stimulus and development of critical thinking and logical analysis of information besides the training of continuous formulation of hypothesis to be applied in formal scientific issues as well as in everyday facts. The scientific education, useful for all people, is indispensable for the experimental science students. Aiming at the possibility to offer a systematic learning of the scientific principles, we developed a undergraduate course designed to approximate the students to the procedures of scientific production and publication. The course was developed in a 40 hours, containing two modules: I. Introducing Scientific Articles (papers and II. Writing Research Project. The first module deals with: (1 the difference between scientific knowledge and common sense; (2 scientific methodology; (3 scientific publishing categories; (4 logical principles; (5 deduction and induction approach and (6 paper analysis. The second module includes (1 selection of problem to be solved by experimental procedures; (2 bibliography revision; (3 support agencies; (4 project writing and presentation and (5 critical analysis of experimental results. The course used a Collaborative Learning strategy with each topic being developed through activities performed by the students. Qualitative and quantitative (through Likert questionnaires evaluation were carried out in each step of the course, the results showing great appreciation by the students. This is also the opinion of the staff responsible for the planning and development of the course, which is now in its second and improved version.
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authoritarian parenting and anxiety, after minimising their measurement errors. Career unreadiness mediated the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on anxiety. Nevertheless, authoritarian parenting still maintained a negative direct effect on anxiety, after controlling for career unreadiness. The findings imply that reducing undergraduates' career unreadiness is justifiable to prevent their anxiety. Such a reduction would benefit from neutralising the demands of authoritarian parenting. More fundamentally, diverting authoritarian parenting is advisable. PMID:25431512
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authoritarian parenting and anxiety, after minimising their measurement errors. Career unreadiness mediated the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on anxiety. Nevertheless, authoritarian parenting still maintained a negative direct effect on anxiety, after controlling for career unreadiness. The findings imply that reducing undergraduates' career unreadiness is justifiable to prevent their anxiety. Such a reduction would benefit from neutralising the demands of authoritarian parenting. More fundamentally, diverting authoritarian parenting is advisable.
Stara, Michelle M.
The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) (2013) has acknowledged that additional graduates are needed in engineering and related STEM fields. However, the GAO has also noted that it is difficult to determine if the additional graduates will align with employer demand at the time of entry into the workforce. This research study attempts to examine undergraduate engineering students' perceptions of scientists and if they were related to students' intentions to pursue science by examining the constructs of Stereotypes of Scientists (SOS) and Career Intentions in Science (CIS). While results of data analysis were not significant, patterns were seen that provided valuable information with regard to the variability of undergraduate engineering students and the complexity of what goes into stereotype formation and career choice. As a practitioner, there were pertinent applications that could be implemented from the results of this and related studies. From the perspective of practitioners, the findings may be used to target recruitment, retention, and specific teaching strategies to increase enrollment and graduate numbers in the lesser known engineering and STEM fields.
Singer, Susan Rundell
This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…
We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorIties, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...
We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented southwester minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...
Griffith, Jeffrey K
We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...
Smith, Kathleen N.; Gayles, Joy Gaston
Using social cognitive career theory and the cognitive information processing model as frameworks, in this constructivist case study we examined the career-related experiences and decisions of 10 women engineering undergraduate seniors who accepted full-time positions. From the data analysis 3 major themes emerged: critical undergraduate…
This booklet is part of a set of self-guidance publications prepared by Catalyst, a national nonprofit organization. It is written specifically for undergraduate women to help them bring their aspirations into focus, develop realistic career goals and plan for career options in fields which, at the managerial and professional levels, have been…
The objective of this study was to identify and determine the extent of students\\' access to, and use of the Internet using the Science Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan and University of Lagos as a case study. The study also aimed at comparing the rate of use among this group of students and determine which ...
Medina, Stephanie R.; Ortlieb, Evan; Metoyer, Sandra
Science content knowledge is a concern for educators in the United States because performance has stagnated for the past decade. Investigators designed this study to determine the current levels of scientific literacy among undergraduate students in a freshman-level biology course (a core requirement for majors and nonmajors), identify factors…
Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher R; Ghanem, Eman; Sandy, Moriah; Clark, Greg; Palmer, Gregory C; Reichler, Stuart; Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Dolan, Erin L
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide a promising avenue to attract a larger and more diverse group of students into research careers. CUREs are thought to be distinctive in offering students opportunities to make discoveries, collaborate, engage in iterative work, and develop a sense of ownership of their lab course work. Yet how these elements affect students' intentions to pursue research-related careers remain unexplored. To address this knowledge gap, we collected data on three design features thought to be distinctive of CUREs (discovery, iteration, collaboration) and on students' levels of ownership and career intentions from ∼800 undergraduates who had completed CURE or inquiry courses, including courses from the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), which has a demonstrated positive effect on student retention in college and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. We used structural equation modeling to test relationships among the design features and student ownership and career intentions. We found that discovery, iteration, and collaboration had small but significant effects on students' intentions; these effects were fully mediated by student ownership. Students in FRI courses reported significantly higher levels of discovery, iteration, and ownership than students in other CUREs. FRI research courses alone had a significant effect on students' career intentions.
Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…
Telfer, Jo Ann
Science has become an essential part of our cultural, social and technological lives. Around the world economic policies are giving high priority to the production of new knowledge generated by scientists. Unfortunately, gender equality in science-related careers has not been achieved. Women who possess high intellectual and personal abilities are succeeding in many occupational areas previously closed to all but the most impervious women, but females are still largely underrepresented in physical science and mathematics related careers. The purpose of the current study was to examine the reasons for this underrepresentation of women in science-related careers. Participants included a subset of mothers (n = 174), fathers (n = 132) and children (n = 186) from a larger study at the University of Calgary entitled Gender Differences in Student Participation and Achievement in the Sciences: Choice or Chance ? Telephone interview and survey questionnaire data were examined for gender and achievement level differences, focusing on high achieving girls who are most likely to succeed in science-related careers. Relationships between parents' and children's responses were also examined using the theoretical construct of Eccles' Model of Achievement Related Choices. Gathered data were studied using factor analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of variance as well as categorical analysis of qualitative results. Girls and boys achieved similar grades on all academic measures except the Alberta Science Achievement Test, where boys scored significantly higher than girls. Mothers, fathers, and children indicated positive attitudes towards science, no gender stereotyping about science and science careers, and gender neutral beliefs about science achievement. Gender differences were found in expressed possibility of future career choice. Science/Professional Careers were viewed as male occupations by mothers and children, but as gender neutral occupations by fathers
Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…
Full Text Available As a unique and versatile undergraduate degree program, a Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS is offered by a number of colleges/schools of pharmacy. These provide a bachelor's degree concentrated in pharmaceutical sciences, and can be a non-Doctor of Pharmacy option, possibly before progressing to graduate degree studies. Recently implemented at the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UTCPPS, one such BSPS major is Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design. This new undergraduate major was created to serve the needs of the cosmetic and personal care industry, with a great need identified for well-trained new professionals with basic knowledge in the sciences and business. This Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design major was added to four other BSPS majors at UTCPPS. Introduced in 2013, this major is the only functioning undergraduate degree in Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design in the United States. Preliminary job placement data provides promising evidence that this undergraduate major has helped graduates launch a career in the cosmetic and personal care, or pharmaceutical industries. Based on our experience from the past three years, we believe that this cosmetic science major has been worth its resource investment. We hope others designing new undergraduate pharmaceutical sciences programs might integrate advice from this experience into their impending programs. Type: Idea Paper
Hughes, W. Jay
Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.
Impey, Chris David; Buxner, S. R.; Antonellis, J.; King, C.; Johnson, E.; CATS
Initial results from a major study of scientific literacy are presented, involving nearly 10,000 undergraduates in science classes at a large Southwestern Land Grant public university over a 20-year period. The science content questions overlap with those in the NSF's Science Indicators series. About 10% of all undergraduates in the US take a General Education astronomy course, and NSF data and the work of Jon Miller show that the number of college science courses taken is the strongest predictor of civic scientific literacy. Our data show that gains in knowledge on any particular item through the time students graduate are only 10-15%. Among students who have taken most or all of their science requirements, one-in-three think that antibiotics kill viruses as well as bacteria, one-in-four think lasers work by focusing sound waves, one-in-five think atoms are smaller than electrons, and the same fraction is unaware that humans evolved from earlier species of animals and that the Earth takes a year to go around the Sun. The fraction of undergraduates saying that astrology is "not at all” scientific increases from 17% to a still-low 34% as they move through the university. Equally worrying, half of all science majors say that astrology is "sort of” or "very” scientific. Education majors - the cohort of future teachers - perform worse than average on most individual questions and in terms of their overall scientific literacy. Assuming the study institution is representative of the nation's higher education institutions, our instruction is not raising students to the level we would expect for educated citizens who must vote on many issues that relate to science and technology. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.
As part of a school review process a survey of the students was designed to gain insight into who the students of the school were. The survey was a voluntary anonymous online survey. Students were able to skip questions and select more than one option in some questions. This was to reduce frustration with participation in the survey and ensure that the survey was completed. This conference details the average undergraduate Computer Science student of a large third level institute.
Price, Kelly Rae
Women remain under-represented in science career fields and this is especially evident in the physical sciences. Female students maintain equal science interest and achievement to male students in elementary school but by middle and high school they fall behind their male peers. Reasons cited for girls' declining interest in science include battling traditional gender stereotypes, lack of encouragement, and lack of female role models. Four main science concerns related to girls/women as indicated by research literature were science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. In Georgia, some girls have made a break from the research trends by demonstrating their fervor for science through participation in the academic activity, Science Olympiad. The purpose of this study was to examine the science perceptions of girls who demonstrated science success by their participation in Science Olympiad. Utilizing phenomenological and feminist perspectives, the qualitative research method of focus group interviewing was used to address the research questions comprising the four science concerns of female science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. The study participants were all girls/women who participated in Science Olympiad. A total of five focus groups were studied. One of the focus groups had current college undergraduates, former Science Olympians, in it while the others were composed of high school girls. Through the description of their science experiences, the participants shared their perceptions of the four science concerns. When addressing these science concerns, the participants revealed four factors that had most affected their science perceptions: the importance of support, science needs Serious Fun, teachers matter, and the bonuses of extracurricular involvement. In their experiences, the participants found success in science because they had teachers, parents, and peers who supported their academic interests, including science, and
Valk, R.; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes
This article presents a study on international careers and career success of Indian women in Science & Technology (S&T). We conducted interviews with 30 (upper) middle class Indian women in New Delhi and Bangalore (India) who pursued careers abroad as self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Important
Craig, Cheryl J.; Verma, Rakesh; Stokes, Donna; Evans, Paige; Abrol, Bobby
This research examines the influence of parents on students' studying the STEM disciplines and entering STEM careers. Cases of two graduate students (one female, one male) and one undergraduate student (male) are featured. The first two students in the convenience sample are biology and physics majors in a STEM teacher education programme; the third is enrolled in computer science. The narrative inquiry research method is used to elucidate the students' academic trajectories. Incidents of circumstantial and planned parent curriculum making surfaced when the data was serially interpreted. Other themes included: (1) relationships between (student) learners and (teacher) parents, (2) invitations to inquiry, (3) modes of inquiry, (4) the improbability of certainty, and (5) changed narratives = changed lives. While policy briefs provide sweeping statements about parents' positive effects on their children, narrative inquiries such as this one illuminate parents' inquiry moves within home environments. These actions became retrospectively revealed in their adult children's lived narratives. Nurtured by their mothers and/or fathers, students enter STEM disciplines and STEM-related careers through multiple pathways in addition to the anticipated pipeline.
Alawad, Awad Ali Mohamed Ahmed; Khan, Waleed Shabeer; Abdelrazig, Yousif Mohammed; Elzain, Yamin Ibrahim; Khalil, Hassan Osman; Ahmed, Omer Bakri Elsayed; Adam, Omeralfaroug Ahmed Ibrahim
Medical students are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how medical students select their areas of specialization is the key to achieve a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The objective is to identify the number of medical students who have decided their postgraduate specialty career, their career specialties preference, and factors that may influence their decision to select a particular specialty. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2013 at Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire comprising demographic data and questions about future specialties preferences and factors influencing those preferences was distributed to 887 male and female students, (from first to fifth academic years) recruited in the study. Response rate was 73% with 647 questionnaires collected, out of 887 eligible medical students. Of the returned questionnaires, 604 were valid. The majority of students (541, 89.6%) have chosen a specialty. Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties. The least selected specialty was anaesthesiology. A significant association was found between gender and specialty choice using Chi-square test (p = 0.00). There was no association between undergraduate level and specialty choice (p = 0.633). The most common reason for choosing a specific specialty was "Personal Interest" (215, 39.7%) followed by being "Helpful to the community" (144, 26.6%). Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties.
Smith, Walter S.
A random sample of 400 K-12 science educators who were members of the National Science Teachers Association were surveyed regarding their attitude toward and practice of career education in their science teaching. These science teachers rejected a narrowly vocational view, favoring instead a conception of career education which included self-perception, values analysis, and vocational skills objectives. The science educators affirmed the importance of career education for a student's education, asserted career education ought to be taught in their existing science courses, and expressed a willingness to do so. Fewer than one-third of the science teachers, however, reported incorporating career education at least on a weekly basis in their science lessons. The major impediment to including more career education in science teaching was seen to be their lack of knowledge of methods and materials relevant to science career education, rather than objections from students, parents, or administrators; their unwillingness; or their evaluation of career education as unimportant. Thus, in order to improve this aspect of science teaching, science teachers need more concrete information about science career education applications.
Fillman, Valentina M
Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maeda, Kenichi; Niimi, Naoko
This study was designed to investigate the relationships among basic skills for career development, competence, and self-esteem in undergraduate students. Ninety-three students (41 male, 52 female) participated in this study. Results indicated that high self-esteem students scored significantly higher than low self-esteem students on self-perceptions of four basic skills for career development (communication, exploration of information, future planning, and decision-making) and of four domain...
Goebel, Camille A.
that the experience validated their science and science-related career choices. Results imply that these changes have the potential to strengthen the undergraduate pursuit of science-related careers and will contribute positive influences to our education system and society at large.
Harrison, Melinda; Dunbar, David; Ratmansky, Lisa; Boyd, Kimberly; Lopatto, David
Our study, focused on classroom-based research at the introductory level and using the Phage Genomics course as the model, shows evidence that first-year students doing research learn the process of science as well as how scientists practice science. A preliminary but notable outcome of our work, which is based on a small sample, is the change in student interest in considering different career choices such as graduate education and science in general. This is particularly notable, as previous research has described research internships as clarifying or confirming rather than changing undergraduates' decisions to pursue graduate education. We hypothesize that our results differ from previous studies of the impact of engaging in research because the students in our study are still in the early stages of their undergraduate careers. Our work builds upon the classroom-based research movement and should be viewed as encouraging to the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education movement advocated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Science Foundation, and other undergraduate education stakeholders.
Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.
Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…
Salonen, Anssi; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Keinonen, Tuula
The aim of this study was to investigate how the career-related instruction implemented in secondary school chemistry education concerning water issues influence students’ career awareness and interest towards science learning. This case study is part of a larger design-based research of the EU-MultiCO project that focuses on promoting students’ scientific career awareness and attractiveness by introducing them career-based scenarios at the beginning of the instruction unit. The participants ...
Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Ruedi, Elizabeth A.; Engen, Katie; Chang, Amy L.
The "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" reports cite the critical role of professional societies in undergraduate life science education and, since 2008, have called for the increased involvement of professional societies in support of undergraduate education. Our study explored the level of support being provided by…
Hill, Susan T.; And Others
Because undergraduate education is the foundation for graduate studies, it is important to know where our Nation's science and engineering (S&E) doctorate recipients are receiving their undergraduate training. Specifically, this report addresses the following broad questions: (1) What are the undergraduate origins of S&E doctorate holders? (2)…
This study examined the role of acculturation to the host culture, acculturation to the home culture, and dispositional hope in career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) in a sample of 213 Korean international undergraduate students enrolled in U.S. universities. The findings revealed that hope and acculturation to the host culture uniquely and…
Bush, Alan J.; Bush, Victoria D.; Oakley, Jared; Cicala, John
Undergraduate sales education is somewhat unique in that it prepares students for a career which functions mostly outside of traditional corporate management structures. Concurrently, the demand for well-qualified salespeople has intensified partly due to high turnover. This article contends that there may be a disconnection between student…
Monks, Kathy; Conway, Edel; Dhuigneain, Muireann Ni
This article describes the way in which colleagues from the Business faculty, the Careers Service and the Library at Dublin City University collaborated to design and deliver an integrated approach to personal development planning (PDP) with the aim of motivating first year undergraduate students to take greater responsibility for their own…
Hosein, Anesa; Rao, Namrata
Undergraduate students sometimes pursue degrees that are aimed at allied jobs. This research examines how students in one allied professional degree, education studies, conceptualise their pre-professional ideology and how these ideologies relate to their intended career trajectory. The research draws upon a year-long qualitative survey of over 70…
Full Text Available Career guidance and counselling is a vaguely implemented concept in most educational institutions, governmental and non-governmental organisations. The severity of the problem and scarcity of relevant information among university students have prompted the undertaking of this study the aim of which was to assess career development among undergraduate students of Madda Walabu University. Crosssectional study design was employed to gather quantitative data through self-administered structured questionnaires. The participants in the study were 605 undergraduate students of Madda Walabu University who were recruited through multi-stage sampling. The analysis employed SPSS‑20.0 to calculate t‑test and ANOVA. The findings suggested that socio-demographic variables were important in determining the factors, levels and variances in career development. The participants’ perceived benefit of career development has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the expected mean and the observed mean, t (604 =29.11, p<.01. However, they had only some unsatisfactory information on career development and most of them (47.4% did not have a bright future. The result of this study showed that career development is important in understanding students’ personal values, clarifying their goals, career choice directions and job-searching skills. Because the respondents’ reported information on career development is so poor, lack of future direction and decreased performance are inevitable. It is suggested that career counselling services are seen to be highly recommendable in advancing students’ career development in many aspects.
Hendrickson, Ryan C.; Mueller, Melinda A.; Strand, Jonathan R.
A considerable amount of research exists about political science careers at community colleges and liberal arts institutions, as well as about training and hiring practices across different types of institutions. However, there is virtually no commentary available on political science careers at comprehensive institutions, where a significant…
Valk, Reimira; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes; Godbole, R.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into international career motives, repatriation and career success of Indian women in Science and Technology. Design/methodology/approach In total, 30 semi-structured interviews were conducted with (upper) middle-class Indian women in Science and
Interest in a science and technology career, and determinants of such interest, were investigated. In Study 1, self-efficacy for work activities and interest in a science and technology career were assessed. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 264; 132 men, 132 women) and graduates (n = 276; 146 men, 130 women). Graduates were more interested in a science and technology career than undergraduate students, and men were more interested in a technology career than women. Moreover, self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities was positively related with interest in such a career. In Study 2, relationships between self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities and childhood experiences were investigated using data from undergraduates (n = 262; 132 men, 130 women) and graduates (n = 274; 141 men, 133 women). Individuals who frequently experienced daily activities, activities in nature, and activities with animals and plants in their childhood had higher self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities. Moreover, graduates had such past experiences more frequently than undergraduates and males more frequently than females.
Rebekah St Clair
Full Text Available Doctoral recipients in the biomedical sciences and STEM fields are showing increased interest in career opportunities beyond academic positions. While recent research has addressed the interests and preferences of doctoral trainees for non-academic careers, the strategies and resources that trainees use to prepare for a broad job market (non-academic are poorly understood. The recent adaptation of the Social Cognitive Career Theory to explicitly highlight the interplay of contextual support mechanisms, individual career search efficacy, and self-adaptation of job search processes underscores the value of attention to this explicit career phase. Our research addresses the factors that affect the career search confidence and job search strategies of doctoral trainees with non-academic career interests and is based on nearly 900 respondents from an NIH-funded survey of doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows in the biomedical sciences at two U.S. universities. Using structural equation modeling, we find that trainees pursuing non-academic careers, and/or with low perceived program support for career goals, have lower career development and search process efficacy (CDSE, and receive different levels of support from their advisors/supervisors. We also find evidence of trainee adaptation driven by their career search efficacy, and not by career interests.
Liskey, Brian K.
This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in
Eshbaugh, Elaine; Gross, Patricia E.; Hillebrand, Kelsey; Davie, Josie; Henninger, William R.
The graying of the Baby Boomers has created a shortage of professionals in aging-related careers. However, colleges and universities with gerontology and aging programs face a challenge of recruiting students. The purpose of this study was to determine what students are looking for in a career and whether these attributes are congruent with…
Fábio Nogueira Pereira
Full Text Available This study researched how a population of 40 undergraduate students attending a career planning project in a private college perceived work, career and their relation with interpersonal relationships. The questionnaire revealed that most subjects perceived work positively, reported through four different perceptions of work, reported perceiving a social dimension of work, but about half of it reported that they didn’t perceive people in general working in a way that showed being concerned about changing society. When the subjects listed people who worked with the same values they held, reports ranged through parents, bosses and friends; when asked about people that didn’t have the same values, they listed work-mates, peers and siblings; when asked about most important people for their career, they listed their parents separately, teachers and children. Data suggested a wide participation of relationships in processing information and constructing conceptions related to work and career.
Schedule for 2006's Transforming the Professoriate: Preparing Women for Careers in Science & Engineering Conference. Transforming the Professoriate: Preparing Women for Careers in Science & Engineering took place from July 20 – 22, 2006 at the Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center
An expanding ethnicity gap exists in the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers in the United States. The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering revealed that the number of minorities pursuing STEM degrees and careers has declined over the past few years. The specific origins of this trend are not quite evident; one variable to consider is that undergraduate minority students are failing in STEM disciplines at various levels of education from elementary to postsecondary. The failure of female and minority students to enter STEM disciplines in higher education have led various initiatives to establish programs to promote STEM disciplines among these groups. Additional funding for minority STEM programs have led to a increase in undergraduate minority students entering STEM disciplines, but the minority students' graduation rate in STEM disciplines is approximately 7% lower than the graduation of nonminority students in STEM disciplines. This phenomenological qualitative research study explores the lived experiences of underrepresented minority undergraduate college students participating in an undergraduate minority-mentoring program. The following nine themes emerged from the study: (a) competitiveness, (b) public perception, (c) dedication, (d) self-perception, (e) program activities, (f) time management, (g) exposure to career and graduate opportunities, (h) rigor in the curriculum, and (i) peer mentoring. The themes provided answers and outcomes to better support a stronger minority representation in STEM disciplines.
Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.
undergraduates from diverse backgrounds serve as teaching assistants. Pre-college and community college students can more easily relate to these young role models, which can make pursuing an ocean or earth science career seem more attainable. (7) Organizing career fairs and informal career mixers, to promote one-on-one interactions between students of all ages and diverse career professionals in a range of ocean, earth and environmental science occupations. (8) Forming relationships with minority-serving recruiting organizations and programs to ensure we reach our intended audience. Through such partnerships, we have reached students from underrepresented communities in Hawai';i and throughout the Pacific.
Wilson, Deleise S; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Visovatti, Moira; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Feetham, Suzanne
To present four case scenarios reflecting the process of research career development using career cartography. Career cartography is a novel approach that enables nurses, from all clinical and academic settings, to actively engage in a process that maximizes their clinical, teaching, research, and policy contributions that can improve patient outcomes and the health of the public. Four early-career nurse researchers applied the career cartography framework to describe their iterative process of research career development. They report the development process of each of the components of career cartography, including destination statement, career map, and policy statement. Despite diverse research interests and career mapping approaches, common experiences emerged from the four nurse researchers. Common lessons learned throughout the career cartography process include: (a) have a supportive mentorship team, (b) start early and reflect regularly, (c) be brief and to the point, (d) keep it simple and avoid jargon, (e) be open to change, (f) make time, and (g) focus on the overall career destination. These four case scenarios support the need for nurse researchers to develop their individual career cartography. Regardless of their background, career cartography can help nurse researchers articulate their meaningful contributions to science, policy, and health of the public. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Seven years ago, the Strategic Programs for Innovations in Undergraduate Physics (SPIN-UP) Report produced by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics identified several key characteristics of thriving undergraduate physics departments including steps these departments had taken to prepare students better for careers in industry. Today statistical data from AIP shows that almost 40% of students graduating with a degree in physics seek employment as soon as they graduate. Successful undergraduate physics programs have taken steps to adapt their rigorous physics programs to ensure that graduating seniors have the skills they need to enter the industrial workplace as well as to go on to graduate school in physics. Typical strategies noted during a series of SPIN-UP workshops funded by a grant from NSF to APS, AAPT, and AIP include flexible curricula, early introduction of undergraduates to research techniques, revised laboratory experiences that provide students with skills they need to move directly into jobs, and increased emphasis on ``soft'' skills such as communication and team work. Despite significant success, undergraduate programs face continuing challenges in preparing students to work in industry, most significantly the fact that there is no job called ``physicist'' at the undergraduate level. supported by grant NSF DUE-0741560.
Wu, M. S.
During summers 2011 and 12 Montclair State University hosted a Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (REU) in transdisciplinary, hands-on, field-oriented research in environmental sciences. Participants were housed at the Montclair State University's field station situated in the middle of 30,000 acres of mature forest, mountain ridges and freshwater streams and lakes within the Kittatinny Mountains of Northwest New Jersey, Program emphases were placed on development of project planning skills, analytical skills, creativity, critical thinking and scientific report preparation. Ten students were recruited in spring with special focus on recruiting students from underrepresented groups and community colleges. Students were matched with their individual research interests including hydrology, erosion and sedimentation, environmental chemistry, and ecology. In addition to research activities, lectures, educational and recreational field trips, and discussion on environmental ethics and social justice played an important part of the program. The ultimate goal of the program is to facilitate participants' professional growth and to stimulate the participants' interests in pursuing Earth Science as the future career of the participants.
Many science students find themselves in the midst of graduate school or sitting at a lab bench, and realize that they hate lab work! Even worse is realizing that they may love science, but science (at least academic science) is not providing many job opportunities these days. What's a poor researcher to do !? This book gives first-hand descriptions of the evolution of a band of hardy scientists out of the lab and into just about every career you can imagine. Researchers from every branch of science found their way into finance, public relations, consulting, business development, journalism, and more - and thrived there! Each author tells their personal story, including descriptions of their career path, a typical day, where to find information on their job, opportunities to career growth, and more. This is a must-read for every science major, and everyone who is looking for a way to break out of their career rut.
Salonen, Anssi; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Keinonen, Tuula
The aim of this study was to investigate how career-related instruction implemented in secondary school chemistry education concerning water issues influences students' career awareness and their interest towards science learning. This case study is part of a larger design-based research study for the EU-MultiCO project, which focuses on promoting…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although General Practice (GP was recognized as a medical specialty in Greece in 1986, the number of GPs is insufficient to cover needs and only few medical graduates choose GP as a career option. In the present study we investigated the profile of medical students in terms of their decisions regarding specialization and the possible association of career choices different from GP with the status of undergraduate training regarding GP. Methods The sample consisted of final year students in the Medical School of the University of Athens, Greece. Students filled in a self-reported questionnaire focusing on medical specialization, and GP in particular. Results Response rate was 82.5% with 1021 questionnaires collected, out of 1237 eligible medical students. Only 44 out of the 1021 (4.3% respondents stated that GP is -or could be- among their choices for specialty. The most popular medical specialty was General Surgery (10.9%, followed by Cardiology (9.6%, Endocrinology (8.7% and Obstetrics-Gynaecology (8.3%. The most common criterion for choosing GP was the guaranteed employment on completion of the residency (54.6% while a 56.6% of total respondents were positive to the introduction of GP/FM as a curriculum course during University studies. Conclusion Despite the great needs, GP specialty is currently not a career option among undergraduate students of the greater Medical University in Greece and is still held in low esteem. A university department responsible for undergraduate teaching, promotion and research in GP (where not available is essential; the status of undergraduate training in general practice/family medicine seems to be one of the most important factors that influence physician career choices regarding primary care specialties.
Yeoman, Kay H.; James, Helen A.; Bowater, Laura
This paper describes the design and evaluation of an undergraduate final year science communication module for the Science Faculty at the University of East Anglia. The module focuses specifically on science communication and aims to bring an understanding of how science is disseminated to the public. Students on the module are made aware of the…
The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Program began in FY 2010. The program objectives are to support the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and to stimulate research careers in the disciplines supported by the DOE Office of Science. Both university and DOE national laboratory early career scientists are eligible. Applicants must be within 10 years of receiving their PhD. For universities, the PI must be an untenured Assistant Professor or Associate Professor on the tenure track. DOE laboratory applicants must be full time, non-postdoctoral employee. University awards are at least 150,000 per year for 5 years for summer salary and expenses. DOE laboratory awards are at least 500,000 per year for 5 years for full annual salary and expenses. The Program is managed by the Office of the Deputy Director for Science Programs and supports research in the following Offices: Advanced Scientific and Computing Research, Biological and Environmental Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics. A new Funding Opportunity Announcement is issued each year with detailed description on the topical areas encouraged for early career proposals. Preproposals are required. This talk will introduce the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research program and describe opportunities for research relevant to the condensed matter physics community. http://science.energy.gov/early-career/
Diab, Paula N; Flack, Penny S; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Reid, Stephen J Y
There is evidence in the literature that rural background significantly encourages eventual rural practice. Given the shortage of healthcare providers in rural areas, we need to explore ways of ensuring throughput and success of rural-origin students in health sciences. It is therefore important to understand who these students are, what motivates them and the factors involved in the formation of their career choices. The aim of this study is to understand the aspirations of undergraduate health science students of rural origin with regard to their future career plans. The objectives of the study include to explore and identify the key issues facing rural-origin students with regard to their future career plans. Individual interviews were conducted with 15 health science students from two South African universities. Transcriptions were analyzed with the aid of Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com). The findings suggest health science students of rural origin studying at universities in the South African context face specific challenges related to the nature of the contrast between rural and urban life, in addition to the more generic adaptations that confront all students on entering tertiary education. In order to support rural students in their studies, academic, financial, emotional and social stressors need to be addressed. Universities should strengthen existing support structures as well as aid the development of further support that may be required.Key words: career plan, health science, rural background, South Africa.
Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.
Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563
Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa
Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…
Lichtenstein, Gary; Loshbaugh, Heidi G.; Claar, Brittany; Chen, Helen L.; Jackson, Kristyn; Sheppard, Sheri
This paper explores the career-related decision making of seniors enrolled in undergraduate engineering programs at two nationally recognized institutions. This strand of the Academic Pathways Study (APS) research revealed that many engineering students were undecided about their career plans, even late into their senior years and that many were…
Brown, Elizabeth R; Thoman, Dustin B; Smith, Jessi L; Diekman, Amanda B
To remain competitive in the global economy, the United States (and other countries) is trying to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by graduating an additional 1 million people in STEM fields by 2018. Although communion (working with, helping, and caring for others) is a basic human need, STEM careers are often (mis)perceived as being uncommunal. Across three naturalistic studies we found greater support for the communal affordance hypothesis, that perceiving STEM careers as affording greater communion is associated with greater STEM career interest, than two alternative hypotheses derived from goal congruity theory. Importantly, these findings held regardless of major (Study 1), college enrollment (Study 2), and gender (Studies 1-3). For undergraduate research assistants, mid-semester beliefs that STEM affords communion predicted end of the semester STEM motivation (Study 3). Our data highlight the importance of educational and workplace motivational interventions targeting communal affordances beliefs about STEM.
Scott, Lori K.; Simmons, Steve R.
Primary literature is an underutilized learning resource for undergraduate courses in crop science. Reading assignments from scientific journals were utilized in an undergraduate University of Minnesota crop physiology course at Southwest Minnesota State University from 2002 to 2004. The subjects of the articles corresponded to the lecture topics.…
Hartman, Nadia; Kathard, Harsha; Perez, Gonda; Reid, Steve; Irlam, James; Gunston, Geney; Janse van Rensburg, Vicki; Burch, Vanessa; Duncan, Madeleine; Hellenberg, Derek; Van Rooyen, Ian; Smouse, Mantoa; Sikakane, Cynthia; Badenhorst, Elmi; Ige, Busayo
Undergraduate education and training in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Cape Town has become socially responsive. A story of transformation that is consonant with wider societal developments since the 1994 democratic elections, outlining the changes in undergraduate curricula across the faculty, is presented.
Nevle, R. J.; Watson Nelson, T.; Harris, J. M.; Klemperer, S. L.
In 2012, the School of Earth Sciences (SES) at Stanford University sponsored two summer undergraduate research programs. Here we describe these programs and efforts to build a cohesive research cohort among the programs' diverse participants. The two programs, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Research (SESUR) Program and Stanford School of Earth Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research in Geoscience and Engineering (SURGE) Program, serve different undergraduate populations and have somewhat different objectives, but both provide students with opportunities to work on strongly mentored yet individualized research projects. In addition to research, enrichment activities co-sponsored by both programs support the development of community within the combined SES summer undergraduate research cohort. Over the course of 6 to 9 months, the SESUR Program engages Stanford undergraduates, primarily rising sophomores and juniors, with opportunities to deeply explore Earth sciences research while learning about diverse areas of inquiry within SES. Now in its eleventh year, the SESUR experience incorporates the breadth of the scientific endeavor: finding an advisor, proposal writing, obtaining funding, conducting research, and presenting results. Goals of the SESUR program include (1) providing a challenging and rewarding research experience for undergraduates who wish to explore the Earth sciences; (2) fostering interdisciplinary study in the Earth sciences among the undergraduate population; and (3) encouraging students to major or minor in the Earth sciences and/or to complete advanced undergraduate research in one of the departments or programs within SES. The SURGE Program, now in its second year, draws high performing students, primarily rising juniors and seniors, from 14 colleges and universities nationwide, including Stanford. Seventy percent of SURGE students are from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in STEM fields, and approximately one
Youngyol Y. Schanz
Full Text Available This study examines whether race or ethnicity affects student decision-making pertaining to career goals and choices. The career goals and choices of undergraduates in criminal justice (CJ were surveyed in early spring of 2006. The research also investigates students’ perceptions of their own perceived competence as future CJ practitioners. Data were collected from CJ undergraduates from an urban university in the upper Midwestern part of the U.S. The results indicate that racial or ethnic minority students have significantly different career goals and choices than those of non-minority students. Some future research implications and policy implications are discussed.
Galloway, Kyle W.
Recent data suggests that of the UK students graduating with a degree in chemistry in 2015, only 18.9% continued to employment as "Science Professionals". While this shows the wide range of employment that is available for chemistry graduates, it also highlights the need for them to have relevant transferable skills, rather than just the…
Reuben, Ernesto; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi
Women outnumber men in undergraduate enrollments, but they are much less likely than men to major in mathematics or science or to choose a profession in these fields. This outcome often is attributed to the effects of negative sex-based stereotypes. We studied the effect of such stereotypes in an experimental market, where subjects were hired to perform an arithmetic task that, on average, both genders perform equally well. We find that without any information other than a candidate's appearance (which makes sex clear), both male and female subjects are twice more likely to hire a man than a woman. The discrimination survives if performance on the arithmetic task is self-reported, because men tend to boast about their performance, whereas women generally underreport it. The discrimination is reduced, but not eliminated, by providing full information about previous performance on the task. By using the Implicit Association Test, we show that implicit stereotypes are responsible for the initial average bias in sex-related beliefs and for a bias in updating expectations when performance information is self-reported. That is, employers biased against women are less likely to take into account the fact that men, on average, boast more than women about their future performance, leading to suboptimal hiring choices that remain biased in favor of men.
Jones, B.; Patino, L. C.
Preparation of the future professional geoscience workforce includes increasing numbers as well as providing adequate education, exposure and training for undergraduates once they enter geoscience pathways. It is important to consider potential career trajectories for geoscience students, as these inform the types of education and skill-learning required. Recent reports have highlighted that critical thinking and problem-solving skills, spatial and temporal abilities, strong quantitative skills, and the ability to work in teams are among the priorities for many geoscience work environments. The increasing focus of geoscience work on societal issues (e.g., climate change impacts) opens the door to engaging a diverse population of students. In light of this, one challenge is to find effective strategies for "opening the world of possibilities" in the geosciences for these students and supporting them at the critical junctures where they might choose an alternative pathway to geosciences or otherwise leave altogether. To address these and related matters, The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) has supported two rounds of the IUSE: GEOPATHS Program, to create and support innovative and inclusive projects to build the future geoscience workforce. This program is one component in NSF's Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE) initiative, which is a comprehensive, Foundation-wide effort to accelerate the quality and effectiveness of the education of undergraduates in all of the STEM fields. The two tracks of IUSE: GEOPATHS (EXTRA and IMPACT) seek to broaden and strengthen connections and activities that will engage and retain undergraduate students in geoscience education and career pathways, and help prepare them for a variety of careers. The long-term goal of this program is to dramatically increase the number and diversity of students earning undergraduate degrees or enrolling in graduate programs in geoscience fields, as well as
Schultz, G. R.; Slater, T. F.; Wierman, T.; Erickson, J. G.; Mendez, B. J.
The GEMS Space Science Sequence is a high quality, hands-on curriculum for elementary and middle schools, created by a national team of astronomers and science educators with NASA funding and support. The standards-aligned curriculum includes 24 class sessions for upper elementary grades targeting the scale and nature of Earth's, shape, motion and gravity, and 36 class sessions for middle school grades focusing on the interactions between our Sun and Earth and the nature of the solar system and beyond. These materials feature extensive teacher support materials which results in pre-test to post-test content gains for students averaging 22%. Despite the materials being highly successful, there has been a less than desired uptake by teachers in using these materials, largely due to a lack of professional development training. Responding to the need to improve the quantity and quality of space science education, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators - from the University of California, Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL), the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education - experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. Research on the exodus of young teachers from the teaching profession clearly demonstrates that early career teachers often leave teaching because of a lack of mentoring support and classroom ready curriculum materials. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers in middle school, and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Sequence for Grades 6-8. Then, these master teachers were mentored in how to coach their
Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C
Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required.
Stoilescu, Dorian; McDougall, Douglas
Previous research revealed a reduced number of female students registered in computer science studies. In addition, the female students feel isolated, have reduced confidence, and underperform. This article explores differences between female and male students in undergraduate computer science programs in a mid-size university in Ontario. Based on…
Godfrey, Christopher M.; Barrett, Bradford S.; Godfrey, Elaine S.
Undergraduate students acquire a deeper understanding of scientific principles through first-hand experience. To enhance the learning environment for atmospheric science majors, the University of North Carolina at Asheville has developed the severe weather field experience. Participants travel to Tornado Alley in the Great Plains to forecast and…
Kondrick, Linda C.
The purpose of this study was to determine which factors encourage the persistence of women in the pursuit of Science, Math, and Engineering (SME) careers. Surveys with 36 parallel pairs of theory and history questions regarding the importance and the aptness of variables identified in the literature were completed by 205 SME career women. The variables covered three educational levels: High School, Undergraduate and Graduate. Results reveal which variables fit the experiences of these women and were also believed by them to be important to women in the pursuit of an SME career goal. False Negatives, women who according to the SME literature should not have persisted but did, were identified. Their existence, together with the false positives identified in the SME literature, is evidence, according to Confirmation/Disconfirmation Theory, that important variables in SME persistence are yet to be discovered. Follow-up telephone interviews with nineteen respondents identified important affective variables. Love of math or science was in itself a powerful motivator. Respondents made suggestions for intervention programs that may help to develop that abiding interest. Mentors, role models, and social support networks were identified as important in building the confidence and sustaining the focus needed to cope with the rigorous curriculum and negative sex-bias encountered in SME programs. The qualitative and quantitative results were synthesized in a Causal Event Flow Network, a cognitive map of the longitudinal effects of both positive and negative push/pull vectors operating on women in pursuit of an SME career goal.
The following dissertation focuses on a case study that uses critical theory, social learning theory, identity theory, liberal feminine theory, and motivation theory to conduct a narrative describing the lived experience of females and their performance in two highly selective private university, where students can cross-register between school, while majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Through the use of narratives, the research attempts to shed additional light on the informal and formal science learning experiences that motivates young females to major in STEM in order to help increase the number of women entering STEM careers and retaining women in STEM majors. In the addition to the narratives, surveys were performed to encompass a larger audience while looking for themes and phenomena which explore what captivates and motivates young females' interests in science and continues to nurture and facilitate their growth throughout high school and college, and propel them into a major in STEM in college. The purpose of this study was to uncover the lived experiences of junior and senior undergraduate female science majors during their formal and informal education, their science motivation to learn science, their science identities, and any experiences in gender inequity they may have encountered. The findings have implications for young women deciding on future careers and majors through early exposure and guidance, understanding and recognizing what gender discrimination, and the positive effects of mentorships.
Full Text Available Scientific undergraduate research in higher education often yields positive outcomes for student and faculty member participants alike, with underrepresented students often showing even more substantial gains (academic, professional, and personal as a result of the experience. Significant success can be realized when involving deaf and hard-of-hearing (d/hh undergraduate students, who are also vastly underrepresented in the sciences, in interdisciplinary research projects. Even d/hh Associate degree level students and those in the first two years of their postsecondary careers can contribute to, and benefit from, the research process when faculty mentors properly plan/design projects. We discuss strategies, including the dissemination/communication of research results, for involving these students in research groups with different communication dynamics and share both findings of our research program and examples of successful chemical and biological research projects that have involved d/hh undergraduate students. We hope to stimulate a renewed interest in encouraging diversity and involving students with disabilities into higher education research experiences globally and across multiple scientific disciplines, thus strengthening the education and career pipeline of these students.
McGowan, Alan H
The teaching of the ethical implications of scientific advances in science courses for undergraduates has significant advantages for both science and non-science majors. The article describes three courses taught by the author as examples of the concept, and examines the disadvantages as well as the advantages. A significant advantage of this approach is that many students take the courses primarily because of the ethical component who would not otherwise take science. A disadvantage is less time in the course for the science; arguably, this is outweighed by the greater retention of the science when it is put into context.
Puryer, James; Patel, Ashini
Aim: To investigate the career intentions, work-life balance and retirement plans of dental undergraduates at the University of Bristol in 2015. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 210 clinical undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.Results: The response rate was 79%. The majority (81.7%) were ‘satisfied’ or ‘extremely satisfied’ with their choice of career. The majority (78.7%) felt men and women are equally likely to succeed in dentistry, although 42.9% felt men had an ad...
Hooker, Sascha K.; Simmons, Samantha E.; Stimpert, Alison K.; McDonald, Birgitte I.
It is widely acknowledged that family and care-giving responsibilities are driving women away from Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Marine mammal science often incurs heavy fieldwork and travel obligations, which make it a challenging career in which to find work-life balance. This opinion piece explores gender equality, equity (the principles of fairness that lead to equality), and work-life balance in science generally and in this field in particular. We aim ...
Chan, Denise M; Wong, Rex; Runnels, Sean; Muhizi, Epaphrodite; McClain, Craig D
Rwanda currently faces a severe shortage of trained medical personnel, including physician anesthesiologists. The recruitment of residents into the anesthesia program has been consistently low. This study aimed at determining the factors that influence undergraduates' decision to pursue anesthesia as a career choice. A questionnaire was created and administered to final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Rwanda. The questionnaire was created based on factors identified from literature review and key informant interviews. The questionnaire was translated, field-tested, and refined. The final survey questionnaire contains 27 4-point Likert scale items and 4 free-text questions. Seventy-nine final year undergraduate medical students responded to the survey. Only 2 students (2.5%) chose anesthesia as their top choice for postgraduate training. The most frequently named factors for not choosing anesthesiology were long work hours and high stress level, insufficient mentorship, and low job opportunity. The issues identified by our survey must be considered when making efforts toward increasing anesthesia recruitment in Rwanda. Factors such as lack of material resources and high workload will not be easily addressed. Others can be addressed through changes in medical student anesthesiology rotations and better mentorship by anesthesiologists during formative years. Focusing on factors that can be changed now may increase enrollment into anesthesiology. Future studies will include broadening the survey population and further investigating the influencing factors elucidated by this study.
Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur
Using data from 24 countries, which participated in the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), we examine the relationship between parental science employment and students' career expectations. In contrast to prior PISA-based studies, we find that the link between parental employment and adolescent plans to work in science is non-trivial and merits attention. In this context, we consider three versions of the gender socialisation hypothesis. The strong variant posits that girls' plans are shaped solely by their mothers' career pathways while boys model their expectations exclusively on fathers' occupations. The weaker version of this hypothesis expects children to be influenced more by the same-sex than by the opposite-sex parent. Finally, the third possibility is that, as egalitarian ideologies prevail, parents inspire adolescent occupational plans regardless of gender. These hypotheses are assessed separately for student career plans related to biology, agriculture and health (BAH) in contrast to computing, engineering and mathematics (CEM), because the involvement in these fields of science is known to be segregated by gender. Using two-level multinomial logit modelling, we find some support for the weak version of the gender socialisation hypothesis. Although within-family transfers of preferences for science careers vary considerably across countries, we note certain regularities. In many nations, relevant paternal employment enhances sons' interest in science careers regardless of their field. In contrast, maternal employment inspires daughters in fewer countries and this influence tends to be limited to careers in BAH. We discuss the possible implications of these findings for science educators.
This article condenses some highlights from a presentation that I have now given at several universities about the bench-to-newsroom career path. For readers who simply want a short explanation of how to parlay their hard-earned critical-thinking skills from graduate school into a lucrative job in a growing industry, go to law school. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Health Science Explorations is a Maryland 4-H Program for youth ages ten and older. Hospital-based multi-day summer sessions and clubs that meet regularly, enable youth to interact with health care professionals in authentic medical settings. The program introduces youth to local health career opportunities, fosters science literacy and interest in science careers, and teaches healthy lifestyle practices. The authors share strategies to guide other educators through the process of developing their own science career exploration programs.
Blockus, Linda Helen
The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models
Diving Deep: A Comparative Study of Educator Undergraduate and Graduate Backgrounds and Their Effect on Student Understanding of Engineering and Engineering Careers, Utilizing an Underwater Robotics Program
Scribner, J. Adam
Numerous studies have demonstrated that educators having degrees in their subjects significantly enhances student achievement, particularly in secondary mathematics and science (Chaney, 1995; Goe, 2007; Rowan, Chiang, & Miller, 1997; Wenglinsky, 2000). Yet, science teachers in states that adopt the Next Generation Science Standards will be facilitating classroom engineering activities despite the fact that few have backgrounds in engineering. This quantitative study analyzed ex-post facto WaterBotics (an innovative underwater robotics curriculum for middle and high school students) data to determine if educators having backgrounds in engineering (i.e., undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering) positively affected student learning on two engineering outcomes: 1) the engineering design process, and 2) understanding of careers in engineering (who engineers are and what engineers do). The results indicated that educators having backgrounds in engineering did not significantly affect student understanding of the engineering design process or careers in engineering when compared to educators having backgrounds in science, mathematics, technology education, or other disciplines. There were, however, statistically significant differences between the groups of educators. Students of educators with backgrounds in technology education had the highest mean score on assessments pertaining to the engineering design process while students of educators with disciplines outside of STEM had the highest mean scores on instruments that assess for student understanding of careers in engineering. This might be due to the fact that educators who lack degrees in engineering but who teach engineering do a better job of "sticking to the script" of engineering curricula.
Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani
The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.
Fulmer, Gavin W.
Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.
Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia
Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.
Blondeau, Lauren; Awad, Germine H.
Males continue to dominate mathematics-related areas in graduate school and employment, possibly due to the differential guidance that they receive as students. In the present study, 180 undergraduates completed an online survey on the career and graduate school guidance they received from mathematics professors. Student sex, professor sex, and…
Akpochafo, Grace Omejevwe; Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta
This study investigated the perceived impact of entrepreneurship education on career development among undergraduates in south-south universities in Nigeria. To guide the study four research questions were generated and one hypothesis formulated, which was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study employed an expost facto research design.…
Sutton, Paul A; Mason, John; Vimalachandran, Dale; McNally, Scarlett
Numerous factors influence the career choices of undergraduate medical students, although little work has focused specifically on the surgical specialties. We aimed to investigate medical students' early experiences of surgery along with the motivators and barriers to selecting a surgical career. All final-year medical students were invited to participate in an online survey. A range of quantitative data (expressed as a proportion of total respondents) and qualitative data (grouped and thematically analyzed) were collected to evaluate students' attitudes to careers in surgery and potential influences on these. A total of 482 students from 20 medical schools throughout England and Wales completed the survey. Overall, 91% of respondents had work experience before medical school, in which the greatest satisfaction was reported in the 21% who undertook placements in surgery. In addition, 58% expressed a desire to spend time working abroad and 59% to undertake a period of research; the primary motivator for both was career/professional development. Surgery was the most popular career choice amongst respondents. The 2 most important factors in decisions pertaining to their career were reported as interest in the specialty and work-life balance. Students draw career advice from numerous sources, most commonly mentors (49%) and student surgical societies (46%). Only 1% wanted more website information, with personal contact being paramount. It is vital for the continuing strength of the profession and the quality of surgery for the public that we continue to attract the best undergraduates into careers in surgery. Surgeons of all grades must be aware that how they are perceived by students affects future career choices. Early experiences of surgery are fundamental in assisting medical students to make informed career choices. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kazempour, Mahsa; Amirshokoohi, Aidin
This article discusses the key components of a reform-based introductory undergraduate environmental science course for nonscience majors and elementary teacher candidates as well as the impact of such components on the participants. The main goals for the course were to actively engage the students in their learning and, in doing so, to enhance…
Naidu, Jaideep T.; Sanford, John F.
Standard textbooks in core Statistics and Management Science classes present various examples to introduce basic probability concepts to undergraduate business students. These include tossing of a coin, throwing a die, and examples of that nature. While these are good examples to introduce basic probability, we use improvised versions of Russian…
Reed, Kelynne E.; Aiello, David P.; Barton, Lance F.; Gould, Stephanie L.; McCain, Karla S.; Richardson, John M.
This article discusses the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teaching and Research (STAR) Leadership Program, developed at Austin College, which engages students in activities integrated into undergraduate STEM courses that promote the development of leadership behaviors. Students focus on interpersonal communication,…
Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.
Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…
Collins, Todd A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs; Schiff, Jen
We know little about the amount of career preparation offered to students in political science departments. This lack of information is particularly troubling given the state of the current job market and the growth of applied degree programs on university campuses. To address this issue, this article presents the results of a December 2010 survey…
Academic institutions and researchers are becoming increasingly involved in translational research to spur innovation in addressing many complex biomedical and societal problems, and in response to the focus of the NIH and other funders. One approach to translational research is to development interdisciplinary research teams. By bringing together collaborators with diverse research backgrounds and perspectives, these teams seek to blend their science and the workings of the scientists to push beyond the limits of current research. While team-science promises individual and team benefits in creating and implementing innovations, its increased complexity poses challenges. In particular, since academic career advancement commonly focuses on individual achievement, team-science might differentially impact early stage researchers. This need to be recognized for individual accomplishments in order to move forward in an academic career may give rise to research-team conflicts. Raising awareness to career-related aspects of team science will help individuals (particularly trainees and junior faculty) take steps to align their excitement and participation with the success of both the team and their personal career advancement. PMID:22525235
Library and Information Science is not a top rank choice of course by candidates seeking admission into tertiary institutions in Imo State. Most of those who eventually get enrolled for the programme are not interested in practicing librarianship upon graduation. They prefer careers in other establishments even if they are to ...
Winter, Charles A.
This book provides job descriptions and discusses career opportunities in various fields of the biological sciences. These fields include: (1) biotechnology, genetics, biomedical engineering, microbiology, mycology, systematic biology, marine and aquatic biology, botany, plant physiology, plant pathology, ecology, and wildlife biology; (2) the…
The objective of this study was to identify the career aspirations of agricultural science graduates from Nigerian Universities of Agriculture. A random sample of 215 graduating students of agriculture was selected using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and the ...
Lyons, David W.
Quantum Information Science (QIS) is an interdisciplinary field involving mathematics, computer science, and physics. Appealing aspects include an abundance of accessible open problems, active interest and support from government and industry, and an energetic, open, and collaborative international research culture. We describe our student-faculty…
Shin, Sein; Lee, Jun-Ki; Ha, Minsu
Motivation to learn is an essential element in science learning. In this study, the role of career motivation in science learning was examined. In particular, first, a science motivation model that focused on career motivation was tested. Second, the role of career motivation as a predictor of STEM track choice was examined. Third, the effect of…
A study group of scientists was convened by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biological Society of Chile) and the Regional Program for Graduate Training in Biological Sciences, PNUD-Unesco, RLA 78/024, to assess undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences in Chile. The group presented this report at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society. Discussion centered on the features that should characterize the studies leading to the academic degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Magíster (Master) and Doctor (Ph. D) in Sciences, and also on the qualifications that the universities should satisfy in order to grant them. After analyzing the present situation of undergraduate and graduate studies in Biological Sciences in Chilean universities, the group made the following main suggestions: 1. It is recommended that Chilean universities agree on a 4-year plan for the Licenciado degree, without the requirement of a thesis. The importance of providing the students with good laboratory exercises and field experience and with the opportunity to perform short research projects is stressed. In addition, a sound theoretical training on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the education of a modern Biologist is important. Licenciate studies ought to be the basis for professional careers and the universities should offer to the Licenciados free access to their professional schools. 2. It is considered appropriate for Chile and its universities to develop graduate programs in those disciplines that have reached a level of excellence. To accomplish this aim, adequate finance of the universities is necessary to permit them to provide the essential facilities for doing research, and to create a wide system of fellowships for graduate students. Direct government support for research and graduate student fellowships is requested. 3. Research experience of the kind needed for the preparation of a doctoral thesis is recommended as the academic level appropriate for those engaged in
In an exploratory study (Note 1) of the role of salary level and other factors in motivating undergraduate math, science, and technology majors to consider a career as a K-12 teacher, the salary level students said would motivate them to consider a career in teaching was related to the salary expected in their chosen non-teaching occupation, but not to three of the Big 5 personality dimensions of extroversion, agreeableness, and openness, nor concern for others or career risk aversion. An ann...
Puryer, J; Patel, A
Aim To investigate the career intentions, work-life balance and retirement plans of dental undergraduates at the University of Bristol in 2015.Method Cross-sectional survey of 210 clinical undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.Results The response rate was 79%. The majority (81.7%) were 'satisfied' or 'extremely satisfied' with their choice of career. The majority (78.7%) felt men and women are equally likely to succeed in dentistry, although 42.9% felt men had an advantage over women with regards to career success. The majority (81.6%) intend on working within general practice, 11.3% within hospital dental services and 2.1% within community dental services. The majority (70.5%) intend to specialise within dentistry. Only 1.8% of participants intend on providing only National Health Service (NHS) dental treatment whereas the 86.5% would provide both NHS and private dental treatment. Fifteen years after qualifying, 52.2% plan to work part-time, and 37.8% intend on retiring at the age of 60 or below. The majority (86.6%) felt that childcare should be shared equally between both parents. Female students intend to take more time out of their career to concentrate on childcare and felt that having a child would affect their career more than males.Conclusion The anticipated career plans, work-life balance and retirement plans of undergraduates change over time, and further research should be carried out to monitor future career intentions of dental students in order to help with dental workforce planning.
Hatfull, Graham F.
Bacteriophage discovery and genomics provides a powerful and effective platform for integrating missions in research and education. Implementation of the Science Education Alliance Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) program facilitates a broad impact by including a diverse array of schools, faculty, and students. The program generates new insights into the diversity and evolution of the bacteriophage population and presents a model for introducing first-yea...
Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &
Science literacy is a matter of broad concern among scientists, educators, and many policy-makers. National Science Foundation surveys of the general public for biannual Science Indicators series show that respondents on average score less than 2/3 correct on a series of science knowledge questions, and less than half display an understanding of the process of scientific inquiry. Both measures are essentially unchanged over two decades. At the University of Arizona, we have gathered over 11,000 undergraduate student responses to a survey of knowledge and beliefs that is tethered in the NSF survey. This non-science major population demographically represents ten million students nationwide. There is a less than 10% gain in performance in the science knowledge score between the incoming freshmen and seniors who graduate having completed their requirement of three science classes. Belief levels in pseudoscience and supernatural phenomena are disconcertingly high, mostly resistant to college science instruction, and weakly correlated with performance on the science knowledge questions. The Internet is rapidly becoming the primary information source for anyone interested in science so students may not get most of their information from the classroom. Educators and policy makers need to decide what aspects of science knowledge and process are important for adults to know. College science educators have major challenges in better in preparing graduates for participation in a civic society largely driven by science and technology.
Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato
Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…
Rak, Rosemary C.
The turnover of high school science teachers is an especially troubling problem in urban schools with economically disadvantaged students. Because high teacher turnover rates impede effective instruction, the persistence of teacher attrition is a serious concern. Using an online survey and interviews in a sequential mixed-methods approach, this study investigates the perceptions of high school science teachers regarding factors that contribute to their employment decisions. The study also compares first-career and second-career science teachers' perceptions of retention and attrition factors and identifies conditions that urban school leaders can establish to support the retention of their science teachers. A purposeful sample of 138 science teachers from urban area New England public high schools with 50% or more Free and Reduced Price Lunch-eligible students participated in the survey. Twelve survey respondents were subsequently interviewed. In accord with extant research, this study's results suggest that school leadership is essential to fostering teacher retention. The findings also reveal the importance of autonomy, professional community, and adequate resources to support science instruction. Although mentoring and induction programs receive low importance ratings in this study, career-changers view these programs as more important to their retention than do first-career science teachers. Second-career interviewees, in particular, voice the importance of being treated as professionals by school leaders. Future research may examine the characteristics of mentoring and induction programs that make them most responsive to the needs of first-career and second-career science teachers. Future studies may also investigate the aspects of school leadership and professional autonomy that are most effective in promoting science teacher retention. Keywords: career-changers; school leaders; science teachers; second-career teachers; teacher retention; teacher turnover
Kaemingk, Mark A.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Meyer, Hilary A.; Gigliotti, Larry M.
In today's job market, having a successful career in the fisheries and wildlife sciences is becoming more dependent on obtaining an advanced degree. As a result, competition for getting accepted into a graduate program is fierce. Our objective for this study was to provide prospective graduate students some insights as to what qualifications or attributes would best prepare them for obtaining a graduate position (M.S.) and to excel once they are enrolled in a graduate program. A survey was sent to 50 universities within the National Association of University Fisheries and Wildlife Programs (NAUFWP) where both faculty and undergraduate students were asked questions relating to graduate school. Faculty rated the importance of various criteria and attributes of graduate school, and students answered the questions according to how they believed faculty members would respond. Overall, undergraduate students shared many of the same graduate school viewpoints as those held by faculty members. However, viewpoints differed on some topics related to admittance and the most important accomplishment of a graduate student while enrolled in a graduate program. These results indicate that undergraduate students may be better prepared for graduate school—and they may understand how to be successful once they are enrolled in a program—than was initially thought.
Kerrison, Dorothy Adair
The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition
Venue : SMS Auditorium, Cochin University of Science and Technology, ... in science, particularly at the senior levels of teaching and research in India, has ... To explore avenues for entrepreneur development for women through Science.
Science journalists cover some of the most complex, exciting, and important issues of our day, ranging from the impacts of climate change to emerging infectious diseases. They use words, sounds, images, and graphics to create compelling stories about science that appear in newspapers and magazines, in print and online, on the radio and TV, and in podcasts and videos. The field is undergoing rapid change, which presents both challenges and opportunities. The migration of readers and advertising to the internet and digital platforms has led to declining sales of print publications. This means that jobs are now scarce in traditional print media, but that there are growing opportunities to produce digital content. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Erica S. Weisgram
Full Text Available Two studies extended the communal goal congruity perspective to examine perceived incongruity between science careers and family caregiving goals. Study 1 examined beliefs about science careers among young adolescents, older adolescents, and young adults. Science careers were perceived as unlikely to afford family goals, and this belief emerged more strongly with age cohort. Study 1 also documented that the perception that science affords family goals predicts interest in pursuing science. Study 2 then employed an experimental methodology to investigate the impact of framing a science career as integrated with family life or not. For family-oriented women, the family-friendly framing of science produced greater personal favorability toward pursuing a science career. In addition, perceived fulfilment of the scientist described predicted personal favorability toward a science career path. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and for policy.
Pearson, Camilla E.
Little is known about the concerns and needs of early career agricultural teachers associated with the various routes to certification and how these routes address those concerns. The purpose of this study is to determine how selected early career agriculture teachers perceive their teacher preparation program and how effective their programs were at addressing these concerns during their first year of teaching. The sample consisted of secondary agricultural teachers in Texas FFA Areas V and VI, who self-identified themselves as an early career agricultural teacher in their first 3 years of teaching. The first phase included a web-based survey administered to assess the concerns of early career agricultural teachers. Two Likert-type scales were used, and these were used to assess the perceived importance of problems faced by early career agricultural teachers and the frequency in which they encounter those problems. The second phase included a qualitative interview to better understand the perceived relationship between participants' undergraduate preparation, experiences in agriculture and related organizations, and other related activities in preparing them as agriculture science teachers. The teachers interviewed in this study indicated that overall, they were pleased with their preparation. Teacher educators from both programs should address the concerns presented from all teachers to further prepare them for issues faced by early career teachers because it is evident that these issues are not going away.
Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.
This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…
A grant was made to install and pilot-test the Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Career Library Corner at the New York Hall of Science. The SET Career Library Corner is located in a multi-media library setting where visitors can explore careers in a quiet, uninterrupted environment, in contrast to the original installation designed as a museum floor exhibit.
Reuben, Ernesto; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi
Does discrimination contribute to the low percentage of women in mathematics and science careers? We designed an experiment to isolate discrimination’s potential effect. Without provision of information about candidates other than their appearance, men are twice more likely to be hired for a mathematical task than women. If ability is self-reported, women still are discriminated against, because employers do not fully account for men’s tendency to boast about performance. Providing full infor...
Lynch, C; Grant, T; McLoughlin, P; Last, J
Evolving and changing undergraduate medical curricula raise concerns that there will no longer be a place for basic sciences. National and international trends show that 5-year programmes with a pre-requisite for school chemistry are growing more prevalent. National reports in Ireland show a decline in the availability of school chemistry and physics. This observational cohort study considers if the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology should be a prerequisite to entering medical school, be part of the core medical curriculum or if they have a place in the practice of medicine. Comparisons of means, correlation and linear regression analysis assessed the degree of association between predictors (school and university basic sciences) and outcomes (year and degree GPA) for entrants to a 6-year Irish medical programme between 2006 and 2009 (n = 352). We found no statistically significant difference in medical programme performance between students with/without prior basic science knowledge. The Irish school exit exam and its components were mainly weak predictors of performance (-0.043 ≥ r ≤ 0.396). Success in year one of medicine, which includes a basic science curriculum, was indicative of later success (0.194 ≥ r (2) ≤ 0.534). University basic sciences were found to be more predictive than school sciences in undergraduate medical performance in our institution. The increasing emphasis of basic sciences in medical practice and the declining availability of school sciences should mandate medical schools in Ireland to consider how removing basic sciences from the curriculum might impact on future applicants.
Fatemi, F. R.; Stockwell, J.; Pinheiro, V.; White, B.
Student creation of well-designed and engaging visuals in science communication can enhance their deep learning while streamlining the transmission of information to their audience. However, undergraduate research training does not frequently emphasize the design aspect of science communication. We devised and implemented a new curricular component to the Lake Champlain NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in Vermont. We took a holistic approach to communication training, with a targeted module in "art and science". Components to the module included: 1) an introduction to environmental themes in fine art, 2) a photography assignment in research documentation, 3) an overview of elements of design (e.g., color, typography, hierarchy), 4) a graphic design workshop using tools in Powerpoint, and 5) an introduction to scientific illustration. As part of the REU program, students were asked to document their work through photographs, and develop an infographic or scientific illustration complementary to their research. The "art and science" training culminated with a display and critique of their visual work. We report on student responses to the "art and science" training from exit interviews and survey questions. Based on our program, we identify a set of tools that mentors can use to enhance their student's ability to engage with a broad audience.
Joachim Chinweike Omeje
Full Text Available This descriptive survey study was designed to find out the utilization of e-counseling in career information dissemination among the undergraduates of the federal universities in South East Nigeria. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study consisted of 36 guidance counselors and 64,997 undergraduates of the federal universities in South East Nigeria. The sample consisted of 1,036 participants. This is made up of all the 36 guidance counselors in the federal universities in South East Nigeria, and 1,000 undergraduates randomly selected from the various universities. In each university, 200 undergraduates made up of 100 males and 100 females were randomly selected using balloting by replacement. All the guidance counselors were used due to smallness in number. The instrument for data collection was the E-Counselling Career Information Dissemination Questionnaire (E-CCIDQ. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach’s alpha statistical analysis, and reliability indices of .91, .85, and .84 were obtained for the three clusters. Data for the research questions were answered using percentage, mean, and standard deviation, while the null hypotheses were analyzed using t test statistics tested at the .05 level of significance. The research findings revealed that the universities in South East of Nigeria have e-counseling facilities and the students are very aware of e-counseling opportunities in the universities. Also, the counselors and undergraduates to a high extent utilize e-counseling in career information dissemination. Based on findings, discussions and some recommendations were made.
Myers, Bethany A; Rodriguez, Bredny
The purpose of this study was to describe early career health sciences information professionals' self-reported attainment of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Competencies for Lifelong Learning and Professional Success and to investigate the various methods by which participants developed these competencies. A SurveyMonkey survey was designed to ascertain participants' demographic information and their competency attainment. "Early career" health information professionals were defined as those with less than five years of professional experience. Participants were asked to rate each of the seven competencies on a five-point Likert scale regarding their level of agreement with the statement, "I have demonstrated this competency." Participants who responded positively were then asked to indicate how they acquired the competency on a multiple-choice, multiple-answer list. Free-text fields were provided for general comments and for participants to elaborate on their answers. The survey was distributed through the MLA email discussion list and other related email discussion lists. Participation was anonymous. One hundred eighty-seven responses were received. Out of those 187 respondents, 95 completed the entire survey. The majority of early career health sciences information professionals agreed that they had attained all 7 competencies. Of the various methods used to develop competencies, the most selected method was formal library and information studies education. Participants were least likely to report attaining competencies via mentoring, volunteering, or internships. Participants reported the highest level of confidence in having attained the "Health Sciences Information Services" competency, and the lowest level of confidence in having attained the "Research, Analysis, and Interpretation" competency. These results contribute to the ongoing discussions regarding proposed changes to the MLA competencies. The results may also inform the development of
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise
Science communication is a diverse and transdisciplinary field and is taught most effectively when the skills involved are tailored to specific educational contexts. Few academic resources exist to guide the teaching of communication with non-scientific audiences for an undergraduate science context. This mixed methods study aimed to explore what…
Journals · Overview · Bulletin of Materials Science · DIALOGUE: Science, ... Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore ... Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences & Technology, Thiruvananthapuram ... The Panel organized a one day Lecture on the occasion of International ...
Hypolite, Karen L.
Much of the nature of science research has been focused on high school students. High school students are primarily the target of such research to aid and to guide them in making informed decisions about possible career choices in the sciences (Bell, Blair, Crawford, & Lederman, 2002). Moreover, during review of the literature, little to no…
Kong, Xiaoqing; Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
This study addresses the association between middle-school students' reported participation in science summer programmes and their reported expectation of a career in science and engineering. Data were collected on 1,580 students from eight middle schools in five states, applying an accelerated longitudinal design. Two consecutive cohorts were…
Grindstaff, Kelly E.
This study explores the thinking and practices of five early-career teachers of grades eight to ten science, in relation to their histories, schools, students, and larger cultural and political forces. All the teachers are young women, two in their fourth year of teaching, who teach together in an affluent suburb, along with one first-year teacher. The other two are first-year teachers who teach in an urban setting. All of these teachers most closely associated good science teaching with forming relationships with students. They filtered science content through a lens of relevance (mostly to everyday life) and interest for students. Thus they filtered science content through a commitment to serving students, which makes sense since I argue that the primary motivations for teaching had more to do with working with students and helping people than the disciplines of science. Thus, within the discourse of the supremacy of curriculum and the prevalence of testing, these teachers enact hybrid practices which focus on covering content -- to help ensure the success of students -- and on relevance and interest, which has more to do with teaching styles and personality than disciplines of science. Ideas of good teaching are not very focused on science, which contradicts the type of support they seek and utilize around science content. This presents a challenge to pre- and in-service education and support to question what student success means, what concern for students entails and how to connect caring and concern for students with science.
Pacifici, Lara Brongo; Thomson, Norman
Most students participating in science undergraduate research (UR) plan to attend either medical school or graduate school. This study examines possible differences between premed and non–premed students in their influences to do research and expectations of research. Questionnaire responses from 55 premed students and 80 non–premed students were analyzed. No differences existed in the expectations of research between the two groups, but attitudes toward science and intrinsic motivation to learn more about science were significantly higher for non–premed students. Follow-up interviews with 11 of the students, including a case study with one premed student, provided explanation for the observed differences. Premed students, while not motivated to learn more about science, were motivated to help people, which is why most of them are pursuing medicine. They viewed research as a way to help them become doctors and to rule out the possibility of research as a career. Non–premed students participated in research to learn more about a specific science topic and gain experience that may be helpful in graduate school research. The difference in the reasons students want to do UR may be used to tailor UR experiences for students planning to go to graduate school or medical school. PMID:21633068
Pacifici, Lara Brongo; Thomson, Norman
Most students participating in science undergraduate research (UR) plan to attend either medical school or graduate school. This study examines possible differences between premed and non-premed students in their influences to do research and expectations of research. Questionnaire responses from 55 premed students and 80 non-premed students were analyzed. No differences existed in the expectations of research between the two groups, but attitudes toward science and intrinsic motivation to learn more about science were significantly higher for non-premed students. Follow-up interviews with 11 of the students, including a case study with one premed student, provided explanation for the observed differences. Premed students, while not motivated to learn more about science, were motivated to help people, which is why most of them are pursuing medicine. They viewed research as a way to help them become doctors and to rule out the possibility of research as a career. Non-premed students participated in research to learn more about a specific science topic and gain experience that may be helpful in graduate school research. The difference in the reasons students want to do UR may be used to tailor UR experiences for students planning to go to graduate school or medical school.
Mapp, Kim J.
There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.
Terry T Turner
Full Text Available Science is a profession of inquiry. We ask ourselves what is it we see and why our observations happen the way they do. Answering those two question puts us in the company of those early explorers, who from Europe found the New World, and from Asia reached west to encounter Europe. Vasco Núñez de Balboa of Spain was such an explorer. He was the first European to see or "discover" the Pacific Ocean. One can imagine his amazement, his excitement when he first saw from a mountain top that vast ocean previously unknown to his culture. A career in science sends each of us seeking our own "Balboa Moments," those observations or results that surprise or even amaze us, those discoveries that open our eyes to new views of nature and medicine. Scientists aim to do what those early explorers did: discover what has previously been unknown, see what has previously been unseen, and reveal what has previously been hidden. Science requires the scientist to discover the facts from among many fictions and to separate the important facts from the trivial so that knowledge can be properly developed. It is only with knowledge that old dogmas can be challenged and corrected. Careers in science produce specific sets of knowledge. When pooled with other knowledge sets they eventually contribute to wisdom and it is wisdom, we hope, that will improve the human condition.
Carpenter, Stacey L.
This study examined what undergraduate students gain and the ideas about science teaching and learning they develop from participating in K-12 science education outreach programs. Eleven undergraduates from seven outreach programs were interviewed individually about their experiences with outreach and what they learned about science teaching and…
Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in
Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R; Tsai, Sherry M
This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for males (58% in engineering, 39% in science). After controlling for student and school demographic characteristics, females were as consistent as male...
Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc
In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schade, J. D.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Mann, P. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Frey, K. E.
With guidance and sufficient resources, undergraduates can drive the exploration of new research directions, lead high impact scientific products, and effectively communicate the value of science to the public. As mentors, we must recognize the strong contribution undergraduates make to the advancement of scientific understanding and their unique ability and desire to be transdisciplinary and to translate ideas into action. Our job is to be sure students have the resources and tools to successfully explore questions that they care about, not to provide or lead them towards answers we already have. The central goal of the Polaris Project is to advance understanding of climate change in the Arctic through an integrated research, training, and outreach program that has at its heart a research expedition for undergraduates to a remote field station in the Arctic. Our integrative approach to training provides undergraduates with strong intellectual development and they bring fresh perspectives, creativity, and a unique willingness to take risks on new ideas that have an energizing effect on research and outreach. Since the projects inception in summer 2008, we have had >90 undergraduates participate in high-impact field expeditions and outreach activities. Over the years, we have also been fortunate enough to attract an ethnically, racially, and culturally diverse group of students, including students from Puerto Rico, Hispanic-, African- and Native-Americans, members of the LGBT community, and first-generation college students. Most of these students have since pursued graduate degrees in ecology, and many have received NSF fellowships and Fulbright scholarships. One of our major goals is to increase the diversity of the scientific community, and we have been successful in our short-term goal of recruiting and retaining a diverse group of students. The goal of this presentation is to provide a description of the mentoring model at the heart of the Polaris Project
Bethany A. Myers, MSLIS, AHIP
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe early career health sciences information professionals’ self-reported attainment of the Medical Library Association (MLA Competencies for Lifelong Learning and Professional Success and to investigate the various methods by which participants developed these competencies. Methods: A SurveyMonkey survey was designed to ascertain participants’demographic information and their competency attainment. ‘‘Early career’’ health information professionals were defined as those with less than five years of professional experience. Participants were asked to rate each of the seven competencies on a five-point Likert scale regarding their level of agreement with the statement, ‘‘I have demonstrated this competency.’’ Participants who responded positively were then asked to indicate how they acquired the competency on a multiple-choice, multiple-answer list. Free-text fields were provided for general comments and for participants to elaborate on their answers. The survey was distributed through the MLA email discussion list and other related email discussion lists. Participation was anonymous. Results: One hundred eighty-seven responses were received. Out of those 187 respondents, 95 completed the entire survey. The majority of early career health sciences information professionals agreed that they had attained all 7 competencies. Of the various methods used to develop competencies, the most selected method was formal library and information studies education. Participants were least likely to report attaining competencies via mentoring, volunteering, or internships. Participants reported the highest level of confidence in having attained the ‘‘Health Sciences Information Services’’ competency, and the lowest level of confidence in having attained the ‘‘Research, Analysis, and Interpretation’’ competency. Conclusions: These results contribute to the ongoing discussions
Carley, S.; Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K. O.
In recent years several geoscience communities have been developing ocean, climate, atmosphere and earth science literacy frameworks as enhancements to the National Science Education Standards content standards. Like the older content standards these new geoscience literacy frameworks have focused on K-12 education although they are also intended for informal education and general public audiences. These geoscience literacy frameworks potentially provide a more integrated and less abstract approach to science literacy that may be more suitable for non-science major students that are not pursuing careers in science research or education. They provide a natural link to contemporary environmental issues - e.g., climate change, resource depletion, species and habitat loss, natural hazards, pollution, development of renewable energy, material recycling. The College of Exploration is an education research non-profit that has provided process and technical support for the development of most of these geoscience literacy frameworks. It has a unique perspective on their development. In the last ten years it has also gained considerable national and international expertise in facilitating web-based workshops that support in-depth conversations among educators and working scientists/researchers on important science topics. These workshops have been of enormous value to educators working in K-12, 4-year institutions and community colleges. How can these geoscience literacy frameworks promote more collaborative inquiry-based learning that enhances the appreciation of scientific thinking by non-majors? How can web- and mobile-based education technologies transform the undergraduate non-major survey course into a place where learners begin their passion for science literacy rather than end it? How do we assess science literacy in students and citizens?
Dorph, Rena; Bathgate, Meghan E.; Schunn, Christian D.; Cannady, Matthew A.
This paper proposes three new measures of components STEM career preferences (affinity, certainty, and goal), and then explores which dimensions of science learning activation (fascination, values, competency belief, and scientific sensemaking) are predictive of STEM career preferences. Drawn from the ALES14 dataset, a sample of 2938 sixth and eighth grade middle-school students from 11 schools in two purposefully selected diverse areas (Western Pennsylvania & the Bay Area of California) was used for the analyses presented in this paper. These schools were chosen to represent socio-economic and ethnic diversity. Findings indicate that, overall, youth who are activated towards science learning are more likely to have affinity towards STEM careers, certainty about their future career goals, and have identified a specific STEM career goal. However, different dimensions of science learning activation are more strongly correlated with different aspects career preference across different STEM career foci (e.g. science, engineering, technology, health, etc.). Gender, age, minority status, and home resources also have explanatory power. While many results are consistent with prior research, there are also novel results that offer important fodder for future research. Critically, our strategy of measuring affinity towards the specific disciplines that make up STEM, measuring STEM and health career goals separately, and looking at career affinity and career goals separately, offers interesting results and underscores the value of disentangling the conceptual melting pot of what has previously been known as 'career interest.' Study findings also have implications for design of science learning opportunities for youth.
Undergraduate chemical science students—join us in Philadelphia on August 17 and 18, 2008, for an educational and career-oriented program designed specifically for you. Attend symposia about global climate change and clean energy; hear Nobel Laureate F. Sherwood Rowland speak about his fascinating career, "A Life in Tracer Chemistry". Weigh options for your future by attending the Graduate School Reality Check and graduate school recruiting events. All events will take place in the Sheraton Philadelphia City Center at 17th and Race Streets, except the Undergraduate Poster Sessions and Sci-Mix, which will be held in the Pennsylvania Convention Center.
Tullos, Kimberly C.
The purpose of this life story narrative study was to explore how women scientists develop views of self that enable them to negotiate careers within academic science. I framed the study using feminist standpoint theory as my theoretical foundation, and used possible selves theory as my conceptual framework. Eight women scientists working in academe described their journey regarding their views of self and career-related experiences. The study produced two key findings. First, seven themes emerged from my data analysis; these themes suggest that these women shared significant experiences in their quest to become scientists. Second, my feminist analysis of the participants' narratives indicates that distinct, but submerged gender-related tensions shaped their views of themselves as scientists and their science career decisions. These tensions include career choice and advancement constrained by family obligations, work environments that do not recognize or undervalue their skills and contributions to the profession, and perceived pressure to de-feminize their behavior to blend in to their work environment. Not unlike other women negotiating careers in academic science, they generally accepted their status as women to be an inherent part of their career pursuits and viewed workplace challenges as an opportunity to prove their competency. Seven of the eight women did not attribute their challenges to gender differences. However, the combined narratives revealed underlying conflicts between their views of self as women and as scientists resulting from their experiences in, and perceptions of, academic science environments. The study's principal theoretical contribution, from the feminist standpoint perspective, highlights the pervasive and unseen influence of gender dynamics. In this study, the participants developed views of themselves, not as scientists, but as "educators who work in science." This critical distinction enabled these participants, perhaps unknowingly
Full Text Available In an exploratory study (Note 1 of the role of salary level and other factors in motivating undergraduate math, science, and technology majors to consider a career as a K-12 teacher, the salary level students said would motivate them to consider a career in teaching was related to the salary expected in their chosen non-teaching occupation, but not to three of the Big 5 personality dimensions of extroversion, agreeableness, and openness, nor concern for others or career risk aversion. An annual starting salary 45% above the local average would attract 48% of the sophomore students and 37% of the juniors. Focus group results suggested that low pay was an important reason for not considering K-12 teaching, but that perceived job demands and abilities and interests were also important reasons for not being attracted to a teaching career.
Gunn, John S; Ledford, Cynthia H; Mousetes, Steven J; Grever, Michael R
Many students entering professional degree programs, particularly M.D., Ph.D., and M.D./Ph.D., are not well prepared regarding the breadth of scientific knowledge required, communication skills, research experience, reading and understanding the scientific literature, and significant shadowing (for M.D.-related professions). In addition, physician scientists are a needed and necessary part of the academic research environment but are dwindling in numbers. In response to predictions of critical shortages of clinician investigators and the lack of proper preparation as undergraduates for these professions, the Biomedical Science (BMS) undergraduate major was created at The Ohio State University to attract incoming college freshmen with interests in scientific research and the healthcare professions. The intent of this major was to graduate an elite cohort of highly talented individuals who would pursue careers in the healthcare professions, biomedical research, or both. Students were admitted to the BMS major through an application and interview process. Admitted cohorts were small, comprising 22 to 26 students, and received a high degree of individualized professional academic advising and mentoring. The curriculum included a minimum of 4 semesters (or 2 years) of supervised research experience designed to enable students to gain skills in clinical and basic science investigation. In addition to covering the prerequisites for medicine and advanced degrees in health professions, the integrated BMS coursework emphasized research literacy as well as skills related to work as a healthcare professional, with additional emphasis on independent learning, teamwork to solve complex problems, and both oral and written communication skills. Supported by Ohio State's Department of Internal Medicine, a unique clinical internship provided selected students with insights into potential careers as physician scientists. In this educational case report, we describe the BMS
García Castillo, Zoraida; Graue Wiechers, Enrique; Durante Montiel, Irene; Herrera Saint Leu, Patricia
The challenge in achieving an ideal state of justice is that each "proof" has the highest degree of reliability. This is the main responsibility of the forensic scientist. Up to now, criminal investigations in Mexico have been supported by forensic work from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds that give testimony in a particular area, even though they may have become forensic witnesses in a complementary and experiential manner. In January 2013, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) approved the "Forensic Science" undergraduate program that, in collaboration with various academic entities and government institutions, will develop forensic scientists trained in science, law, and criminology. This is focused on contributing to the national demand that the justice system has more elements to procure and administer justice in dealing with crime.
Long, David E.
In an ethnographic study set within a biology department of a public university in the United States, incongruity between the ideals and practice of science education are investigated. Against the background of religious conservative students' complaints about evolution in the curriculum, biology faculty describe their political intents for…
Gardner, Grant E.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Jeffrey, Penny Shumaker; Ferzli, Miriam; Shea, Damian
The goal of the study described was to understand the process and degree to which an undergraduate science research program for rising college freshmen achieved its stated objectives to integrate participants into a community of practice and to develop students' research identities.
Arino de la Rubia, Leigh S.; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Past studies investigating university level students' views of nature of science (NOS) were relatively few and most of them were conducted in Western countries. This paper focuses upon comparing the quantitative patterns in Western (US Caucasian and African-American) and non-Western (Taiwanese) students' views of NOS (VNOS) by adopting a survey instrument. This analysis combined with qualitative data begin to uncover details of potential cultural differences in patterns specifically in the US educational context by comparing Caucasian and African-American student responses to a question from a commonly used assessment of VNOS. Results show different patterns of views along the four dimensions of NOS (social negotiation, invented/creative NOS, cultural impacts, and changing/tentative feature of science) according to student major, student gender, and student ethnicity. These differences and similarities have the potential to impact undergraduate education and underrepresentation of cultural minorities in science careers and call for further research into NOS views in the context of diverse student groups.
Kaye, Karen; Turner, John F.; Emigh, James
The CSI academies employed a multi-layered, collaborative approach to encourage diverse students to consider STEM careers, including science teaching. The academies recruited a diverse group of high school students. This was due, in large part, to the creation of a unique selection process that identified students with unrealized potential. The…
Stone, S.; Parker, M. S.; Howe, B.; Lazowska, E.
Rapid advances in technology are transforming nearly every field from "data-poor" to "data-rich." The ability to extract knowledge from this abundance of data is the cornerstone of 21st century discovery. At the University of Washington eScience Institute, our mission is to engage researchers across disciplines in developing and applying advanced computational methods and tools to real world problems in data-intensive discovery. Our research team consists of individuals with diverse backgrounds in domain sciences such as astronomy, oceanography and geology, with complementary expertise in advanced statistical and computational techniques such as data management, visualization, and machine learning. Two key elements are necessary to foster careers in data science: individuals with cross-disciplinary training in both method and domain sciences, and career paths emphasizing alternative metrics for advancement. We see persistent and deep-rooted challenges for the career paths of people whose skills, activities and work patterns don't fit neatly into the traditional roles and success metrics of academia. To address these challenges the eScience Institute has developed training programs and established new career opportunities for data-intensive research in academia. Our graduate students and post-docs have mentors in both a methodology and an application field. They also participate in coursework and tutorials to advance technical skill and foster community. Professional Data Scientist positions were created to support research independence while encouraging the development and adoption of domain-specific tools and techniques. The eScience Institute also supports the appointment of faculty who are innovators in developing and applying data science methodologies to advance their field of discovery. Our ultimate goal is to create a supportive environment for data science in academia and to establish global recognition for data-intensive discovery across all fields.
Although student involvement in research and inquiry can advance undergraduate learning, there are limited opportunities for undergraduate students to be directly involved in social science research. Social science faculty members typically work outside of laboratory settings, with the limited research assistance work being completed by graduate…
Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung
Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…
Shaw, Lawton; Kennepohl, Dietmar
Senior undergraduate research projects are important components of most undergraduate science degrees. The delivery of such projects in a distance education format is challenging. Athabasca University (AU) science project courses allow distance education students to complete research project courses by working with research supervisors in their…
Allen A. Espinosa; Sheryl Lyn C. Monterola; Amelia E. Punzalan
The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach against the traditional teaching approach (TTA) in enhancing students’ integrated science process skills. Specifically, it sought to find out if students exposed to COPT have higher integrated science process skills than those students exposed to the traditional teaching approach (TTA). Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach aims to integrate career-oriented examples and inquiry-b...
Freilich, M.; Aluthge, D.; Bryant, R. M.; Knox, B.; McAdams, J.; Plummer, A.; Schlottman, N.; Stanley, Z.; Suglia, E.; Watson-Daniels, J.
Recognizing that racial, ethnic, and gender underrepresentation in science classrooms persists despite intervention programs and institutional commitments to diversity, a group of undergraduates from a variety of backgrounds and academic disciplines came together for a group independent study to (a) study the theoretical foundations of the current practice of science and of programs meant to increase diversity, (b) utilize the experiences of course participants and our peers to better understand the drivers of underrepresentation, and (c) design and implement interventions at Brown University. We will present on individual and small group projects designed by course members in collaboration with faculty. The projects emerged from an exploration of literature in history, philosophy, and sociology of science, as well as an examination of anthropological and psychological studies. We also evaluated the effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up approaches that have already been attempted in developing our projects. They focus on the specific problems faced by underrepresented minorities, women, LGBTQ+ people, and well-represented minorities. We will share experiences of faculty-student collaboration and engaged scholarship focused on representation in science and discuss student-designed interventions.
Koch, Melissa; Gorges, Torie
Underrepresented populations such as women, African-Americans, and Latinos/as often come to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers by less traditional paths than White and Asian males. To better understand how and why women might shift toward STEM, particularly computer science, careers, we investigated the education and…
Leshin, Laurie A.
Alexander G. Hayes Jr. received the 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science at the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting, held 3-7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes significant early-career contributions to planetary science.
Koch, Melissa; Gorges, Torie
Underrepresented populations such as women, African-Americans, and Latinos/as often come to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers by less traditional paths than White and Asian males. To better understand how and why women might shift toward STEM, particularly computer science, careers, we investigated the education and career direction of afterschool facilitators, primarily women of color in their twenties and thirties, who taught Build IT, an afterschool computer science curriculum for middle school girls. Many of these women indicated that implementing Build IT had influenced their own interest in technology and computer science and in some cases had resulted in their intent to pursue technology and computer science education. We wanted to explore the role that teaching Build IT may have played in activating or reactivating interest in careers in computer science and to see whether in the years following implementation of Build IT, these women pursued STEM education and/or careers. We reached nine facilitators who implemented the program in 2011-12 or shortly after. Many indicated that while facilitating Build IT, they learned along with the participants, increasing their interest in and confidence with technology and computer science. Seven of the nine participants pursued further STEM or computer science learning or modified their career paths to include more of a STEM or computer science focus. Through interviews, we explored what aspects of Build IT influenced these facilitators' interest and confidence in STEM and when relevant their pursuit of technology and computer science education and careers.
Rylands, Leanne; Simbag, Vilma; Matthews, Kelly E.; Coady, Carmel; Belward, Shaun
There is general agreement in Australia and beyond that quantitative skills (QS) in science, the ability to use mathematics and statistics in context, are important for science. QS in the life sciences are becoming ever more important as these sciences become more quantitative. Consequently, undergraduates studying the life sciences require better…
Kumar, David Devraj; Sherwood, Robert D.
A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the "River of Life," on the science conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards…
On 12 November, more than 240 girls aged 9-14 descended upon the Geneva University science building for the second Geneva edition of Expand Your Horizons. This initiative, started in the United States in 1974, aims to inspire young girls to consider scientific careers by giving them a chance to do fun, hands-on experiments in all sorts of technical and scientific fields. Some of the girls got to build their own cloud chamber to “see the invisible” cosmic rays. (Photo credit: Doris Chromek-Burckhart.) The philosophy of Expand Your Horizons is to set an example: all workshops and career booths are staffed by women scientists, so that the girls can really identify with the scientists and feel that they could be them. For the 2011 Geneva event, the participants, recruited from nearby public and private schools both in France and Switzerland, could choose from 11 different workshops, including building a solar car, programming a robot, discovering the underlying ch...
Jonah, S.A.; Osaisai, F.E.
In order to realize Nigeria's aspiration to harness nuclear science and technology for socio-economic development of the society, the federal government of Nigeria charged the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) with the responsibility of promotion and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in all its ramifications. In realization of this laudable objective, two University-based nuclear research centres at Ile-Ife (i.e. Centre for Energy Research and Development, CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife) and Zaria (i.e. Centre for Energy Research and Training, CERT, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria) under the supervision of NAEC are already running R and D programmes in nuclear science and technology for over three decades. A third centre, also under the supervision of the Commission in Abuja namely the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC) located within the Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) was established in 1991 and operates a Gamma Irradiation Faci lity (GIF). Furthermore, NAEC has instituted a number of programmes including a road map aimed at the introduction of nuclear option into the energy mix of the country with projected targets of 1000MWe and 4000MWe by 2017 and 2027 respectively. However, with the number of nuclear scientists, engineers and technicians required to run a 1000MWe power plant put at 1000, there is the need to grow human capital for the industry in Nigeria. In this presentation, exciting opportunities in nuclear science for young graduates are enumerated. The importance of nuclear science and technology education vis-a-vis national economy and security for improved living standard is discussed. Specific workforce issues and sample career choices in medical science, the environment and energy applications are highlighted. Progress made so far by NAEC in the area of human resources development and capacity building is presented.
Science career preferences of junior high school-aged students, while not stable predictors of ultimate career choice, do serve to direct and maintain individuals along the paths to careers in science. In this study, factors relevant to science career preferences of black eighth grade students were investigated. This issue is of particular import to blacks since they are severely underrepresented in the scientific fields. The sample consisted of 113 males and 148 females in an inner city junior high school. The Science Career Preference Scale, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Self-Concept of Ability Scale (Form B-Science) were administered. Mathematics and science grades were obtained from class rating sheets. Treatment of the data involved multiple regression analysis according to a hierarchical model. Results showed that of all the independent variables, sex was the strongest predictor of science career preferences, accounting for 25% of the criterion variance. The findings suggest that early adolescent science career preferences are related more to interests that are consonant with sex-role considerations than realistic assessment of mathematics or science achievement.
Moreland, Amy Laphelia
The purpose of this concurrent, mixed-methods study was to examine the professional empowerment qualities of mid-career (years 4-8), science teachers. I used the construct of professional empowerment as the theoretical frame to explore K-12 mid-career science teachers' career trajectories and consider how they can be supported professionally and ideally retained over time. In investigating the qualities of these teachers, I also constructed a new teaching trajectory model and tested the differences between mid-career and veteran science teachers. I analyzed seventy-eight surveys of mid-career science teachers across Texas, including six in-depth, interview-based case studies. The qualitative piece used behavior-over-time graphing combined with the interviews and the quantitative component used survey data from the Teacher Empowerment Survey (TES). Results indicated that science content knowledge gain through professional development opportunities was an especially important factor in supporting mid-career teachers' sense of empowerment. This increased content knowledge connected positively with the dimensions of decision-making, status, and impact. In a between-group analysis using a larger subset of TES data, I analyzed 254 surveys by conducting a nonparametric statistical test. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups, in that mid-career science teachers had a lower sense of "status" than their more experienced counterparts (p empowerment. The study was situated within a broader scope of exploring how educational leaders and professional development providers can understand and support science teachers of varying experience levels. A well-designed and possibly differentiated professional development program could successfully connect with these kind of empowered and receptive mid-career science teachers, and thus increase the probability of implementing quality science education programs, content, and pedagogy into schools. The
Winarno, N.; Widodo, A.; Rusdiana, D.; Rochintaniawati, D.; Afifah, R. M. A.
This study aims to investigate the profile of pre-service science teachers based on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Career Interest Survey. The study uses descriptive survey method as the research design. Samples collected from 66 preservice science teachers in a university located in Bandung, Indonesia. The results of the study are the profile of pre-service science teachers based on STEM Career Interest Survey shows that the average number of career interest in the field of technology is 4.08, in science 3.80, mathematics 3.39 and engineering 3.30. Pre-service science teachers are found to have interests in the STEM career fields. This research is necessary as there are many instances of people choosing majors or studies that are not in accordance with their interests and talents. The recommendation of this study is to develop learning in pre-service science teachers by using STEM approach.
Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger
During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…
Texter, P. Cardie
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration funded project, Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities has been in operation since July, 1995. This project operated as a collaboration with Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications, the Federal Aviation Administration, Bridgewater State College and four targeted "core sites" in the greater Boston area. In its first and second years, a video series on aeronautics and aviation science was developed and broadcast via "live, interactive" satellite feed. Accompanying teacher and student supplementary instructional materials for grades 6-9 were produced and disseminated by the Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications (MCET). In the MCET grant application it states that project Take Off! in its initial phase would recruit and train teachers at "core" sites in the greater Boston area, as well as opening participation to other on-line users of MCET's satellite feeds. "Core site" classrooms would become equipped so that teachers and students might become engaged in an interactive format which aimed at not only involving the students during the "live" broadcast of the instructional video series, but which would encourage participation in electronic information gathering and sharing among participants. As a Take Off! project goal, four schools with a higher than average proportion of minority and underrepresented youth were invited to become involved with the project to give these students the opportunity to consider career exploration and development in the field of science aviation and aeronautics. The four sites chosen to participate in this project were: East Boston High School, Dorchester High School, Randolph Junior-Senior High School and Malden High School. In year 3 Dorchester was unable to continue to fully participate and exited out. Danvers was added to the "core site" list in year 3. In consideration of Goals 2000, the National Science Foundation
Articles from the primary scientific literature can be a valuable teaching tool in undergraduate classrooms. At Colgate University, I emphasize selected research articles in an upper-level undergraduate course in planetary sciences. In addition to their value for conveying specific scientific content, I find that they also impart larger lessons which are especially apt in planetary sciences and allied fields. First, because of the interdisciplinary nature of planetary sciences, students discover that contributions to outstanding problems may arrive from unexpected directions, so they need to be aware of the multi-faceted nature of scientific problems. For instance, after millennia of astrometric attempts, the scale of the Solar System was determined with extraordinary precision with emerging radar technology in the 1960's. Second, students learn the importance of careful work, with due attention to detail. After all, the timescales of planetary formation are encoded in systematic isotopic variations of a few parts in 10,000; in students' own experiences with laboratory data they might well overlook such a small effect. Third, students identify the often-tortuous connections between measured and inferred quantities, which corrects a common student misconception that all quantities of interest (e.g., the age of a meteorite) can be measured directly. Fourth, research articles provide opportunities for students to practice the interpretation of graphical data, since figures often represent a large volume of data in succinct form. Fifth, and perhaps of greatest importance, by considering the uncertainties inherent in reported data, students come to recognize the limits of scientific understanding, the extent to which scientific conclusions are justified (or not), and the lengths to which working scientists go to mitigate their uncertainties. These larger lessons are best mediated by students' own encounters with the articles they read, but require instructors to make
McAnena, P F; O'Halloran, N; Moloney, B M; Courtney, D; Waldron, R M; Flaherty, G; Kerin, M J
Basic surgical skills modules in medical education are effective in teaching skills and increasing confidence among students approaching surgery. However, these modules are not delivered universally and their effect on the professional development of graduates has not been established. We aimed to assess the impact of a 10-week basic surgical skills module on attitudes and technical skills of first year medical students compared to interns. Eighteen students participated and were assessed using a 4-part questionnaire. Technical skills were assessed by observing students perform a basic interrupted suture, using the objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) tool. Fourteen interns were recruited. Students were more confident in surgical scrubbing (mean score 4.0 vs. 2.86, p = 0.001), and performing a basic suture (4.05 vs. 1.93, p = 0.000), more enthusiastic about assisting with an operation (4.5 vs. 3.0, p = 0.001) and more likely to consider a career in surgery (4.16 vs. 2.28, p = 0.000). Technical skills were greater in the student group (mean score 30.8 vs. 19.6, p = 0.001). Five interns had taken part in surgical skills modules as undergraduates. Their technical skills were significantly higher compared to interns who had not (n = 9) (28.8 vs. 14.5, p = 0.006), and they were more likely to consider a career in surgery (3.6 vs. 1.5, p = 0.036). The introduction of surgical skills teaching to the undergraduate medical curriculum has a positive impact on students' attitudes towards surgery and accelerates basic technical skills development. Consideration should be given to development of a standardised undergraduate core curriculum in basic surgical skills teaching.
Kastens, K. A.; Mara, V.; Turrin, M.
The InTeGrate Attitudinal Instrument (IAI) is an on-line survey that probes students' interest in Earth-related careers, their concern about environmental issues, and their motivation to tackle grand challenges of environmental sustainability and resource limitations. The survey has been taken by several thousand students, at the beginning and end of more than a hundred different undergraduate courses throughout the United States. All courses include some Earth/environmental content, but not all in are geoscience departments. Although results vary somewhat between subpopulations, taken in the aggregate the data paint a nation-wide picture of the state of undergraduates' environmental interests and concerns. Regardless of intended career path, respondents place a high value on working for an organization that is committed to environmentally sustainable practices. Respondents consistently indicate that developments such as global climate change, loss of biodiversity, and water resource limitations are a problem; however, these same students are much less consistent when it comes to engaging in personal behaviors that would help mitigate environmental problems, such as washing clothes in cold water or using recyclable bags when shopping. When asked what factors or sources of information influence their decisions to engage in the specified environmentally sustainable behaviors, the factor most often cited, by a wide margin, is "desire to save money," followed by "concern about pollution." A final open-ended question asked students if they can envision using what they have learned in this course to help society overcome problems of environmental degradation, natural resources limitations, or other environmental issues; if yes, how, and if no, why not. Strong majorities said yes. Among the minority who said no, commonly cited reasons include lack of empowerment (I'm only one person, the problems are too big); course was too general and didn't address solutions; and
Didi-Mari du Toit
Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between individuals’ archetypal values (measured by the Pearson–Marr Archetype Indicator and career orientations (measured by the Career Orientations Inventory. The study also assessed the differences between race, gender, marital status, employment status and age groups regarding the archetypal values and career orientations of the individuals. Motivation for study: Career counsellors and industrial psychologists are increasingly required to explore new career guidance frameworks that are relevant and appropriate to the evolving nature of careers. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted. A non-probability sample of 207 voluntary participants employed within the science and engineering sector was obtained. Main findings: Correlational analyses revealed that the participants’ archetypal values related significantly to their career orientations. The various biographical groups differed significantly regarding their archetypal values and career orientations. Practical/managerial implications: The findings highlight the importance of understanding the deep-seated archetypal values that seem to explain the individuals’ career choices and decisions, and how these values differ regarding these choices and decisions. Contribution/value-add: The explanatory utility of the results may prove useful to enhance the individuals’ self-insight in their career choices and experiences. This study represents original research that contributes new knowledge to the field of career psychology and career counselling practices.
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998) to highlight the intersections between the career trajectory implied by the Academy (its curriculum, classroom activities, and clinical experiences) and the students' pursued career trajectories. Data was collected over five months and included individual student interviews, group interviews, parent and administrator interviews, field notes from a culminating medical course and clinical internship, and Academy recruitment documents. The results of this study suggest that participants pursued a health science career for altruistic purposes and the Academy was a resource they drew upon to do so. However, the meanings of science and science person implied by the Academy hindered the possibility for many participants' to advance their science career trajectories. While the Academy promised to expose students to a variety of high-status health care roles, they were funneled into feminine, entry-level positions. This study adds to previous underrepresentation literature by contextualizing how identity-related factors influence African American students' career attainment.
Kulhavy, David L.; Unger, Daniel R.; Hung, I-Kuai; Douglass, David
A senior within a spatial science Ecological Planning capstone course designed an undergraduate research project to increase his spatial science expertise and to assess the hands-on instruction methodology employed within the Bachelor of Science in Spatial Science program at Stephen F Austin State University. The height of 30 building features…
Train, Tonya Laakko; Miyamoto, Yuko J.
The ability to effectively communicate science is a skill sought after by graduate and professional schools as well as by employers in science-related fields. Are content-heavy undergraduate science curricula able to incorporate opportunities to develop science communication skills, and is promoting these skills worth the time and effort? The…
Funded by National Aeronautic and Space Administration's High Performance Computing and Communications/ Learning Technologies Project (HPCC/LTP) Cooperative Agreement, Aeronautics and aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities was operative from July 1995 through July 1998. This project operated as a collaboration with Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications, the Federal Aviation Administration, Bridgewater State College and four targeted "core sites" in the greater Boston area: Dorchester, Malden, East Boston and Randolph. In its first and second years, a video series with a participatory website on aeronautics and aviation science was developed and broadcast via "live, interactive" satellite feed. Accompanying teacher and student supplementary instructional materials for grades 6-12 were produced and disseminated by the Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications (MCET). In year three, the project team redesigned the website, edited 14 videos to a five part thematic unit, and developed a teacher's guide to the video and web materials supplement for MAC and PC platforms, aligned with national standards. In the MCET grant application it states that project Take Off! in its initial phase would recruit and train teachers at "core" sites in the greater Boston area, as well as opening participation to other on-line users of MCET's satellite feeds. "Core site" classrooms would become equipped so that teachers and students might become engaged in an interactive format which aimed at not only involving the students during the "live" broadcast of the instructional video series, but which would encourage participation in electronic information gathering and sharing among participants. As a Take Off! project goal, four schools with a higher than average proportion of minority and underrepresented youth were invited to become involved with the project to give these students the opportunity to consider career exploration and development
Zimmerman, Andrea McNeely
The number of biomedical PhD scientists being trained and graduated far exceeds the number of academic faculty positions and academic research jobs. If this trend is compelling biomedical PhD scientists to increasingly seek career paths outside of academia, then more should be known about their intentions, desires, training experiences, and career path navigation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the process through which biomedical PhD scientists are trained and supported for navigating future career paths. In addition, the study sought to determine whether career development support efforts and opportunities should be redesigned to account for the proportion of PhD scientists following non-academic career pathways. Guided by the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) framework this study sought to answer the following central research question: How does a southeastern tier 1 research university train and support its biomedical PhD scientists for navigating their career paths? Key findings are: Many factors influence PhD scientists' career sector preference and job search process, but the most influential were relationships with faculty, particularly the mentor advisor; Planned activities are a significant aspect of the training process and provide skills for career success; and Planned activities provided skills necessary for a career, but influential factors directed the career path navigated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Arion, Douglas; OConnell, Christine; Lowenthal, James; Hickox, Ryan C.; Lyons, Daniel
The Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University is working with Carthage College, Dartmouth College, and Smith College, in partnership with the Appalachian Mountain Club, to develop and disseminate curriculum to incorporate science communication education into undergraduate science programs. The public science education and outreach program operating since 2012 as a partnership between Carthage and the Appalachian Mountain Club is being used as the testbed for evaluating the training methods. This talk will review the processes that have been developed and the results from the first cohort of students trained in these methods and tested during the summer 2017 education and outreach efforts, which reached some 12,000 members of the public. A variety of evaluation and assessment tools were utilized, including surveys of public participants and video recording of the interactions of the students with the public. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number 1625316.
Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans‐Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp‐Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy
ABSTRACT Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM‐CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM‐CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM‐CFs, German Bio‐Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM‐CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463–479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755
Katherine A. Johnson
Full Text Available The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers.
Ijames, Erika Denise
Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of
Full Text Available Science magazines have an important role in disseminating scientific knowledge into the public sphere and in discussing the broader scope affected by scientific research such as technology, ethics and politics. Student-run science magazines afford opportunities for future scientists, communicators, politicians and others to practice communicating science. The ability to translate ‘scientese’ into a jargon-free discussion is rarely easy: it requires practice, and student magazines may provide good practice ground for undergraduate and graduate science students wishing to improve their communication skills.
Full Text Available Peer advising is an integral part of our undergraduate advising system in the Public Health Sciences major at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The program was developed in 2009 to address the advising needs of a rapidly growing major that went from 25 to over 530 majors between 2007 and 2014. Each year, 9-12 top performing upper-level students are chosen through an intensive application process. A major goal of the program is to provide curriculum and career guidance to students in the major and empower students in their academic and professional pursuits. The year-long program involves several components, including: staffing the drop-in advising center, attending training seminars, developing and presenting workshops for students, meeting prospective students and families, evaluating ways to improve the program, and collaborating on self-directed projects. The peer advisors also provide program staff insight into the needs and perspectives of students in the major. In turn, peer advisors gain valuable leadership and communication skills, and learn strategies for improving student success. The Peer Advising Program builds community and fosters personal and professional development for the peer advisors. In this paper, we will discuss the undergraduate peer advising model, the benefits and challenges of the program, and lessons learned. Several methods were used to understand the perceived benefits and challenges of the program and experiences of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. The data for this evaluation were drawn from three sources: 1 archival records from the Peer Advising Center; 2 feedback from peer advisors who completed the year-long internship; and 3 a survey of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that peer advisors gain valuable skills that they can carry into their professional world. The program is also a way to engage students in building community
Colbert-White, Erin; Simpson, Elizabeth
Research mentors strive to ensure that undergraduates gain research skills and develop professionally during mentored research experiences in the sciences. We created the SURE (Specialized Undergraduate Research Experience) Workbook, a freely-available, interactive guide to scaffold student learning during this process. The Workbook: (1)…
Letchford, Julie; Corradi, Hazel; Day, Trevor
An important aim of undergraduate science education is to develop student skills in reading and evaluating research papers. We have designed, developed, and implemented an on-line interactive resource entitled "Evaluating Scientific Research literature" (ESRL) aimed at students from the first 2 years of the undergraduate program. In this…
Ing, Marsha; Fung, Wenson W.; Kisailus, David
Communicating research findings with others is a skill essential to the success of future STEM professionals. However, little is known about how this skill can be nurtured through participating in undergraduate research. The purpose of this study is to quantify undergraduate participation in research in a materials science and engineering…
Struyf, Annemie; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter
A key theme in science education research concerns the decline in young peoples' interest in science and the need for professionals in hard science. Goal Congruity Theory posits that an important aspect of the decision whether to pursue hard science for study or as a career is the perception that hard science careers do not fulfil social (working…
Salonen, Anssi; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Hense, Jonathan; Scheersoi, Annette; Keinonen, Tuula
School students demonstrate a lack of interest in choosing science studies and science-related careers. To better understand the underlying reasons, this study aims to examine secondary school students' perceptions of working life skills and how these perceptions relate to the skills of the twenty-first century. The participants in this study were 144 Finnish 7th graders (aged 13-14 years). Using a questionnaire and qualitative content analysis, we examined their perceptions of working life skills in 'careers in science' and 'careers with science'. Results reveal that although students have a great deal of knowledge about working life skills, it is often just stereotyped. Sector-specific knowledge and skills were highlighted in particular but skills related to society, organisation, time and higher order thinking, were often omitted. Results also indicate that students do not associate 'careers in science' with creativity, innovation, collaboration or technology and ICT skills. Conversely, according to the students, these careers demand more sector-specific knowledge and responsibility than 'careers with science'. We conclude that students need more wide-ranging information about scientific careers and the competencies demanded; such information can be acquired by e.g. interacting with professionals and their real working life problems.
An expanding ethnicity gap exists in the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers in the United States. The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering revealed that the number of minorities pursuing STEM degrees and careers has declined over the past few years. The specific origins of…
Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.
The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…
Hall, Eric E.; Walkington, Helen; Shanahan, Jenny Olin; Ackley, Elizabeth; Stewart, Kearsley A.
This study examines how Undergraduate Research (UR) mentoring fits into the career profile of award-winning UR mentors and the factors that motivate engagement as UR mentors. Twenty-four award-winning UR mentors in four countries were interviewed about their mentoring practices. Six themes emerged: (1) Academic Identity and Motivations; (2)…
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Lee, Sang Eun
This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement…
Dorph, Rena; Bathgate, Meghan E.; Schunn, Christian D.; Cannady, Matthew A.
This paper proposes three new measures of components STEM career preferences (affinity, certainty, and goal), and then explores which dimensions of "science learning activation" (fascination, values, competency belief, and scientific sensemaking) are predictive of STEM career preferences. Drawn from the ALES14 dataset, a sample of 2938…
This report documents the preparation and distribution of materials designed to aid students is assessing their interests in and prospects for a career in the mathematical sciences. Activities included the preparation of two books, two videos, a world wide web home page, and a workshop meeting on ``Math in Careers`` held at the University of California at Berkeley in January, 1995.
Pursell, David P
BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.
Willey, Joan D.; Avery, G. Brooks, Jr.; Manock, John J.; Skrabal, Stephen A.; Stehman, Charles F.
Describes a laboratory exercise for undergraduate science students in which they evaluate soil samples for various parameters related to suitability for crop production and capability for retention of contaminants. (Contains 18 references.) (WRM)
Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that women of color take in science-based education and employment or about the course that steers them out of science-based careers. Questions abound: What are the environmental factors that affect the choices in education and science-based careers of women of color? What has influenced women of color who currently are in science-based careers? Is critical mass important and, if so, what are the keys to increasing it? What recommendations can be made to colleges and universities, faculty members, employers, the federal government, women of color themselves, and to improve the conditions and numbers of women of color in science-based careers? These questions prompted the National Research Council`s Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) to convene a conference on Diversity in Science: Perspectives on the Retention of Minority Women in Science, Engineering, and Health-Care Professions, held on October 21--23, 1995. Confronting the problem of the lack of knowledge about the journey of women of color in science-based education and career, the conference offered opportunities for these women to describe the paths that they have taken and to identify strategies for success. Their perspectives ground this report. For purposes of this document, women of color include women in the following racial or ethnic groups: Hispanics, African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Science-based careers include those in the physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering.
Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E
The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Almeida, Maria Strecht; Quintanilha, Alexandre
We explore the integration of societal issues in undergraduate training within the life sciences. Skills in thinking about science, scientific knowledge production and the place of science in society are crucial in the context of the idea of responsible research and innovation. This idea became institutionalized and it is currently well-present in…
Orthia, Lindy A.; Dobos, Amy R.; Guy, Tristan; Kan, Shanan Z.; Keys, Siân E.; Nekvapil, Stefan; Ngu, Dalton H. Y.
In this study, students and staff involved in an undergraduate science communication course investigated people's responses to a science-rich episode of the animated sitcom "The Simpsons". Using focus groups, we sought to find out if and how the episode influenced our 34 participants' perceptions of science, but our results problematised…
Sweeney, Jennifer K.; Villarejo, Merna
This qualitative, retrospective study explored how educational experiences provided as part of an undergraduate intervention program helped to shape career decisions for minority biology students. A key goal for the program is to increase minority entry into science research and teaching careers, yet actual career choice has not been studied.…
Antink-Meyer, Allison; Brown, Ryan A.
Science standards in the U.S. have shifted to emphasise science and engineering process skills (i.e. specific practices within inquiry) to a greater extent than previous standards' emphases on broad representations of inquiry. This study examined the alignment between second-career science teachers' personal histories with the latter and examined the extent to which they viewed that history as a factor in their teaching. Four, second-career science teachers with professional backgrounds in engineering, environmental, industrial, and research and development careers participated. Through the examination of participants' methodological and contextual histories in science and engineering, little evidence of conflict with teaching was found. They generally exemplified the agency and motivation of a second-career teacher-scientist that has been found elsewhere [Gilbert, A. (2011). There and back again: Exploring teacher attrition and mobility with two transitioning science teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22(5), 393-415; Grier, J. M., & Johnston, C. C. (2009). An inquiry into the development of teacher identities in STEM career changers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20(1), 57-75]. The methodological and pedagogical perspectives of participants are explored and a discussion of the implications of findings for science teacher education are presented.
The study recommended that undergraduates should be trained to be ICT literate as well as be given increased access to internet facilities to enable them maximize the benefits of internet use. The study concluded that although there is a rise in the use of internet by undergraduates, they primarily use the internet for social ...
Unlike other disciplines in the social sciences, there has been relatively little attention paid to the structure of the undergraduate political science curriculum. This article reports the results of a representative survey of 200 political science programs in the United States, examining requirements for quantitative methods, research methods,…
Oh, Phil Seok
The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…
Eshach, Haim; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao
Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS). The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel…
Ortega, Robbie Ray
Minorities continue to be underrepresented in professional science careers. In order to make Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers more accessible for underrepresented minorities, informal science programs must be utilized to assist in developing interest in STEM for minority youth. In addition to developing interest in science, informal programs must help develop interpersonal skills and leadership skills of youth, which allow youth to develop discrete social behaviors while creating positive and supportive communities thus making science more practical in their lives. This study was based on the premise that introducing underrepresented youth to the agricultural and life sciences through an integrated precollege experience of leadership development with university faculty, scientist, and staff would help increase youths' interest in science, while also increasing their interest to pursue a STEM-related career. Utilizing a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities, known as the Ag Discovery Camp, 33 middle school aged youth were brought to the Purdue University campus to participate in an experience that integrated a leadership development program with an informal science education program in the context of agriculture. The week-long program introduced youth to fields of agriculture in engineering, plant sciences, food sciences, and entomology. The purpose of the study was to describe short-term and intermediate student outcomes in regards to participants' interests in career activities, science self-efficacy, and career intentions. Youth were not interested in agricultural activities immediately following the precollege experience. However, one year after the precollege experience, youth expressed they were more aware of agriculture and would consider agricultural careers if their first career choice did not work out for them. Results also showed that the youth who participated in the precollege experience were
Wang, Jennifer Y; Lin, Hillary; Lewis, Patricia Y; Fetterman, David M; Gesundheit, Neil
Undergraduate (i.e., baccalaureate) premedical students have limited exposure to clinical practice before applying to medical school-a shortcoming, given the personal and financial resources required to complete medical training. The Stanford Immersion in Medicine Series (SIMS) is a program that streamlines the completion of regulatory requirements for premedical students and allows them to develop one-on-one mentor-mentee relationships with practicing physicians. The program, offered quarterly since 2007, is an elective available for Stanford University sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Participants apply to the program and, if accepted, receive patient rights and professionalism training. Students shadow the physician they are paired with at least four times and submit a reflective essay about their experience.SIMS program coordinators administered surveys before and after shadowing to assess changes in students' perceptions and understanding of medical careers. The authors observed, in the 61 Stanford premedical students who participated in SIMS between March and June 2010 and completed both pre- and postprogram questionnaires, significant increases in familiarity with physician responsibilities and in understanding physician-patient interactions. The authors detected no significant changes in student commitment to pursuing medicine. Student perceptions of the value of shadowing-high both pre- and post shadowing-did not change. Physician shadowing by premedical baccalaureate students appears to promote an understanding of physician roles and workplace challenges. Future studies should identify the ideal timing, format, and duration of shadowing to optimize the experience and allow students to make informed decisions about whether to pursue a medical career.
Savela, Alexandra Elizabeth
One persistent trend characterizing many work-family arrangements is the tendency for women to invest more heavily in the family sphere compared to men and to compromise career pursuits for their children or partner. Discovering which factors perpetuate these gender-stratified investments in work and family is necessary because, along with…
Waymer, Damion; Brown, Kenon A.; Baker, Kimberly; Fears, Lillie
We interviewed racially/ethnically diverse, early career public relations practitioners. By asking participants to reflect on their collegiate social and educational development, we unearth contributing factors to these individuals' success both in college and in their professions to date. Respondents desired much more in-school training and…
Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy
There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who
Zornoza, Raúl; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Acosta, Jose A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Faz, Angel
Teaching soil science can be a challenge in those degrees where students are not familiar with the soil system and do not understand the importance of soil science for their future career. This is the case of students of Biology, Agronomy or Environmental Science, who normally consider soil as a mere substrate for vegetation development, with no interest about how soil determines productivity and quality of terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, students lack of initial motivation to study Soil Science, and just attend lectures and practical lessons as mandatory procedure to get the degree. To engage undergraduate students from Biology, Agronomy and Environmental Sciences in Soil Science, we developed a strategy to enhance their motivation by means of making them participants of the selection of the soils and analyses used for their training. By means of dichotomous keys, students, grouped in pairs, first select the main purpose of their study from different options (land productivity, soil biodiversity, soil fertility, effectiveness of restoration, effect of land use, effect of management, etc). Once objective is decided, we give them some information about sampling strategies, so that they select how soil sampling is going to be performed, and the number of samples to be taken. In terms of the initial objective, they also decide from a given list the properties they should measure. In a practical basis, from the list of selected properties to be measured, professors decide the ones they can really develop in terms of timing, resources and space demand. After that, they are aware about the fact that they have an experimental design developed by them to achieve the goal they meant. Under this perspective, their motivation is enhanced since students are the ones deciding what to study in terms of their personal and professional interests, so that learning is more effective. The negative aspect of this strategy is that it involves many hours of tutorials for the professor
Nelson, E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Douglas, A.; Hansen, Z.
In the modern computing age, scientists must utilize a wide variety of skills to carry out scientific research. Programming, including a focus on collaborative development, has become more prevalent in both academic and professional career paths. Faculty in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Wisconsin—Madison recognized this need and recently approved a new course offering for undergraduates and postgraduates in computational methods that was first held in Spring 2017. Three programming languages were covered in the inaugural course semester and development themes such as modularization, data wrangling, and conceptual code models were woven into all of the sections. In this presentation, we will share successes and challenges in developing a research project-focused computational course that leverages hands-on computer laboratory learning and open-sourced course content. Improvements and changes in future iterations of the course based on the first offering will also be discussed.
Fawcett-Adams, Victoria Joan
Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education is an issue of great concern for the country with implications for sustaining a skilled workforce in science-based professions. This empirical study explored adults' science career choice and explored the environmental influences that motivated, influenced and shaped these choices. This qualitative study used the analytical lens of narrative inquiry storytelling and thick description. Participants lived in medium-sized rural towns and a small city, and they were adults who had been in science careers for a minimum of ten years in the fields of health care, education and agriculture. Interviews were semi-structured with open-ended questions and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Observations took place at the workplace site. The interview transcripts were reviewed with each participant in person for authenticity and additional specific questions were designed to further explore their responses, meaning and provide accurate interpretations of the data. Themes and subthemes emerged from coding the data and suggested four dominant themes: people, identity, beliefs and attitudes, and feelings. Findings showed that people such as parents, grandparents, siblings and teachers were most influential in forming identity as well as shaping beliefs and attitudes, and feelings in science career choice. Participants did not remember educational experiences as influential; however, they did remember some teachers and advisors as influential, especially during college. The researcher recommends that parents and other adults build relationships with students specifically to discuss career opportunities. Parents and teachers should increase their knowledge and awareness of science careers. This knowledge can then contribute to a more informed conversation when discussing career objectives with students. Industry should partner with K-16 education to help develop a scientific workforce and participate in further career
Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD
A total of 447 dissertation abstracts were received for the DIALOG V Program, with 146 individuals applying for the DIALOG V Symposium; 47 were invited and 45 have accepted. This represents a significant increase compared to the DIALOG IV Program in which 221 abstracts were registered and 124 applied for the symposium. The importance of the dissertation registration service is indicated by the increasing number of individuals who take time to register their dissertation even when they are not interested in applying to the symposium. The number of visits to the webpage has also increased significantly over the years. This also reflects graduate interest in being part of the on-line Dissertation Registry and receiving the weekly electronic DIALOG Newsletter. See http://aslo.org/phd.html for details. The DIALOG symposium reaches approximately 40 new PI's at a pivotal point in their research careers. Based on their comments, the symposium changes the way participants think, communicate, and approach their research. The science community and the general population will benefit from the perspectives these new PI's bring back to their home institutions and share with their students and colleagues. This group should act as a catalyst to move the entire field in exciting new, interdisciplinary directions. To reach more graduates, plans are underway to establish the symposium on an annual basis. By facilitating the development of close collegial ties, symposium participants come away with a network of colleagues from around the globe with interests in aquatic science research and education. Past participants are collaborating on research proposals, and all have noted that participation has enabled them to develop a more interdisciplinary view of their field, influencing the way they interpret, communicate, and approacli their research. The dissertation registry provides a unique introduction to the work of this most recent generation of aquatic scientists. Each
Quiring, S. M.
This paper describes the education and engagement plan of the NSF CAREER award that I received in 2011 (Role of Soil Moisture in Seasonal to Interannual Climate Variability in the U.S. Great Plains; NSF Award #1056796). A key component of this plan is the development of a Drought Science Learning Community. A learning community is a program of courses and activities, which may include social and academic activities outside the classroom, that form a single program of instruction. Learning communities serve to increase faculty-student and student-student interaction, improve active and collaborative learning, and develop curricular coherence. The goal of a learning community is to encourage integration of learning across courses and to involve students with one of the grand challenges facing society. Students will be recruited from a Freshman Year Seminar (FYS) that I teach every Fall. Students who belong to the learning community will participate in the Water Management and Hydrological Sciences Seminar Series, relevant field trips, and monthly brown bag lunch meetings where students and faculty will discuss their current research projects and recently published scientific articles. Students who participate in learning community activities will benefit from a common intellectual experience that will help them to develop linkages between courses, regular interactions with faculty mentors, and the opportunity to contribute to faculty research. All students will be encouraged to complete an undergraduate thesis as the capstone experience of their participation in the learning community. In addition to describing the organization of the education and engagement plan, I will also discuss expected outcomes, best practices and lessons learned.
By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photos by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Approximately 50 college students, professors, and high school teachers from Frederick County Public Schools gathered at Hood College for the second annual National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR) Exploring Careers in a Scientific Environment Symposium (NECSES). The Feb. 13 event highlighted the wide range of scientific research as well as the educational and career opportunities available through NICBR partner organizations.
Full Text Available Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or "alternative careers." There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.
Sauermann, Henry; Roach, Michael
Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or "alternative careers." There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.
Skells, Kristin Marie
Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.
Lee, Sang Eun
This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between
Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students
Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.
The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as frameworks to better understand the participants'…
Fox, Mary Frank; Sonnert, Gerhard; Nikiforova, Irina
This article focuses upon programs for undergraduate women in science and engineering, which are a strategic research site in the study of gender, science, and higher education. The design involves both quantitative and qualitative approaches, linking theory, method, questions, and analyses in ways not undertaken previously. Using a comprehensive,…
Floraino, Wely B.
This article discusses the challenges that bioinformatics education is facing and describes a bioinformatics course that is successfully taught at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, to the fourth year undergraduate students in biological sciences, chemistry, and computer science. Information on lecture and computer practice…
Smolinski, Tomasz G.
Computer literacy plays a critical role in today's life sciences research. Without the ability to use computers to efficiently manipulate and analyze large amounts of data resulting from biological experiments and simulations, many of the pressing questions in the life sciences could not be answered. Today's undergraduates, despite the ubiquity of…
Fredericks, Marcel; Miller, Steven I.
Argues that the behavioral or "human" sciences are fundamentally different in scope and intent from the natural sciences. Describes the use of controversial topics in undergraduate courses and provides a four-step process. Recommends using Karl Popper's falsification theory to help students think critically about issues. (CFR)
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise
Communication skills are one of five nationally recognised learning outcomes for an Australian Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree. Previous evidence indicates that communication skills taught in Australian undergraduate science degrees are not developed sufficiently to meet the requirements of the modern-day workplace--a problem faced in the UK and…
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy D.; Matthews, Kelly E.
Higher education institutions globally are acknowledging the need to teach communication skills. This study used the Science Student Skills Inventory to gain insight into how science students perceive the development of communication skills across the degree programme. Responses were obtained from 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a Bachelor…
Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.
To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…
Crompton, Helen; Burgin, Stephen R.; De Paor, Declan G.; Gregory, Kristen
Asking scientific questions is the first practice of science and engineering listed in the Next Generation Science Standards. However, getting students to ask unsolicited questions in a large class can be difficult. In this qualitative study, undergraduate students sent SMS text messages to the instructor who received them on his mobile phone and…
Morales, Marie Paz E.; Avilla, Ruel A.; Espinosa, Allen A.
The present study explored gender inequality in K to 12 basic education, based on the experiences of first year pre-service science and mathematics teachers. It also determined if pre-service teachers' pursuit of a career in science or mathematics teaching was related to gender influences. A survey instrument was used to gather data for the study.…
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…
Kachchaf, Rachel; Ko, Lily; Hodari, Apriel; Ong, Maria
The National Science Foundation recently recognized that career-life balance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) may present some unique challenges for women of color compared with their White and/or male counterparts, thus negatively impacting retention and advancement for a minority demographic that has long been…
Salonen, Anssi; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Hense, Jonathan; Scheersoi, Annette; Keinonen, Tuula
School students demonstrate a lack of interest in choosing science studies and science-related careers. To better understand the underlying reasons, this study aims to examine secondary school students' perceptions of working life skills and how these perceptions relate to the skills of the twenty-first century. The participants in this study were…
Wang, Hui-Hui; Billington, Barbara L.
This article addresses economically disadvantaged minority girls' knowledge and perceptions of science and engineering and the influence of their experiences with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) on their choices for future careers. We interviewed three girls who participated in a 4-H-led gender-inclusive STEM program. Our…
Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.; Woolnough, Brian E.
Reports on a study done at Oxford University on why young people chose to pursue a career in the physical sciences and engineering. Characteristics of schools that appeared to influence students to pursue a study of science were also investigated. Currently, England, Australia, Canada, China, Japan, and Portugal have contributed information to…
Rodrigues, Susan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Snape, Jonathan B.
This study adds to a body of research reporting on pupils' choices and outcomes in relation to science. The article reports on 536 Scottish pupils' perceptions regarding reported intention to choose careers in science, with further analysis in terms of family, friends, gender and ethnicity. The pupils, aged 14-15, from 5 schools in one Scottish…
Connolly, Mark R.; Lee, You-Geon; Savoy, Julia N.
To help prepare future faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to teach undergraduates, more research universities are offering teaching development (TD) programs to doctoral students who aspire to academic careers. Using social cognitive career theory, we examine the effects of TD programs on early-career STEM…
Full Text Available To help bridge the increasing gap between scientists and the public, we developed an innovative two-semester course, called Science Café. In this course undergraduate biology majors learn to develop communication skills to be better able to explain science concepts and current developments in science to non-scientists. Students develop and host outreach events on various topics relevant to the community, thereby increasing interactions between budding scientists and the public. Such a Science Cafe course emphasizes development of science communication skills early, at the undergraduate level and empowers students to use their science knowledge in every day interactions with the public to increase science literacy, get involved in the local community and engage the public in a dialogue on various pressing science issues. We believe that undergraduate science majors can be great ambassadors for science and are often overlooked since many aspire to go on to medical/veterinary/pharmacy schools. However, science communication skills are especially important for these types of students because when they become healthcare professionals, they will interact with the public as part of their everyday jobs and can thus be great representatives for the field.
Baynham, Patricia J.
Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. S...
Fassinger, Ruth E.; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Richmond, Geraldine
This article presents quantitative results of a study of 139 academic women in the chemical sciences who participated in a professional development program sponsored by the Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists. The study investigated variables frequently examined in the vocational psychology of women: approaches to achievement, coping strategies, career advancement, the home-work interface, workplace climate, and mentoring. The article presents and discusses results in the context of unique issues faced by women in scientific careers.
Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth
Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in
Anderson, J. [Fermilab; Asaadi, J. [Syracuse U.; Carls, B. [Fermilab; Cotta, R. [UC, Irvine; Guenette, R. [Yale U.; Kiburg, B. [Fermilab; Kobach, A. [Northwestern U.; Lippincott, H. [Fermilab; Littlejohn, B. [Cincinnati U.; Love, J. [Argonne; Penning, B. [Fermilab; Santos, M. Soares [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [email@example.com; Szelc, A. [Yale U.; Worcester, E. [Brookhaven; Yu, F. [Fermilab
From April to July 2013 the Snowmass Young Physicists (SYP) administered an online survey collecting the opinions and concerns of the High Energy Physics (HEP) community. The aim of this survey is to provide input into the long term planning meeting known as the Community Summer Study (CSS), or Snowmass on the Mississippi. In total, 1112 respondents took part in the survey including 74 people who had received their training within HEP and have since left for non-academic jobs. This paper presents a summary of the survey results including demographic, career outlook, planned experiments and non-academic career path information collected.
Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Adams, A. S.; de Boer, A. M.; Staudt, A. C.; Fiore, A. M.
Professional networking is often cited as an important component of scientific career development, yet there are few resources for early career scientists to develop and build networks. Personal networks can provide opportunities to learn about organizational culture and procedures, expectations, advancement opportunities, and best practices. They provide access to mentors and job placement opportunities, new scientific collaborations, speaker and conference invitations, increased scientific visibility, reduced isolation, and a stronger feeling of community. There is evidence in the literature that a sense of community positively affects the engagement and retention of underrepresented groups, including women, in science. Thus women scientists may particularly benefit from becoming part of a network. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) began in 2002 as an informal peer-to-peer mentoring initiative among a few recent Ph.D.s. The network has grown exponentially to include over 1000 women scientists across the globe. Surveys of our membership about ESWN report positive impacts on the careers of women in Earth sciences, particularly those in early career stages. Through ESWN, women share both professional and personal advice, establish research collaborations, communicate strategies on work/life balance, connect with women at various stages of their careers, and provide perspectives from cultures across the globe. We present lessons learned through the formal and informal activities promoted by ESWN in support of the career development of women Earth scientists.
Discusses the importance of computer security and considers criminal, national security, and personal privacy threats posed by security breakdown. Several examples are given, including incidents involving computer viruses. Objectives, content, instructional strategies, resources, and a sample examination for an experimental undergraduate computer…
Yawson, Nat Ato; Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; Tali, Bernice; Shang, Velma Owusua; Batu, Emmanuella Nsenbah; Asiemoah, Kwame; Fuseini, Ahmed Denkeri; Tene, Louis Nana; Angaandi, Leticia; Blewusi, Isaac; Borbi, Makafui; Aduku, Linda Nana Esi; Badu, Pheonah; Abbey, Henrietta; Karikari, Thomas K
The scientific capacity in many African countries is low. Ghana, for example, is estimated to have approximately twenty-three researchers per a million inhabitants. In order to improve interest in science among future professionals, appropriate techniques should be developed and employed to identify barriers and correlates of science education among pre-university students. Young students' attitudes towards science may affect their future career choices. However, these attitudes may change with new experiences. It is, therefore, important to evaluate potential changes in students' attitudes towards science after their exposure to experiences such as science outreach activities. Through this, more effective means of inspiring and mentoring young students to choose science subjects can be developed. This approach would be particularly beneficial in countries such as Ghana, where: (i) documented impacts of outreach activities are lacking; and (ii) effective means to develop scientist-school educational partnerships are needed. We have established an outreach scheme, aimed at helping to improve interaction between scientists and pre-university students (and their teachers). Outreach activities are designed and implemented by undergraduate students and graduate teaching assistants, with support from faculty members and technical staff. Through this, we aim to build a team of trainee scientists and graduates who will become ambassadors of science in their future professional endeavors. Here, we describe an approach for assessing changes in junior high school students' attitudes towards science following classroom neuroscience outreach activities. We show that while students tended to agree more with questions concerning their perceptions about science learning after the delivery of outreach activities, significant improvements were obtained for only two questions, namely "I enjoy science lessons" and "I want to be a scientist in the future." Furthermore, there was a
Aikens, Melissa L; Sadselia, Sona; Watkins, Keiana; Evans, Mara; Eby, Lillian T; Dolan, Erin L
Undergraduate researchers at research universities are often mentored by graduate students or postdoctoral researchers (referred to collectively as "postgraduates") and faculty, creating a mentoring triad structure. Triads differ based on whether the undergraduate, postgraduate, and faculty member interact with one another about the undergraduate's research. Using a social capital theory framework, we hypothesized that different triad structures provide undergraduates with varying resources (e.g., information, advice, psychosocial support) from the postgraduates and/or faculty, which would affect the undergraduates' research outcomes. To test this, we collected data from a national sample of undergraduate life science researchers about their mentoring triad structure and a range of outcomes associated with research experiences, such as perceived gains in their abilities to think and work like scientists, science identity, and intentions to enroll in a PhD program. Undergraduates mentored by postgraduates alone reported positive outcomes, indicating that postgraduates can be effective mentors. However, undergraduates who interacted directly with faculty realized greater outcomes, suggesting that faculty interaction is important for undergraduates to realize the full benefits of research. The "closed triad," in which undergraduates, postgraduates, and faculty all interact directly, appeared to be uniquely beneficial; these undergraduates reported the highest gains in thinking and working like a scientist. © 2016 M. L. Aikens et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Poster Staff The first National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR) Exploring Careers in a Scientific Environment Symposium was held on Feb. 18 at the Advanced Technology Research Facility. The event drew more than 70 Frederick County public school teachers, who learned about the wide range of biomedical research being conducted by scientists in the NICBR
Deacon, Christopher; Hajek, Allyson; Schulz, Henry
Many post-secondary institutions provide training and resources to help GTAs fulfil their teaching roles. However, few programmes focus specifically on the teaching competencies required by GTAs who work with undergraduate students in laboratory settings where learning tends to be more active and inquiry based than in classroom settings. From a review of 8 GTA manuals, we identified 20 competencies and then surveyed faculty and lab coordinators (FIS) and GTAs from a Faculty of Science at a comprehensive Canadian university to identify which of those competencies are required of GTAs who work in undergraduate science labs. GTAs and FIS did not significantly differ in the competencies they view as required for GTAs to work effectively in undergraduate labs. But, when comparing the responses of GTAs and FIS to TA manuals, 'Clearly and effectively communicates ideas and information with students' was the only competency for which there was agreement on the level of requirement. We also examined GTAs' self-efficacy for each of the identified competencies and found no overall relationship between self-efficacy and demographic characteristics, including experience and training. Our results can be used to inform the design of training programmes specifically for GTAs who work in undergraduate science labs, for example, programmes should provide strategies for GTAs to obtain feedback which they can use to enhance their teaching skills. The goal of this study is to improve undergraduate lab instruction in faculties of science and to enhance the teaching experience of GTAs by better preparing them for their role.
Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine cor...
Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.
Among careers for biologists with PhDs, science communication is one of the most diverse and rewarding pathways. Myriad options exist, from traditional journalism to new media, from writing for specialists to working in public outreach. Textbooks, mass-market books, and freelance writing that combines many of these pursuits are all viable choices. Communicating about science allows researchers to step away from the minutiae of a subdiscipline and to once again explore the breadth of science m...
Hope, W. W.; Johnson, L. P.; Obl, W.; Stewart, A.; Harris, W. C.; Craig, R. D.
Faculty in the Department of Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences strongly believe in the concept that undergraduate research and research-related activities must be integrated into the fabric of our undergraduate Science and Technology curricula. High level skills, such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration and the ability to engage in research, are learned for advanced study in graduate school or for competing for well paying positions in the scientific community. One goal of our academic programs is to have a pipeline of research activities from high school to four year college, to graduate school, based on the GISS Institute on Climate and Planets model.
Holloway, T.; Hastings, M. G.; Barnes, R. T.; Fischer, E. V.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Rodriguez, C.; Adams, M. S.; Marin-Spiotta, E.
The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is an international peer-mentoring organization with over 2000 members, dedicated to career development and community for women across the geosciences. Since its formation in 2002, ESWN has supported the growth of a more diverse scientific community through a combination of online and in-person networking activities. Lessons learned related to online networking and community-building will be presented. ESWN serves upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, professionals in a range of environmental fields, scientists working in federal and state governments, post-doctoral researchers, and academic faculty and scientists. Membership includes women working in over 50 countries, although the majority of ESWN members work in the U.S. ESWN increases retention of women in the geosciences by enabling and supporting professional person-to-person connections. This approach has been shown to reduce feelings of isolation among our members and help build professional support systems critical to career success. In early 2013 ESWN transitioned online activities to an advanced social networking platform that supports discussion threads, group formation, and individual messaging. Prior to that, on-line activities operated through a traditional list-serve, hosted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The new web center, http://eswnonline.org, serves as the primary forum for members to build connections, seek advice, and share resources. For example, members share job announcements, discuss issues of work-life balance, and organize events at professional conferences. ESWN provides a platform for problem-based mentoring, drawing from the wisdom of colleagues across a range of career stages.
Hayes, Alexander G.
I am deeply honored to be the inaugural recipient of the Ronald Greeley Early Career Award. Ron was an icon in the field of planetary science, and the establishment of this award is a fitting way to pay tribute to his legacy. I applaud Laurie Leshin, Bill McKinnon, and the rest of the AGU Planetary Science section officers and selection committee for taking the time to organize this memorial. Ron is remembered not only for his fundamental scientific contributions but also for his mentorship and support of early-career scientists, both his own students and postdocs and those of his colleagues.
Young, Virginia A.; Kiefer, Adam M.
Undergraduate microbiology courses offer a perfect opportunity to introduce students to historical food preservation processes that are still in use today. The fermentation of vegetables, as occurs in the preparation of sauerkraut and kimchi, uses an enrichment step to select for the growth of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This is an active learning exercise in which students learn a food preparation skill and basic microbiological terms such as selection and enrichment. W...
Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo
The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Ghosh, Arpita; Chang, Wen-hsin; Figueiredo, Catia; Bachhuber, Thomas
College is a significant time for undergraduates to declare majors and choose career paths. For many undergraduates, choosing both a major and a career path is challenging. Research shows that many universities deliver career interventions through dedicated career decision-making courses (Mead & Korschgen, 1994). However, there has been…
Skinner, Ellen; Saxton, Emily; Currie, Cailin; Shusterman, Gwen
As part of long-standing efforts to promote undergraduates' success in science, researchers have investigated the instructional strategies and motivational factors that promote student learning and persistence in science coursework and majors. This study aimed to create a set of brief measures that educators and researchers can use as tools to examine the undergraduate motivational experience in science classes. To identify key motivational processes, we drew on self-determination theory (SDT), which holds that students have fundamental needs - to feel competent, related, and autonomous - that fuel their intrinsic motivation. When educational experiences meet these needs, students engage more energetically and learn more, cumulatively contributing to a positive identity as a scientist. Based on information provided by 1013 students from 8 classes in biology, chemistry, and physics, we constructed conceptually focused and psychometrically sound survey measures of three sets of motivational factors: (1) students' appraisals of their own competence, autonomy, and relatedness; (2) the quality of students' behavioural and emotional engagement in academic work; and (3) students' emerging identities as scientists, including their science identity, purpose in science, and science career plans. Using an iterative confirmatory process, we tested short item sets for unidimensionality and internal consistency, and then cross-validated them. Tests of measurement invariance showed that scales were generally comparable across disciplines. Most importantly, scales and final course grades showed correlations consistent with predictions from SDT. These measures may provide a window on the student motivational experience for educators, researchers, and interventionists who aim to improve the quality of undergraduate science teaching and learning.
Traynor, Marian; Galanouli, Despina; Roberts, Martin; Leonard, Lawrence; Gale, Thomas
The aim of this study was to complement existing evidence on the suitability of Multiple Mini Interviews as a potential tool for the selection of nursing candidates on to a BSc (Hons) nursing programme. This study aimed to trial the Multiple Mini Interview approach to recruitment with a group of first year nursing students (already selected using traditional interviews). Cross-sectional validation study. This paper reports on the evaluation of the participants' detailed scores from the Multiple Mini Interview stations; their original interview scores and their end of year results. This study took place in March 2015. Scores from the seven Multiple Mini Interview stations were analysed to show the internal structure, reliability and generalizability of the stations. Original selection scores from interviews and in-course assessment were correlated with the MMI scores and variation by students' age, gender and disability status was explored. Reliability of the Multiple Mini Interview score was moderate (G = 0·52). The Multiple Mini Interview score provided better differentiation between more able students than did the original interview score but neither score was correlated with the module results. Multiple Mini Interview scores were positively associated with students' age but not their gender or disability status. The Multiple Mini Interview reported in this study offers a selection process that is based on the values and personal attributes regarded as desirable for a career in nursing and does not necessarily predict academic success. Its moderate reliability indicates the need for further improvement but it is capable of discriminating between candidates and shows little evidence of bias. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose: In order to train more high-level general practitioners (GPs to work in primary care institutions, China launched the 5+3 model in 2015 as a way to educate GPs nationwide. In this study, we investigated the awareness of the 5+3 model, career choices after graduation, and influences on GP career choice of undergraduate medical students from Zhengzhou University. Methods: The study population consisted of 288 undergraduate medical students from Zhengzhou University. We explored the students׳ awareness of the 5+3 model, career choices after graduation, influences on general practitioner career choice and mental status by using a self-report questionnaire and the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Results: We found 34.2% of students did not understand the new policy. Only 23.2% of students would choose to work as a GP after graduation, and those tended to be female, to have a monthly family income less than 4000 ¥, or to be from rural areas. Only 10% of undergraduate medical students expressed a preference to work at primary care institutions. The participants showed higher anxiety and stress scores than did a previously published group of Chinese college students, and those who chose to pursue higher education had more anxiety and stress than those who decided to become general practitioners. Discussion: More efforts should be made to popularize the 5+3 model and mental intervention among medical students. More efforts should be tried to increase the income/welfare benefits and strengthen the infrastructure of primary care institutions to attract more medical students. Keywords: 5+3 model, General practitioner, Health care reform, Hierarchical medical system
May 16, 2010 ... Women in Science, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru ... Vijayaragavan on the topic “The making of a flowering stem: ... To encourage faculty to carry out high end research in their tyopic of research and submit projects.
Indian journals like Current Science, Indian Journal of Medical Research provide ... Dept. of Science & Technology provides scholarships to Women Scientists and ... An article published in "The Guardian" on 10 best unsung female scientists.
Struyf, Annemie; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter
A key theme in science education research concerns the decline in young peoples' interest in science and the need for professionals in hard science. Goal Congruity Theory posits that an important aspect of the decision whether to pursue hard science for study or as a career is the perception that hard science careers do not fulfil social (working with people) and societal (serving or helping others) interests. In this qualitative study, we explore grade 12 students' perceptions about the social and societal orientation of hard science careers. Furthermore, we investigate the variation in students' social and societal interests. Six focus groups were conducted with 58 grade 12 students in Flanders. Our results indicate that a number of students hold stereotypical views about hard science careers' social orientation, while others believe cooperation with others is an important aspect of hard science careers nowadays. Furthermore, our results show that students believe hard science careers can be societally oriented in the sense that they often associate them with innovation or societal progress. Finally, our results indicate that students may differentiate direct versus indirect societal orientation. These findings contribute to literature regarding social and societal interests and students' perceptions of hard science careers.
Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.
Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are
Academic and non-academic career options for marine scientists. - Support measures for early career scientists offered at MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Germany
Hebbeln, Dierk; Klose, Christina
Early career scientists at MARUM cover a wide range of research topics and disciplines including geosciences, biology, chemistry, social sciences and law. Just as colourful as the disciplinary background of the people, are their ideas for their personal careers. With our services and programmes, we aim to address some important career planning needs of PhD students and early career Postdocs, both, for careers in science and for careers outside academia. For PhD students aiming to stay in science, MARUM provides funding opportunities for a research stay abroad for a duration of up to 6 months. A range of courses is offered to prepare for the first Postdoc position. These include trainings in applying for research funding, proposal writing and interview skills. Following MARUM lectures which are held once a month, early career scientists are offered the opportunity to talk to senior scientists from all over the world in an informal Meet&Greet. Mentoring and coaching programmes for women in science are offered in cooperation with the office for equal opportunities at the University of Bremen. These programmes offer an additional opportunity to train interpersonal skills and to develop personal career strategies including a focus on special challenges that especially women might (have to) face in the scientific community. Early career scientists aiming for a non-academic career find support on different levels. MARUM provides funding opportunities for placements in industry, administration, consulting or similar. We offer trainings in e.g. job hunting strategies or interview skills. For a deeper insight into jobs outside the academic world, we regularly invite professionals for informal fireside chats and career days. These events are organised in cooperation with other graduate programmes in the region to broaden the focus of both, the lecturers and the participants. A fundamental component of our career programmes is the active involvement of alumni of MARUM and our
Morris, Neil P.; Ramsay, Luke; Chauhan, Vikesh
This article reports findings from a study investigating undergraduate biological sciences students' use of technology and computer devices for learning and the effect of providing students with a tablet device. A controlled study was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data on the impact of a tablet device on students' use of…
Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.
Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre-health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically…
Quan, Gina M.; Elby, Andrew
Undergraduate research can support students' more central participation in physics. We analyze markers of two coupled shifts in participation: changes in students' views about the nature of science coupled to shifts in self-efficacy toward physics research. Students in the study worked with faculty and graduate student mentors on research projects…
Palocsay, Susan W.; Markham, Ina S.
In 2003, accreditation standards were revised to require coverage of management science (MS) after previously removing it in 1991. Meanwhile, increasing awareness of the value of business analytics stimulated a renewed interest in MS. To examine its present status in undergraduate core business curricula, the authors conducted two studies to…
Schnoebelen, Carly; Towns, Marcy H.; Chmielewski, Jean; Hrycyna, Christine A.
The chemistry curriculum for undergraduate life science majors at Purdue University has been transformed to better meet the needs of this student population and prepare them for future success. The curriculum, called the 1-2-1 curriculum, includes four consecutive and integrated semesters of instruction in general chemistry, organic chemistry, and…
The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…
Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Liddle, Kathleen; Khanna, Nikki; Perrone, Lisa; Palmer, Katrina; Lynn, David
A new program, On Recent Discoveries by Emory Researchers (ORDER), has been developed as a bridge across the ever-widening gap between graduate and undergraduate education in the sciences. This bridge is created by merging the needs of graduate/postdoctoral students to educate more interdisciplinary scholars about their research discoveries with…
Gross, Erin M.
An undergraduate lecture course in Green Chemistry and Sustainability has been developed and taught to a "multidisciplinary" group of science and nonscience majors. The course introduced students to the topics of green chemistry and sustainability and also immersed them in usage of the scientific literature. Through literature…
Undergraduate social science research methods courses tend to have higher than average rates of failure and withdrawal. Lack of success in these courses impedes students' progression through their degree programs and negatively impacts institutional retention and graduation rates. Grounded in adult learning theory, this mixed methods study…
Cirino, Lauren A; Emberts, Zachary; Joseph, Paul N; Allen, Pablo E; Lopatto, David; Miller, Christine W
Effective and accurate communication of scientific findings is essential. Unfortunately, scientists are not always well trained in how to best communicate their results with other scientists nor do all appreciate the importance of speaking with the public. Here, we provide an example of how the development of oral communication skills can be integrated with research experiences at the undergraduate level. We describe our experiences developing, running, and evaluating a course for undergraduates that complemented their existing undergraduate research experiences with instruction on the nature of science and intensive training on the development of science communication skills. Students delivered science talks, research monologues, and poster presentations about the ecological and evolutionary research in which they were involved. We evaluated the effectiveness of our approach using the CURE survey and a focus group. As expected, undergraduates reported strong benefits to communication skills and confidence. We provide guidance for college researchers, instructors, and administrators interested in motivating and equipping the next generation of scientists to be excellent science communicators.
Cogdell, Barbara; Torsney, Ben; Stewart, Katherine; Smith, Robert A.
In order to promote more active engagement of science undergraduates in histology practical classes some technology-based innovations were introduced. First, an interactive pre-lab tutorial was set up using an electronic handset voting system, where guidance on tissue analysis was given. Second, a web-based resource where students could access…
Zwartjes, G.J.; van de Voort, M.; Dil, B.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.
Incorporating Embedded Systems courses in a general and broad Computer Science undergraduate curriculum can be a challenging task. The lack of experience with relevant tools and programming languages tends to limit the amount material that can be included in courses on this area. This, combined with
Baker, Dale R.
Despite much effort on the part of educators the number of females who choose science careers remains low. This research focuses on two factors which may be influencing females in their choice of careers. These factors are role-specific self-concept in science and self perception in terms of stereotypical masculine and feminine characteristics. In addition logical ability and mathematics and science courses were also examined as factors in career choice. Females preferring science related careers and females preferring nontraditional careers such as police, military and trades were found to have a positive role-specific self-concept and a masculine perception of themselves. Females preferring traditional careers such as teacher or hairdresser had a poor role-specific self-concept and a more feminine perception of themselves. Males as a group were found to have a more positive role-specific self-concept than females. Logical ability was also related to a science career preference for both males and females. Males expected to take more higher level math courses than females, while females preferring science careers expected to take the most higher level science courses.
Hermanowicz, Joseph C
What can we learn when we follow people over the years and across the course of their professional lives? Joseph C. Hermanowicz asks this question specifically about scientists and answers it here by tracking fifty-five physicists through different stages of their careers at a variety of universities across the country. He explores these scientists' shifting perceptions of their jobs to uncover the meanings they invest in their work, when and where they find satisfaction, how they succeed and fail, and how the rhythms of their work change as they age. His candid interviews with hi
Olgin, J. G.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.
The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors the Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program (CAREERS); a program that manages a network of weather camps for students in secondary education with particular focus on increasing access for students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. Hosted by a college or university, the primary mission goals of the program are to engage students in discussions, lectures and interactive projects to better learn and comprehend a suite of atmospheric science disciplines (i.e. weather forecasting, environmental modeling, atmospheric data acquisition), and guide talented students towards higher education to pursue careers in atmospheric science primarily, or toward other STEM field professions. The need to evaluate and analyze the program's efficacy is crucial for continued growth and sustainability. Therefore a means to identify and measure the success of the program's initiatives will be addressed. Two Hispanic serving institutions, the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez (UPRM), both hosted the CAREER weather camps during the summers of 2012 and 2013, and provide the basis of this initial analysis. Participants performed entrance surveys of their knowledge of atmospheric science prior to the course. They were then re-evaluated through exit surveys over the topics covered during the weather camp. These data will be analyzed to correlate which program activities worked best in increasing participant awareness (i.e. geology tours of the local area, discussion on local climate variations, geophysical and geochemical demonstrations), and comprehension of atmospheric science. A comparison between the two universities on their uniqueness in program design and execution will also highlight those activities that best progressed CAREERS' program goals. Results from this analysis, along with possible new strategies for improved
Kenneth D Gibbs
Full Text Available Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion, and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001, and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002. The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline" framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most
Gilligan, M. R.; Cox, T. M.; Hintz, C. J.
Formal support for undergraduates to participate in marine/ocean science research at Savannah State University (SSU), a historically-Black unit of the University System of Georgia, began in 1989 with funding from the National Science Foundation for an unsolicited proposal (OCE-8919102, 34,935). Today SSU, which has offered B.S degrees since 1979 and M.S. degrees since 2001 in Marine Sciences, is making major contributions nationally to demographic diversity in ocean sciences. 33% of Master's degrees in marine/ocean sciences earned by African Americans in the U.S. from 2004-2007 were earned at SSU. 10% of African American Master's and Doctoral students in marine/ ocean sciences in 2007 were either enrolled in the Master's program at SSU or were former SSU students enrolled in Doctoral programs elsewhere. Collaborative REU programs that focus on early (freshman and sophomore) undergraduate students have been a consistent and vital part of that success. In the most recent iteration of our summer REU program we used six of the best practices outlined in the literature to increase success and retention of underrepresented minority students in STEM fields: early intervention, strong mentoring, research experience, career counseling, financial support, workshops and seminars. The early intervention with strong mentoring has proven successful in several metrics: retention in STEM majors (96%), progression to graduate school (50%), and continuation to later research experiences (75%). Research mentors include faculty at staff at SSU, the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and Georgia Tech-Savannah. Formal collaborative and cooperative agreements, externally-funded grants, and contracts in support of student research training have proven to be critical in providing resources for growth and improvement marine science curricular options at the University. Since 1981 the program has had four formal partnerships and 36 funded grant awards
Byrne, Jake Rowan; O'Sullivan, Katriona; Sullivan, Kevin
This paper explores the use of a constructivist 21st-century learning model to implement a week-long workshop, delivered as a "hackathon," to encourage preuniversity teenagers to pursue careers in STEM, with a particular emphasis on computer science. For Irish preuniversity students, their experience of computing can vary from word…
White, Susan; Cottle, Paul
With one glance at the starting salaries of new bachelor's degree recipients in Fig. 1, a teacher or parent can see the career fields to which their high school students interested in the best economic opportunities might aspire: several engineering fields (chemical, electrical, mechanical), computer science, physics, and mathematics.
Kovarik, Dina N.; Patterson, Davis G.; Cohen, Carolyn; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Karen A.; Porter, Sandra G.; Chowning, Jeanne Ting
We investigated the effects of our Bio-ITEST teacher professional development model and bioinformatics curricula on cognitive traits (awareness, engagement, self-efficacy, and relevance) in high school teachers and students that are known to accompany a developing interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The…
Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.
The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…
Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B
Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.
Low degree completion in technical and engineering degrees is a growing concern for policymakers and educators in the United States. This study was an examination of the behaviors of adolescents specific to career decisions related to technology and engineering. The central research question for this study was: do rural, Midwestern high school technical and engineering curricula serve to engage students sufficiently to encourage them to persist through high school while sustaining their interests in technology and engineering careers? Engaging students in technology and engineering fields is the challenge for educators throughout the country and the Midwest. Rural schools have the additional challenge of meeting those issues because of resource limitations. Students in three Midwestern schools were surveyed to determine the level of interest in technology and engineering. The generalized likelihood ratio test was used to overcome concerns for small sample sizes. Accounting for dependent variables, multiple independent variables are examined using descriptive statistics to determine which have greater influence on career decisions, specifically those related to technology and engineering. A typical science curriculum is defined for rural Midwestern high schools. This study concludes that such curriculum achieves the goal of maintaining or increasing student interest and engagement in STEM careers. Furthermore, those schools that incorporate contextual and experiential learning activities into the curriculum demonstrate increased results in influencing student career choices toward technology and engineering careers. Implications for parents, educators, and industry professionals are discussed.
Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita
Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.
Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald
To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…
Hollins-Miller, Cornelia B.
This dissertation project will determine what factors are being used to engage students to obtain careers in science. It will explore factors and other theories that contribute to persuading students to think about careers in science after college. The participants of the study included counselors, parents, principals, middle school students and teachers. All of the participants were surveyed. Information from the participants was collected and analyzed according to their responses. The results indicated that there were many contributing factors that the participants thought changed their attitudes about science and engaging in a science career.
Straumanis, Joan, Ed.; Watson, Robert F., Ed.
Reported are activities carried out at colleges and universities during 1976-1980 with support from the National Science Foundation's Local Course Improvement (LOCI) and Instructional Scientific Equipment Program (ISEP). It is intended as a reference for persons interested in current course and laboratory developments in the sciences at the…
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.
Oct 17, 2014 ... The Council of the Indian Academy of Sciences had in January 2003 constituted a committee on "Women in. Science" to look ... (WiS), in January 2005, to study the issues of women scientists and to suggest measures for obtaining suitable solutions. ... Engineering Plants for the Changing Climatic Scenario.
Some students--and parents--think math and science are not too important for their future. As everyday life becomes more dependent on technology, most people will need a better background in math and science to succeed in today's global economy. To get high-paying jobs in some of California's fastest-growing occupations, a strong background in…
Virginia A. Young
Full Text Available Undergraduate microbiology courses offer a perfect opportunity to introduce students to historical food preservation processes that are still in use today. The fermentation of vegetables, as occurs in the preparation of sauerkraut and kimchi, uses an enrichment step to select for the growth of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria (LAB. This is an active learning exercise in which students learn a food preparation skill and basic microbiological terms such as selection and enrichment. When performed in conjunction with cultured fermentations, such as yogurt making, students can see the difference between fermentations by naturally occurring microorganisms versus inoculated microorganisms. Additionally, this exercise introduces students to concepts of food safety, intrinsic factors influencing microbial growth such as pH, and cultural uses of fermentation to preserve locally available foods.
Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.
Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol
The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Oct 25, 2017 ... Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce. Ganeshkhind, Pune ... API scores for career advancement. Applications are invited from teachers experience in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses in chemistry ...
Kumar, David Devraj; Dunn, Jessica
Analysis of self-reflections of undergraduate education students in a project involving web-supported counterintuitive science demonstrations is reported in this paper. Participating students (N = 19) taught science with counterintuitive demonstrations in local elementary school classrooms and used web-based resources accessed via wireless USB adapters. Student reflections to seven questions were analyzed qualitatively using four components of reflection (meeting objectives/perception of learning, dynamics of pedagogy, special needs accommodations, improving teaching) deriving 27 initial data categories and 12 emergent themes. Overall the undergraduates reported meeting objectives, engaging students in pedagogically relevant learning tasks including, providing accommodations to students with special needs, and gaining practice and insight to improve their own teaching. Additional research is needed to arrive at generalizable findings concerning teaching with web-supported counterintuitive science demonstrations in elementary classrooms.
Olivares-Donoso, Ruby; González, Carlos
Over the last 25 years, both research literature and practice-oriented reports have claimed the need for improving the quality of undergraduate science education through linking research and teaching. Two manners of doing this are reported: undergraduate research and research-based courses. Although there are studies reporting benefits of participating in these experiences, few synthesize their findings. In this article, we present a literature review aimed at synthesizing and comparing results of the impact of participating in these research experiences to establish which approach is most beneficial for students to develop as scientists. Twenty studies on student participation in undergraduate research and research-based courses were reviewed. Results show that both types of experiences have positive effects on students. These results have implications for both practice and research. Regarding practice, we propose ideas for designing and implementing experiences that combine both types of experiences. Concerning research, we identify some methodological limitations that should be addressed in further studies.
Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.
Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.
Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E
The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.
Sinche, Melanie V
For decades, top scientists in colleges and universities pursued a clear path to success: enroll in a prestigious graduate program, conduct research, publish papers, complete the PhD, pursue postdoctoral work. With perseverance and a bit of luck, a tenure-track professorship awaited at the end. In today s academic job market, this scenario represents the exception. As the number of newly conferred science PhDs keeps rising, the number of tenured professorships remains stubbornly stagnant. Only 14 percent of those with PhDs in science occupy tenure-track positions five years after completing their degree. Next Gen PhD provides a frank and up-to-date assessment of the current career landscape facing science PhDs. Nonfaculty careers once considered Plan B are now preferred by the majority of degree holders, says Melanie Sinche. An upper-level science degree is a prized asset in the eyes of many employers, and a majority of science PhDs build rewarding careers both inside and outside the university. A certified ...
Kenney, M. A.
Regardless of a graduate student's ultimate career ambitions, it is becoming increasingly important to either develop skills to successfully transition into non-academic careers or to be able to understand the societal benefits of basic and applied research programs. In this talk I will provide my prospective -- from working in academia, the Federal government, and as an independent consultant -- about the training that we need for graduate students to navigate the jungle gym of career opportunities available (or not available) after they graduate. In particular, I will speak to the need for science policy training, in which scientific and coordination skills are put to use to help support societal decisions. I will assert that, to effectively train graduate students, it is necessary to provide experiences in multidisciplinary, policy-relevant scholarship to build marketable skills critical for a student's professional development.
Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R
The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Clase, Kari L.; Hein, Patrick W.; Pelaez, Nancy J.
Physiology as a discipline is uniquely positioned to engage undergraduate students in interdisciplinary research in response to the 2006-2011 National Science Foundation Strategic Plan call for innovative transformational research, which emphasizes multidisciplinary projects. To prepare undergraduates for careers that cross disciplinary…
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…
Salm, Ann E.
The quantitative Undergraduate Research Questionnaire (URQ) is used to assess the impact of undergraduate research mentorship affects, such as informal conversations, supportive faculty and/or peer interactions, on student confidence and motivation to continue working, learning or researching in the sciences (Taraban & Logue, 2012). Research…
Charlton, Bruce G
It is plausible to assume that in the future science will form the compulsory core element both of school curricula and multi-disciplinary undergraduate degrees. But for this to happen entails a shift in the emphasis and methods of science teaching, away from the traditional concern with educating specialists and professionals. Traditional science teaching was essentially vocational, designed to provide precise and comprehensive scientific knowledge for practical application. By contrast, future science teaching will be a general education, hence primarily conceptual. Its aim should be to provide an education in flexible rationality. Vocational science teaching was focused on a single-discipline undergraduate degree, but a general education in abstract systematic thinking is best inculcated by studying several scientific disciplines. In this sense, 'science' is understood as mathematics and the natural sciences, but also the abstract and systematic aspects of disciplines such as economics, linguistics, music theory, history, sociology, political science and management science. Such a wide variety of science options in a multi-disciplinary degree will increase the possibility of student motivation and aptitude. Specialist vocational science education will progressively be shifted to post-graduate level, in Masters and Doctoral programs. A multi-disciplinary and conceptually-based science core curriculum should provide an appropriate preparation for dealing with the demands of modern societies; their complex and rapidly changing social systems; and the need for individual social and professional mobility. Training in rational conceptual thinking also has potential benefits to human health and happiness, since it allows people to over-ride inappropriate instincts, integrate conflicting desires and pursue long-term goals.
Wachsmuth, Lucas P; Runyon, Christopher R; Drake, John M; Dolan, Erin L
Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students' emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non-life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students' responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students' responses, while students' race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups-students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates' emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors' attitudes toward math. © 2017 L.P. Wachsmuth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Marchut, Amber E.
Diversifying the student population and workforce under science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a necessity if innovations and creativity are to expand. There has not been a lot of literature regarding Deaf students in STEM especially regarding understanding how they persist in STEM undergraduate programs to successfully become STEM Bachelor of Science degree recipients. This study addresses the literature gap by investigating six students' experiences as they navigate their STEM undergraduate programs. The investigation uses narrative inquiry methodology and grounded theory method through the lens of Critical Race Theory and Critical Deaf Theory. Using videotaped interviews and observations, their experiences are highlighted using narratives portraying them as individuals surviving in a society that tends to perceive being deaf as a deficit that needs to be treated or cured. The data analysis also resulted in a conceptual model providing a description of how they persist. The crucial aspect of the conceptual model is the participants learned how to manage being deaf in a hearing-dominated society so they can reach their aspirations. The essential blocks for the persistence and managing their identities as deaf undergraduate STEMs include working harder, relying on familial support, and affirming themselves. Through the narratives and conceptual model of the six Deaf STEM undergraduates, the goal is to contribute to literature to promote a better understanding of the persistence of Deaf students, members of a marginalized group, as they pursue their dreams.
Fischer, E. V.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R.; Bloodhart, B.; Burt, M. A.; Clinton, S. M.; Godfrey, E. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Hernandez, P. R.
Women are substantially underrepresented in the earth and environmental sciences, and that underrepresentation begins at the undergraduate level. In fall 2015, an interdisciplinary team including expertise in the broader geosciences as well as gender and quantitative educational psychology began a project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in the geosciences. The program focuses on mentoring 1st and 2nd year female undergraduate students from five universities in Colorado and Wyoming and four universities in North and South Carolina. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields, and both in-person and virtual peer networks. We have found that undergraduate women with large mentoring networks, that include faculty mentors, are more likely to identify as scientists and are more committed to pursuing the geosciences. Our presentation will provide an overview of the major components of our effective and scalable program. We will include a discussion of our first published results in the context of larger social science research on how to foster effective mentoring relationships. We will offer a list of successes and challenges, and we will provide the audience with online links to the materials needed to adopt our model (https://geosciencewomen.org/materials/).
Thøgersen, Jacob; Airey, John
formal and condensed style as compared to the rhetorical style in L1. Finally, the potential consequences of these quantitative and qualitative differences for student learning are discussed. Research highlights ¿ We analyse five science lectures: three in Danish (L1) and two in English (L2). ¿ The same...
Alakpodia, Onome Norah
The purpose of this study was to examine social networking use among Library and Information Science students of the Delta State University, Abraka. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed their familiarity with social networking sites, the purpose for which they use social networking site and their most preferred sites to…
compared Arts and Science students in these skills, there were significant ... central to occupational competence in all sectors and all levels, including project management, leadership, communication, working in teams and problem solving. ..... France has initiated various reforms, one of which established 'doctoral schools' ...
Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.
Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.
Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students’ emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non–life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students’ responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students’ responses, while students’ race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups—students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates’ emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors’ attitudes toward math. PMID:28798211
computer science), and law, which perhaps have better job potential did occur. But ..... branch out into other areas like management, civil service etc. for greener ... While the present analysis does not provide estimate of women opting for ..... reflected not only in the work that scientists do, but also in their training of students,.
Bartholomew, Rex; Moeed, Azra; Anderson, Dayle
Initial teacher education (ITE) is being challenged internationally to prepare teachers with the understandings needed to teach an increasingly diverse student population. Science teachers need to prepare students with both conceptual and procedural understanding. The challenge is to prioritise a balance in ITE courses between theoretical…
Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.
Stephenson Hawk, D.
A career in the field of geophysical fluid dynamics is not an apparent choice for an African American woman from rural North Carolina. It was, however, the choice made. As a first generation college graduate, the catalyst to pursue such a career path was provided by those external to family; however, internally, the pursuit of education was valued, expected and required. It is this, the expectation and requirement, which serves as the foundation for the discussion of the balance of life in terms of family, education, and career. There are no scales in existence on which to measure the balance of life. The selected educational institutions, Spelman College, The George Washington University, and Princeton University; nor career positions, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, AT&T Bell Laboratories, institutions of higher education, consulting opportunities, discuss, promote or encourage such a balance. Defining this balance, however, is a science that can only be advanced and achieved by the individual in relationship and partnership with community. The science and balance of a life is the focus of this discussion.
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.
Kordahl, Hilde Lund; Fougner, Marit
Professional health science education includes a common theoretical basis concerning the theory of science, ethics and communication. Former evaluations by first-year students of the bachelor physiotherapy program at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA) show that they find it hard to understand the relation between these particular topics and future professional practice. This challenge is the starting point for a pedagogical development project that aims to develop learning contexts that highlight the relevance of these theoretical concepts. The aim of the study is to explore and present findings on the value of using Sykegrep manual skills classes as an arena in which students can be encouraged to think about, reflect on and appreciate the role and value of the philosophical perspectives that inform their practice and contributes to practise knowledge. A qualitative study with data collection through focus groups was performed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Eighteen first-year undergraduate students, who had completed the manual skills course, participated in the study. Analysis of the data yielded three categories of findings that can be associated with aspects of philosophy of science, ethics and communication. These are as follows: 1) preconceived understanding of physiotherapy; 2) body knowledge perspectives; and 3) relational aspects of interactions. Undergraduate students' understanding and experience of philosophy of science, ethics and communication may be facilitated by peer collaboration, reflection on intimacy and touch and the ethical aspects of interaction during manual skills training. Practical classes in Sykegrep provide a basis for students' discussions about the body as well as their experiences with the body in the collaborative learning context. The students' reflections on their expectations of manual skills in physiotherapy and experiences of touch and being touched can facilitate an awareness of
Scientific and engineering research is increasingly global, and international collaboration can be essential to academic success. Yet even as administrators and policymakers extol the benefits of global science, few recognize the diversity of international research collaborations and their participants, or take gendered inequalities into account. Women in Global Science is the first book to consider systematically the challenges and opportunities that the globalization of scientific work brings to U.S. academics, especially for women faculty. Kathrin Zippel looks to the STEM fields as a case study, where gendered cultures and structures in academia have contributed to an underrepresentation of women. While some have approached underrepresentation as a national concern with a national solution, Zippel highlights how gender relations are reconfigured in global academia. For U.S. women in particular, international collaboration offers opportunities to step outside of exclusionary networks at home. International ...
Stevens, Stacy Mckimm
There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Almeida, Maria Strecht; Quintanilha, Alexandre
We explore the integration of societal issues in undergraduate training within the life sciences. Skills in thinking about science, scientific knowledge production and the place of science in society are crucial in the context of the idea of responsible research and innovation. This idea became institutionalized and it is currently well-present in the scientific agenda. Developing abilities in this regard seems particularly relevant to training in the life sciences, as new developments in this area somehow evoke the involvement of all of us citizens, our engagement to debate and take part in processes of change. The present analysis draws from the implementation of a curricular unit focused on science-society dialogue, an optional course included in the Biochemistry Degree study plan offered at the University of Porto. This curricular unit was designed to be mostly an exploratory activity for the students, enabling them to undertake in-depth study in areas/topics of their specific interest. Mapping topics from students' final papers provided a means of analysis and became a useful tool in the exploratory collaborative construction of the course. We discuss both the relevance and the opportunity of thinking and questioning the science-society dialogue. As part of undergraduate training, this pedagogical practice was deemed successful. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):46-52, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Wang, Ming-Te; Ye, Feifei; Degol, Jessica Lauren
Career aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are formulated in adolescence, making the high school years a critical time period for identifying the cognitive and motivational factors that increase the likelihood of future STEM employment. While past research has mainly focused on absolute cognitive ability levels in math and verbal domains, the current study tested whether relative cognitive strengths and interests in math, science, and verbal domains in high school were more accurate predictors of STEM career decisions. Data were drawn from a national longitudinal study in the United States (N = 1762; 48 % female; the first wave during ninth grade and the last wave at age 33). Results revealed that in the high-verbal/high-math/high-science ability group, individuals with higher science task values and lower orientation toward altruism were more likely to select STEM occupations. In the low-verbal/moderate-math/moderate-science ability group, individuals with higher math ability and higher math task values were more likely to select STEM occupations. The findings suggest that youth with asymmetrical cognitive ability profiles are more likely to select careers that utilize their cognitive strengths rather than their weaknesses, while symmetrical cognitive ability profiles may grant youth more flexibility in their options, allowing their interests and values to guide their career decisions.
Gokuladas, V. K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how undergraduate engineering students differ in their perception about software services companies in India based on variables like gender, locations of the college and branches of engineering. Design/methodology/approach: Data obtained from 560 undergraduate engineering students who had the…
Sarmani, S.B.; Yahaya, R.B.; Yasir, M.S.; Majid, A.Ab.; Khoo, K.S.; Rahman, I.A.; Mohamed, F.
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia offered an undergraduate degree program in Nuclear Science since 1980 and the programme has undergone several modifications due to changes in national policy and priority. The programme covers nuclear sub-disciplines such as nuclear physics, radiobiology, radiochemistry, radiation chemistry and radiation safety. The radiochemistry component consists of radiochemistry, chemistry in nuclear industry, radiochemical analysis laboratory, radiopharmaceutical chemistry subjects and mini research project in radiochemistry. (author)
The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers constitutes a major issue in postsecondary science education. Perseverance of women in STEM is linked to a strong science identity. Experiential learning activities, such as undergraduate research, increase science identity and thus should help keep women in STEM. Most studies on research program development are from 4-year institutions, yet many women start at community colleges. The goal of this study was to fill this gap. Science identity and experiential learning theories provided the framework for this case study at a local institution (LECC). Semistructured interviews determined college science faculty and administrators perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of undergraduate research, the viability of developing a research program, and specific research options feasible for LECC. Transcripted data were analyzed through multiple rounds of coding yielding five themes: faculty perception of undergraduate research, authentic experiences, health technologies/nursing programs, LECC students career focus, and the unique culture at LECC. The most viable type of undergraduate research for LECC is course-based and of short timeframe. The project study advocates the use of citizen science (CS) studies in the classroom as they are relatively short-term and can take the place of lab sessions. The true benefit is that students perform authentic science by contributing to an actual scientific research project. CS projects can effect social change by developing science literate citizens, empowering faculty to create authentic learning experiences, and by sparking interest in science and directing women into STEM careers.
Querido, S.; Vergouw, D.; Wigersma, L.; Batenburg, R.; de Rond, M.; ten Cate, TJ
Introduction: Due to the lack of a theoretically embedded overview of the recent literature on medical career decision-making, this study provides an outline of these dynamics. Since differences in educational routes to the medical degree likely affect career choice dynamics, this study focuses on
Querido, S.J.; Vergouw, D.; Wigersma, L.; Batenburg, R.S.; Rond, M.E.J. de; Cate, O.T.J. ten
Introduction: Due to the lack of a theoretically embedded overview of the recent literature on medical career decision-making, this study provides an outline of these dynamics. Since differences in educational routes to the medical degree likely affect career choice dynamics, this study focuses on
Querido, Sophie J; Vergouw, David; Wigersma, Lode; Batenburg, Ronald S; De Rond, Marlies E J; Ten Cate, Olle T J
Due to the lack of a theoretically embedded overview of the recent literature on medical career decision-making, this study provides an outline of these dynamics. Since differences in educational routes to the medical degree likely affect career choice dynamics, this study focuses on medical career decision-making in educational systems with a Western European curriculum structure. A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase) was conducted from January 2008 to November 2014. A panel of seven independent reviewers performed the data extraction, quality assessment and data synthesis using the Bland-Meurer model of medical specialty choice as a reference. Fifty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Factors associated with specialty preference or career choice can be classified in five main categories: (1) medical school characteristics (e.g., curriculum structure), (2) student characteristics (e.g., age, personality), (3) student values (e.g., personal preference), (4) career needs to be satisfied (e.g., expected income, status, and work-life balance), and (5) perception of specialty characteristics (e.g., extracurricular or curricular experiences). Especially career needs and perceptions of specialty characteristics are often associated with medical career decision-making. Our results support that medical career decisions are formed by a matching of perceptions of specialty characteristics with personal needs. However, the process of medical career decision-making is not yet fully understood. Besides identifying possible predictors, future research should focus on detecting interrelations between hypothesized predictors and identify the determinants and interrelations at the various stages of the medical career decision-making process.
Doyle, Kari M H; Vale, Ronald D
The United States is confronting important challenges at both the early and late stages of science education. At the level of K-12 education, a recent National Research Council report (Successful K-12 STEM Education) proposed a bold restructuring of how science is taught, moving away from memorizing facts and emphasizing hands-on, inquiry-based learning and a deeper understanding of the process of science. At higher levels of training, limited funding for science is leading PhDs to seek training and careers in areas other than research. Might science PhDs play a bigger role in the future of K-12 education, particularly at the high school level? We explore this question by discussing the roles that PhDs can play in high school education and the current and rather extensive barriers to PhDs entering the teaching profession and finally suggest ways to ease the entrance of qualified PhDs into high school education.
P. Avila Jr.
Full Text Available Exponential growing of scientific and technological knowledge of nowadayssociety demands new abilities and competences of theirs citizens. In the otherhand, the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTsand the low cost of equipments provide a new teaching strategy, namely distanceeducation, through intranet or internet. The familiarity with of scientific methodstimulates autonomy in obtaining information, critical thinking and logical analysisof data. These are useful abilities for science students as well as for commoncitizens. Aiming the development of such abilities a distance course wasdeveloped in 45 hours, using mainly forum and chat in the Claroline platform withtechnical support of the Centro Nacional de Supercomputação da UFRGS. All thestudents attending the course were from Fundação Faculdade Federal deCiências Médicas de Porto Alegre. In this course the following topics wereexplored: (1 scientific knowledge x common sense, (2 different conceptions ofscience, (3 scientific method, (4 different categories of science publications, (5principles of Logic, (6 deduction x induction (7 paper analysis simulation.Scientific project writing was taught/learned through the following items: (1 choiceof a problem, (2 bibliography revision, (3 agencies for funding, (4 projectpresentation by videoconference and (5 analysis of results.The course was evaluated by Likert-type questionnaire and the results fromstudents and teachers indicate a very successful outcome.
Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.
Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of…
Karikari, Thomas K; Yawson, Nat Ato; Quansah, Emmanuel
Despite recent improvements in scientific research output from Africa, public understanding of science in many parts of the continent remains low. Science communication there is faced with challenges such as (i) lack of interest among some scientists, (ii) low availability of training programs for scientists, (iii) low literacy rates among the public, and (iv) multiplicity of languages. To address these challenges, new ways of training and motivating scientists to dialogue with non-scientists are essential. Developing communication skills early in researchers' scientific career would be a good way to enhance their public engagement abilities. Therefore, a potentially effective means to develop science communication in Africa would be to actively involve trainee scientists (i.e., undergraduate and graduate students) in outreach activity development and delivery. These students are often enthusiastic about science, eager to develop their teaching and communication skills, and can be good mentors to younger students. Involving them in all aspects of outreach activity is, therefore, likely to be a productive implementation strategy. However, science communication training specifically for students and the involvement of these students in outreach activity design and delivery are lacking in Africa. Here, we argue that improving the training and involvement of budding scientists in science communication activities would be a good way to bridge the wide gap between scientists and the African public.
The importance of science to the economy and for the progression of society is widely acknowledged. Yet, there are concerns that minority ethnic students in the UK are underrepresented, and even excluded, from post-compulsory science education and careers "in" science. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 semi-structured interviews with…
Pearson, Regis C; Crandall, K Jason; Dispennette, Kathryn; Maples, Jill M
Applied research experiences can provide numerous benefits to undergraduate students, however few studies have assessed the perceptions of Exercise Science (EXS) students to an applied research experience. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to describe the rationale and implementation of an applied research experience into an EXS curriculum and 2) to evaluate EXS undergraduate students' perceptions of an applied research experience. An EXS measurement course was chosen for implementation of an applied research experience. The applied research experience required groups of students to design, implement, and evaluate a student-led research project. Fourteen questions were constructed, tailored to EXS undergraduate students, to assess students' perceptions of the experience. Qualitative analysis was used for all applicable data, with repeated trends noted; quantitative data were collapsed to determine frequencies. There was an overall positive student perception of the experience and 85.7% of students agreed an applied research experience should be continued. 84.7% of students perceived the experience as educationally enriching, while 92.8% reported the experience was academically challenging. This experience allowed students to develop comprehensive solutions to problems that arose throughout the semester; while facilitating communication, collaboration, and problem solving. Students believed research experiences were beneficial, but could be time consuming when paired with other responsibilities. Results suggest an applied research experience has the potential to help further the development of EXS undergraduate students. Understanding student perceptions of an applied research experience may prove useful to faculty interested in engaging students in the research process.
Full Text Available Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS. The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel Prize stories as a vehicle for teaching NOS. For this purpose, a 36-hour course, “Albert Einstein’s Nobel Prize and the Nature of Science,” was developed and conducted in Taiwan Normal University. Ten undergraduate physics students participated in the course. Analysis of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaires completed by the students before and after the course, as well as the students’ own presentations of Nobel Prize stories (with an emphasis on how NOS characteristics are reflected in the story, showed that the students who participated in the course enriched their views concerning all aspects of NOS. The paper concludes with some suggestions for applying the novel idea of using Nobel Prize stories in physics classrooms.
Watters, James J.; Diezmann, Carmel M.
Recruitment of highly qualified science and mathematics graduates has become a widespread strategy to enhance the quality of education in the field of STEM. However, attrition rates are very high suggesting preservice education programs are not preparing them well for the career change. We analyse the experiences of professionals who are scientists and have decided to change careers to become teachers. The study followed a group of professionals who undertook a 1-year preservice teacher education course and were employed by secondary schools on graduation. We examined these teachers' experiences through the lens of self-determination theory, which posits autonomy, confidence and relatedness are important in achieving job satisfaction. The findings indicated that the successful teachers were able to achieve a sense of autonomy and confidence and, in particular, had established strong relationships with colleagues. However, the unique challenges facing career-change professionals were often overlooked by administrators and colleagues. Opportunities to build a sense of relatedness in their new profession were often absent. The failure to establish supportive relationships was decisive in some teachers leaving the profession. The findings have implications for both preservice and professional in-service programs and the role that administrators play in supporting career-change teachers.
Kovarik, Dina N; Patterson, Davis G; Cohen, Carolyn; Sanders, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Karen A; Porter, Sandra G; Chowning, Jeanne Ting
We investigated the effects of our Bio-ITEST teacher professional development model and bioinformatics curricula on cognitive traits (awareness, engagement, self-efficacy, and relevance) in high school teachers and students that are known to accompany a developing interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The program included best practices in adult education and diverse resources to empower teachers to integrate STEM career information into their classrooms. The introductory unit, Using Bioinformatics: Genetic Testing, uses bioinformatics to teach basic concepts in genetics and molecular biology, and the advanced unit, Using Bioinformatics: Genetic Research, utilizes bioinformatics to study evolution and support student research with DNA barcoding. Pre-post surveys demonstrated significant growth (n = 24) among teachers in their preparation to teach the curricula and infuse career awareness into their classes, and these gains were sustained through the end of the academic year. Introductory unit students (n = 289) showed significant gains in awareness, relevance, and self-efficacy. While these students did not show significant gains in engagement, advanced unit students (n = 41) showed gains in all four cognitive areas. Lessons learned during Bio-ITEST are explored in the context of recommendations for other programs that wish to increase student interest in STEM careers.
Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A
The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.
The Czech Republic has a dense net of observatories, astronomical clubs and other activities for both adults and children. Can we use it to improve skills of our pupils and their motivation to choose their career in science? Does the situation in the Czech Republic differ from abroad? What can we improve in the future? These questions were not answered satisfactorily so far. We decided to contribute to solve this issue.We present our survey of current state based mainly on electronic sources and personal dealings. Besides of 56 observatories working with public and many interest clubs, there are other possibilities to meet astronomy. For example, Astronomical Olympiad attracts thousands of pupils across the country each year to solve both theoretical and practical tasks in astronomy. In other projects, children can visit Dark-Sky Parks, design experiments for a stratospheric balloon, observe with CCD or radio devices or build their own rockets.We outline our ongoing project to examine the link between popularization activities and pupils’ or high school students’ attitude toward science and science career. We plan to create a typology of both popularization activities and life stories of people dealing with astronomy. From the methodological point of view, the mixed method design, combining both the qualitative and quantitative approach, will be used to solve the research problems. The basic research plan will be a case study. So far the project is based on interviews with various subjects. We choose people with different life stories, all connected with astronomy or astronomy popularization in some period. We focus on important moments in their career, similarities between subjects, and various types of possible motivation to participate in astronomy-related activities or to study science at university.Future results can be used to help interested organizations such as universities, observatories or astronomical societies. They will be able to work more
Fernando Perpétuo Elias
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simulation techniques are spreading rapidly in medicine. Suc h resources are increasingly concentrated in Simulation Laboratories. The MSRP-USP is structuring such a laboratory and is interested in the prevalence of individual initiatives that could be centralized there. The MSRP-USP currently has five full-curriculum courses in the health sciences: Medicine, Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy, Nutrition, and Occupational Therapy, all consisting of core disciplines. GOAL: To determine the prevalence of simulation techniques in the regular courses at MSRP-USP. METHODS: Coordinators of disciplines in the various courses were interviewed using a specifically designed semi-structured questionnaire, and all the collected data were stored in a dedicated database. The disciplines were grouped according to whether they used (GI or did not use (GII simulation resources. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 256 disciplines were analyzed, of which only 18.3% used simulation techniques, varying according to course: Medicine (24.7.3%, Occupational Therapy (23.0%, Nutrition (15.9%, Physical Therapy (9.8%, and Speech Therapy (9.1%. Computer simulation programs predominated (42.5% in all five courses. The resources were provided mainly by MSRP-USP (56.3%, with additional funding coming from other sources based on individual initiatives. The same pattern was observed for maintenance. There was great interest in centralizing the resources in the new Simulation Laboratory in order to facilitate maintenance, but there was concern about training and access to the material. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The MSRP-USP simulation resources show low complexity and are mainly limited to computer programs; 2 Use of simulation varies according to course, and is most prevalent in Medicine; 3 Resources are scattered across several locations, and their acquisition and maintenance depend on individual initiatives rather than central coordination or curricular guidelines
Mighell, A J
The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.
Morris, Neil P; Ramsay, Luke; Chauhan, Vikesh
This article reports findings from a study investigating undergraduate biological sciences students' use of technology and computer devices for learning and the effect of providing students with a tablet device. A controlled study was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data on the impact of a tablet device on students' use of devices and technology for learning. Overall, we found that students made extensive use of the tablet device for learning, using it in preference to laptop computers to retrieve information, record lectures, and access learning resources. In line with other studies, we found that undergraduate students only use familiar Web 2.0 technologies and that the tablet device did not alter this behavior for the majority of tools. We conclude that undergraduate science students can make extensive use of a tablet device to enhance their learning opportunities without institutions changing their teaching methods or computer systems, but that institutional intervention may be needed to drive changes in student behavior toward the use of novel Web 2.0 technologies.
Campanile, Megan Faurot
With the growth of undergraduate research in the U.S., over the past two decades, faculty are more often assigning graduate students to mentor undergraduate students than providing the one-on-one mentoring themselves. A critical gap that exists in the literature is how undergraduate -- graduate student mentoring relationships in undergraduate research influences both students' academic and career paths. The research questions that framed this study were: (1) What, if any, changes occur in the academic and career paths of undergraduate and graduate students who participate in undergraduate research experiences? and (2) Are there variables that constitute "best practices" in the mentoring relationships in undergraduate research experiences and, if so, what are they? The study context was the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program at Illinois Institute of Technology and the 113 undergraduate researchers and 31 graduate student mentors who participated from 2006 -- 2014. Surveys and interviews were administered to collect pre- and post-program data and follow-up data during the 2014 -- 2015 academic year. Descriptive statistics, content analysis method, and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Key findings on the undergraduate researchers were their actual earned graduate degree types (Ph.D. 20%, M.D. 20%, M.S. 48%, other 12%) and fields (STEM 57%, medical 35%, other 8%) and the careers they were pursuing or working in. All the graduate student mentors were pursuing or working in the STEM fields (academia 50%, industry 40%, government 10%). More than 75% of both the undergraduate and graduate students reported that their mentoring relationships had a somewhat to extremely influential impact on their academic and career paths. A set of "best practices" of mentoring were developed for both the undergraduate and graduate students and focused on the mentoring experiences related to learning and teaching about
Burniston, Amy Lucinda
Undergraduate science education is currently seeing a dramatic pedagogical push towards teaching the philosophies underpinning science as well as an increase in strategies that employ active learning. Many active learning strategies stem from constructivist ideals and have been shown to affect a student's understanding of how science operates and its impact on society- commonly referred to as the nature of science (NOS). One particular constructivist teaching strategy, case-based instruction (CBI), has been recommended by researchers and science education reformists as an effective instructional strategy for teaching NOS. Furthermore, when coupled with explicit-reflective instruction, CBI has been found to significantly increasing understanding of NOS in elementary and secondary students. However, few studies aimed their research on CBI and NOS towards higher education. Thus, this study uses a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent group design to study the effects of CBI on undergraduate science students understandings of NOS. Undergraduate biology student's understanding of NOS were assessed using the Views of Science Education (VOSE) instrument pre and post CBI intervention in Cellular and Molecular Biology and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. Data analysis indicated statistically significant differences between students NOS scores in experimental versus control sections for both courses, with experimental groups obtaining higher posttest scores. The results of this study indicate that undergraduate male and female students have similarly poor understandings of NOS and the use of historical case based instruction can be used as a means to increase undergraduate understanding of NOS.
Antink-Meyer, Allison; Brown, Ryan A.
Science standards in the U.S. have shifted to emphasise science and engineering process skills (i.e. specific practices within inquiry) to a greater extent than previous standards' emphases on broad representations of inquiry. This study examined the alignment between second-career science teachers' personal histories with the latter and examined…
Taskinen, Päivi H.; Schütte, Kerstin; Prenzel, Manfred
Many researchers consider a lacking interest in science and the students' belief that science is too demanding as major reasons why young people do not strive for science-related careers. In this article, we first delineated a theoretical framework to investigate the importance of interest, self-concept, and school factors regarding students'…
Ali S Radeef
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stress which were chosen depending on previous studies. Results: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 32.6%. Science students showed a significantly higher rate and mean score of psychological distress than medical students, and the mean score was significantly higher during the clinical phase rather than the pre-clinical phase in medical students. Overall, female students had a significantly higher mean score than males, however although the mean score was higher in females it was only significant in the pre-clinical phase. In addition to academic and psychological stressors, factors such as reduced holidays, lack of time for relaxation, and limitation of leisure/entertainment time were among the top ten stressors reported by the students. Conclusions: Psychological distress is common among university students, and it is higher among science students than medical students. Academic and psychological factors can be considered as sources of stressors which may precipitate psychological distress among college students.
Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.
Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geological sciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may struggle to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. Using strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research, we developed a set of curricular materials that improve undergraduate geology majors' abilities to reason about 3D concepts and to solve spatially complex geological problems. Cognitive science research on spatial thinking demonstrates that predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy can be used to develop students' spatial thinking skills. We conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these strategies in strengthening the spatial skills of students in core geology courses at three universities. Our methodology is a quasi-experimental quantitative design, utilizing pre- and post-tests of spatial thinking skills, assessments of spatial problem-solving skills, and a control group comprised of students not exposed to our new curricular materials. Students taught using the new curricular materials show improvement in spatial thinking skills. Further analysis of our data, to be completed prior to AGU, will answer additional questions about the relationship between spatial skills and academic performance, spatial skills and gender, spatial skills and confidence, and the impact of our curricular materials on students who are struggling academically. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate education in the geological sciences by removing one significant barrier to success.
Florinski, V. A.
Funded by NSF CAREER grant, the University of Alabama (UAH) in Huntsville has launched a new graduate program in Computational Physics. It is universally accepted that today's physics is done on a computer. The program blends the boundary between physics and computer science by teaching student modern, practical techniques of solving difficult physics problems using diverse computational platforms. Currently consisting of two courses first offered in the Fall of 2011, the program will eventually include 5 courses covering methods for fluid dynamics, particle transport via stochastic methods, and hybrid and PIC plasma simulations. The UAH's unique location allows courses to be shaped through discussions with faculty, NASA/MSFC researchers and local R&D business representatives, i.e., potential employers of the program's graduates. Students currently participating in the program have all begun their research careers in space and plasma physics; many are presenting their research at this meeting.
Patricia J. Baynham
Full Text Available Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. Students are most likely to be influenced by people they consider to be like themselves. While this method is well-suited to a lecture format where the scientist can address a larger audience, the laboratory would also be appropriate.
Eskeles Gottfried, Adele; Johnson Preston, Kathleen Suzanne; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Delany, Danielle E.; Ibrahim, Sirena M.
Curiosity is fundamental to scientific inquiry and pursuance. Parents are important in encouraging children's involvement in science. This longitudinal study examined pathways from parental stimulation of children's curiosity per se to their science acquisition (SA). A latent variable of SA was indicated by the inter-related variables of high school science course accomplishments, career interest, and skill. A conceptual model investigated parental stimulation of children's curiosity as related to SA via science intrinsic motivation and science achievement. The Fullerton Longitudinal Study provided data spanning school entry through high school (N = 118). Parental stimulation of curiosity at age 8 years comprised exposing children to new experiences, promoting curiosity, encouraging asking questions, and taking children to a museum. Intrinsic motivation was measured at ages 9, 10, and 13 years, and achievement at ages 9, 10, and 11 years. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses. Controlling for socio-economic status, parental stimulation of curiosity bore positive and significant relations to science intrinsic motivation and achievement, which in turn related to SA. Gender neither related to stimulation of curiosity nor contributed to the model. Findings highlight the importance of parental stimulation of children's curiosity in facilitating trajectories into science, and relevance to science education is discussed.
Undergraduate chemical science students—join us in New Orleans on April 6-7, 2008 for an educational program designed specifically for you. Attend symposia on chemistry in sports and health and learn how it impacts your life everyday; meet with graduate school recruiters. Focus on your professional future in chemistry by learning more about careers in public health and how to communicate and work effectively with cross-functional teams. Hear eminent scientist Richard B. Silverman (John Evans Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University and author of The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action 2004) speak about "Drug Discovery: Ingenuity or Serendipity?" All events will take place at the Hilton Riverside Hotel in New Orleans, except the Undergraduate Research Poster Sessions and Sci-Mix, both of which will be held in Hall A of the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center.
Williams, Tammy Kay
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.
Huntly, N.; Belmont, P.; Flint, C.; Gordillo, L.; Howe, P. D.; Lutz, J. A.; Null, S. E.; Reed, S.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Wang, S. Y.
We describe our experiences creating a graduate program that addresses the need for a next generation of scientists who can produce, communicate, and help implement actionable science. The Climate Adaptation Science (CAS) graduate program, funded by the National Science Foundation Research Traineeship (NRT) program, prepares graduate students for careers at the interfaces of science with policy and management in the field of climate adaptation, which is a major 21st-century challenge for science and society. The program is interdisciplinary, with students and faculty from natural, social, and physical sciences, engineering, and mathematics, and is based around interdisciplinary team research in collaboration with partners from outside of academia who have climate adaptation science needs. The program embeds students in a cycle of creating and implementing actionable science through a two-part internship, with partners from government, non-governmental organizations, and industry, that brackets and informs a year of interdisciplinary team research. The program is communication-rich, with events that foster information exchange and understanding across disciplines and workplaces. We describe the CAS program, our experiences in developing it, the research and internship experiences of students in the program, and initial metrics and feedback on the effectiveness of the program.
McCartney, Kerry Michelle
This study investigates the lives of twelve female science faculty in higher education, in both the Liberal Arts College and the Research University environments. The study focuses on two areas---the gender issue and women's positive experiences in being science faculty. The methods used are qualitative, including interviews and self-esteem, achievement-motivation, and self-descriptive word ranking scales, which were used to determine success and determination to understand the desire to continue in the field of academic science. The central findings of the study focused on the rampant gender and sexual discrimination that was apparent at the Liberal Arts College science department, and the desire to balance a family with a career. The common misperception that a woman cannot be an academic science and have a family appeared to have troubled most of the subjects in the study. It appeared that the support of a spouse and family are two factors that have led to the continuation of the majority of the women to want to remain in academic science. The issue of gender touched on the lack of financial compensation among some of the female science faculty in the study, as well as the need for more institutional and structural support for human relations within the science departments.
Koran, J.J. Jr. [Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL (United States)
Twenty-four undergraduate science and mathematics majors who were juniors and seniors in the colleges of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Engineering were recruited, and paid, to participate in an orientation seminar and act as teacher aides in regional schools and the Florida Museum of Natural History. Aides worked with teachers in the schools one semester and as docents in the natural history museum a second semester. Mentoring took place by the principal investigator and participating teachers and docents throughout the program. Success of the program was measured by a specially prepared attitude instrument which was administered to participants before the mentoring started and when it ended each semester. Written logs (field notes) were also prepared and submitted by participants at the end of each semester. Further, a tally was kept of the number of participants who decided to go into science or mathematics teaching as a result of the experience.
For American Indian students, math anxiety and math avoidance are the most serious obstacles to general education and to the choice of scientific careers. Indian students interviewed generally exhibited fear and loathing of mathematics and a major lack of basic skills which were caused by a missing or negative impression of the mathematics…
Stansbury, Sydney Lynn
Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the
Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum consists of 11 units of lectures and four units of practical study. The working group plans to improve the current core curriculum by devising formative assessment methods so that students can learn and acquire attitude as well as the skills and knowledge necessary for student-centered clinical practice.
Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.
The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.
McKinnon, William B.
The Greeley Early Career Award is named for pioneering planetary scientist Ronald Greeley. Ron was involved in nearly every major planetary mission from the 1970s until his death and was extraordinarily active in service to the planetary science community. Ron's greatest legacies, however, are those he mentored through the decades, and it is young scientists whose work and promise we seek to recognize. This year's Greeley award winner is Jonathan L. Mitchell, an assistant professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Jonathan received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, and after a postdoc at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, he joined the UCLA faculty, where he holds a joint appointment in Earth and space sciences and in atmospheric sciences.
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) on national data (n=7505) drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, we test five commonly held beliefs including having a single-sex physics class, having a female physics teacher, having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, discussing the work of women scientists in physics class, and discussing the under-representation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including parental education, prior science/math interests, and academic background, thereby controlling for the effect of many confounding variables.
Abdelhafiz, Ahmed Samir; Fouda, Merhan Ahmed; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa Ibrahim; Farghly, Maysa Ibrahim; Salem, Mazen; Tammam, Ahmed; Gabr, Hala
Biobanking is a relatively new concept in the Arab region. Targeting different stakeholders to introduce the concept of biobanking and develop an acceptance of it among them is important for the growth of biobanking in the region. Undergraduate students of life sciences represent an important segment of stakeholders, since they constitute potential future biobank customers. Limited funding, lack of awareness of the existence of the term "biobanking" itself among these students, and questions regarding best marketing strategies presented challenges to planning for the most effective message delivery to this target group. A specific course was designed for undergraduate students of life sciences, which was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. The course was conducted twice in 2016 and included lectures covering biobanking, quality, ethics, information technology, and translational research. Facebook and word-of-mouth were used for marketing and advertising. A total number of 125 participants attended both courses cumulatively. Facebook appeared to have been an effective marketing outlet, especially when paid advertisements were used. Evaluation of knowledge, measured using a pretest and posttest, demonstrated some improvement in knowledge of participants. Evaluation forms filled after the course showed positive attitude toward content and message delivery by a majority of participants. Facebook was also used as an evaluation method through analysis of engagement with posts created after course completion. Biobanking education can be carried out effectively with limited resources. Understanding the needs of the target group and using appropriate methods of communication are essential prerequisites to a well-tailored curriculum and effective message delivery. Using Facebook appears to be an effective and affordable method of communication and advertising. Targeting undergraduate students of life sciences interested in research is a good
Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.
This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…
Wagner, T.; Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Sanford, R.
The Department of Environmental Science at the University of Southern Maine implemented a problem-based, cohort-learning curriculum for undergraduate environmental science majors. The curriculum was based on a five-course sequence patterned after the outline of a scientific paper. Under faculty guidance, students select local environmental…
Sonnert, Gerhard; Fox, Mary Frank
Using longitudinal and multi-institutional data, this article takes an innovative approach in its analyses of gender differences in grade point averages (GPA) among undergraduate students in biology, the physical sciences, and engineering over a 16-year period. Assessed are hypotheses about (a) the gender ecology of science/engineering and (b) the…
Kjærnsli, Marit; Lie, Svein
This article deals with 15-year-old students' tendencies to consider a future science-related career. Two aspects have been the focus of our investigation. The first is based on the construct called 'future science orientation', an affective construct consisting of four Likert scale items that measure students' consideration of being involved in future education and careers in science-related areas. Due to the well-known evidence for Likert scales providing culturally biased estimates, the aim has been to go beyond the comparison of simple country averages. In a series of regression and correlation analyses, we have investigated how well the variance of this construct in each of the participating countries can be accounted for by other Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) student data. The second aspect is based on a question about students' future jobs. By separating science-related jobs into what we have called 'soft' and 'hard' science-related types of jobs, we have calculated and compared country percentages within each category. In particular, gender differences are discussed, and interesting international patterns have been identified. The results in this article have been reported not only for individual countries, but also for groups of countries. These cluster analyses of countries are based on item-by-item patterns of (residual values of) national average values for the combination of cognitive and affective items. The emerging cluster structure of countries has turned out to contribute to the literature of similarities and differences between countries and the factors behind the country clustering both in science education and more generally.
Letchford, Julie; Corradi, Hazel; Day, Trevor
An important aim of undergraduate science education is to develop student skills in reading and evaluating research papers. We have designed, developed, and implemented an on-line interactive resource entitled "Evaluating Scientific Research literature" (ESRL) aimed at students from the first 2 years of the undergraduate program. In this article, we describe the resource, then use student data collected from questionnaire surveys to evaluate the resource within 2 years of its launch. Our results add to those reported previously and indicate that ESRL can enable students to start evaluating research articles when used during their undergraduate program. We conclude maximal learning is likely to occur when the resource can be embedded in the curriculum such that students have a clearly articulated context for the resource's activities, can see their relevance in relation to assessed assignments and can be encouraged to think deeply about the activities in conversation with one another and/or with staff. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(6):483-490, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Hren, Stephen Frank
The purpose of this study was to determine how perceived gender roles developed throughout childhood and early adulthood impacted the career decisions of women in science-related career fields. An additional purpose was to determine if my experiences as I analyzed the data and the propositions discovered in the study would become a transformative agent for me. A multicase framework was utilized so that within and between case analyses could be achieved. Four women who showed early promise in science were chosen as the case study participants. The relationship of gender roles to the career decisions made by the four cases were arbitrated through three areas: (a) supports, which came from parents, immediate family members, spouses, teachers, mentors, and collaborators; (b) opportunities, which were separated into family experiences and opportunities, school and community opportunities, and postsecondary/current opportunities; and (c) postmodern feminism, which was the lens that grounded this study and fit well with the lives of the cases. As seen through a postmodern feminist lens, the cases' social class, their lived experiences tied to their opportunities and supports, and the culture of growing up in a small rural community helped them develop personas for the professions they chose even where those professions did not necessarily follow from the early promise shown for a science-related career. In addition, as related to my transformation as a male researcher, being a male conducting research in a realm most often shared by women, I was able to gain greater empathy and understanding of what it takes for women to be successful in a career and at the same time maintain a fruitful family life.
Crowley, S.; Warburton, J.
PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded program in which K-12 teachers participate in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. PolarTREC highlights the importance of involving teachers in scientific research in regards to their careers as educators and their ability to engage students in the direct experience of science. To date, PolarTREC has placed over 90 teachers with research teams in the Arctic and Antarctic. Published results of our program evaluation quantify the effect of the field experience on the teachers' use of the real scientific process in the classroom, the improvement in science content taught in classrooms, and the use of non-fiction texts (real data and science papers) as primary learning tools for students. Teachers and students both report an increase of STEM literacy in the classroom content, confidence in science education, as well as a markedly broadened outlook of science as essential to their future. Research conducted with science teams affirms that they are achieving broader impacts when PolarTREC teachers are involved in their expeditions. Additionally, they reported that these teachers making vital contributions to the success of the scientific project.
Habig, Bobby; Gupta, Preeti; Levine, Brian; Adams, Jennifer
While there is extensive evidence that STEM careers can be important pathways for augmenting social mobility and for increasing individual prestige, many youth perceive a STEM trajectory as an unattractive option. In the USA, women and members of historically marginalized racial and ethnic groups continue to be underrepresented across STEM disciplines. One vehicle for generating and sustaining interest in STEM is providing youth long-term access to informal science education (ISE) institutions. Here, we incorporate triangulation methods, collecting and synthesizing both qualitative and quantitative data, to examine how participation in a longitudinal ISE out-of-school time (OST) program facilitated by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) impacted the STEM trajectories of 66 alumni. Findings revealed that 83.2% of alumni engaged in a STEM major, and 63.1% in a STEM career, the majority whom were females and/or members of historically underrepresented racial and ethnic groups. Based on interviews with a purposeful sample of 21 AMNH alumni, we identified four program design principles that contributed to persistence in STEM: (1) affording multiple opportunities to become practitioners of science; (2) providing exposure to and repeated experiences with STEM professionals such as scientists, educators, and graduate students to build social networks; (3) furnishing opportunities for participants to develop shared science identities with like-minded individuals; and (4) offering exposure to and preparation for a variety of STEM majors and STEM careers so that youth can engage in discovering possible selves. These findings support our central thesis that long-term engagement in ISE OST programs fosters persistence in STEM.
Stocks, K. I.; Duerr, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Yarmey, L.
Data Scientists do not have a single career trajectory or preparatory pathway. Successful data scientists have come from domain sciences, computer science, library science, and other diverse fields. They have worked up from entry-level staff positions, have started as academics with doctoral degrees, and have established themselves as management professionals. They have positions in government, industry, academia, and NGO's, and their responsibilities range from highly specialized, to generalists, to high-level leadership. This presents a potentially confusing landscape for students interested in the field: how to decide among the varied options to have the best chance at fulfilling employment? What are the mistakes to avoid? Many established data scientist, both old-timers and early career professionals, expressed interest in presenting in this session but were unable to justify using their one AGU abstract for something other than their funded projects. As the session chairs we interviewed them, plus our extended network of colleagues, to ask for their best advice on what was most critical to their success in their current position, what pitfalls to avoid, what ongoing challenges they see, and what advice they would give themselves, if they could do it all over again starting now. Here we consolidate those interviews with our own perspectives to present some of the common themes and standout advice.
Among careers for biologists with PhDs, science communication is one of the most diverse and rewarding pathways. Myriad options exist, from traditional journalism to new media, from writing for specialists to working in public outreach. Textbooks, mass-market books, and freelance writing that combines many of these pursuits are all viable choices. Communicating about science allows researchers to step away from the minutiae of a subdiscipline and to once again explore the breadth of science more fully through an ever-evolving array of stories. A doctoral degree can confer distinct advantages in the eyes of prospective editors and employers. Here I describe those advantages, possible career directions, and steps toward making such a transition. © 2015 Irion. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise
Communication skills are one of five nationally recognised learning outcomes for an Australian Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree. Previous evidence indicates that communication skills taught in Australian undergraduate science degrees are not developed sufficiently to meet the requirements of the modern-day workplace-a problem faced in the UK and USA also. Curriculum development in this area, however, hinges on first evaluating how communication skills are taught currently as a base from which to make effective changes. This study aimed to quantify the current standard of communication education within BSc degrees at Australian research-intensive universities. A detailed evidential baseline for not only what but also how communication skills are being taught was established. We quantified which communication skills were taught and assessed explicitly, implicitly, or were absent in a range of undergraduate science assessment tasks (n = 35) from four research-intensive Australian universities. Results indicate that 10 of the 12 core science communication skills used for evaluation were absent from more than 50% of assessment tasks and 77.14% of all assessment tasks taught less than 5 core communication skills explicitly. The design of assessment tasks significantly affected whether communication skills were taught explicitly. Prominent trends were that communication skills in tasks aimed at non-scientific audiences were taught more explicitly than in tasks aimed at scientific audiences, and the majority of group and multimedia tasks taught communication elements more explicitly than individual, or written and oral tasks. Implications for science communication in the BSc and further research are discussed.
Williams, John; Eames, Chris; Hume, Anne; Lockley, John
Background: This research addressed the key area of early career teacher education and aimed to explore the use of a 'content representation' (CoRe) as a mediational tool to develop early career secondary teacher pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study was situated in the subject areas of science and technology, where sound teacher knowledge is particularly important to student engagement. Purpose: The study was designed to examine whether such a tool (a CoRe), co-designed by an early career secondary teacher with expert content and pedagogy specialists, can enhance the PCK of early career teachers. The research questions were: How can experts in content and pedagogy work together with early career teachers to develop one science topic CoRe and one technology topic CoRe to support the development of PCK for early career secondary teachers? How does the use of a collaboratively designed CoRe affect the planning of an early career secondary teacher in science or technology? How has engagement in the development and use of an expert-informed CoRe developed an early career teacher's PCK? Sample: The research design incorporated a unique partnership between two expert classroom teachers, two content experts, four early career teachers, and four researchers experienced in science and technology education. Design: This study employed an interpretivist-based methodology and an action research approach within a four-case study design. Data were gathered using qualitative research methods focused on semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Results: The study indicated that CoRes, developed through this collaborative process, helped the early career teachers focus on the big picture of the topic, emphasize particularly relevant areas of content and consider alternative ways of planning for their teaching. Conclusions: This paper presents an analysis of the process of CoRe development by the teacher-expert partnerships and the effect that had on
Mbawuni, Joseph; Nimako, Simon Gyasi
This study principally investigates job-related and personality factors that determine Ghanaian accounting students' intentions to pursue careers in accounting. It draws on a rich body of existing literature to develop a research model. Primary data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 516 final year accounting students in a Ghanaian…
Walsh, David S.; Veri, Maria J.; Willard, Jason J.
The purpose of this article is to present university student mentors' perspectives on the impact of a teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model youth program called the Kinesiology Career Club. Data sources in this qualitative case study included program observations, mentoring reflections, and semistructured interviews. Data…
Flohic, Hélène M. L. G.
A common challenge among university professors is how to best design undergraduate courses to successfully enhance students' attitudes. To compare which curriculum was more efficient at fostering a positive attitude towards science in general, I studied the impact of two different general education science courses on the attitudes of college…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main challenge of higher education institutions throughout the world is to develop professionals capable of understanding and responding to the current social priorities of our countries. Given the utmost importance of addressing the complex needs of an increasingly elderly population in Mexico, the National Autonomous University of Mexico has systematically incorporated modules dealing with primary gerontological health care into several of its undergraduate programs in health sciences. The objective of this study was to analyze teacher's and student's perceptions about the current educational practices on gerontology. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 26 teachers and 122 undergraduate students. Subjects were administered interviews and responded survey instrument. Results A vast proportion of the teachers (42% reported students' attitudes towards their academic training as the most important factor affecting learning in the field of gerontology, whereas students reported that the main problems of education in gerontology were theoretical (32% and methodological (28%. In addition, 41% of students considered education on ageing matters as an essential element for their professional development, as compared to 19% of teachers (p Conclusion Our findings suggest that the teachers' perceptions about the low importance of education on ageing matters for the professional practice of health sciences could be a negative factor for gerontology teaching.
Zubaran, Carlos; Lazzaretti, Rubia
To investigate the prevalence of appetite suppressant use among health sciences students in Southern Brazil. Undergraduate students (n=300) from seven health science undergraduate courses of the Universidade de Caxias do Sul completed a questionnaire about the use of substances to suppress appetite. A significant percentage (15%; n=45) of research participants used appetite suppressants at least once in their lives. The most commonly used substances were sympathomimetic stimulant drugs (5%), including amfepramone (3.3%) and fenproporex (1.7%). The lifetime use of appetite suppressants was more prevalent among Nursing (26.7%) and Nutrition (24.4%%) students. There was no reported use of appetite suppressants among medical students. The use of appetite suppressants was significantly more prevalent among women. The majority of those who used these substances did so under medical recommendation. Most of users took appetite suppressants for more than 3 months. Lifetime use of appetite suppressants was substantial, being sympathomimetic stimulant drugs the most commonly used agents. Students enrolled in Nursing and Nutrition courses presented a significantly higher prevalence of lifetime use of appetite suppressants.
Ali Sabri Radeef, Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Syed Masroor Ali, MaungKoHajee Mohamed Ismail
Full Text Available Introduction: Higher education is considered as a stressful period in students’ life which they have to cope with since they are facing a variety of demands such as living away from their families, a heavily loaded curriculum, and inefficiency in both mentor- mentee and health education programs. This will make them more vulnerable to emotional disturbances such as stress, anxiety and depression. Methodology: A total of 194 undergraduate students from Kulliyyah (Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia participated in questionnaire-based study using the Depression Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21 to assess the severity of emotional disturbances Results: The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 64.4%, 84.5% and 56.7% respectively. Regarding the severity of the symptoms, it was found that 13.9%, 51.5 % and 12.9% of the students have clinically significant depression, anxiety and stress respectively. Young students aged 21 years and below had a statistically significant association with depression, anxiety and stress. While first year students had significant association with depression. Regarding the source of stressors, the top ten stressors decided by the students were mainly academic and personal factors. Conclusion: Emotional disturbances in the form of depression, anxiety and stress are existing in high rate among undergraduate science students that require early intervention. Factors including feeling of incompetence, lack of motivation to learn and difficulty of class work can be considered as source of stressors that may precipitate for depression anxiety and stress.
Full Text Available Senior undergraduate research projects are important components of most undergraduate science degrees. The delivery of such projects in a distance education format is challenging. Athabasca University (AU science project courses allow distance education students to complete research project courses by working with research supervisors in their local area, coordinated at a distance by AU faculty. This paper presents demographics and course performance for 155 students over five years. Pass rates were similar to other distance education courses. Research students were surveyed by questionnaire, and external supervisors and AU faculty were interviewed, to examine the outcomes of these project courses for each group. Students reported high levels of satisfaction with the course, local supervisors, and faculty coordinators. Students also reported that the experience increased their interest in research, and the probability that they would pursue graduate or additional certification. Local supervisors and faculty affirmed that the purposes of project courses are to introduce the student to research, provide opportunity for students to use their cumulative knowledge, develop cognitive abilities, and independent thinking. The advantages and challenges associated with this course model are discussed.
I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The only prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional courses: Basic modeling skills Probabilistic modeling skills Data analysis methods Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. These basic skills, which are relevant to nearly any field of science or engineering, are presented in the context of case studies from living systems, including: Virus dynamics Bacterial genetics and evolution of drug resistance Statistical inference Superresolution microscopy Synthetic biology Naturally evolved cellular circuits. Work supported by NSF Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.
Robert H. Tai
Full Text Available An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.
Cornejo, Jorge Norberto;
Full Text Available Communication and dissemination of science are an integral part of science itself, where the reading, in addition, must be a constitutive aspect of scientific training. Especially, reading works of scientific divulgation can become an excellent tool for the integral formation of students in scientific or technological careers. This research is a preliminary diagnosis on the reading habits of 158 students of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires, conducted by a written survey. From the results, we conclude that students are not whitout reading habits, but that they have little interaction with his training as a professionals. The printed book is still the main vehicle for reading, well above the electronic formats. A problem arises with the issue of scientific divulgation, as students manifest ignore to the very nature of this genre. Future work is proposed for the development of intervention strategies that take into account the results of this research.
This study aimed to describe academic impact of Philosophy of Science course in change of students’ conceptions on the Nature of science (NOS) before and after attending the course. This study followed one group pretest-posttest design. Treatment in this study was Philosophy of Science course for one semester. Misconception diagnostic tests of the NOS had been developed by Suyono et al. (2015) equipped with Certainty of Response Index (CRI). It consists of 15 concept questions about the NOS. The number of students who were tested on Chemistry Education Program (CEP) and Chemistry Program (CP) respectively 42 and 45 students. This study shows that after the learning of Philosophy of Science course happened: (1) the decrease of the number of misconception students on the NOS from 47.47 to 19.20% in CEP and from 47.47 to 18.18% in CP and (2) the decrease in the number of concepts that understood as misconception by the large number of students from 11 to 2 concepts on the CEP and from 10 to 2 concepts on CP. Therefore, the existence of Philosophy of Science course has a positive academic impact on students from both programs on undergraduate level.
Within the coming decade, the demand for well-trained pharmacists is expected to only increase, especially with the aging of the United States (US) population. To help fill this growing demand, the University of California, Irvine (UCI) aims to offer a unique pre-pharmacy degree program and has developed a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences to help achieve this goal. In this commentary, we share our experience with our curriculum and highlight its features in an effort to encourage other institutions to enhance the learning experience of their pre-pharmacy students. The efforts of the UCI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences has resulted in UCI being consistently ranked as one of the top feeder institutions by the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) in recent years. The UCI Pharmaceutical Sciences Bachelor of Science offers a unique pre-pharmacy educational experience in an effort to better prepare undergraduates for the rigors of the doctorate of pharmacy curriculum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
In 2004 the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) at Oregon State University (OSU) established a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program to engage undergraduate students in hands-on research training in the marine sciences. The program offers students the opportunity to conduct research focused on biological and ecological topics, chemical and physical oceanography, marine geology, and atmospheric science. In partnership with state and federal government agencies, this ten-week summer program has grown to include 20+ students annually. Participants obtain a background in the academic discipline, professional development training, and research experience to make informed decisions about careers and advanced degrees in marine and earth system sciences. Professional development components of the program are designed to support students in their research experience, explore career goals and develop skills necessary to becoming a successful young marine scientist. These components generally include seminars, discussions, workshops, lab tours, and standards of conduct. These componentscontribute to achieving the following professional development objectives for the overall success of new emerging undergraduate researchers: Forming a fellowship of undergraduate students pursuing marine research Stimulating student interest and understanding of marine research science Learning about research opportunities at Oregon State University "Cross-Training" - broadening the hands-on research experience Exploring and learning about marine science careers and pathways Developing science communication and presentation skills Cultivating a sense of belonging in the sciences Exposure to federal and state agencies in marine and estuarine science Academic and career planning Retention of talented students in the marine science Standards of conduct in science Details of this program's components, objectives and best practices will be discussed.
LaDue, D. S.
The University of Oklahoma's general education lecture course Severe & Unusual Weather, taught in two sections each fall and spring, covers about nine topics. The sections are taught by different instructors, each of whom has flexibility to employ a variety of instructional strategies and choose specific topics to cover while meeting the requirement that general education courses in the natural sciences help students understand the importance of the science for appreciating the world around them. Students enrolled have been approximately 6-10% returning adult students, some of whom were veterans or active duty military, and about 10% members of racial or ethnic groups. Their majors are mostly in the humanities (theater, photography) and social sciences (education, English, journalism, sociology), with some natural science majors (psychology, aviation). For the past two years, Section 001 has been designed with adult and active learning concepts in mind, using deliberate connections between course content and students' lives and careers to motivate meaningful learning. Students were grouped in teams according to similar majors and assigned group presentations connecting course content to topics that should interest them, such as economic impacts of weather, societal and personal impacts of severe weather, risks to aviation, media coverage of weather, and psychological and sociological responses to weather risks. Students learn about the peer review process for scientific papers while also exploring a connection of course content to their future career or life interests through papers that are run through a mock peer review process. Public policy is discussed in several sections of the course, such as hurricane building codes, wind-resistant construction in tornado alley, and the disproportionate impacts of weather and climate on certain socioeconomic groups. Most students deeply appreciate the opportunity to explore how course content intersects with their lives
... encourage outstanding undergraduate students to pursue careers in science and engineering. The objective of...: Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Name and Number: Measurement and Engineering Research and Standards... engineering sciences and, as the lead Federal agency for technology transfer, it provides a strong interface...
Wallace, Michael L.
This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS
Doyle, Kari M. H.; Vale, Ronald D.
The United States is confronting important challenges at both the early and late stages of science education. At the level of K–12 education, a recent National Research Council report (Successful K–12 STEM Education) proposed a bold restructuring of how science is taught, moving away from memorizing facts and emphasizing hands-on, inquiry-based learning and a deeper understanding of the process of science. At higher levels of training, limited funding for science is leading PhDs to seek training and careers in areas other than research. Might science PhDs play a bigger role in the future of K–12 education, particularly at the high school level? We explore this question by discussing the roles that PhDs can play in high school education and the current and rather extensive barriers to PhDs entering the teaching profession and finally suggest ways to ease the entrance of qualified PhDs into high school education. PMID:24174464
Collins, L.A.; Magee, N.H.; Bryant, H.C.; Zeilik, M.
Programs launched by many universities and the federal government expose many undergraduate students in the physical sciences to research early in their careers. However, in their research experiences, undergraduates are not usually introduced to the modes by which scientific knowledge, which they may have helped gather, is communicated and evaluated by working scientists. Nor is it always made clear where the research frontiers really lie. To this end, we guided a selected group of undergraduates through a national scientific conference, followed by a week of tutorials and discussions to help them better understand what had transpired. The program complemented the basic undergraduate research endeavors by emphasizing the importance of disseminating results both to other scientists and to society in general. Tutors and discussion leaders in the second week were experts in their fields and included some of the invited speakers from the main meeting. A considerable improvement in the understanding of the issues and prospects for a career in physics was discernible among the students after their two-week experience. copyright 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers
Knickmeier, K.; Kruse, K.
The Kiel Science Factory (Kieler Forschungswerkstatt) is a school and teaching laboratory, which breaches the gap between school education and university research. Since opening in October 2012, 3.430 pupils worked at the Kiel Science Factory, and joined the different programs (ocean:lab, nano:lab, geo:lab), the numbers of visitors are increasing. The combination of experts in research and experts in education is very effective to attract young peoplés interest for a scientific career, to communicate science and to increase interest of teachers in current science. The biggest lab is the ocean:lab, it is jointly offered by Kiel University, Cluster of Excellence "Future Ocean" and Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education at Kiel University (IPN). The ocean:lab is addressing to school classes from grade 3 to 13, and it is strongly involved in pre-service teacher education. Appropriate to their respective level of study, pupils and students get fascinating insights into marine sciences and the working methods of real scientists. Furthermore teacher trainings and summer schools are producing an enthusiasm, which affects as well teachers as their students. The visiting pupils are mainly from Northern Germany, but also from e.g. Austria, Poland and Japan. Topics are the ocean as an ecosystem and how it is affected by anthropogenic impacts. The program offers an integrated investigation of the ecosystem "ocean" (from Plankton to marine mammals) with an interdisciplinary focus on biological aspects and abiotic factors of the habitat. In addition to pollution of the ocean through plastic waste and noise, the effects of climate change and eutrophication plays a role in discussions and tasks. New formats (e.g. an international Citizen Science Project and Expeditionary Learning) are carried out. The developed material is part of expedition boxes, which can be borrowed for project work in schools and science centers. http://www.forschungs-werkstatt.de/
Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm
The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Despeaux, J. Michael; Knotts, H. Gibbs; Schiff, Jennifer S.
Given the growing emphasis on career preparation in higher education, career centers play important roles on today's college campuses. The literature has focused on the reasons students use career services, but it has not addressed the vital linkage between career centers and academic departments. Using a survey of 279 political science…
Connolly, Mark R.; Lee, You-Geon
As a result of increased national emphasis on preparing future faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to teach undergraduates, more research universities offer teaching development (TD) programs to doctoral students who aspire to academic careers. Using social cognitive career theory, we examine the effects of these…
Quimby, Julie L.; Seyala, Nazar D.; Wolfson, Jane L.
The authors examined the influence of social cognitive variables on students' interest in environmental science careers and investigated differences between White and ethnic minority students on several career-related variables. The sample consisted of 161 undergraduate science majors (124 White students, 37 ethnic minority students). Results of…
Hanson, Sandra L.
This research examines the effects of gender and a number of family experiences on young people's chances of going into postsecondary science training and science occupations in the years immediately following high school. Data came from the nationally representative, longitudinal High School and Beyond survey. Results show that gender plays a significant role in choices involving early science training and occupations - especially training. Amongst young men and women with comparable resources and qualifications, young women are less likely to make the science choice. The family experiences and expectations examined here are not a major factor in understanding gender differences in access to science training and occupations. Although much of the literature describes the domains of science and of family as being at odds, results from this research suggest that family experiences play a rather minimal role in predicting who will enter science training or occupations in the early post-high school years. When family variables do have an effect, they are not always negative and the nature of the effect varies by the time in the life cycle that the family variable is measured, by type of family experience (orientation vs. procreation), by outcome (science major vs. science occupation), and by gender.
Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama
The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter
Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.
Hankin, E. R.; Williams, B. M.; Asher, P. M.; Furukawa, H.; Holm Adamec, B.; Lee, M.; Cooper, P.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is home to more than 60,000 scientists from 139 countries. Included in this membership are approximately 20,000 (34%) student and early career members. Many well-established programs within AGU provide a dynamic forum for Earth and Space scientists to advance research, collaborate across disciplines, and communicate the importance and impact of science to society regardless of career stage—programs such as AGU publications, scientific meetings and conferences, honors and recognition, and other educational and scientific forums. Additionally, many AGU program initiatives focusing specifically on supporting student and early career scientists and the global talent pool pipeline ones are actively underway. These include both new and long-standing programs. This presentation will describe (1) the overall demographics and needs in Earth and Space sciences, and (2) AGU's coordinated series of programs designed to help attract, retain and support student and early career scientists—with an emphasis on new programmatic activities and initiatives targeting improved diversity. Included in this presentation are a description of the AGU BrightSTaRS Program, the AGU Berkner Program for international students, a newly established AGU Student & Early Career Conference, the AGU Virtual Poster Showcase initiative, the AGU Meeting Mentor program, and GeoLEAD—an umbrella program being jointly built by a coalition of societies to help address Earth and space sciences talent pool needs.
Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing numbers of medical sciences graduates is counted to be one of the problems in the society, so that there is concerning about their majors and future careers among them. This study was performed with the aim of determining environmental health students' attitude toward their majors and future careers, which was carried out in Yazd University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Method: This analytical, descriptive study was performed in 2015. The samples were Environmental Health students of Yazd University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was 102. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing 20 questions and analyzed by SPSS software version 21, multiple linear regression test, one-sample t-test and Chi-Square test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of environmental students' attitude toward their majors and future careers were 3.16 and 0.66, respectively. Attitude scores more than 3 were considered positive and less than 3 were negative. The mean scores of attitude was significantly higher than 3 (P=0.012. In this study, there was a significant relationship between students’ attitude and location status (P=0.003. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the students of environment health had a good perspective towards their future careers and majors of study. A proper distribution of human resources, providing financial support of employment, establishing counselling and supporting centers among students for future career is recommended to improve their attitudes.
Sagendorf, Kenneth S.
The purposes of this research were to create an inventory of the research, teaching and service background experiences of and to document the time allocation and time spent on teaching by early-career college science faculty members. This project is presented as three distinct papers. Thirty early-career faculty in the science disciplines from sixteen different institutions in their first year of employment participated in this study. For the first two papers, a new survey was developed asking participants to choose which experiences they had acquired prior to taking their current faculty position and asking them to document their time allocation and time spent on teaching activities in an average work week. In addition, a third component documents the support early-career college faculty in the sciences are receiving from the perspective of faculty members and their respective department chairpersons and identifies areas of disagreement between these two different groups. Twenty early-career college science faculty and their respective department chairpersons completed a newly-designed survey regarding the support offered to new faculty. The survey addressed the areas of feedback on performance, clarity of tenure requirements, mentoring, support for teaching and scholarship and balancing faculty life. This dissertation presents the results from these surveys, accounting for different demographic variables such as science discipline, gender and institutional category.
This study explored college science students' and instructors' experiences with student-generated and performed analogies. The objectives of the study were to determine whether the use of student-generated analogies could provide students with opportunities to develop robust understanding of difficult science concepts, and to examine students' and instructors' perspectives on the utilization of these analogies. To address my objectives, I carried out a case study at a university-college in British Columbia. I examined the use of analogies in undergraduate biology and chemistry courses. Working with three instructors, I explored the use of student-generated analogies in five courses. I carried out in-depth analyses for one biology case and one chemistry case. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, researcher journal logs and students' responses to assessment questions. My findings suggest that involvement in the analogy exercise was associated with gains in students' conceptual understanding. Lower-achieving students who participated in the analogy activity exhibited significant gains in understanding of the science concept, but were unable to transfer their knowledge to novel situations. Higher-achieving students who participated in the activity were better able to transfer their knowledge of the analogy-related science topic to novel situations. This research revealed that students exhibited improved understanding when their analogies clearly represented important features of the target science concept. Students actively involved in the analogy activity exhibited gains in conceptual understanding. They perceived that embodied performative aspects of the activity promoted engagement, which motivated their learning. Participation in the analogy activity led to enhanced social interaction and a heightened sense of community within the classroom. The combination of social and performative elements provided motivational learning
Diekman, Amanda B; Brown, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Amanda M; Clark, Emily K
Although women have nearly attained equality with men in several formerly male-dominated fields, they remain underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We argue that one important reason for this discrepancy is that STEM careers are perceived as less likely than careers in other fields to fulfill communal goals (e.g., working with or helping other people). Such perceptions might disproportionately affect women's career decisions, because women tend to endorse communal goals more than men. As predicted, we found that STEM careers, relative to other careers, were perceived to impede communal goals. Moreover, communal-goal endorsement negatively predicted interest in STEM careers, even when controlling for past experience and self-efficacy in science and mathematics. Understanding how communal goals influence people's interest in STEM fields thus provides a new perspective on the issue of women's representation in STEM careers.
Manco Vega, Alejandra
This research aims to understand the different practices and strategies early career researchers and PhD students from the social sciences have in Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for science communication in one particular country: Brazil. Following this purpose, the central research question is which are the motives and rationale of the researchers for using social networking sites for science communication. Two sub-questions arise from this general research question: How do practices and str...
Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; McCall, Louise; Roller, Louis; Hewitt, Lesley; Molloy, Liz; Baird, Marilyn; Aldabah, Ligal
Practical hands-on learning opportunities are viewed as a vital component of the education of health science students, but there is a critical shortage of fieldwork placement experiences. It is therefore important that these clinical learning environments are well suited to students' perceptions and expectations. To investigate how undergraduate students enrolled in health-related education programs view their clinical learning environments and specifically to compare students' perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment to that of their 'preferred/ideal' clinical learning environment. The Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) was used to collect data from 548 undergraduate students (55% response rate) enrolled in all year levels of paramedics, midwifery, radiography and medical imaging, occupational therapy, pharmacy, nutrition and dietetics, physiotherapy and social work at Monash University via convenience sampling. Students were asked to rate their perception of the clinical learning environment at the completion of their placements using the CLEI. Satisfaction of the students enrolled in the health-related disciplines was closely linked with the five constructs measured by the CLEI: Personalization, Student Involvement, Task Orientation, Innovation, and Individualization. Significant differences were found between the student's perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment and their 'ideal' clinical learning environment. The study highlights the importance of a supportive clinical learning environment that places emphasis on effective two-way communication. A thorough understanding of students' perceptions of their clinical learning environments is essential. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available School students lack information about STEM based careers, a subject that is not sufficiently embedded in the national science curriculum. As a result, students feel they receive insufficient advice to support their choice of subjects at GCSE level and beyond. Students struggle to envisage potential career pathways leading on from studying science at school, and especially for younger students it is difficult to convey typical science-based career pictures in a way that is easily accessible to them. To address this need, we developed an interactive team-based activity which uses role play to help students envisage typical work processes within a science-based career—microbial quality control in a pharmaceutical industrial environment. This activity addresses children’s curiosity about science-based careers, by enabling them to experience typical every day work processes in an industrial environment in a hands-on fashion. Additionally, the activity helps to convey abstract concepts, such as the abundance of microbes in the natural environment, microbial contamination and the importance of hygiene, which link to the science curriculum.
Usmani, Adnan Mahmmood; Meo, Sultan Ayoub
Scientific achievement by publishing a scientific manuscript in a peer reviewed biomedical journal is an important ingredient of research along with a career-enhancing advantages and significant amount of personal satisfaction. The road to evaluate science (research, scientific publications) among scientists often seems complicated. Scientist’s career is generally summarized by the number of publications / citations, teaching the undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral students, writing or ...
Schmid, S.; Bogner, F. X.
Three subscales of the 'Science Motivation Questionnaire II' (SMQII; motivational components: career motivation, self-efficacy and self-determination), with 4 items each, were applied to a sample of 209 secondary school students to monitor the impact of a 3-hour structured inquiry lesson. Four testing points (before, immediately after, 6 and 12 weeks after) were applied. The modified SMQII was factor-analyzed at each testing cycle and the structure confirmed. Only self-determination was shown to be influenced by an inquiry course, while self-efficacy and career motivation did not. Only self-efficacy and career motivation were intercorrelated and also correlated with science subject grades and subsequent achievement. Implications for using the modified SMQII subscales for research and teaching in secondary school are discussed.
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakuyu, Yunus; Ay, Yusuf
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the Project-Based Learning (PBL) method on undergraduate students' achievement and its association with these students' self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching and pinions about PBL. The sample of the study consisted of two randomly chosen classes from a set of seven classes enrolled…
Ward, Jennifer Rhode; Clarke, H. David; Horton, Jonathan L.
In response to the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education initiative, we infused authentic, plant-based research into majors' courses at a public liberal arts university. Faculty members designed a financially sustainable pedagogical approach, utilizing vertically integrated…
Rolando Quintana Aput
Full Text Available The present paper encloses the analysis of some troubles related to the development of theoretical design concerning the undergraduate thesis at the Cuban University of Informatics Sciences (UIS. This analysis proves to be decisive due to the existing demand for improving professionals training in the fields of investigation related to computing world.
Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua
Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and…
Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike
Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is heavily context dependent, in the sense that is applied, used by critical learners in a contextualised way. Purpose: Our research deals with enhancing science undergraduates' critical questioning. We are interested in understanding and describing the nature and development of students' critical questioning. The purpose is to conceptualise critical questioning as a competency, into three domains - knowledge, skills and attitudes/dispositions. We have no interest in a taxonomic category of context-free question-types called 'critical questions'. In contrast, our view is that 'being a critical questioner' trades heavily on context. Sources of evidence: Four cases are considered as illuminative of the dimensions of science undergraduates' critical questioning. Data were collected in natural learning environments through non-participant observation, audio-taping teacher-students interactions and semi-structured interviews. Students' written material resulting from diverse learning tasks was also collected. Main argument: Our supposition is that one vehicle for achieving university students as critical thinkers is to enable them not just to ask critical questions, but to be critical questioners. We relate critical questioning to three domains: (1) context, (2) competency and (3) delivery, and propose a model based on illuminating examples of the in-classroom action. Conclusions: The dimensions of the competency-context-delivery model provide a framework for describing successful student critical questioning, showing that students' capacity to be critical can be developed. It is possible, in our view, to generate critical
Desalegn, Anteneh Assefa; Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru
Student absenteeism is a major concern for university education worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and causes of absenteeism among undergraduate medical and health sciences students at Hawassa University. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered structured questionnaire from May-June 2013. The primary outcome indicator was self-reported absenteeism from lectures in the semester preceding the study period. The study included all regular undergraduate students who were enrolled in the University for at least one semester. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The association between class absenteeism and socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of absenteeism was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results were reported as crude odds ratios (COR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). 1200 students consented and filled the questionnaire. Of these students, 43.7% had missed three or more lectures and 14.1% (95% CI = 12.2-16.2) missed more than 8 lectures in the preceding semester. There was a significant association between missing more than 8 lectures and age of students, chosen discipline (medicine), and social drug use. The main reasons reported for missing lectures were preparing for another examination, lack of interest, lecturer's teaching style, and availability of lecture material. At Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science student habits and teacher performance play a role in absenteeism from lectures. A university culture that promotes discipline and integrity especially among medical and older students discourages social drug use will likely improve motivation and attendance. Training in teaching methodologies to improve the quality and delivery of lectures should also help increase attendance.
Iván Javier Villamar-Alvarado
Full Text Available The Differential and Integral Calculus has great relevance for the professionals of the technical sciences since it provides them with a solid theoretical-conceptual body to process information, to use models that simulate real processes, to solve technical problems, to work in multidisciplinary projects and to communicate with precision. In spite of this relevance, there are numerous international dissatisfactions related to their learning by training engineers. The objective was to unveil the specificities of the teaching-learning process of this discipline that favor a successful appropriation of its content by the future engineers. The result was to unveil the didactic need to resolve the dialectical contradiction that manifests itself between the systematization of the engineering functionality of the aforementioned content and its contextualized interdisciplinary generalization. As a consequence, the need arises to create new didactic proposals that overcome this contradiction, as a way to perfect the teaching-learning process of this discipline in the engineering careers.
This paper describes three important strands in the career of Griffith Edwards that define him as a leader and an innovator. Believing that education and science were critical for the development of addiction as a profession and as a field of inquiry, his approach was multi-faceted: educating all doctors to appreciate the fundamental issues in addiction; training psychiatrists in the complexity of 'dual diagnosis' and specific specialist intervention; and teaching that addiction could be a chronic condition which required care management over the life course. These three inter-related areas are directly related to the need for a range of practitioners to have an understanding of addiction so that patients can be properly managed. The greater our understanding of the nature of addiction behaviour, the more likely the potential to optimize treatment and train practitioners from different professional disciplines. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Jones, R. M.; Gill, T. E.; Quesada, D.; Hedquist, B. C.
Climate literacy and climate education are important topics in current socio-political debate. Despite numerous scientific findings supporting global climate changes and accelerated greenhouse warming, there is a social inertia resisting and slowing the rate at which many of our students understand and absorb these facts. A variety of reasons, including: socio-economic interests, political and ideological biases, misinformation from mass media, inappropriate preparation of science teachers, and lack of numancy have created serious challenges for public awareness of such an important issue. Different agencies and organizations (NASA, NOAA, EPA, AGU, APS, AMS and others) have created training programs for educators, not involved directly in climatology research, in order to learn climate science in a consistent way and then communicate it to the public and students. Different approaches on how to deliver such information to undergraduate students in diverse environments is discussed based on the author's experiences working in different minority-serving institutions across the nation and who have attended AMS Weather and Climate Studies training workshops, MSI-REACH, and the School of Ice. Different parameters are included in the analysis: demographics of students, size of the institutions, geographical locations, target audience, programs students are enrolled in, conceptual units covered, and availability of climate-related courses in the curricula. Additionally, the feasibility of incorporating a laboratory and quantitative analysis is analyzed. As a result of these comparisons it seems that downscaling of climate education experiences do not always work as expected in every institution regardless of the student body demographics. Different geographical areas, student body characteristics and type of institution determine the approach to be adopted as well as the feasibility to introduce different components for weather and climate studies. Some ideas are shared
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to provide insight into Liberal Arts and Sciences (LAS) graduates' reflections on their cooperative education (co-op) experiences and resulting career self-efficacy. Wichita State University houses a cooperative education program, the only one of its kind in the state of Kansas. This program…
In thirty years of teaching a capstone ``Science, Technology, and Society'' course to undergraduate students of all majors, I have found that, upon entering STS, to most of them the Manhattan Project seems about as remote as the Civil War; few can describe the difference between nuclear and large non-nuclear weapons. With similar lack of awareness, many students seem to think the Big Bang was dreamed up by science sorcerers. One might suppose that a basic mental picture of weapons that held entire populations hostage should be part of informed citizenship. One might also suppose that questions about origins, as they are put to nature through evidence-based reasoning, should be integral to a culture's identity. Over the years I have found the history of physics to be an effective tool for bringing such subjects to life for STS students. Upon hearing some of the history behind (for example) nuclear weapons and big bang cosmology, these students can better imagine themselves called upon to help in a Manhattan Project, or see themselves sleuthing about in a forensic science like cosmology. In this talk I share sample student responses to our class discussions on nuclear weapons, and on cosmology. The history of physics is too engaging to be appreciated only by physicists.
Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.
Quan, Gina M.; Elby, Andrew
Undergraduate research can support students' more central participation in physics. We analyze markers of two coupled shifts in participation: changes in students' views about the nature of science coupled to shifts in self-efficacy toward physics research. Students in the study worked with faculty and graduate student mentors on research projects while also participating in a seminar where they learned about research and reflected on their experiences. In classroom discussions and in clinical interviews, students described gaining more nuanced views about the nature of science, specifically related to who can participate in research and what participation in research looks like. This shift was coupled to gains in self-efficacy toward their ability to contribute to research; they felt like their contributions as novices mattered. We present two case studies of students who experienced coupled shifts in self-efficacy and views about nature-of-science shifts, and a case study of a student for whom we did not see either shift, to illustrate both the existence of the coupling and the different ways it can play out. After making the case that this coupling occurs, we discuss some potential underlying mechanisms. Finally, we use these results to argue for more nuanced interpretations of self-efficacy measurements.
di, L.; Deng, M.
Earth system science (ESS) research often requires integrating, analyzing, and modeling with large amount of multi-disciplinary, multi-source geospatial data. Satellite remote sensing is one of the major sources of such data. Currently, NASA EOSDIS has archived more than three petabytes of Earth remote sensing data. Those data are essential for conducting ESS research. Therefore, training students on how to effectively use large amount of remote sensing data in ESS research is the essential part of their ESS education. However, currently most of undergraduate students have never been trained to handle the huge volume of available data because of lack of resources and suitable teaching technology at ESS colleges. In order to reduce this problem, we are developing a web-based geospatial information system, called GeoBrain, for providing a data-enhanced on-line learning and research environment for ESS education and research. The system makes petabytes of NASA EOS data and information easily accessible to higher-education users. The system allows users to dynamically and collaboratively develop interoperable, web-executable geospatial process and analysis modules and models, and run them on-line against any part of the peta-byte archives for getting back the customized information products rather than raw data. The system makes a data-enhanced ESS learning and research environment, backed by petabytes of NASA EOS data and unavailable to students and professors before, available to them at their desktops. In order to integrate this new learning environment into the undergraduate ESS teaching and research, a NASA EOS Higher Education Alliance (NEHEA), consisting of the GeoBrain development team led by GMU and a group of Earth science educators selected from an open RFP process, has been formed. NEHEA members are incorporating the data enhanced learning environment into their teaching and on-going research and will develop new courses for taking advantages of the
Dowd, Jason E; Thompson, Robert J; Schiff, Leslie A; Reynolds, Julie A
Developing critical-thinking and scientific reasoning skills are core learning objectives of science education, but little empirical evidence exists regarding the interrelationships between these constructs. Writing effectively fosters students' development of these constructs, and it offers a unique window into studying how they relate. In this study of undergraduate thesis writing in biology at two universities, we examine how scientific reasoning exhibited in writing (assessed using the Biology Thesis Assessment Protocol) relates to general and specific critical-thinking skills (assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test), and we consider implications for instruction. We find that scientific reasoning in writing is strongly related to inference , while other aspects of science reasoning that emerge in writing (epistemological considerations, writing conventions, etc.) are not significantly related to critical-thinking skills. Science reasoning in writing is not merely a proxy for critical thinking. In linking features of students' writing to their critical-thinking skills, this study 1) provides a bridge to prior work suggesting that engagement in science writing enhances critical thinking and 2) serves as a foundational step for subsequently determining whether instruction focused explicitly on developing critical-thinking skills (particularly inference ) can actually improve students' scientific reasoning in their writing. © 2018 J. E. Dowd et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
M Akbari Booreng
Full Text Available Introduction : One of the important factors affecting on students’ educational success is their educational motivation. This study was designed and performed for investigating the role of the future career prospects in students’ educational motivation. Methods : This was a cross sectional analytic study. For this purpose according to Cochrane formula, 285 participants were selected based on the random-cluster method out of all students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014 academic year. The questionnaires of mental illustration of the future career and educational motivation were used to gather data. The collected data were analyzed through Structural Equation-Finding Method by using PLS software. Results : The findings of the present study showed that the used model had a suitable fitting. All direct and indirect paths were significant and confirmed (p<0.01, but the direct path of mental illustration of the future career to demotivation. The results also revealed that the students of Anesthesiology had less motivation compared to the students of medicine, health and laboratory sciences. Moreover, the students of operating room had more extrinsic motivation than nursing students. The students of operating room had less intrinsic motivation than the students of medicine. Conclusion : With regard to the results of this study and the role of future career prospects in the students’ educational motivation, it seemed that providing a situation for students’ mental illustration of their future career by instructors and university lecturers was necessary.
Drinkwater, Michael J.; Matthews, Kelly E.; Seiler, Jacob
While there is a wealth of research evidencing the benefits of active-learning approaches, the extent to which these teaching practices are adopted in the sciences is not well known. The aim of this study is to establish an evidential baseline of teaching practices across a bachelor of science degree program at a large research-intensive Australian university. Our purpose is to contribute to knowledge on the adoption levels of evidence-based teaching practices by faculty within a science degree program and inform our science curriculum review in practical terms. We used the Teaching Practices Inventory (TPI) to measure the use of evidence-based teaching approaches in 129 courses (units of study) across 13 departments. We compared the results with those from a Canadian institution to identify areas in need of improvement at our institution. We applied a regression analysis to the data and found that the adoption of evidence-based teaching practices differs by discipline and is higher in first-year classes at our institution. The study demonstrates that the TPI can be used in different institutional contexts and provides data that can inform practice and policy. PMID:28232589
Drinkwater, Michael J; Matthews, Kelly E; Seiler, Jacob
While there is a wealth of research evidencing the benefits of active-learning approaches, the extent to which these teaching practices are adopted in the sciences is not well known. The aim of this study is to establish an evidential baseline of teaching practices across a bachelor of science degree program at a large research-intensive Australian university. Our purpose is to contribute to knowledge on the adoption levels of evidence-based teaching practices by faculty within a science degree program and inform our science curriculum review in practical terms. We used the Teaching Practices Inventory (TPI) to measure the use of evidence-based teaching approaches in 129 courses (units of study) across 13 departments. We compared the results with those from a Canadian institution to identify areas in need of improvement at our institution. We applied a regression analysis to the data and found that the adoption of evidence-based teaching practices differs by discipline and is higher in first-year classes at our institution. The study demonstrates that the TPI can be used in different institutional contexts and provides data that can inform practice and policy. © 2017 M. J. Drinkwater et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
To a large extent, undergraduate physical-science curricula remain firmly rooted in pencil-and-paper calculation, despite the fact that most research is done with computers. To a large extent, undergraduate life-science curricula remain firmly rooted in descriptive approaches, despite the fact that much current research involves quantitative modeling. Not only does our pedagogy not reflect current reality; it also creates a spurious barrier between the fields, reinforcing the narrow silos that prevent students from connecting them. I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional undergraduate courses: •Basic modeling skills; •Probabilistic modeling skills; •Data analysis methods; •Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python; •Pulling datasets from the Web for analysis; •Data visualization; •Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. Partially supported by the NSF under Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.
Walker, Joi Phelps; Sampson, Victor
This paper presents preliminary evidence supporting the use of peer review in undergraduate science as a means to improve student writing and to alleviate barriers, such as lost class time, by incorporation of the peer-review process into the laboratory component of the course. The study was conducted in a single section of an undergraduate…
Lopez, Ramon E.
Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.
Goff, Peter; Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Hunter, William
This research documents the creation, implementation, and evaluation of a novel chemistry curriculum. The curriculum allowed students to create theories situated in a variety of cultures while they investigated chemical phenomena central to all civilizations; it was a way of synthesizing chemistry, the history and nature of science, inquiry, and multicultural education. Achieving both chemistry content and nature of science objectives were the main goals of the curriculum. A small sample of undergraduate students participated in the curriculum instead of attending a large lecture course. The novel curriculum covered the same chemistry topics as the large lecture course. Program efficacy was evaluated using a combination of grades, survey data, and interviews with the participating undergraduates. The results suggest that this curriculum was a successful start at engaging students and teaching them chemistry as well as nature of science concepts.
Barron, Darcy; Peticolas, Laura; Multiverse Team at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab
The Advancing Space Science through Undergraduate Research Experience (ASSURE) summer REU program is an NSF-funded REU site at the Space Sciences Lab at UC Berkeley that first started in summer 2014. The program recruits students from all STEM majors, targeting underserved students including community college students and first-generation college students. The students have little or no research experience and a wide variety of academic backgrounds, but have a shared passion for space sciences and astronomy. We will describe our program's structure and the components we have found successful in preparing and supporting both the students and their research advisors for their summer research projects. This includes an intensive first week of introductory lectures and tutorials at the start of the program, preparing students for working in an academic research environment. The program also employs a multi-tiered mentoring system, with layers of support for the undergraduate student cohort, as well as graduate student and postdoctoral research advisors.
Haeger, Heather; Fresquez, Carla
Increasing inclusion of underrepresented minority and first-generation students in mentored research experiences both increases diversity in the life sciences research community and prepares students for successful careers in these fields. However, analyses of the impact of mentoring approaches on specific student gains are limited. This study addresses the impact of mentoring strategies within research experiences on broadening access to the life sciences by examining both how these experiences impacted student success and how the quality of mentorship affected the development of research and academic skills for a diverse population of students at a public, minority-serving institution. Institutional data on student grades and graduation rates (n = 348) along with postresearch experience surveys (n = 138) found that students mentored in research had significantly higher cumulative grade point averages and similar graduation rates as a matched set of peers. Examination of the relationships between student-reported gains and mentoring strategies demonstrated that socioemotional and culturally relevant mentoring impacted student development during mentored research experiences. Additionally, extended engagement in research yielded significantly higher development of research-related skills and level of independence in research. Recommendations are provided for using mentoring to support traditionally underrepresented students in the sciences. © 2016 H. Haeger and C. Fresquez. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Kelsey, Ryan Daniel
Brownfield Action is a computer simulation experience used by undergraduates in an Introduction to Environmental Science course for non-science majors at Barnard College. Students play the role of environmental consultants given the semester-long task of investigating a potentially contaminated landsite in a simulated town. The simulation serves as the integration mechanism for the entire course. The project is a collaboration between Professor Bower and the Columbia University Center for New Media Teaching and Learning (CCNMTL). This study chronicles the discovery, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of this project over its four-year history from prototype to full-fledged semester-long integrated lecture and lab experience. The complete project history serves as a model for the development of best practices in contributing to the field of educational technology in higher education through the study of fully designed and implemented projects in real classrooms. Recommendations from the project focus on linking the laboratory and lecture portions of a course, the use of simulations (especially for novice students), instructor adaptation to the use of technology, general educational technology project development, and design research, among others. Findings from the study also emphasize the uniqueness of individual student's growth through the experience, and the depth of understanding that can be gained from embracing the complexity of studying sophisticated learning environments in real classrooms.
This paper summarizes my experiences teaching a 28-hour course on the bacterial world for undergraduate students in the humanities and the social sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This course was offered in the framework of a program in which students must obtain credit points for courses offered by other faculties to broaden their education. Most students had little biology in high school and had never been exposed to the basics of chemistry. Using a historical approach, highlighting the work of pioneers such as van Leeuwenhoek, Koch, Fleming, Pasteur, Winogradsky and Woese, I covered a broad area of general, medical, environmental and evolutionary microbiology. The lectures included basic concepts of organic and inorganic chemistry necessary to understand the principles of fermentations and chemoautotrophy, and basic molecular biology to explain biotechnology using transgenic microorganisms and molecular phylogeny. Teaching the basics of microbiology to intelligent students lacking any background in the natural sciences was a rewarding experience. Some students complained that, in spite of my efforts, basic concepts of chemistry remained beyond their understanding. But overall the students' evaluation showed that the course had achieved its goal. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The purpose of this study was to identify the needs for and barriers to success of underrepresented students in the Communication Sciences and Disorders field and to determine factors linked to student persistence and academic achievement. An online survey was completed by 126 undergraduates pursuing graduate studies in Communication Sciences and Disorders. Data were subjected to Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Survey responses indicated that financial matters exerted the most influence on students' preparation for and number of choices for graduate-school applications. However, socioeconomic status was associated with needed financial support for paying tuition and completing the admission process. In addition, students at lower socioeconomic status reported spending fewer hours studying for tests and earned lower grade-point averages than peers who self-identified with a relatively high socioeconomic status. The findings also show a relationship between students' grade-point averages and family members' levels of education. The majority reported that mothers had earned the highest degree in their household, followed by siblings, themselves, and fathers. The findings suggest that students of low socioeconomic status were less academically prepared than those self-reporting a higher status. Moreover, the presence of a role model, such as a college-educated family member, may affect academic performance. Therefore, interventions for students at risk of not gaining admissions to graduate school include financial assistance and mentoring and advising programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved
Stuart, A. L.
Enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curricula currently lag workforce needs. Participation of women and minorities in STEM careers also remains low despite efforts to improve their representation in these fields. We discuss the development and evaluation of a science museum exhibit aimed at stimulating interest of middle school children (particularly girls) in STEM careers. The exhibit was designed to teach science, while addressing two factors identified as limiting the interest of girls in STEM fields — perceived lack of social relevance and lack of female role models. Further, it was designed to apply best practices in science education, including inquiry-based learning and interdisciplinary content. The exhibit was developed through collaboration between students and faculty researchers at the University of South Florida and science education and evaluation specialists at the Museum of Science and Industry of Tampa. A few stages of formative and summative assessment, including focus group discussions, visitor observation, and surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exhibit to educational project goals. The installed exhibit is focused on teaching content related to interactions between air pollution, urban design, and human health. The approximately 25 square foot exhibit space involves four different types of components. A three-dimensional model of a city, with underlying dynamic computer simulations, allows visitors to interactively explore relationships between city design, air pollution and exposures. A computer game, with quiz questions requiring user decisions on personal to community behavior, provides visual feedback regarding impacts on air pollution. Traditional panels with graphics and text, including results of current research, display integrative scientific content with open-ended questions to stimulate discussion. Finally, personal profiles highlight the diverse family, work, and social lives
Mogk, D. W.; Wysession, M. E.; Beauregard, A.; Reinen, L. A.; Surpless, K.; O'Connell, K.; McDaris, J. R.
The recent PCAST report (2012), Engage to Excel, calls for a major shift in instructional modes in introductory (geo)science courses by "replacing standard laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses". An increased emphasis is recommended to engage students in experiments with the possibility of true discovery and expanded use of scientific research courses in the first two years. To address this challenge, the On the Cutting Edge program convened a workshop of geoscience faculty to explore the many ways that true research experiences can be built into introductory geoscience courses. The workshop goals included: consideration of the opportunities, strategies and methods used to provide research experiences for students in lower division geoscience courses; examination of ways to develop students' "geoscience habits of mind" through participation in authentic research activities; exploration of ways that student research projects can be designed to contribute to public science literacy with applications to a range of issues facing humanity; and development of strategies to obtain funding for these research projects, to make these programs sustainable in departments and institutions, and to scale-up these programs so that all students may participate. Access to Earth data, information technology, lab and field-based instrumentation, and field experiences provide unprecedented opportunities for students to engage in authentic research at early stages in their careers. Early exposure to research experiences has proven to be effective in the recruitment of students to the geoscience disciplines, improved retention and persistence in degree programs, motivation for students to learn and increase self-efficacy, improved attitudes and values about science, and overall increased student success. Workshop outcomes include an online collection of tested research projects currently being used in geoscience classes, resources related to effective design
Holmes, Seth M; Karlin, Jennifer; Stonington, Scott D; Gottheil, Diane L
While several articles on MD-PhD trainees in the basic sciences have been published in the past several years, very little research exists on physician-investigators in the social sciences and humanities. However, the numbers of MD-PhDs training in these fields and the number of programs offering training in these fields are increasing, particularly within the US. In addition, accountability for the public funding for MD-PhD programs requires knowledge about this growing population of trainees and their career trajectories. The aim of this paper is to describe the first cohorts of MD-PhDs in the social sciences and humanities, to characterize their training and career paths, and to better understand their experiences of training and subsequent research and practice. This paper utilizes a multi-pronged recruitment method and novel survey instrument to examine an understudied population of MD-PhD trainees in the social sciences and humanities, many of whom completed both degrees without formal programmatic support. The survey instrument was designed to collect demographic, training and career trajectory data, as well as experiences of and perspectives on training and career. It describes their routes to professional development, characterizes obstacles to and predictors of success, and explores career trends. The average length of time to complete both degrees was 9 years. The vast majority (90%) completed a clinical residency, almost all (98%) were engaged in research, the vast majority (88%) were employed in academic institutions, and several others (9%) held leadership positions in national and international health organizations. Very few (4%) went into private practice. The survey responses supply recommendations for supporting current trainees as well as areas for future research. In general, MD-PhDs in the social sciences and humanities have careers that fit the goals of agencies providing public funding for training physician-investigators: they are involved
Didion, Catherine Jay
Discusses the importance of science educators becoming familiar with electronic resources. Highlights the publication Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook, which is designed to help undergraduate science educators. Addresses gender concerns regarding the use of educational resources. Lists science education and career resources on the web.…
Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E
Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Gourlay, Barbara Elas
This research project investigates communication between international teaching assistants and their undergraduate students in university-level chemistry labs. During the fall semester, introductory-level chemistry lab sections of three experienced non-native speaking teaching assistants and their undergraduate students were observed. Digital audio and video recordings documented fifteen hours of lab communication, focusing on the activities and interactions in the first hour of the chemistry laboratory sessions. In follow-up one-on-one semi-structured interviews, the participants (undergraduates, teaching assistants, and faculty member) reviewed interactions and responded to a 10-item, 7-point Likert-scaled interview. Interactions were classified into success categories based on participants' opinions. Quantitative and qualitative data from the observations and interviews guided the analysis of the laboratory interactions, which examined patterns of conversational listening. Analysis of laboratory communication reveals that undergraduates initiated nearly two-thirds of laboratory communication, with three-fourths of interactions less than 30 seconds in duration. Issues of gender and topics of interaction activity were also explored. Interview data identified that successful undergraduate-teaching assistant communication in interactive science labs depends on teaching assistant listening comprehension skills to interpret and respond successfully to undergraduate questions. Successful communication in the chemistry lab depended on the coordination of visual and verbal sources of information. Teaching assistant responses that included explanations and elaborations were also seen as positive features in the communicative exchanges. Interaction analysis focusing on the listening comprehension demands placed on international teaching assistants revealed that undergraduate-initiated questions often employ deixis (exophoric reference), requiring teaching assistants to
Aikens, Melissa L.; Sadselia, Sona; Watkins, Keiana; Evans, Mara; Eby, Lillian T.; Dolan, Erin L.
Undergraduate researchers at research universities are often mentored by graduate students or postdoctoral researchers (referred to collectively as “postgraduates”) and faculty, creating a mentoring triad structure. Triads differ based on whether the undergraduate, postgraduate, and faculty member interact with one another about the undergraduate’s research. Using a social capital theory framework, we hypothesized that different triad structures provide undergraduates with varying resources (e.g., information, advice, psychosocial support) from the postgraduates and/or faculty, which would affect the undergraduates’ research outcomes. To test this, we collected data from a national sample of undergraduate life science researchers about their mentoring triad structure and a range of outcomes associated with research experiences, such as perceived gains in their abilities to think and work like scientists, science identity, and intentions to enroll in a PhD program. Undergraduates mentored by postgraduates alone reported positive outcomes, indicating that postgraduates can be effective mentors. However, undergraduates who interacted directly with faculty realized greater outcomes, suggesting that faculty interaction is important for undergraduates to realize the full benefits of research. The “closed triad,” in which undergraduates, postgraduates, and faculty all interact directly, appeared to be uniquely beneficial; these undergraduates reported the highest gains in thinking and working like a scientist. PMID:27174583
Nelma Camêlo Araujo
Full Text Available The present article is part of a research conducted at universities of the south of Brazil that offers disciplines of Information Technology in Archival Sciences undergraduate courses. The research objective to identify through the educational project of these courses the subjects which have emphasis in the Information Technology, as well as to identify the teachers’ perception about the condition of these subjects in enabling the student for the challenges of the work market
During the last 30 years, women have made tremendous advances in educational attainment especially in post-secondary education. Despite these advances, recent researchers have revealed that women continue to remain underrepresented in attainment of graduate degrees in the sciences. The researcher's purpose in this study was to extend previous research and to develop a model of variables that significantly contribute to persistence in and attainment of a graduate degree and an eventual career in the science, mathematics, or technology professions. Data were collected from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03). Variables in the categories of demographics, academics, finances, values and attitudes toward educational experiences, and future employment were analyzed by t tests and logistic regressions to determine gender differences in graduate degree attainment and career goals by male and female who majored in science, technology and mathematics. Findings supported significant gender differences in expectations for a graduate degree, age at baccalaureate degree attainment, number of science and engineering credits taken, and the value of faculty interactions. Father's education had a significant effect on degree attainment. Women and men had similar expectations at the beginning of their educational career, but women tended to fall short of their degree expectations ten years later. A large proportion of women dropped out of the science pipeline by choosing different occupations after degree completion. Additionally, women earned fewer science and math credits than men. The professions of science and technology are crucial for the nation's economic growth and competitiveness; therefore, additional researchers should focus on retaining both men and women in the STEM professions.
Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Montplaisir, Lisa; Anderson, Elizabeth; Grosz, Nate
Assessments and student expectations can drive learning: students selectively study and learn the content and skills they believe critical to passing an exam in a given subject. Evaluating the nature of assessments in undergraduate science education can, therefore, provide substantial insight into student learning. We characterized and compared the cognitive skills routinely assessed by introductory biology and calculus-based physics sequences, using the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Our results indicate that both introductory sequences overwhelmingly assess lower-order cognitive skills (e.g., knowledge recall, algorithmic problem solving), but the distribution of items across cognitive skill levels differs between introductory biology and physics, which reflects and may even reinforce student perceptions typical of those courses: biology is memorization, and physics is solving problems. We also probed the relationship between level of difficulty of exam questions, as measured by student performance and cognitive skill level as measured by Bloom's taxonomy. Our analyses of both disciplines do not indicate the presence of a strong relationship. Thus, regardless of discipline, more cognitively demanding tasks do not necessarily equate to increased difficulty. We recognize the limitations associated with this approach; however, we believe this research underscores the utility of evaluating the nature of our assessments.
Bugdayci, Ilkay; Zahit Selvi, H.
One of the most important aim of the geography and social science courses is to gain the ability of reading, analysing and understanding maps. There are a lot of themes related with maps and map concepts in social studies education. Geographical location is one of the most important theme. Geographical location is specified by geographical coordinates called latitude and longitude. The geographical coordinate system is the primary spatial reference system of the earth. It is always used in cartography, in geography, in basic location calculations such as navigation and surveying. It’s important to support teacher candidates, to teach maps and related concepts. Cartographers also have important missions and responsibilities in this context. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of undergraduate students, about the geographical location. For this purpose, a research has been carried out on questions and activities related to geographical location and related concepts. The details and results of the research conducted by the students in the study are explained.
Lucas, Ana Cyra dos Santos; Parente, Rosana Cristina Pereira; Picanço, Neila Soares; Conceição, Denis Alvaci; Costa, Karen Regina Carim da; Magalhães, Igor Rafael dos Santos; Siqueira, João Cladirson Alves
A survey was conducted with 521 undergraduate health sciences students from the Federal University in Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil. Lifetime alcohol consumption was reported by 87.7% students, as compared to 30.7% for tobacco, with the latter reported more frequently by males (39.7%). The most common illicit drugs were solvents (11.9%), marijuana (9.4%), amphetamines and anxiolytics (9.2% each), cocaine (2.1%), and hallucinogens (1.2%). The main reason for illicit drug use was curiosity. Lifetime use of anabolic steroids was reported by 2.1% of the students. Alcohol abuse in the previous 30 days was reported by 12.4% of the students. Events following drinking included: fights (4.7%), accidents (2.4%), classroom absenteeism (33.7%), and job absenteeism (11.8%). Another important finding was that 47.3% of students drove after drinking. Opinions on drug abuse and patterns agree with those from similar studies in other regions of Brazil.
The first 9 weeks of the dental undergraduate education at the Karolinska Institutet comprises a transition course, designed to introduce students to university studies leading to professional qualifications in patient-related health sciences. 1 week has been set aside for the theme Man and Society, highlighting the importance of the human sciences for the development of behavioural skills necessary for achieving professionalism and a holistic patient concept. Some essential ethical questions are addressed: intercultural communication, empathy, professional demeanour and the development of professional competence, and group dynamics. In this context, more specific subjects are considered, such as the emergence of the multicultural society and its implications for health services, interpersonal skills and patient communication in the health and medical fields. There are several reasons for including this theme, which forms the basis for the ethical and communicative strands throughout the entire curriculum. As 30-40% of freshmen dental students are of non-Swedish origin, it is essential to include cultural awareness seminars. Another reason is that within the EU, cultural and communicative skills are recognised proficiencies for health professionals; it is also acknowledged that effective delivery of health care may be impeded by misunderstandings in communication and conflict in ethical beliefs. Group discussions are scheduled during the week in order to allow the students to discuss their own experiences related to the theme. The students are also given a written assignment in relation to one of the seminars; the report is assessed as a part of the examination. The week is concluded by a plenum discussion summarising the group discussions. To date, 4 course evaluations, with a response rate of 92.5%, show that 97.3% of the students were positive to the theme as a whole or to specific seminars held during the week, especially intercultural communication, ethics and
McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald
This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.
Wightman, Bruce; Hark, Amy T.
The development of fields such as bioinformatics and genomics has created new challenges and opportunities for undergraduate biology curricula. Students preparing for careers in science, technology, and medicine need more intensive study of bioinformatics and more sophisticated training in the mathematics on which this field is based. In this…
Richards, Gayle Patrice
The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.
Ciccocioppo, Anna-Lisa; Stewin, Leonard L.; Madill, Helen M.; Montgomerie, T. Craig; Tovell, Dorothy R.; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Fitzsimmons, George W.
Examines the factors that affected the career decision-making of adolescent females and young women in undergraduate science, engineering, and technology programs. Qualitative analysis was used to uncover seven themes: transition from high school, educational influences, family influences, academic issues, coursework management, gender issues, and…
Brancaccio-Taras, Loretta; Gull, Kelly A.; Ratti, Claudia
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has a history of providing a wide range of faculty development opportunities. Recently, ASM developed the Science Teaching Fellows Program (STF) for early career biologists and postdoctoral students to explore student-centered teaching and develop the skills needed to succeed in positions that have a significant teaching component. Participants were selected to STF through a competitive application process. The STF program consisted of a series of s...
Van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Verloop, Nico; Van Driel, Jan H.
Understanding the relation between teachers' goal statements and students' experiences about the position of research in undergraduate coursework can give use insight into ways to integrate research and teaching and foster undergraduate research. In this study, we examined to what extent teachers' goal statements agreed with students' experiences…
Berzonsky, William A.; Richardson, Katherine D.
Accessibility of online scientific literature continues to expand due to the advent of scholarly databases and search engines. Studies have shown that undergraduates favor using online scientific literature to address research questions, but they often do not have the skills to assess the validity of research articles. Undergraduates generally are…
Peachey, Andrew A.; Baller, Stephanie L.
Training in research methodology is becoming more commonly expected within undergraduate curricula designed to prepare students for entry into graduate allied health programs. Little information is currently available about pedagogical strategies to promote undergraduate students' learning of research methods, and less yet is available discussing…
Perera, Viranga; Mead, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Horodyskyj, Lev; Semken, Steven; Lopatto, David; Anbar, Ariel
General-education Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses are accepted as essential to a college education. An often cited reason is to train a scientifically literate populace who can think critically and make informed decisions about complex issues such as climate change, health care, and atomic energy. Goals of these STEM courses, therefore, go beyond content knowledge to include generating positive attitudes towards science, developing competence in evaluating scientific information in everyday life and understanding the nature of science. To gauge if such non-content learning outcomes are being met in our course, an online astrobiology course called Habitable Worlds, we administered the Classroom Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) survey to students. The survey was administered before and after completion of the course for three semesters starting with the Fall 2014 semester and ending with the Fall 2015 semester (N = 774). A factor analysis indicated three factors on attitudes: toward science education, toward the interconnectedness of science with non-science fields, and toward the nature of science. Here we present some differences between students enrolled in online degree programs (o-course) and those enrolled in traditional undergraduate programs (i-course). While mean course grades were similar, changes in attitudes toward science differ significantly between o-course and i-course students. The o-course students began the course with more positive attitudes across all three factors than the i-course students. Their attitudes toward science education improved during the course, while the i-course students showed no change. Attitudes toward the other two factors declined in both populations during the course, but declines were smaller among o-course students. These differences may indicate lesser intrinsic motivation among the i-course students. The CURE survey has not been used before in an online course; therefore, we will