WorldWideScience

Sample records for science bridging ecology

  1. CERN science bridging cultures

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book gives a glimpse of CERN’s activities and highlights various lesser-known facets of the Laboratory: facets that are nevertheless essential to carry out research in High Energy Physics. CERN is not only a prime example of excellence in research, technology and innovation, but also a genuine melting pot of diversity of competencies, and of humanity. Science and art have creativity and open-ended enquiry as a common denominator. This book shows how these two worlds, once clearly united but now perceived as separate, remain, in fact, manifestations of that same spirit of human enquiry.

  2. Bridging the gap between ecology and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.; Vos, C.C.; Foppen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Landscapes are studied by pattern (the geographical approach) and by process (the ecological approach within landscape ecology). The future of landscape ecology depends on whether the two approaches can be integrated. We present an approach to bridge the gap between the many detailed process studies

  3. A Land Systems Science Framework for Bridging Land System Architecture and Landscape Ecology: A Case Study from the Southern High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Vadjunec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resource-use decisions affect the ecological and human components of the coupled human and natural system (CHANS, but a critique of some frameworks is that they do not address the complexity and tradeoffs within and between the two systems. Land system architecture (LA was suggested to account for these tradeoffs at multiple levels/scales. LA and landscape ecology (LE focus on landscape structure (i.e., composition and configuration of land-use and land-cover change [LULCC] and the processes (social-ecological resulting from and shaping LULCC. Drawing on mixed-methods research in the Southern Great Plains, we develop a framework that incorporates LA, LE, and governance theory. Public land and water are commons resources threatened by overuse, degradation, and climate change. Resource use is exacerbated by public land and water policies at the state- and local-levels. Our framework provides a foundation for investigating the mechanisms of land systems science (LSS couplings across multiple levels/scales to understand how and why governance impacts human LULCC decisions (LA and how those LULCC patterns influence, and are influenced by, the underlying ecological processes (LE. This framework provides a mechanism for investigating the feedbacks between and among the different system components in a CHANS that subsequently impact future human design decisions.

  4. Building bridges across subdisciplines in marine ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Pomeroy

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecology has evolved many subdisciplines whose members do not necessarily communicate regularly through attending the same meetings or reading and publishing in the same journals. As a result, explanations of ecological processes are often limited to a single factor, process, or group of organisms, and this limited approach may fail to provide the best understanding of how communities and ecosystems are assembled and function. Specifically, there is a need to bring together information on the interplay of top-down and bottom-up influences on complete communities consisting of both macroorganisms and microorganisms. A number of examples from the recent literature illustrate the problems encountered in achieving this goal. These include declining fish populations, estuarine eutrophication, the complex origin of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom, and the interactions of microorganisms and macrooorganisms in marine planktonic food webs.

  5. Bridging the Gap Between Economics and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Leefers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Economics and ecology are often presented as opposing disciplines. Both fields have strengths and weaknesses. A new transdisciplinary field, ecological economics, attempts to bring together the strengths of both disciplines with a vision for a sustainable future. In this paper, we focus on one particular concept championed by ecological economists, natural capital. In particular, our interest is on the institutionalization of this concept through the United Nation's Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA. SEEA is an international convention that incorporates natural resource accounting as a complement to the traditional System of National Accounts (SNA. In the case of boreal forests, the stocks and flows of forest resources can be assessed to determine prospects for sustainability. To provide a context for how natural resource accounting may be applied to boreal forests, we review the origin and purpose of natural resource accounting, summarize several cases in which natural resource accounting has been applied, and present an example of stocks and flows from Michigan's (United States boreal forest resources. Natural resource accounting work from Canada, Finland, Norway, and other countries with boreal forests should be compiled and analyzed to provide more insights regarding circumpolar forest conditions.

  6. Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthesis of diverse knowledge is a central part of all sciences, but especially those such as ecology and environmental sciences which draw information from many disciplines. Research and education in ecology are intrinsically synthetic, and synthesis is increasingly needed to find solutions for en...

  7. Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kânoğlu, U; Titov, V; Bernard, E; Synolakis, C

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are high-impact, long-duration disasters that in most cases allow for only minutes of warning before impact. Since the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, there have been significant advancements in warning methodology, pre-disaster preparedness and basic understanding of related phenomena. Yet, the trail of destruction of the 2011 Japan tsunami, broadcast live to a stunned world audience, underscored the difficulties of implementing advances in applied hazard mitigation. We describe state of the art methodologies, standards for warnings and summarize recent advances in basic understanding, and identify cross-disciplinary challenges. The stage is set to bridge science, engineering and society to help build up coastal resilience and reduce losses. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Romero, Paulo Cesar; Cubillos Gonzalez, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  9. Cost and Ecological Feasibility of using UHPC in Highway Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    There is a growing interest in expanding the use of Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) from bridge deck joints for accelerated bridge construction to complex architectural and advanced structural applications. The high costs currently associated ...

  10. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-03-10

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  11. An Ecology of Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubusson, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a 15-month study of attempted innovation in school science. The teachers in an Australian secondary school were attempting to introduce a constructivist approach to their teaching of science. Uses a method of analysis in which the school science system is mapped against an ecosystem. (Author/MM)

  12. Building Bridges between Science Courses Using Honors Organic Chemistry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Timothy; Pontrello, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Introductory undergraduate science courses are traditionally offered as distinct units without formalized student interaction between classes. To bridge science courses, the authors used three Honors Organic Chemistry projects paired with other science courses. The honors students delivered presentations to mainstream organic course students and…

  13. The information science of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Aria S; Konwar, Kishori M; Louca, Stilianos; Hanson, Niels W; Hallam, Steven J

    2016-06-01

    A revolution is unfolding in microbial ecology where petabytes of 'multi-omics' data are produced using next generation sequencing and mass spectrometry platforms. This cornucopia of biological information has enormous potential to reveal the hidden metabolic powers of microbial communities in natural and engineered ecosystems. However, to realize this potential, the development of new technologies and interpretative frameworks grounded in ecological design principles are needed to overcome computational and analytical bottlenecks. Here we explore the relationship between microbial ecology and information science in the era of cloud-based computation. We consider microorganisms as individual information processing units implementing a distributed metabolic algorithm and describe developments in ecoinformatics and ubiquitous computing with the potential to eliminate bottlenecks and empower knowledge creation and translation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  15. Giovanni - The Bridge Between Data and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Acker, James

    2017-01-01

    This article describes new features in the Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni), a user-friendly online tool that enables visualization, analysis, and assessment of NASA Earth science data sets without downloading data and software. Since the satellite era began, data collected from Earth-observing satellites have been widely used in research and applications; however, using satellite-based data sets can still be a challenge to many. To facilitate data access and evaluation, as well as scientific exploration and discovery, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) has developed Giovanni for a wide range of users around the world. This article describes the latest capabilities of Giovanni with examples, and discusses future plans for this innovative system.

  16. Ecological science and transformation to the sustainable city

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T.A. Pickett; Christopher G. Boone; Brian P. McGrath; M.L. Cadenasso; Daniel L. Childers; Laura A. Ogden; Melissa McHale; J. Morgan. Grove

    2013-01-01

    There is growing urgency to enhance the sustainability of existing and emerging cities. The science of ecology, especially as it interacts with disciplines in the social sciences and urban design, has contributions to make to the sustainable transformation of urban systems. Not all possible urban transformations may lead toward sustainability. Ecological science helps...

  17. Giovanni: The Bridge between Data and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Lynnes, Christopher; Kempler, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a web-based remote sensing and model data visualization and analysis system developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). This web-based tool facilitates data discovery, exploration and analysis of large amount of global and regional data sets, covering atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, oceanographic, and land surface. Data analysis functions include Lat-Lon map, time series, scatter plot, correlation map, difference, cross-section, vertical profile, and animation etc. Visualization options enable comparisons of multiple variables and easier refinement. Recently, new features have been developed, such as interactive scatter plots and maps. The performance is also being improved, in some cases by an order of magnitude for certain analysis functions with optimized software. We are working toward merging current Giovanni portals into a single omnibus portal with all variables in one (virtual) location to help users find a variable easily and enhance the intercomparison capability

  18. Microcognitive science: bridging experiential and neuronal microdynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire ePetitmengin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurophenomenology, as an attempt to combine and mutually enlighten neural and experiential descriptions of cognitive processes, has met practical difficulties which have limited its implementation into actual research projects. The main difficulty seems to be the disparity of the levels of description: while neurophenomenology strongly emphasizes the micro-dynamics of experience, at the level of brief mental events with very specific content, most neural measures have much coarser functional selectivity, because they mix functionally heterogeneous neural processes either in space or in time. We propose a new starting point for this neurophenomenology, based on a the recent development of human intra-cerebral EEG research to highlight the neural micro-dynamics of human cognition, with millimetric and millisecond precision and b a disciplined access to the experiential micro-dynamics, through specific elicitation techniques. This lays the foundation for a microcognitive science, the practical implementation of neurophenomenology to combine the neural and experiential investigations of human cognition at the subsecond level.

  19. Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative

  20. Science communication: Bridging the gap between theory and practise

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will be held at CERN on 1-3 Febraury 2001. Scientists and communication professionals will analyse the state of the art of science communication and the new perception people have about science in the media from newspapers to the Web.   Will communication be able to bridge the gap between Science and Society? What is the impact of science communication on the public? How do novel means of communications change the perception of science for the general public? These and other interesting questions will be addressed at the 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology Meeting, to be held at CERN on 1-3 February 2001. More than 250 people from all over the world are expected to attend the conference which will be an important meeting place for communication professionals covering the social, political, technical and cultural aspects of science and technology communication. Georges Boixader after Gary Larsson. The conferenc...

  1. Thermodynamics, ecology and evolutionary biology: A bridge over troubled water or common ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Keith R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper addresses a key issue confronting ecological and evolutionary biology, namely the challenge of a cohesive approach to these fields given significant differences in the concepts and foundations of their study. Yet these two areas of scientific research are paramount in terms addressing the spatial and temporal dynamics and distribution of diversity, an understanding of which is needed if we are to resolve the current crisis facing the biosphere. The importance of understanding how nature responds to change is now of essential rather than of metaphysical interest as our planet struggles with increasing anthropogenic damage. Ecology and evolutionary biology can no longer remain disjointed. While some progress has been made in terms of synthetic thinking across these areas, this has often been in terms of bridge building, where thinking in one aspect is extended over to the other side. We review these bridges and the success or otherwise of such efforts. This paper then suggests that in order to move from a descriptive to a mechanistic understanding of the biosphere, we may need to re-evaluate our approach to the studies of ecology and evolutionary biology, finding a common denominator that will enable us to address the critical issues facing us, particularly in terms of understanding what drives change, what determines tempo and how communities function. Common ground, we argue, is essential if we are to comprehend how resilience operates in the natural world and how diversification can counter increasing extinction rates. This paper suggests that thermodynamics may provide a bridge between ecology and evolutionary biology, and that this will enable us to move forward with otherwise intractable problems.

  2. A bridge between conceptual frameworks sciences, society and technology studies

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book analyzes scientific problems within the history of physics, engineering, chemistry, astronomy and medicine, correlated with technological applications in the social context. When and how is tension between disciplines explicitly practised? What is the conceptual bridge between science researches and the organization of technological researches in the development of  industrial applications?  The authors explain various ways in which the sciences allowed advanced modelling on the one hand, and the development of new technological ideas on the other hand. An emphasis on the role played by mechanisms, production methods and instruments bestows a benefit on historical and scientific discourse: theories, institutions, universities, schools for engineers, social implications as well.  Scholars from different traditions discuss the emerging style of thinking in methodology and, in theoretical perspective, aim to gather and re-evaluate the current thinking on this subject. It brings together contribution...

  3. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Bridging the Gap: The Role of Research in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Michael, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    Teaching in K-12 science classrooms across the country does not accurately model the real processes of science. To fill this gap, programs that integrate science education and research are imperative. Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) is a program sponsored and supported by many groups including NSF, the Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education (ESIE), and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). It places teachers in partnerships with research scientists conducting work in polar regions. TEA immerses K-12 teachers in the processes of scientific investigation and enables conveyance of the experience to the educational community and public at large. The TEA program paired me with Dr. Peter Michael from the University of Tulsa to participate in AMORE (Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition) 2001. This international mission, combining the efforts of the USCGC Healy and RV Polarstern, involved cutting-edge research along the geologically and geophysically unsampled submarine Gakkel Ridge. While in the field, I was involved with dredge operations, CTD casts, rock cataloging/ processing, and bathymetric mapping. While immersed in these aspects of research, daily journals documented the scientific research and human aspects of life and work on board the Healy. E-mail capabilities allowed the exchange of hundreds of questions, answers and comments over the course of our expedition. The audience included students, numerous K-12 teachers, research scientists, NSF personnel, strangers, and the press. The expedition interested and impacted hundreds of individuals as it was proceeding. The knowledge gained by science educators through research expeditions promotes an understanding of what research science is all about. It gives teachers a framework on which to build strong, well-prepared students with a greater awareness of the role and relevance of scientific research. Opportunities such as this provide valauble partnerships that bridge

  5. Ecoinformatics: supporting ecology as a data-intensive science

    OpenAIRE

    Michener, William H.; Jones, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Ecology is evolving rapidly and increasingly changing into a more open, accountable, interdisciplinary, collaborative and data-intensive science. Discovering, integrating and analyzing massive amounts of heterogeneous data are central to ecology as researchers address complex ques- tions at scales from the gene to the biosphere. Ecoinfor- matics offers tools and approaches for managing ecological data and transforming the data into informa- tion and knowledge. Here, we review the state-of-the...

  6. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  7. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  8. Bridging the gap between building science and design studios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Pal, Vineeta

    2002-02-06

    Design studios and building science courses have been conducted independent of each other, mainly due to a lack of tools that allow quick and easy consideration of building science criteria, such as comfort and energy requirements, during the design process. Existing tools are not user-friendly and their use requires significant effort in gaining familiarity with the input requirements, understanding the modeling assumptions and interpreting the output. This paper is about the Building Design Advisor (BDA), an evolving computer-based tool intended to bridge the gap between design studios and building science considerations by addressing the above-mentioned limitations of existing tools. BDA allows automatic preparation of input files to multiple simulation tools while the user is working in a CAD environment. BDA automatically activates the relevant simulation tools when the user selects performance parameters to be computed and provides the results in a graphical form, allowing comparison of multiple design options with respect to multiple performance criteria. The paper includes considerations for the use of the BDA in the design studio and ends with a description of the current development efforts and future plans.

  9. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  10. Linking Science and Society With an Environmental Information Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, L.; Seielstad, G.; Jones, D.; Peterson, J.

    2001-12-01

    Building learning communities to engage the public in identifying and solving local and regional environmental problems is the vision of the newly created Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment at the University of North Dakota. The Center serves as an Environmental Information Bridge between science and society for citizens of the region, providing information, data, and value-added remote sensing products to precision agriculture, sustainable forestry, Native American land managers, and K-lifetime educators. Guided by the needs of end users, the new Center is a prototype for a national infrastructure that meets ESE's objective to "expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal benefits from Earth science, information, and technology". The scientific community has been good at converting raw data into useful information. However, a serious communications gap exists between the communities of scientists and non-scientists. The new Center bridges this gap, creating a many-to-many exchange of information among those who learn first about the environment and those who will put those lessons to work for their economic welfare, the betterment of the quality of their lives, and the benefit of their descendants. A major outreach component of the Center, written and produced at UND, is Our Changing Planet, a public television series aimed at increasing viewers' awareness of environmental and climate change issues. Now carried by approximately 30 public television stations the series is distributed nationwide by the National Education Television Association. The Center has also recently established a partnership with StormCenter.com, LLC, a multimedia company and fellow partner in NASA's Federation of Earth Science Information Partners that uses leading-edge technology to deliver information about the environment to regional television stations. Service to the media provides a vital link between science and the public, as local weather

  11. Science For Sendai - Bridging the gap between research and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J.

    2015-12-01

    Disasters have an enormous cost in lives and livelihoods, but the use of rigorous evidence-based scientific approaches to minimise their impact remains poor. Vast amounts of science which could be readily applied for disaster risk reduction (DRR) is under-utilised, if used at all. Previous international agreements have failed to change this picture, but there is a clear call from the international community that the 2015 Sendai framework should make a difference; it is thus re-appraising how to bridge the chasm that exists between DRR relevant scientists and potential users of their research. There is widespread recognition of the need for risk affected countries and communities to engage in science-based decision-making, but several barriers, such as a lack of infrastructure or necessary skills, institutions, and enforcement of science-based policies require significant attention. There are now incentives for governments to respond: the framework has science embedded throughout and it sets-out national targets against which science uptake can be monitored; similarly, widening access to insurance also demands sound science. Advances such as open-data and models, increasing computational capacity, expanding networks, evolving diverse mobile technologies and the other multiple facets of the big data agenda, also should drive change. So, how does the scientific community need to adapt? Whilst vast amounts of 'DRR-relevant' science has been produced, too little of it can be readily used in DRR science. Much remains highly disciplinary and focused on analysis of limited distributions or single processes with a small number of agents; by contrast real-world DRR problems are commonly complex, with multiple drivers and uncertainties. There is a major need for a trans-disciplinary DRR-focused risk research agenda to evolve. Not only do research funders need to develop and resource risk research, but researchers themselves need to identify that focussing on the bigger risk

  12. Science as a Common Language in a Globalised World - Scientific Collaboration Promoting Progress, Building Bridges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2003-01-01

    International scientific collaboration and co-operation can accelerate the progress of science, help build bridges between diverse societies, and foster the development of science and technology in non-industrialised countries. This is possible because science is a common language (although the progress of science is often influenced by non-scientific factors). I shall describe examples of the role that scientific collaboration can play in bridge building and in conflict resolution. I shall then present a proposal for "Bridge Building Fellowships" which would contribute to strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries by helping to stem the brain drain and providing a basis for collaborations with scientists in industrialised countries.

  13. Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate to what extent bridges in Mozambique lead to transport cost reductions and attribute these reductions to key determinants, in particular road distance, road quality and crossing borders. For identification we exploit the introduction of a road bridge over the Zambezi river, in August

  14. Traceability and retrievability: Documentation, the bridge from science to compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this day of regulatory compliance, the fact that good science was practiced and documented is, in and of itself, not enough to assure a successful licensing or permitting result. A new level of documentation, that clearly walks a non-project reviewer through the traceability of all activities and decisions is required for successful acceptance of scientific results. Compliance reviewers (whether the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), etc.) expect to verify the results of the scientific and program activities without the physical presence of the person or persons that conducted the activity. Traceability of activities and associated decisions through the retrieval of all associated records is a must. This presentation is based on lessons learned from the various quality assurance (QA) audits and program reviews of Sandia National Laboratories, Nuclear Waste Management Programs Center, scientific and programmatic documentation. The authors build a bridge from science to compliance from lessons learned. Here now is a somewhat fictional rendition of actual scientific testing and compliance support activities

  15. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    The new science of genomics endeavors to chart the genomes of individuals around the world, with the dual goals of understanding the role genetic factors play in human health and solving problems of disease and disability. From the perspective of indigenous peoples and developing countries, the promises and perils of genomic science appear against a backdrop of global health disparity and political vulnerability. These conditions pose a dilemma for many communities when attempting to decide about participating in genomic research or any other biomedical research. Genomic research offers the possibility of improved technologies for managing the acute and chronic diseases that plague their members. Yet, the history of particularly biomedical research among people in indigenous and developing nations offers salient examples of unethical practice, misuse of data, and failed promises. This dilemma creates risks for communities who decide either to participate or not to participate in genomic science research. Some argue that the history of poor scientific practice justifies refusal to join genomic research projects. Others argue that disease poses such great threats to the well-being of people in indigenous communities and developing nations that not participating in genomic research risks irrevocable harm. Thus, some communities particularly among indigenous peoples have declined to participate as subjects in genomic research. At the same time, some communities have begun developing new guidelines, procedures, and practices for engaging with the scientific community that offer opportunities to bridge the gap between genomic science and indigenous and/or developing communities. Four new approaches warrant special attention and further support: consulting with local communities; negotiating the complexities of consent; training members of local communities in science and health care; and training scientists to work with indigenous communities. Implicit is a new

  16. Science: Conservation--Ecology. Bulletin No. 341.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Julius

    Presented in this course guide are seven units of study focusing on: (1) animal identification; (2) environmental testing; (3) ecological concepts; (4) wildlife abuse, depletion, and extinction; (5) water pollution; (6) air pollution; and (7) nuclear energy and the environment. Each unit includes a general objective, followed by specific…

  17. Bridging the Gap: A Research-Based Approach for Teaching Interdisciplinary Science to Undergraduate Freshman Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Liddle, Kathleen; Khanna, Nikki; Perrone, Lisa; Palmer, Katrina; Lynn, David

    2006-01-01

    A new program, On Recent Discoveries by Emory Researchers (ORDER), has been developed as a bridge across the ever-widening gap between graduate and undergraduate education in the sciences. This bridge is created by merging the needs of graduate/postdoctoral students to educate more interdisciplinary scholars about their research discoveries with…

  18. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  19. Despite phylogenetic effects, C3-C4 lineages bridge the ecological gap to C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Marjorie R; Christin, Pascal-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    C 4 photosynthesis is a physiological innovation involving several anatomical and biochemical components that emerged recurrently in flowering plants. This complex trait evolved via a series of physiological intermediates, broadly termed 'C 3 -C 4 ', which have been widely studied to understand C 4 origins. While this research program has focused on biochemistry, physiology, and anatomy, the ecology of these intermediates remains largely unexplored. Here, we use global occurrence data and local habitat descriptions to characterize the niches of multiple C 3 -C 4 lineages, as well as their close C 3 and C 4 relatives. While C 3 -C 4 taxa tend to occur in warm climates, their abiotic niches are spread along other dimensions, making it impossible to define a universal C 3 -C 4 niche. Phylogeny-based comparisons suggest that, despite shifts associated with photosynthetic types, the precipitation component of the C 3 -C 4 niche is particularly lineage specific, being highly correlated with that of closely related C 3 and C 4 taxa. Our large-scale analyses suggest that C 3 -C 4 lineages converged toward warm habitats, which may have facilitated the transition to C 4 photosynthesis, effectively bridging the ecological gap between C 3 and C 4 plants. The intermediates retained some precipitation aspects of their C 3 ancestors' habitat, and likely transmitted them to their C 4 descendants, contributing to the diversity among C 4 lineages seen today. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kuby; Lauren H. Kuby

    2004-01-01

    The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change...

  1. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  2. Science and ecological literacy in undergraduate field studies education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Kim J.

    There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.

  3. The diversity and evolution of ecological and environmental citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science-the involvement of volunteers in data collection, analysis and interpretation-simultaneously supports research and public engagement with science, and its profile is rapidly rising. Citizen science represents a diverse range of approaches, but until now this diversity has not been quantitatively explored. We conducted a systematic internet search and discovered 509 environmental and ecological citizen science projects. We scored each project for 32 attributes based on publicly obtainable information and used multiple factor analysis to summarise this variation to assess citizen science approaches. We found that projects varied according to their methodological approach from 'mass participation' (e.g. easy participation by anyone anywhere to 'systematic monitoring' (e.g. trained volunteers repeatedly sampling at specific locations. They also varied in complexity from approaches that are 'simple' to those that are 'elaborate' (e.g. provide lots of support to gather rich, detailed datasets. There was a separate cluster of entirely computer-based projects but, in general, we found that the range of citizen science projects in ecology and the environment showed continuous variation and cannot be neatly categorised into distinct types of activity. While the diversity of projects begun in each time period (pre 1990, 1990-99, 2000-09 and 2010-13 has not increased, we found that projects tended to have become increasingly different from each other as time progressed (possibly due to changing opportunities, including technological innovation. Most projects were still active so consequently we found that the overall diversity of active projects (available for participation increased as time progressed. Overall, understanding the landscape of citizen science in ecology and the environment (and its change over time is valuable because it informs the comparative evaluation of the 'success' of different citizen science approaches. Comparative

  4. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects.

  5. Ecoinformatics: supporting ecology as a data-intensive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, William K; Jones, Matthew B

    2012-02-01

    Ecology is evolving rapidly and increasingly changing into a more open, accountable, interdisciplinary, collaborative and data-intensive science. Discovering, integrating and analyzing massive amounts of heterogeneous data are central to ecology as researchers address complex questions at scales from the gene to the biosphere. Ecoinformatics offers tools and approaches for managing ecological data and transforming the data into information and knowledge. Here, we review the state-of-the-art and recent advances in ecoinformatics that can benefit ecologists and environmental scientists as they tackle increasingly challenging questions that require voluminous amounts of data across disciplines and scales of space and time. We also highlight the challenges and opportunities that remain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Taming wildlife disease: bridging the gap between science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Mihaljevic, Joseph R.; Arellano, Ana Lisette; Kueneman, Jordan G.; Cross, Paul C.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2013-01-01

    1.Parasites and pathogens of wildlife can threaten biodiversity, infect humans and domestic animals, and cause significant economic losses, providing incentives to manage wildlife diseases. Recent insights from disease ecology have helped transform our understanding of infectious disease dynamics and yielded new strategies to better manage wildlife diseases. Simultaneously, wildlife disease management (WDM) presents opportunities for large-scale empirical tests of disease ecology theory in diverse natural systems. 2.To assess whether the potential complementarity between WDM and disease ecology theory has been realized, we evaluate the extent to which specific concepts in disease ecology theory have been explicitly applied in peer-reviewed WDM literature. 3.While only half of WDM articles published in the past decade incorporated disease ecology theory, theory has been incorporated with increasing frequency over the past 40 years. Contrary to expectations, articles authored by academics were no more likely to apply disease ecology theory, but articles that explain unsuccessful management often do so in terms of theory. 4.Some theoretical concepts such as density-dependent transmission have been commonly applied, whereas emerging concepts such as pathogen evolutionary responses to management, biodiversity–disease relationships and within-host parasite interactions have not yet been fully integrated as management considerations. 5.Synthesis and applications. Theory-based disease management can meet the needs of both academics and managers by testing disease ecology theory and improving disease interventions. Theoretical concepts that have received limited attention to date in wildlife disease management could provide a basis for improving management and advancing disease ecology in the future.

  7. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  8. Ecological caring-Revisiting the original ideas of caring science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Helena; Ranheim, Albertine; Dahlberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this empirically grounded philosophical paper is to explore the notion of holistic care with the intention to expand it into a notion of ecological care and in such a way revisit the original ideas of caring science. The philosophical analysis, driven by lifeworld theory and especially Merleau-Ponty's philosophy, is firmly rooted in contemporary clinical care. We used interview data from patients in a study at an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden, which forms part of an ecological community with, for example, ecological agriculture. The empirical study is analysed according to reflective lifeworld research. Starting from the fact that illness can be defined as a loss of homelikeness in the body and in the familiar world, our findings illustrate how ecological care helps the patient to once again find one's place in a world that is characterized by interconnectedness. The task of ecological care is thus not only to see the patient within a world of relationships but to help the patient find his/her place again, to understand himself/herself and the world anew . Ecological care is not only about fighting an illness, but also recognizes a patient from inside a world that s/he is affected by and affects, that s/he is understood and understands from. Such care tries to restore this connection by making possible the rhythmical movement as well as the space in-between activity and rest, between being cared for and actively involving oneself in one's recovery and between closing oneself off from the world and once again going out into it.

  9. Ecological caring—Revisiting the original ideas of caring science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Dahlberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this empirically grounded philosophical paper is to explore the notion of holistic care with the intention to expand it into a notion of ecological care and in such a way revisit the original ideas of caring science. The philosophical analysis, driven by lifeworld theory and especially Merleau-Ponty's philosophy, is firmly rooted in contemporary clinical care. We used interview data from patients in a study at an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden, which forms part of an ecological community with, for example, ecological agriculture. The empirical study is analysed according to reflective lifeworld research. Starting from the fact that illness can be defined as a loss of homelikeness in the body and in the familiar world, our findings illustrate how ecological care helps the patient to once again find one's place in a world that is characterized by interconnectedness. The task of ecological care is thus not only to see the patient within a world of relationships but to help the patient find his/her place again, to understand himself/herself and the world anew. Ecological care is not only about fighting an illness, but also recognizes a patient from inside a world that s/he is affected by and affects, that s/he is understood and understands from. Such care tries to restore this connection by making possible the rhythmical movement as well as the space in-between activity and rest, between being cared for and actively involving oneself in one's recovery and between closing oneself off from the world and once again going out into it.

  10. Ecological caring—Revisiting the original ideas of caring science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Helena; Ranheim, Albertine; Dahlberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this empirically grounded philosophical paper is to explore the notion of holistic care with the intention to expand it into a notion of ecological care and in such a way revisit the original ideas of caring science. The philosophical analysis, driven by lifeworld theory and especially Merleau-Ponty's philosophy, is firmly rooted in contemporary clinical care. We used interview data from patients in a study at an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden, which forms part of an ecological community with, for example, ecological agriculture. The empirical study is analysed according to reflective lifeworld research. Starting from the fact that illness can be defined as a loss of homelikeness in the body and in the familiar world, our findings illustrate how ecological care helps the patient to once again find one's place in a world that is characterized by interconnectedness. The task of ecological care is thus not only to see the patient within a world of relationships but to help the patient find his/her place again, to understand himself/herself and the world anew. Ecological care is not only about fighting an illness, but also recognizes a patient from inside a world that s/he is affected by and affects, that s/he is understood and understands from. Such care tries to restore this connection by making possible the rhythmical movement as well as the space in-between activity and rest, between being cared for and actively involving oneself in one's recovery and between closing oneself off from the world and once again going out into it. PMID:27914196

  11. Collaborative learning to unlock investments for functional ecological infrastructure: Bridging barriers in social-ecological systems in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Angelstam, P

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Based on expert knowledge at three scales, we analysed South Africa's opportunity to active adaptive management and to unlock investments that enhance functional ecological infrastructure. Barriers included lack of trust among actors, limited...

  12. A Bridge Too Far: The Decline in Shared Science Activities during Primary-Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the use of "bridging units" in science to improve curriculum continuity during transition from primary to secondary school. Based on research evidence collected over several decades, it suggests that the use of these units rose to a peak around the time of the millennium, but that in recent years few schools have…

  13. Achieving conservation science that bridges the knowledge-action boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge-action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which

  14. Perceptions of Native Americans: Indigenous science and connections to ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellcourt, Mark Alan

    2005-11-01

    Indigenous peoples of Turtle Island (North America) have had a special connection to and understanding of Mother Earth and Father Sky, and a long tradition of respect for the earth's resources. Based on this connection, understanding and respect, they have developed and used their own scientific theories and methods, and have used sustainable environmental practices. However, the problem is that despite centuries of scientific environmental practice and knowledge, Indigenous wisdom is virtually absent from the dominant mainstream Western science curriculums, literature, and practice. The purpose of this study is to explore Indigenous wisdom and how it might be better integrated into science and ecology education programs which are currently taught almost exclusively from Western perspectives. This study addresses the following two research questions: (1) What are the worldviews of Native American and science? (2) How can these worldviews be brought into mainstream Western science? The study of Indigenous wisdom involves an exploration of the stories a population of people whose core beliefs can not be easily quantified. A qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and observations, have been selected for this study. The interviews and observations will be transcribed and the text will be reviewed and analyzed to find Indigenous worldviews and strategies for including these worldviews in current science curriculums.

  15. Science in Society: Bridging the gap to connect science to decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Bwarie, J.; Pearce, I.

    2016-12-01

    The gap between science and decision making in our society can be large and multi-faceted, involving communication, process, cultural and even subconscious differences. In sweeping generalization, scientists reject anecdotes, focus on uncertainty and details, and expect conflict as part of the scientific process, while non-scientists respond to stories, want certainty and the big picture, and see conflict as a reason to reject the message. Bridging this gap often requires ongoing collaboration to find the intersection of three independent domains: what science can provide, the technical information decision makers need to make the most effective choices and what information decision makers need to motivate action. For ten years, the USGS has experimented with improving the usefulness of its science through the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project and its predecessor, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California. Through leading and participating in these activities, we have recognized 3 steps that have been essential to successful partnerships between scientists and decision makers. First, determining what makes for a successful product cannot be done in isolation by either scientists or users. The users may want something science cannot produce (e.g., accurate short-term earthquake predictions), while the scientists can fail to see that the product they know how to make may not be relevant to the decisions that need to be made. Real discussions with real exchange and absorption of information on both sides makes for the most useful products. Second, most scientific results need work beyond what belongs in a journal to create a product that can be used. This is not just a different style of communication, but analyses that focus on the community's local questions rather than on scientific advances. Third, probabilities of natural hazards almost never motivate action to mitigate. The probabilities are usually low on human time

  16. Predicting phenology by integrating ecology, evolution and climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Kraft, Nathan J.B.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Betancourt, Julio L.; Cleland, Elsa E.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting how species and ecosystems will respond to climate change has been a major aim of ecology in recent years. Much of this research has focused on phenology — the timing of life-history events. Phenology has well-demonstrated links to climate, from genetic to landscape scales; yet our ability to explain and predict variation in phenology across species, habitats and time remains poor. Here, we outline how merging approaches from ecology, climate science and evolutionary biology can advance research on phenological responses to climate variability. Using insight into seasonal and interannual climate variability combined with niche theory and community phylogenetics, we develop a predictive approach for species' reponses to changing climate. Our approach predicts that species occupying higher latitudes or the early growing season should be most sensitive to climate and have the most phylogenetically conserved phenologies. We further predict that temperate species will respond to climate change by shifting in time, while tropical species will respond by shifting space, or by evolving. Although we focus here on plant phenology, our approach is broadly applicable to ecological research of plant responses to climate variability.

  17. A Bridge Too Far - Revisited: Reframing Bruer's Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared C; Donoghue, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different 'bridges' can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer's argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences.

  18. Activity and Action: Bridging Environmental Sciences and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Abramovitch, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the Environmental Workshop unit taught to Environmental Sciences majors in the high schools in Israel and learn if, and in what ways, this unit could become a model for environmental education throughout the high school curriculum. We studied the special characteristics of the Environmental Workshop (EW)…

  19. Language -- the barrier and the bridge between science and public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, T

    2001-08-01

    What does modern science tell people? That life is ultimately DNA, and DNA is genes, and genes are just so many bits of Lego, little building blocks manipulated by Nature for 3.8 thousand billion years, rather economically, so that much the same genes pop up in a nematode worm, a fruit fly, a lettuce, and a thriller writer. And that genes can be transferred from one species, or genus, or phylum, or even one kingdom to another. That is why there is unease, and newspapers reflect that unease, they do not create it. By helping people confront that unease, they probably help people come to terms with it. In the course of history, people have felt pretty uneasy about blood transfusion, heart transplants, test tube babies, and AIDS, and over the years, have calmed down considerably about each, to the advantage of both society and science. It will be the same for the human genome project, in a while.

  20. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) as a bridge between ecology and evolutionary genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Seth; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Duryea, M Catherine; Futahashi, Ryo; Hansson, Bengt; Lorenzo-Carballa, M Olalla; Schilder, Ruud; Stoks, Robby; Suvorov, Anton; Svensson, Erik I; Swaegers, Janne; Takahashi, Yuma; Watts, Phillip C; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) present an unparalleled insect model to integrate evolutionary genomics with ecology for the study of insect evolution. Key features of Odonata include their ancient phylogenetic position, extensive phenotypic and ecological diversity, several unique evolutionary innovations, ease of study in the wild and usefulness as bioindicators for freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this review, we synthesize studies on the evolution, ecology and physiology of odonates, highlighting those areas where the integration of ecology with genomics would yield significant insights into the evolutionary processes that would not be gained easily by working on other animal groups. We argue that the unique features of this group combined with their complex life cycle, flight behaviour, diversity in ecological niches and their sensitivity to anthropogenic change make odonates a promising and fruitful taxon for genomics focused research. Future areas of research that deserve increased attention are also briefly outlined.

  1. Achieving Conservation Science that Bridges the Knowledge–Action Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge–action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which

  2. Sampling in ecology and evolution - bridging the gap between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, C.H.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C.; Graham, C.H.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Thuiller, W.

    2010-01-01

    Sampling is a key issue for answering most ecological and evolutionary questions. The importance of developing a rigorous sampling design tailored to specific questions has already been discussed in the ecological and sampling literature and has provided useful tools and recommendations to sample and analyse ecological data. However, sampling issues are often difficult to overcome in ecological studies due to apparent inconsistencies between theory and practice, often leading to the implementation of simplified sampling designs that suffer from unknown biases. Moreover, we believe that classical sampling principles which are based on estimation of means and variances are insufficient to fully address many ecological questions that rely on estimating relationships between a response and a set of predictor variables over time and space. Our objective is thus to highlight the importance of selecting an appropriate sampling space and an appropriate sampling design. We also emphasize the importance of using prior knowledge of the study system to estimate models or complex parameters and thus better understand ecological patterns and processes generating these patterns. Using a semi-virtual simulation study as an illustration we reveal how the selection of the space (e.g. geographic, climatic), in which the sampling is designed, influences the patterns that can be ultimately detected. We also demonstrate the inefficiency of common sampling designs to reveal response curves between ecological variables and climatic gradients. Further, we show that response-surface methodology, which has rarely been used in ecology, is much more efficient than more traditional methods. Finally, we discuss the use of prior knowledge, simulation studies and model-based designs in defining appropriate sampling designs. We conclude by a call for development of methods to unbiasedly estimate nonlinear ecologically relevant parameters, in order to make inferences while fulfilling requirements of

  3. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present document describes key discussion points and outcomes of a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Workshop, entitled FutureTox III1,2 that was held in Crystal City, Virginia, November 19-20, 2015. The workshop built on the many lessons learned from the first 10 years of TT21 and the first two workshops in the FutureTox series (for summary of FutureTox II see (Knudsen et al., 2015); for summary of FutureTox I see (Rowlands et al., 2014)). FutureTox III was attended in person and via webcast by more than 300 scientists from government research and regulatory agencies, research institutes, academia, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Europe, Canada, and the United States. The meeting materials for FutureTox III, currently available to meeting registrants at http://www.toxicology.org/events/shm/cct/meetings.asp#upcoming-pnl-open, will be open to the public on November 29, 2016. At this workshop, participants reviewed and discussed the state of the science in toxicology and human risk and exposure assessment with a focus on moving TT21 science into the arena of regulatory decision-making. This manuscript describes the outcome of the FutureTox III 'contemporary concepts in toxicology' conference of the Society Toxicology, held November 2015 in Crystal City VA.

  4. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles

  5. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  6. Science and Society Bridging the Information Gap in Neuroscience

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    In the final Science and Society Colloquium of 2000, Professor Mark Ellisman of the University of California in San Diego will examine the ways that information technology is bringing about changes in the field of neuroscience. Professor Ellisman is Director of the US National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, and is involved in several projects that merge advanced computing and networking technologies with advanced forms of microscopy. These include the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored Human Brain Project that aims to fill the gap in our understanding of how low-level operations of individual neurons scale up to higher-level mental activity. In his talk, Professor Ellisman will describe the promise offered by advanced informatics. Parallel processing and distributed computing, for example, are allowing new advances in visualising and understanding 3-D neuronal structures, while progress in the field of remote access to highly specialized and expensive instruments - like high voltage ...

  7. Science in the city region: establishing Liverpool’s life science ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Anderton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of soft and hard infrastructures to support a life science ecology in a peripheral European city region. Liverpool City Region has received almost £1.7bn in capital investment through the EU Cohesion Policy to redevelop the city region and reinvigorate its economy towards knowledge based industries. The analysis of the city regions life science ecology highlights the uneven development of hard and soft infrastructures. Due to the diversity of firms within the region it has proven difficult to establish soft infrastructure related to scientific knowledge. The outcome has led to soft infrastructures being more business support orientated rather than scientific knowledge based, reducing inter-firm connections on a product or service basis. The evidence shows that not all types of soft infrastructure emerge as an outcome of investment. Hence, policy makers need to provide a clearer narrative on their investments, focusing on fewer core competencies rather than breadth of activities.

  8. A Module-Based Environmental Science Course for Teaching Ecology to Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Using module-based courses has been suggested to improve undergraduate science courses. A course based around a series of modules focused on major environmental issues might be an effective way to teach non-science majors about ecology and ecology's role in helping to solve environmental problems. I have used such a module-based environmental…

  9. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marc S; Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G; Lakind, Davielle

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children's mental health in response to a long-standing call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an overemphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children's healthy development and for utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation's mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies.

  10. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies — A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P. Y-H.; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  11. Redefining roles of science in planning and management: ecology as a planning and management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Mason; Stephen Murphy

    2002-01-01

    Science as a way of knowing has great value to decision-making but there is need to consider all its attributes and assess how science ought to be informing decision-making. Consideration of the critiques of science can make science stronger and more useful to decision-making in an environmental and ecological context. Scientists, planners, and managers need to...

  12. Establishing the Boundaries and Building Bridges: Research Methods Into the Ecology of the Refugee Parenting Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nombasa Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the suitability of the focus group method for conducting research early in post-resettlement among refugee parents and carers in South Australia. This method was employed to uncover the refugee parenting experience in pre-resettlement contexts. There were three refugee focus groups, consisting of a Sudanese women’s group, an African men’s group, and an Afghani and Iraqi women’s group. To illustrate each group’s differential parenting ecologies in milieus of forced migration ecological matrixes were devised which are presented in the results section. An ecological matrix was also developed to unpack, code and analyse transcripts. The matrix was designed to include categories and actions so as to construct meaning units and subsequent condensed meaning units to determine the concluding themes. These provided an analytical framework with which to illuminate the constructed meanings participants attributed to their refugee parenting experiences. The findings provide insights into the ecology of the refugee parenting experience and might be of considerable importance for Australian resettlement services and state systems of child protection seeking to develop culturally appropriate and relevant services.

  13. Barriers and Bridges to the Integration of Social-ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a fundamental rift between how ecologists and lawyers view uncertainty. In the study of ecology, uncertainty is a catalyst for exploration. However, uncertainty is antithetical to the rule of law. This issue is particularly troubling in environmental management, where th...

  14. Landscape ecology: what is the state of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner

    2005-01-01

    Landscape ecology focuses on the reciprocal interactions between spatial pattern and ecological processes, and it is well integrated with ecology. The field has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. The persistent influence of land-use history and natural disturbance on contemporary ecosystems has become apparent Development of pattern metrics has largely stabilized,...

  15. Questions as a tool for bridging science and everyday language games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown how students can shift between different ways of communicating about natural phenomena. The point of departure in this text is that school science comprises science ways to communicate as well as everyday ways to communicate. In school science activities transitions, from for example everyday ways to explain to science ways to explain, occur and the purpose of this paper is to show what role questions play in these transitions. Data consists of video observations of a group of 24 students, 15 years of age, doing their ordinary school science work without my interference in their planning. Relevant conversations including questions were transcribed. The analysis was made by examining the establishment of relations between utterances in the transcribed conversations. Relations that bridge science and everyday language games are described in the results. Questions that were formulated in an everyday language game illustrate the difficulties of making transitions to a science language game. Without teacher guidance, students' questions are potential promoters for making the topic drift and to develop into something totally different from the topic as planned by the teacher. However, questions promote transitions to an everyday language game. These can be used by teachers for example to adjust an everyday explanation and guide students in making science knowledge useful in daily life.

  16. The value of citizen science for ecological monitoring of mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Waldstein Parsons

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science approaches are of great interest for their potential to efficiently and sustainably monitor wildlife populations on both public and private lands. Here we present two studies that worked with volunteers to set camera traps for ecological surveys. The photographs recorded by these citizen scientists were archived and verified using the eMammal software platform, providing a professional grade, vouchered database of biodiversity records. Motivated by managers’ concern with perceived high bear activity, our first example enlisted the help of homeowners in a short-term study to compare black bear activity inside a National Historic Site with surrounding private land. We found similar levels of bear activity inside and outside the NHS, and regional comparisons suggest the bear population is typical. Participants benefited from knowing their local bear population was normal and managers refocused bear management given this new information. Our second example is a continuous survey of wildlife using the grounds of a nature education center that actively manages habitat to maintain a grassland prairie. Center staff incorporated the camera traps into educational programs, involving visitors with camera setup and picture review. Over two years and 5,968 camera-nights this survey has collected 41,393 detections of 14 wildlife species. Detection rates and occupancy were higher in open habitats compared to forest, suggesting that the maintenance of prairie habitat is beneficial to some species. Over 500 volunteers of all ages participated in this project over two years. Some of the greatest benefits have been to high school students, exemplified by a student with autism who increased his communication and comfort level with others through field work with the cameras. These examples show how, with the right tools, training and survey design protocols, citizen science can be used to answer a variety of applied management questions while

  17. Bridging food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry using ecological stoichiometry theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welti, Nina; Striebel, Maren; Ulseth, Amber J.

    2017-01-01

    process rates). ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency......, we propose that using ES to link nutrient cycling, trophic dynamics, and ecosystem metabolism would allow for a more holistic understanding of ecosystem functions in a changing environment....

  18. Animal minds and neuroimaging--bridging the gap between science and ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Tom

    2014-04-01

    As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics. By adopting this perspective, we can see how advances in neuroimaging regarding (1) research into the neurobiology of pain, (2) "brain reading," and (3) the minimally conscious state may enable us to identify properties that help bridge the gap between science and ethics, and hence help further the debate about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals.

  19. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA) | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city therefore acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compared with growing cities. Shrinking cities are well poised for transformations, because shrinking is perceived as a crisis and can mobilize the social capacity to change. Ecology is particularly well suited to contribute solutions because of the extent of vacant land in shrinking cities that can be leveraged for ecosystem-services provisioning. A crucial role of an ecology for the shrinking city is identifying innovative pathways that create locally desired amenities that provide ecosystem services and contribute to urban sustainability at multiple scales. This paper brings together the concepts of ecology for the city and shrinking cities – the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss. Ecology for the city is the application of social-ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compa

  20. Principles and methods of ecological information science in the solution of ecological problems of the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Kokoreva, L.V.; Reznichenko, V.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl' Atomic Power Plant has drawn attention to the ecological aspects of the development of the nuclear power industry. It has become clear that the stage of discussions of the importance of ecological problems and of the advisability of studying them further has passed. We now face the stage of carrying out specific tasks: the creation of regional and global monitoring systems; the collection and analysis of data on the effect of nuclear power on nature and humans; modeling and optimization of the strategy for developing the power industry with consideration for ecological aspects; ecological factoring in scientific and technical decisions related to atomic power plant design and siting; and so forth. Three main areas of application of ecological information science can be identified in the nuclear power industry: the creation of global data banks on the safety and reliability of enterprises involved in the nuclear fuel cycle; the development of standard tools for processing and analysis of ecological data; and the creation of tools to support decisions in the field of ecology. The authors' experience in working with information systems and various groups of untrained users (biologists, medical workers, ecologists, etc.) makes possible the conclusion that the most important requirement is a convenient interface that does not require a great deal of effort to master. In the systems discussed here, the authors used structured query languages and menus

  1. Models and Materials: Bridging Art and Science in the Secondary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D.; Cavazos, L.

    2006-12-01

    Creating and sustaining student engagement in science is one challenge facing secondary teachers. The visual arts provide an alternative means of communicating scientific concepts to students who may not respond to traditional formats or identify themselves as interested in science. We have initiated a three-year teacher professional development program at U C Santa Barbara focused on bridging art and science in secondary curricula, to engage students underrepresented in science majors, including girls, English language learners and non-traditional learners. The three-year format provides the teams of teachers with the time and resources necessary to create innovative learning experiences for students that will enhance their understanding of both art and science content. Models and Materials brings together ten secondary art and science teachers from six Santa Barbara County schools. Of the five participating science teachers, three teach Earth Science and two teach Life Science. Art and science teachers from each school are teamed and challenged with the task of creating integrated curriculum projects that bring visual art concepts to the science classroom and science concepts to the art classroom. Models and Materials were selected as unifying themes; understanding the concept of models, their development and limitations, is a prominent goal in the California State Science and Art Standards. Similarly, the relationship between composition, structure and properties of materials is important to both art and science learning. The program began with a 2-week institute designed to highlight the natural links between art and science through presentations and activities by both artists and scientists, to inspire teachers to develop new ways to present models in their classrooms, and for the teacher teams to brainstorm ideas for curriculum projects. During the current school year, teachers will begin to integrate science and art and the themes of modeling and materials

  2. Linking science and decision making to promote an ecology for the city: practices and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Grove; Daniel L. Childers; Michael Galvin; Sarah J. Hines; Tischa Munoz-Erickson; Erika S. Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    To promote urban sustainability and resilience, there is an increasing demand for actionable science that links science and decision making based on social–ecological knowledge. Approaches, frameworks, and practices for such actionable science are needed and have only begun to emerge. We propose that approaches based on the co- design and co- production of knowledge...

  3. Bridging Food Webs, Ecosystem Metabolism, and Biogeochemistry Using Ecological Stoichiometry Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Welti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research. Nonetheless, assessments of ecological stoichiometry (ES often focus on the elemental content of biota rather than taking a more holistic view by examining both elemental pools and fluxes (e.g., organismal stoichiometry and ecosystem process rates. ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency to connect food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry, as they are inherently concatenated by the transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous through biotic and abiotic nutrient transformation and fluxes. Several new studies exist that demonstrate the connections between food web ecology, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem metabolism. In addition to a general introduction into the topic, this paper presents examples of how these fields can be combined with a focus on ES. In this review, a series of concepts have guided the discussion: (1 changing biogeochemistry affects trophic interactions and ecosystem processes by altering the elemental ratios of key species and assemblages; (2 changing trophic dynamics influences the transformation and

  4. Bridging the gap between theoretical ecology and real ecosystems: modeling invertebrate community composition in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Nele; Reichert, Peter

    2013-02-01

    For the first time, we combine concepts of theoretical food web modeling, the metabolic theory of ecology, and ecological stoichiometry with the use of functional trait databases to predict the coexistence of invertebrate taxa in streams. We developed a mechanistic model that describes growth, death, and respiration of different taxa dependent on various environmental influence factors to estimate survival or extinction. Parameter and input uncertainty is propagated to model results. Such a model is needed to test our current quantitative understanding of ecosystem structure and function and to predict effects of anthropogenic impacts and restoration efforts. The model was tested using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from a catchment of the Swiss Plateau. Even without fitting model parameters, the model is able to represent key patterns of the coexistence structure of invertebrates at sites varying in external conditions (litter input, shading, water quality). This confirms the suitability of the model concept. More comprehensive testing and resulting model adaptations will further increase the predictive accuracy of the model.

  5. Art and artistic processes bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change: An empirical examination with Inuit artists from Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn J. Rathwell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of art and artistic processes is one fruitful yet underexplored area of social-ecological resilience. Art and art making can nurture Indigenous knowledge and at the same time bridge knowledge across generations and cultures (e.g., Inuit and scientific. Experiences in two Inuit communities in northern Canada (Cape Dorset and Pangnirtung, Nunavut provide the context in which we empirically examine the mechanisms through which art and art making may bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change. Art making and artworks create continuity between generations via symbols and skill development (e.g., seal skin stretching for a modern artistic mural and by creating mobile and adaptive boundary objects that function as a shared reference point to connect different social worlds. Our results indicate how art and artistic processes may bridge knowledge systems through six mechanisms, and in so doing contribute to social-ecological resilience during change and uncertainty. These mechanisms are (1 embedding knowledge, practice and belief into art objects; (2 sharing knowledge using the language of art; (3 sharing of art making skills; (4 art as a contributor to monitoring social-ecological change; (5 the role of art in fostering continuity through time; and (6 art as a site of knowledge coproduction.

  6. Spatio-temporal Urban Change Analysis and the Ecological Threats Concerning The Third Bridge in Istanbul City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, A.; Aliffi, S.; Sunar, F.

    2014-09-01

    Urban growth is a complex dynamical process associated with landscape change driving forces such as the environment, politics, geography and many others that affect the city at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Istanbul, one of the largest agglomerations in Europe and the fifth-largest city in the world in terms of population within city limits, has been growing very rapidly over the late 20th century at a rate of 3.45 %, causing to have many environmental issues. Recently, Istanbul's new third bridge and proposed new routes for across the Bosphorus are foreseen to not only threaten the ecology of the city, but also it will give a way to new areas for unplanned urbanization. The dimensions of this threat are affirmed by the urban sprawl especially after the construction of the second bridge and the connections such as Trans European Motorway (TEM). Since the spatial and temporal components of urbanization can be more simply identified through modeling, this study aims to analyze the urban change and assess the ecological threats in Istanbul city through the proper modeling for the year 2040. For this purpose, commonly used urban modeling approach, the Markov Chain within Cellular Automata (CA), was selected to simulate urban/non-urban growth process. CA is a simple and effective tool to capture and simulate the complexity of urban system dynamic. The key factor for a Markov is the transition probability matrix, which defines change trend from past to today and into the future for a certain class type, and land use suitability maps for urban. Multi Criteria Analysis was used to build these suitability maps. Distance from each pixel to the urban, road and water classes, plus the elevation, slope and land use maps (as excluded layer) were defined as factors. Calibration data were obtained from remotely sensed data recorded in 1972, 1986 and 2013. Validation was performed by overlaying the simulated and actual 2013 urban maps and Kappa Index of Agreement was

  7. An Instructional Design Using the Virtual Ecological Pond for Science Education in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Tsai, Wen-Shin; Lin, Yu-Si; Hsu, Chen-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Ecological ponds can be a good teaching tool for science teachers, but they must be built and maintained properly to provide students with a safe and suitable learning environment. However, many schools do not have the ability to build and maintain an ecological pond. This study used virtual reality technology to develop a web-based virtual…

  8. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge with western science for optimal natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been recognized within indigenous communities for millennia; however, traditional ecological knowledge has received growing attention within the western science (WS) paradigm over the past twenty-five years. Federal agencies, national organizations, and university programs dedicated to natural resource management are beginning...

  9. A guideline to improve qualitative social science publishing in ecology and conservation journals

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Moon; Tom D. Brewer; Stephanie R. Januchowski-Hartley; Vanessa M. Adams; Deborah A. Blackman

    2016-01-01

    A rise in qualitative social science manuscripts published in ecology and conservation journals speaks to the growing awareness of the importance of the human dimension in maintaining and improving Earth's ecosystems. Given the rise in the quantity of qualitative social science research published in ecology and conservation journals, it is worthwhile quantifying the extent to which this research is meeting established criteria for research design, conduct, and interpretation. Through a compre...

  10. Integrating Mathematics and Science: Ecology and Venn Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Eliza; Munakata, Mika; Evans, Jessica M.; Pizzigoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to integrate mathematics and science have been widely recognized by mathematics and science educators. However, successful integration of these two important school disciplines remains a challenge. In this article, a mathematics and science activity extends the use of Venn diagrams to a life science context and then circles back to a…

  11. Transforming Elementary Science Teacher Education by Bridging Formal and Informal Science Education in an Innovative Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; McGinnis, J. Randy; Hestness, Emily; Pease, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We investigated curricular and pedagogical innovations in an undergraduate science methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Maryland. The goals of the innovative elementary science methods course included: improving students' attitudes toward and views of science and science teaching, to model innovative science teaching…

  12. ROLE OF INTERNET - RESOURCES IN FORMING OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AT THE STUDY OF NATURAL SCIENCES SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Naumenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of internet resources application for forming of pupils ecological knowledge at the study of natural sciences subjects is considered. It is noticed, that distribution of ecological knowledge and development of ecological education became the near-term tasks of school education, taking into account a global ecological crisis. It is therefore important to use in school preparation all possibilities that allow to promote the level of ecological knowledge of students and to influence the same on forming of modern views in relation to environmental preservation. Considerable attention is given to advices for the teachers of natural sciences subjects in relation to methodology of the internet resources use at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory works and other forms of educational-searching activity of students.

  13. The science of ecological economics: a content analysis of Ecological Economics, 1989-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzadis, Valerie A; Castello, Leandro; Choi, Jaewon; Greenfield, Eric; Kim, Sung-kyun; Munsell, John; Nordman, Erik; Franco, Carol; Olowabi, Flavien

    2010-01-01

    The Ecological Economics journal is a primary source for inquiry on ecological economics and sustainability. To explore the scholarly pursuit of ecological economics, we conducted a content analysis of 200 randomly sampled research, survey, and methodological articles published in Ecological Economics during the 15-year period of 1989-2004. Results of the analysis were used to investigate facets of transdisciplinarity within the journal. A robust qualitative approach was used to gather and examine data to identify themes representing substantive content found within the span of sampled journal papers. The extent to which each theme was represented was counted as well as additional data, such as author discipline, year published, etc. Four main categories were revealed: (1) foundations (self-reflexive themes stemming from direct discussions about ecological economics); (2) human systems, represented by the themes of values, social indicators of well-being, intergenerational distribution, and equity; (3) biophysical systems, including themes, such as carrying capacity and scarcity, energy, and resource use, relating directly to the biophysical aspects of systems; and (4) policy and management encompassing themes of development, growth, trade, accounting, and valuation, as well as institutional structures and management. The results provide empirical evidence for discussing the future direction of ecological economic efforts.

  14. Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Ecological Science: a Question of Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gagnon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and challenges of integrating traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge have led to extensive discussions over the past decades, but much work is still needed to facilitate the articulation and co-application of these two types of knowledge. Through two case studies, we examined the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge by emphasizing their complementarity across spatial and temporal scales. We expected that combining Inuit traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge would expand the spatial and temporal scales of currently documented knowledge on the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus and the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica, two important tundra species. Using participatory approaches in Mittimatalik (also known as Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada, we documented traditional ecological knowledge about these species and found that, in fact, it did expand the spatial and temporal scales of current scientific knowledge for local arctic fox ecology. However, the benefits were not as apparent for snow goose ecology, probably because of the similar spatial and temporal observational scales of the two types of knowledge for this species. Comparing sources of knowledge at similar scales allowed us to gain confidence in our conclusions and to identify areas of disagreement that should be studied further. Emphasizing complementarities across scales was more powerful for generating new insights and hypotheses. We conclude that determining the scales of the observations that form the basis for traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge represents a critical step when evaluating the benefits of integrating these two types of knowledge. This is also critical when examining the congruence or contrast between the two types of knowledge for a given subject.

  15. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to "harmonize" the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  16. NITARP: Bridging the Gap Between the Traditional Science Classroom and Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnaker, Olivia K.; Evans, Sam; Rutherford, Thomas; Taylor, John; Rebull, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    In this poster, the differences between what occurs in the traditional secondary science classroom and what happens in the actual research world is examined. Secondary classroom teachers generally have limited, if any, research experience beyond what is presented through their undergraduate college lab coursework. A disparity exists between classroom laboratory work and professional research. Opportunities like NITARP provide research elements that bridge this gap. NITARP teams are in a unique situation, joining a small team working alongside Caltech researchers on cutting edge investigations in astrophysics. In this poster it is shown how the NITARP program provides key components and experiences to expand the skill sets that teachers bring to their classrooms, bridging the gap between the typical secondary classroom and the world of the professional researcher. The NASA/IPAC program immerses participating teachers into a year-long training experience via online and face-to-face learning that translates into enhanced instruction at the secondary level. This work was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  17. Case Studies in Exercise and Sport Sciences: A Powerful Tool to Bridge the Science-Practice Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel

    2018-03-27

    Despite the progress made by the scientific exercise community in collaborating and communicating with non-scientist coaches, there is room for improvement. Coaches find research difficult to understand, feel that their interests are not being addressed by exercise research, and rely on peer-discussion to further their coaching knowledge base while consuming little peer-reviewed articles. One useful strategy to bridge the science-practice gap is with case-studies. In addition to furthering our understanding of the physiology, psychology, and training schedules of elite athletes, case studies can serve 1) as a useful communication channel with coaches if presented as narratives and 2) to establish and strengthen relationships between scientists and coaches leading to fruitful research collaborations. The purpose of this invited commentary is to discuss these two less-recognized benefits of case-studies, and propose a way to incorporate case-studies more frequently alongside group-based studies.

  18. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  19. Supra-amphiphiles: a new bridge between colloidal science and supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuetong; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xi

    2014-06-03

    In addition to conventional amphiphiles, an emerging research area is supra-amphiphiles, which are constructed on the basis of noncovalent interactions and dynamic covalent bonds. In this feature article, we have provided a general introduction to the concept, design principles, and topologies of supra-amphiphiles, starting from some rationally tailored building blocks. In addition, we highlight some progress in the functional assembly of supra-amphiphiles, such as responsive nanoscale carriers, antibacterial and antitumor agents, fluorescent-based chemical sensors, and enzyme mimics. The supra-amphiphile is a new bridge between colloidal science and supramolecular chemistry, and it is a field where we can make full use of our imaginative power.

  20. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Dog population and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    of dog movements constitute a great public health risk to human populations in terms of dog bites and rabies outbreaks. Keywords: Dog, Ecology, Nigeria, Rabies, Vaccination. Introduction. Dog population dynamics have major impacts on the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. An understanding of the domestic dog ...

  1. Explorations of ecological autarkey in art, design and science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigten, Anne; van Dartel, Michel

    2013-01-01

    While the notion of autarky is often contested in terms of feasibility and desirability, art and design projects that deal with autarky seem to highlight the positive socio-cultural and ecological effects of autarkic living. This paper will discuss three notable media artworks that highlight these

  2. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  3. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views of the Ecological Footprint: The Starting-Points of Sustainable Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Ozgul; Aydogdu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pre-service science teachers' opinions about the concept of the ecological footprint were investigated before and after activities about sustainable life and their ecological footprints were calculated. A total of 49 pre-service science teachers (31 male, 18 female) who attend third class in the science education department…

  4. Useful and Usable Climate Science: Frameworks for Bridging the Social and Physical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buja, L.

    2016-12-01

    Society is transforming the Earth's system in unprecedented ways, often with significant variations across space and time. In turn, the impacts of climate change on the human system vary dramatically due to differences in cultural, socioeconomic, institutional, and physical processes at the local level. The Climate Science and Applications Program (CSAP) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder Colorado addresses societal vulnerability, impacts and adaptation to climate change through the development of frameworks and methods for analyzing current and future vulnerability, and integrated analyses of climate impacts and adaptation at local, regional and global scales. CSAP relies heavily on GIS-based scientific data and knowledge systems to bridge social and physical science approaches in its five focus areas: Governance of inter-linked natural and managed resource systems. The role of urban areas in driving emissions of climate change Weather, climate and global human health, GIS-based science data & knowledge systems. Regional Climate Science and Services for Adaptation Advanced methodologies and frameworks for assessing current and future risks to environmental hazards through the integration of physical and social science models, research results, and remote sensing data are presented in the context of recent national and international projects on climate change and food/water security, urban carbon emissions, metropolitan extreme heat and global health. In addition, innovative CSAP international capacity building programs teaching interdisciplinary approaches for using geospatial technologies to integrate multi-scale spatial information of weather, climate change into important sectors such as disaster reduction, agriculture, tourism and society for decision-making are discussed.

  5. Forest Science and forest policy in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East: Building Bridges to a sustainable future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Guldin; Niels Elers Koch; John A. Parrotta; Christian Gamborg; Bo J. Thorsen

    2004-01-01

    Making forest policies that help bridge from the current situation to a sustainable future requires sound scientific information. Too often, scientific information is available, yet policy makers do not use it. At a workshop in Denmark, attendees reviewed case studies where forest science influenced forest policies and identified six major reasons for success. Three...

  6. Ecological Forecasting in the Applied Sciences Program and Input to the Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Ecological forecasting uses knowledge of physics, ecology and physiology to predict how ecosystems will change in the future in response to environmental factors. Further, Ecological Forecasting employs observations and models to predict the effects of environmental change on ecosystems. In doing so, it applies information from the physical, biological, and social sciences and promotes a scientific synthesis across the domains of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and psychology. The goal is reliable forecasts that allow decision makers access to science-based tools in order to project changes in living systems. The next decadal survey will direct the development Earth Observation sensors and satellites for the next ten years. It is important that these new sensors and satellites address the requirements for ecosystem models, imagery, and other data for resource management. This presentation will give examples of these model inputs and some resources needed for NASA to continue effective Ecological Forecasting.

  7. "What we need is a crop ecologist": ecology and agricultural science in Progressive-era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    Though they are often seen as foils for each other, ecology and agricultural science co-evolved. With shared roots in late nineteenth-century botany, ecologists and agronomists fostered important connections during the Progressive era that have been largely overlooked despite a number of finely nuanced studies of ecology's origins. But if 'applied ecology' once effectively meant agriculture, over the course of the first decades of the twentieth century the relationship between ecology and scientific agriculture grew strained. Agriculturists narrowed their focus to increasing yields, and ecologists sought to establish their discipline as a distant theoretical science and so distanced themselves from its agricultural applications. By the end of World War I, the process of disciplinary specialization was well underway. In time, the two disciplines diverged so completely that the once vital connections between them were obscured and forgotten.

  8. Connecting Social Networks with Ecosystem Services for Watershed Governance: a Social-Ecological Network Perspective Highlights the Critical Role of Bridging Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn J. Rathwell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many densely settled agricultural watersheds, water quality is a point of conflict between amenity and agricultural activities because of the varied demands and impacts on shared water resources. Successful governance of these watersheds requires coordination among different activities. Recent research has highlighted the role that social networks between management entities can play to facilitate cross-scale interaction in watershed governance. For example, bridging organizations can be positioned in social networks to bridge local initiatives done by single municipalities across whole watersheds. To better understand the role of social networks in social-ecological system dynamics, we combine a social network analysis of the water quality management networks held by local governments with a social-ecological analysis of variation in water management and ecosystem services across the Montérégie, an agricultural landscape near Montréal, Québec, Canada. We analyze municipal water management networks by using one-mode networks to represent direct collaboration between municipalities, and two-mode networks to capture how bridging organizations indirectly connect municipalities. We find that municipalities do not collaborate directly with one another but instead are connected via bridging organizations that span the water quality management network. We also discovered that more connected municipalities engaged in more water management activities. However, bridging organizations preferentially connected with municipalities that used more tourism related ecosystem services rather than those that used more agricultural ecosystem services. Many agricultural municipalities were relatively isolated, despite being the main producers of water quality problems. In combination, these findings suggest that further strengthening the water management network in the Montérégie will contribute to improving water quality in the region. However, such

  9. Biological and ecological science for Florida—The Sunshine State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-08-30

    Florida is rich in sunshine and other natural resources essential to the State's economy. More than 100 million tourists visit Florida's beaches, wetlands, forests, oceans, lakes, and streams where they generate billions of dollars and sustain more than a million jobs. Florida also provides habitat for several thousand freshwater and marine fish, mammals, birds, and other wildlife that are viewed, hunted, or fished, or that provide valuable ecological services. Fertile soils and freshwater supplies support agriculture and forest industries and generate more than $8 billion of revenue annually and sustain thousands of jobs.

  10. The Role of Bridging Organizations in Enhancing Ecosystem Services and Facilitating Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptive management is an approach for monitoring the response of ecological systems to different policies and practices and attempts to reduce the inherent uncertainty in ecological systems via system monitoring and iterative decision making and experimentation (Holling 1978). M...

  11. The DataBridge: A System For Optimizing The Use Of Dark Data From The Long Tail Of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, H.; Rajasekar, A.

    2015-12-01

    The DataBridge is a National Science Foundation funded collaborative project (OCI-1247652, OCI-1247602, OCI-1247663) designed to assist in the discovery of dark data sets from the long tail of science. The DataBridge aims to to build queryable communities of datasets using sociometric network analysis. This approach is being tested to evaluate the ability to leverage various forms of metadata to facilitate discovery of new knowledge. Each dataset in the Databridge has an associated name space used as a first level partitioning. In addition to testing known algorithms for SNA community building, the DataBridge project has built a message-based platform that allows users to provide their own algorithms for each of the stages in the community building process. The stages are: Signature Generation (SG): An SG algorithm creates a metadata signature for a dataset. Signature algorithms might use text metadata provided by the dataset creator or derive metadata. Relevance Algorithm (RA): An RA compares a pair of datasets and produces a similarity value between 0 and 1 for the two datasets. Sociometric Network Analysis (SNA): The SNA will operate on a similarity matrix produced by an RA to partition all of the datasets in the name space into a set of clusters. These clusters represent communities of closely related datasets. The DataBridge also includes a web application that produces a visual representation of the clustering. Future work includes a more complete application that will allow different types of searching of the network of datasets. The DataBridge approach is relevant to geoscience research and informatics. In this presentation we will outline the project, illustrate the deployment of the approach, and discuss other potential applications and next steps for the research such as applying this approach to models. In addition we will explore the relevance of DataBridge to other geoscience projects such as various EarthCube Building Blocks and DIBBS projects.

  12. Bridging the gap between science and policy: an international survey of scientists and policy makers in China and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui; Zhang, Li R; Zhu, Yao; Pak, Anita W P; Chen, Yue; Little, Julian

    2016-02-06

    Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the health sector in China and Canada. The sampling frame comprised of universities with schools of public health and medicine and various levels of government in health and public health. Participants included university presidents and professors, and government deputy ministers, directors general and directors working in the health field. Fourteen strategies were presented to the participants for ranking as current ways and ideal ways in the future to bridge the gap between science and policy. Over a 3-month survey period, there were 121 participants in China and 86 in Canada with response rates of 30.0 and 15.9 %, respectively. The top strategies selected by respondents included focus on policy (conducting research that focuses on policy questions), science-policy forums, and policy briefs, both as current ways and ideal ways to bridge the gap between science and policy. Conferences were considered a priority strategy as a current way, but not an ideal way in the future. Canadian participants were more in favor of using information technology (web-based portals and email updates) than their Chinese counterparts. Among Canadian participants, two strategies that were ranked low as current ways (collaboration in study design and collaboration in analysis) became a priority as ideal ways. This could signal a change in thinking in shifting the focus from the "back end" or "downstream" (knowledge dissemination) of the knowledge transfer process to the "front end" or "upstream" (knowledge generation). Our international study has confirmed a number of previously reported priority strategies to bridge the gap between science and policy. More importantly, our

  13. Putting humans in ecology: consistency in science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Larry; Fowler, Charles W

    2008-03-01

    Normal and abnormal levels of human participation in ecosystems can be revealed through the use of macro-ecological patterns. Such patterns also provide consistent and objective guidance that will lead to achieving and maintaining ecosystem health and sustainability. This paper focuses on the consistency of this type of guidance and management. Such management, in sharp contrast to current management practices, ensures that our actions as individuals, institutions, political groups, societies, and as a species are applied consistently across all temporal, spatial, and organizational scales. This approach supplants management of today, where inconsistency results from debate, politics, and legal and religious polarity. Consistency is achieved when human endeavors are guided by natural patterns. Pattern-based management meets long-standing demands for enlightened management that requires humans to participate in complex systems in consistent and sustainable ways.

  14. [Reciprocal material agency: an ecology for studies of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carlos Alvarez

    2017-01-01

    In the historiography of the sciences there are consolidated dichotomies that can hinder better research. Fissures include mental-material, subject-object and nature-society, and the bitter conflict between relativism and realism that draws on these dichotomies and can block research. The aim of this article is to tackle these disputes, to unravel them and to move on. The proposed solution is to give consideration to the agency of material things alongside the actions of human subjects. One obstacle is presented by Latour who simulates this result by means of hylozoistic rhetoric. Here, an alternative to Latour is presented, containing no elements of animism, which gives evidence of the concrete way in which the material agency of objects participates in the doing of science, alongside humans.

  15. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  16. Sustainability science: accounting for nonlinear dynamics in policy and social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. Understanding resilience is critical for sustainability science, as linked social-ecological systems and the policy process that governs them are characterized by non-linear dynamics. Non-linear dynamics in these systems mean...

  17. Keeping the local local : recalibrating the status of science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van M.W.; Roth, W.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The debate on the status of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in science curricula is currently centered on a juxtaposition of two incompatible frameworks: multiculturalism and universalism. The aim of this paper is to establish a framework that overcomes this opposition between

  18. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  19. Science You Can Use Bulletin: Wildfire triage: Targeting mitigation based on social, economic, and ecological values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl Malcolm; Matthew Thompson; Dave Calkin; Mark Finney; Alan Ager

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the risks of wildfire relative to the valuable resources found in any managed landscape requires an interdisciplinary approach. Researchers at the Rocky Mountain Research Station and Western Wildland Threat Assessment Center developed such a process, using a combination of techniques rooted in fire modeling and ecology, economics, decision sciences, and the...

  20. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalusche, D.

    1978-01-01

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  2. Translating Knowledge: The role of Shared Learning in Bridging the Science-Application Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, M.

    2014-12-01

    As the organizers of this session state: "Understanding and managing our future relation with the Earth requires research and knowledge spanning diverse fields, and integrated, societally-relevant science that is geared toward solutions." In most cases, however, integration is weak and scientific outputs do not match decision maker requirements. As a result, while scientific results may be highly relevant to society that relevance is operationally far from clear. This paper explores the use of shared learning processes to bridge the gap between the evolving body of scientific information on climate change and its relevance for resilience planning in cities across Asia. Examples related to understanding uncertainty, the evolution of scientific knowledge from different sources, and data extraction and presentation are given using experiences generated over five years of work as part of the Rockefeller Foundation supported Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network and other programs. Results suggest that processes supporting effective translation of knowledge between different sources and different applications are essential for the identification of solutions that respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in global change processes.

  3. Building the Bridge to Help Engage your Audience to your Science and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K.

    2014-12-01

    When we talk about NASA and how NASA is contributing to societal benefits, such as education, what do we really mean? How do we know that we are doing something right? And how do we know that we are making a difference? With just over a dozen NASA Earth remote sensing missions flying, NASA is providing remote sensing data on a daily basis, where the data and information can contribute to the relevancy of science in our daily lives and bring perspective to common knowledge. To date, we are seeing a widening gap in the general awareness and understanding of the basic science and concepts among the formal and informal audiences. At a time when we are discovering and understanding more about our home planet, using cutting edge technologies that should inspire people, we have also discovered that we have estranged a generation of potentital users. The reality is that NASA data is being used by a relatively small group of people and they are nearly all scientists. Even when we "collaborate" with other federal agencies or universities, the actual work and impact remains on a scale that is only statistically significant. This is a far cry from being socially significant. There are key factors that are essential for success in communicating and working with both the technical and less technical audiences; they are the foundation to bridging the audience gaps and ultimately, truly engaging them. We need to show that the content is important and meaningful in our everyday lives by appealing to the audiences' sensibilities, packaging the content in a format that will be used by the audience, and we need to encourage and support people to create and innovate with this data and information. When you come right down to it, NASA is still the only agency that is continually putting up the new technologies, enabling and maintaining that crucial data flow, and supporting the umbilical cord of global data sets to the science community world-wide. But times have changed. It is not

  4. [Social cognition of schizophrenia: bridging gap between brain science and psychosocial intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Ikezawa, Satoru; Miura, Sachie; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hidai, Shin-Ichi; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    The concept and assessment tools for social cognition of schizophrenia were reviewed in order to bridge the gap between brain cognitive science and psycho-social intervention. Social cognition as well as neuro-cognition strongly influences social functioning, and the impact of neuro-cognition is mediated by social cognition. Neuronal networks of personal identification, facial perception, emotional identification, eye contact, "theory of mind", mutual communication, and the decision-making process have been clarified recently. The results of face discrimination and emotion recognition tasks show impairment in persons with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls, especially fear, dislike, and sad recognition tasks. It might be difficult for them to link ambiguous stimuli with specific emotions, and they have a tendency to recognize uncomfortable emotions easily. "Jumping to conclusions" tendency (JTC) was identified in previous research on delusion. JTC develops from information uptake bias and confidence bias, and they might be thought to be trait and state. Social problem-solving is the skill to use social cognition to comprehensively adjust to specific social situations, and processing skills of social problem-solving are related to divergent thinking. Rating scales and the results of previous studies on emotion recognition, social perception, attribution style, and "theory of mind" were summarized. Furthermore, psycho-social interventions to improve emotion recognition directly, JTC, and divergent thinking were reported. Interventions aiming at improving social cognition or meta-cognition directly have been recently developed, which might improve some components of social functioning that used to be difficult to improve. These concepts of social cognition and researches on brain science, assessment tools, and intervention methods would clarify the mechanisms of the effects of psycho-social interventions, improve their methodology, and help to develop new

  5. Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, J. William

    1998-09-01

    This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental

  6. A Bridge Too Far – Revisited: Reframing Bruer’s Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different ‘bridges’ can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer’s argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences. PMID:27014173

  7. A Bridge Too Far – Revisited: Reframing Bruer’s Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge may someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least 4 different ‘bridges’ can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer’s argument is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences.

  8. Under niche construction: an operational bridge between ecology, evolution, and ecosystem science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.; De Meester, L.; Jones, C.G.; Ibelings, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Nuutinen, V.; van de Koppel, J.; Odling-Smee, J.

    2014-01-01

    All living organisms modify their biotic and abiotic environment. Niche construction theory posits that organism-mediated modifications to the environment can change selection pressures and influence the evolutionary trajectories of natural populations. While there is broad support for this

  9. Decision Making Under Uncertainty - Bridging the Gap Between End User Needs and Science Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A.; Austin, E. K.

    2012-12-01

    broker' would be to package, translate (both from end user to scientist and scientist to end user) and transform climate information. Importantly communication of uncertainty needs to be improved so that end users are aware of all the caveats and what can realistically be expected from climate science now and in the near future. Overall this study confirmed that there is indeed a 'gap' between end user's needs and science capability, particularly with respect to uncertainty, communication and packaging of climate information. This 'gap' has been a barrier to successful climate change adaptation in the past. While it is unrealistic to think we could ever close the 'gap' completely, based on the recommendations provided in this paper, it may be possible to bridge the 'gap' (or at least improve people's awareness of the 'gap'). Furthermore, the insights gained and recommendations provided from this study, while based on an Australian context, are likely to be applicable to many other regions of the world, grappling with similar issues.

  10. Conference Proceedings: Seed Ecology III - The Third International Society for Seed Science Meeting on Seeds and the Environment - "Seeds and Change"; June 20-June 24, 2010; Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary Pendleton; Susan Meyer; Bitsy Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Seed Ecology III was held in Salt Lake City, Utah in June 2010, sharing the latest research on all aspects of seed ecology. Our meeting was organized around the theme "Seeds and Change." We welcomed contributions in any area of seed ecology. Our agenda also aimed to create bridges between seed ecology and plant conservation, restoration ecology, and global...

  11. A guideline to improve qualitative social science publishing in ecology and conservation journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A rise in qualitative social science manuscripts published in ecology and conservation journals speaks to the growing awareness of the importance of the human dimension in maintaining and improving Earth's ecosystems. Given the rise in the quantity of qualitative social science research published in ecology and conservation journals, it is worthwhile quantifying the extent to which this research is meeting established criteria for research design, conduct, and interpretation. Through a comprehensive review of this literature, we aimed to gather and assess data on the nature and extent of information presented on research design published qualitative research articles, which could be used to judge research quality. Our review was based on 146 studies from across nine ecology and conservation journals. We reviewed and summarized elements of quality that could be used by reviewers and readers to evaluate qualitative research (dependability, credibility, confirmability, and transferability; assessed the prevalence of these elements in research published in ecology and conservation journals; and explored the implications of sound qualitative research reporting for applying research findings. We found that dependability and credibility were reasonably well reported, albeit poorly evolved in relation to critical aspects of qualitative social science such as methodology and triangulation, including reflexivity. Confirmability was, on average, inadequately accounted for, particularly with respect to researchers' ontology, epistemology, or philosophical perspective and their choice of methodology. Transferability was often poorly developed in terms of triangulation methods and the suitability of the sample for answering the research question/s. Based on these findings, we provide a guideline that may be used to evaluate qualitative research presented in ecology and conservation journals to help secure the role of qualitative research and its application

  12. The Business of Co-Production: Assessing Efforts to Bridge Science and Decision-Making for Adaptation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, S.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    The last decades have seen scholars argue for a greater integration of science and decision-making in order to more effectively respond to climate change. It has been suggested that overcoming the gap between science, on the one hand, and policy-making and management, on the other, requires building bridges through methods of co-production, creating actionable science, or through boundary organizations. In this paper, we review attempts at co-production for policy-making and management in the context of climate change adaptation in California. Building on field research, including numerous interviews conducted with scientists and decision-makers who are co-producers of adaptation projects, we make three arguments. First, we show that an emphasis on co-production and science-informed climate change adaptation decision-making has bolstered a contract-oriented, and decentralized network-based model of producing climate science. Second, reviewing successes and failures in co-production - as reported in interviews - indicates that it is principally in cases of neatly defined, and spatially and temporarily narrow decision-making contexts, and with highly motivated decision-makers, that climate science is used. Finally, we suggest that the ideas of co-production and actionable science may have increased the institutional and organizational burden at the science-decision interface, lengthening the boundary-organization-chain rather than necessarily facilitating adaptive policy-making and management.

  13. The Bridge: Experiments in Science and Art, Experiences from the 2017 SciArt Center Cross-Disciplinary Residency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Chalmers, R.; Buntaine, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cross-disciplinary programs create the opportunity to explore new realms for scientists and artists alike. Through the collaborative process, artistic insights enable innovative approaches to emotionally connect to and visualize the world around us. Likewise, engagement across the art-science spectrum can lead to shifts in scientific thinking that create new connections in data and drive discoveries in research. The SciArt Center "The Bridge Residency Program" is a four-month long virtual residency open internationally for professionals in the arts and sciences to facilitate cross-disciplinary work and to bring together like-minded participants. The SciArt Center provides a virtual space to record and showcase the process and products of each collaboration. The work is facilitated with biweekly Skype calls and documented with weekly blog posts. Residents create either digital or physical products and share via video, images, or direct mailing with their collaborators. Past projects have produced call and response discussion, websites, skills and conference presentations, science-art studies, virtual exhibits, art shows, dance performances, and research exchange. Here we present the creative process and outcomes of one of the four collaborative teams selected for the 2017 residency. Jill Shipman, a Ph.D. Candidate in Volcanology who is also active in filmmaking and theatrical productions and Rosemary Chalmers, a UK-based lecturer, concept artist, and illustrator with a specialty in creature design. They were paired together for their shared interest in storytelling, illustration, and unique geological and environmental habitats and the life that occupies them. We will discuss the collaborative project developed by this team during their recent residency and illustrate how a virtual program can bridge the distance between geographical location to foster science and art collaboration. To follow the progress of the residency please visit: http://www.sciartcenter.org/the-bridge.html

  14. Global Chance and nuclear energy. Ecology, environment and media. Science, progress and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A first set of contributions discusses the outcomes of the French electronuclear programme and the place of Superphenix in the plutonium management. The second set of contributions proposes comments and critics on three books about the environment (more particularly about the new ecological order, about the greenhouse effect as a world manipulation, and about the limits of scientific expertise on climate). The last article proposes a synthesis of a meeting about the relationship between science, progress and development

  15. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novich, C.M. (ed.)

    1985-02-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) the terrestrial ecology of semi-arid sites; (2) marine sciences; (3) radionuclide fate and effects; (4) waste mobilization, fate and effects; and (5) theoretical research on environmental sampling. (ACR)

  17. The relationship between environmental advocacy, values, and science: a survey of ecological scientists' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Derek S; Reiners, William A; Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    This article reports the results ofa survey of 1215 nonstudent Ecological Society of America (ESA) members. The results pertain to three series of questions designed to assess ecologists' engagement in various advocacy activities, as well as attitudes on the relationship between environmental advocacy, values, and science. We also analyzed the effects of age, gender, and employment categories on responses. While many findings are reported, we highlight six here. First, ecologists in our sample do not report particularly high levels of engagement in advocacy activities. Second, ecologists are not an ideologically unified group. Indeed, there are cases of significant disagreement among ecologists regarding advocacy, values, and science. Third, despite some disagreement, ecologists generally believe that values consistent with environmental advocacy are more consonant with ecological pursuits than values based on environmental skepticism. Fourth, compared to males, female ecologists tend to be more supportive of advocacy and less convinced that environmentally oriented values perturb the pursuit of science. Fifth, somewhat paradoxically, ecologists in higher age brackets indicate higher engagement in advocacy activities as well as a higher desire for scientific objectivity. Sixth, compared to ecologists in other employment categories, those in government prefer a greater separation between science and the influences of environmental advocacy and values.

  18. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  20. Marine Sciences: from natural history to ecology and back, on Darwin's shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Boero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalist Charles Darwin founded modern ecology, considering in a single conceptual framework the manifold aspects regarding the organization of life at various levels of complexity and its relationship with the physical world. The development of powerful analytical tools led to abandon Darwin's natural history and to transform naturalists, as Darwin labelled himself, into the practitioners of more focused disciplines, aimed at tackling specific problems that considered the various aspects of the organization of life in great detail but, also, in isolation from each other. Among the various disciplines that stemmed from the Darwinian method, ecology was further split into many branches, and marine ecology was no exception. The compartmentalization of the marine realm into several sub-domains (e.g., plankton, benthos, nekton led to neglect of the connections linking the various parts that were separated for the ease of analyses that, in this way, prevented synthetic visions. The way marine sciences were studied also led to separate visions depending on the employed tools, so that ship-based biological oceanography developed almost separately from marine station-based marine biology. The necessity of putting together such concepts as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is rapidly leading to synthetic approaches that re-discover the historical nature of ecology, leading to the dawn of a new natural history.

  1. The questions of scientific literacy and the challenges for contemporary science teaching: An ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    This study began with questions about how science education can bring forth humanity and ethics to reflect increasing concerns about controversial issues of science and technology in contemporary society. Discussing and highlighting binary epistemological assumptions in science education, the study suggests embodied science learning with human subjectivity and integrity between knowledge and practice. The study questions (a) students' understandings of the relationships between STSE and their everyday lifeworld and (b) the challenges of cultivating scientific literacy through STSE teaching. In seeking to understand something about the pedagogical enactment of embodied scientific literacy that emphasizes the harmony of children's knowledges and their lifeworlds, this study employs a mindful pedagogy of hermeneutics. The intro- and intra-dialogical modes of hermeneutic understanding investigate the pedagogical relationship of parts (research texts of students, curriculum, and social milieu) and the whole (STSE teaching in contemporary time and place). The research was conducted with 86 Korean 6 graders at a public school in Seoul, Korea in 2003. Mixed methods were utilized for data collection including a survey questionnaire, a drawing activity, interviews, children's reflective writing, and classroom teaching and observation. The research findings suggest the challenges and possibilities of STSE teaching as follows: (a) children's separated knowledge from everyday practice and living, (b) children's conflicting ideas between ecological/ethical aspects and modernist values, (c) possibilities of embodied knowing in children's practice, and (d) teachers' pedagogical dilemmas in STSE teaching based on the researcher's experiences and reflection throughout teaching practice. As further discussion, this study suggests an ecological paradigm for science curriculum and teaching as a potential framework to cultivate participatory scientific literacy for citizenship in

  2. Students' Perceptions of a University Access (Bridging) Programme for Social Science, Commerce and Humanities: Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Michael; Essack, Zaynab

    2007-01-01

    Universities in South Africa face the challenge of redressing past (and continuing) inequalities in higher education by increasing accessibility to previously (and currently) disadvantaged students. One means of doing so is through 'access' or 'bridging' programmes. This article explores successful students' perceptions of one such programme at…

  3. Bridging the Gap: Embedding Communication Courses in the Science Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandciu, Eric; Stewart, Jaclyn J.; Stoodley, Robin; Birol, Gülnur; Han, Andrea; Fox, Joanne A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a model for embedding science communication into the science curriculum without displacing science content. They describe the rationale, development, design, and implementation of two courses taught by science faculty addressing these criteria. They also outline the evaluation plan for these courses, which emphasize broad…

  4. An integrated conceptual framework for long-term social-ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Collins; S.R. Carpenter; S.M. Swinton; D.E. Orenstein; D.L. Childers; T.L. Gragson; N.B. Grimm; J.M. Grove; S.L. Harlan; J.P. Kaye; A.K. Knapp; G.P. Kofinas; J.J. Magnuson; W.H. McDowell; J.M. Melack; L.A. Ogden; G.P. Robertson; M.D. Smith; A.C. Whitmer

    2010-01-01

    The global reach of human activities affects all natural ecosystems, so that the environment is best viewed as a social-ecological system. Consequently, a more integrative approach to environmental science, one that bridges the biophysical and social domains, is sorely needed. Although models and frameworks for social-ecological systems exist, few are explicitly...

  5. Local Ecological Knowledge and Biological Conservation: Post-normal Science as an Intercultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorje Ignacio Zalles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From a natural sciences perspective, efforts directed at the conservation of biodiversity are based upon what is known as conservation biology. Given its epistemological assumptions, conservation biology faces obstacles in the incorporation of wisdom originating in local ecological knowledge, that which a local population has gained about the local environment which it is surrounded by and due to its direct contact with this local environment, instead of the result of a product of a positivist scientific inquiry. Post-normal science has emerged in recent decades as an alternative for public management that aims to complement the search for knowledge by means of empirical approaches through the inclusion of understandings based on the everyday experiences and the subjective interpretation of natural phenomena, transcending the compartmentalization associated with scientific traditions born out of modernity. This article discusses the integration of local ecological knowledge and conservation biology from the perspective of post normal science, illustrating different forms of intercultural communication that would make the requisite dialogue of knowledges possible.

  6. Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Moller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of traditional ecological knowledge and science to monitor populations can greatly assist co-management for sustainable customary wildlife harvests by indigenous peoples. Case studies from Canada and New Zealand emphasize that, although traditional monitoring methods may often be imprecise and qualitative, they are nevertheless valuable because they are based on observations over long time periods, incorporate large sample sizes, are inexpensive, invite the participation of harvesters as researchers, and sometimes incorporate subtle multivariate cross checks for environmental change. A few simple rules suggested by traditional knowledge may produce good management outcomes consistent with fuzzy logic thinking. Science can sometimes offer better tests of potential causes of population change by research on larger spatial scales, precise quantification, and evaluation of population change where no harvest occurs. However, science is expensive and may not always be trusted or welcomed by customary users of wildlife. Short scientific studies in which traditional monitoring methods are calibrated against population abundance could make it possible to mesh traditional ecological knowledge with scientific inferences of prey population dynamics. This paper analyzes the traditional monitoring techniques of catch per unit effort and body condition. Combining scientific and traditional monitoring methods can not only build partnership and community consensus, but also, and more importantly, allow indigenous wildlife users to critically evaluate scientific predictions on their own terms and test sustainability using their own forms of adaptive management.

  7. Co-producing resilient solutions to climate change: Bridging the gap between science and decision-making around nexus issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, C.

    2016-12-01

    The nexus represents a multi-dimensional means of scientific enquiry encapsulating the complex and non-linear interactions between water, energy, food, environment with the climate, and wider implications for society. These resources are fundamental for human life but are negatively affected by climate change. Methods of analysis, which are currently used, were not built to represent complex systems and are insufficiently equipped to understand positive and negative externalities generated by interactions among different stakeholders involved in the nexus. In addition misalignment between the science that scientists produce and the evidence decision-makers need leads to a range of complexities within the science-policy interface. Adopting a bottom-up, participative approach, the results of five themed workshops organized in the UK (focusing on: shocks and hazards, infrastructure, local economy, governance and governments, finance and insurance) featuring 80 stakeholders from academia, government and industry allow us to map perceptions of opportunities and challenges of better informing decision making on climate change when there is a strong disconnect between the evidence scientists provide and the actions decision makers take. The research identified key areas where gaps could be bridged between science and action and explores how a knowledge co-production approach can help identify opportunities for building a more effective and legitimate policy agenda to face climate risks. Concerns, barriers and opportunities to better inform decision making centred on four themes: communication and collaboration, decision making processes, social and cultural dimensions, and the nature of responses to nexus shocks. In so doing, this analysis provides an assessment of good practice on climate decision-making and highlights opportunities for improvement to bridge gaps in the science-policy interface

  8. The policy chicken and the science egg. Has applied ecology failed the transgenic crops debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ecology has a long history of research relevant to and impacting on real-world issues. Nonetheless problems of communication remain between policy-makers and scientists because they tend to work at different levels of generality (policy deals with broad issues, science prefers specific questions), and complexity (policy-makers want simple answers, ecologists tend to offer multi-factorial solutions) and to different timescales (policy-makers want answers tomorrow, ecologists always seem to want more time). These differences are not unique to the debate about the cultivation of transgenic crops. Research on gene flow is used to illustrate how science and policy are intimately bound together in a value-laden, iterative and messy process unlike that characterised by the 'encounter problem-do science-make policy' model. It also demonstrates how the gap between science and policy is often characterised by value-laden language. Scientists involved in ERA for transgenic crops may find their engagement with policy- and decision-makers clouded by misunderstanding about what one should expect from the other. Not the least of these, that science can define harm, is explored in a discussion of the U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations of herbicide-tolerant GM crops. The varied responses to these extensive trials highlight the problems of linking specific scientific experiments with broad policy objectives. The problems of applied ecology in the transgenic crops debate are not unique but may differ from other areas of environmental policy in the intense politicisation of the debate, the emphasis on assessment of risk and the particularly broad policy objectives.

  9. Microgravity Science Experiment of Marangoni Convection occurred in Larger Liquid Bridge on KIBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yoda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    Marangoni convection is a fluid motion induced by local variations of surface tension along a free surface which is caused by temperature and/or concentration differences. Marangoni convection plays important roll in such applications as crystal growth from melt, welding, con-tainerless material processing, and so on. One of the promising techniques to grow a high quality crystal is a floating-zone method which exists cylindrical melting part at heated region. This liquid part like a column is sustained between solid rods and it has free surface on the side. For investigation of Marangoni convection, a liquid bridge configuration with heated top and cooled bottom is often employed to simplify phenomena. Much work has been performed on Marangoni convection in the past, both experimentally and theoretically. Most of the ex-perimental investigations were conducted in normal gravity but some results from microgravity experiments are now available. However, problems to be solved are still remained in scientific view point. The effect of liquid bridge size on critical Marangoni number to determine the onset of oscillatory flow is one of important subjects. To investigate size effect, the experiment with changing wide range of diameter is needed. Under terrestrial conditions, large size of liquid bridge enhances to induce buoyancy convection. Much larger liquid bridge is deformed its shape or finally liquid bridge could not keep between disks because of its self-weight. So, microgravity experiment is required to make clear the size effect and to obtain precise data. We carried out Marangoni experiment under microgravity condition in Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO". A 50 mm diameter liquid bridge was formed and temperature difference between supporting rods was imposed to induce thermocapillary flow. Convective motion was observed in detail using several cameras, infrared camera and temperature sensors. Silicone oil of 5cSt was employed as a working fluid, which Prandtl

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report highlights research in five areas funded by the Ecological Sciences Division of the Office of Energy Research. The five areas include: western semi-arid ecosystems; marine sciences; mobilization fate and effects of chemical wastes; radionuclide fate and effects; and statistical and quantitative research. The work was accomplished under 19 individual projects. Individual projects are indexed separately

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report highlights research in five areas funded by the Ecological Sciences Division of the Office of Energy Research. The five areas include: western semi-arid ecosystems; marine sciences; mobilization fate and effects of chemical wastes; radionuclide fate and effects; and statistical and quantitative research. The work was accomplished under 19 individual projects. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  12. The Role of Patents for Bridging the Science to Market Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hellmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines an ex-post rationale for the patenting of scientific discoveries. In this model, scientist do not know which firms can make use of their discoveries, and firms do not know which scientific discoveries might be useful to them. To bridge this gap, either or both sides need to engage in costly search activities. Patents determine the appropriability of scientific discoveries, which affects the scientists. and firms. willingness to engage in search. Patents decrease disseminat...

  13. Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebets, Eileen A.; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Tisdale, Pawl; Wonch Hill, Trish

    2018-01-01

    Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event—Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE)—which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i) activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii) the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii) self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments. PMID:29495395

  14. Eight-Legged Encounters-Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebets, Eileen A; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Tisdale, Pawl; Wonch Hill, Trish

    2018-02-26

    Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event- Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE )-which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i) activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii) the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii) self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments.

  15. Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen A. Hebets

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution. We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event—Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE—which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments.

  16. Bridging "The Two Cultures" through Aesthetic Education: Considering Visual Art, Science, and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Rikki

    2007-01-01

    Art can be used to enrich the subject of science and science can be used to motivate study in art. This can stimulate new ways to regard the relationship of art and science in classrooms. Theoretical and practical examples will highlight: early and contemporary artists who developed ideas about art forms in nature; the impact an Aesthetics and…

  17. Cool Science Explains a Warming World: Using Ice Core Science to Bridge the Gap Between Researchers and the K-12 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    Changing ice has urgent implications for people around the world. The Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) provides scientific leadership and oversight of ice coring and drilling activities funded by the US National Science Foundation and also has goals to enhance education and communication of current research information. In a time when misinformation is rampant and climate change science is suspect, it is essential that students receive accurate scientific information and engage in learning activities that model complex ideas through engaging and age appropriate ways, while also learning to validate and recognize reliable sources. The IDPO Education and Outreach (EO) office works to create resources, activities and professional development that bridge the gap between ice core science research and educators and their students. Ice core science is on the cutting edge of new discoveries about climate change and understanding better the past to predict the future. Hands-on inquiry activities based on ice core data allow teachers to lead their students to new discoveries about climate secrets hidden deep in the ice. Capitalizing on the inherent interest in the extremes of the Polar Regions, IDPO materials engage students in activities aligned with NGSS standards. Ice drilling technologies make an ideal platform for intertwining engineering concepts and practices with science research to meet the SEP (Science and Engineering Practices) in the NGSS. This session will highlight how the IDPO EO office has built a community of ice core scientists willing to take part in education and outreach projects and events and share some of the resources available to K-12 educators. We will highlight some of the successes and lessons learned as we continually evolve our work toward more effective science education and communication highlighting ice core and climate change science.

  18. Floating Forests: Validation of a Citizen Science Effort to Answer Global Ecological Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I.; Byrnes, J.; Cavanaugh, K. C.; Haupt, A. J.; Trouille, L.; Bell, T. W.; Rassweiler, A.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Assis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers undertaking long term, large-scale ecological analyses face significant challenges for data collection and processing. Crowdsourcing via citizen science can provide an efficient method for analyzing large data sets. However, many scientists have raised questions about the quality of data collected by citizen scientists. Here we use Floating-Forests (http://floatingforests.org), a citizen science platform for creating a global time series of giant kelp abundance, to show that ensemble classifications of satellite data can ensure data quality. Citizen scientists view satellite images of coastlines and classify kelp forests by tracing all visible patches of kelp. Each image is classified by fifteen citizen scientists before being retired. To validate citizen science results, all fifteen classifications are converted to a raster and overlaid on a calibration dataset generated from previous studies. Results show that ensemble classifications from citizen scientists are consistently accurate when compared to calibration data. Given that all source images were acquired by Landsat satellites, we expect this consistency to hold across all regions. At present, we have over 6000 web-based citizen scientists' classifications of almost 2.5 million images of kelp forests in California and Tasmania. These results are not only useful for remote sensing of kelp forests, but also for a wide array of applications that combine citizen science with remote sensing.

  19. Islamic View of Nature and Values: Could These Be the Answer to Building Bridges between Modern Science and Islamic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, Yasmeen Mahnaz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic tenets of Islam and the Islamic view of nature that were influential in the development of science in the so-called "Golden Age of Islam". These findings have been the catalyst for present day Muslim scholars, who have emphasized the importance of Islamic science, as the means of understanding Western…

  20. Bridging the Design-Science Gap with Tools: Science Learning and Design Behaviors in a Simulated Environment for Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Xie, Charles; Nourian, Saeid; Chen, Guanhua; Bailey, Siobhan; Goldstein, Molly H.; Purzer, Senay; Adams, Robin S.; Tutwiler, M. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Many pedagogical innovations aim to integrate engineering design and science learning. However, students frequently show little attempt or have difficulties in connecting their design projects with the underlying science. Drawing upon the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, we argue that the design tools available in a learning environment…

  1. Bridging the Gap between Earth Science and Students: An Integrated Approach using NASA Earth Science Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Erica J.; Chambers, Lin H.; Phelps, Carrie S.; Oots, Penny C.; Moore, Susan W.; Diones, Dennis D.

    2007-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Department of Education's No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, beginning in 2007 students will be tested in the science area. There are many techniques that educators can employ to teach students science. The use of authentic materials or in this case authentic data can be an engaging alternative to more traditional methods. An Earth science classroom is a great place for the integration of authentic data and science concepts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a wealth of high quality Earth science data available to the general public. For instance, the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA s Langley Research Center houses over 800 Earth science data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. These data sets were produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic factors that influence global climate; however, a major hurdle in using authentic data is the size of the data and data documentation. To facilitate the use of these data sets for educational purposes, the Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and Earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) project has been established to systematically support educational activities at all levels of formal and informal education. The MY NASA DATA project accomplishes this by reducing these large data holdings to microsets that are easily accessible and explored by K-12 educators and students though the project's Web page. MY NASA DATA seeks to ease the difficulty in understanding the jargon-heavy language of Earth science. This manuscript will show how MY NASA DATA provides resources for NCLB implementation in the science area through an overview of the Web site, the different microsets available, the lesson plans and computer tools, and an overview of educational support mechanisms.

  2. Functional Land Management: Bridging the Think-Do-Gap using a multi-stakeholder science policy interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lilian; Wall, David; Creamer, Rachel; Bampa, Francesca; Schulte, Rogier P O

    2018-03-01

    Functional Land Management (FLM) is proposed as an integrator for sustainability policies and assesses the functional capacity of the soil and land to deliver primary productivity, water purification and regulation, carbon cycling and storage, habitat for biodiversity and recycling of nutrients. This paper presents the catchment challenge as a method to bridge the gap between science, stakeholders and policy for the effective management of soils to deliver these functions. Two challenges were completed by a wide range of stakeholders focused around a physical catchment model-(1) to design an optimised catchment based on soil function targets, (2) identify gaps to implementation of the proposed design. In challenge 1, a high level of consensus between different stakeholders emerged on soil and management measures to be implemented to achieve soil function targets. Key gaps including knowledge, a mix of market and voluntary incentives and mandatory measures were identified in challenge 2.

  3. The Next Generation of Scientists: Examining the Experiences of Graduate Students in Network-Level Social-Ecological Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Romolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the research and resources of hundreds of scientists from dozens of institutions, network-level science is fast becoming one scientific model of choice to address complex problems. In the pursuit to confront pressing environmental issues such as climate change, many scientists, practitioners, policy makers, and institutions are promoting network-level research that integrates the social and ecological sciences. To understand how this scientific trend is unfolding among rising scientists, we examined how graduate students experienced one such emergent social-ecological research initiative, Integrated Science for Society and Environment, within the large-scale, geographically distributed Long Term Ecological Research (LTER Network. Through workshops, surveys, and interviews, we found that graduate students faced challenges in how they conceptualized and practiced social-ecological research within the LTER Network. We have presented these conceptual challenges at three scales: the individual/project, the LTER site, and the LTER Network. The level of student engagement with and knowledge of the LTER Network was varied, and students faced different institutional, cultural, and logistic barriers to practicing social-ecological research. These types of challenges are unlikely to be unique to LTER graduate students; thus, our findings are relevant to other scientific networks implementing new social-ecological research initiatives.

  4. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  5. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  6. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge En español Your heart is made of muscle, ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  7. Factors affecting science reform: Bridging the gap between reform initiatives and teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensak, Karl John

    In response to the perceived deficiencies in science education today, and to the expressed need for research into the culture of schools (due primarily to the failure of many science reforms in the past), this study used a broad based approach to study the gap between science education research and science education practice. This study identified 47 factors that may encourage or inhibit science curriculum reform. A survey was conducted to determine which factors were perceived to be important by local and national K-12 classroom teachers, science supervisors/coordinators, and college/university professors. Continual staff development (scheduled as part of teachers' work day/week/month), funding (for long-term staff development, teacher training and support, science laboratory facilities and materials), teacher motivation and "ownership" of the reform, the need for collaborative opportunities for classroom teachers, teachers' college preparation, textbook reform, community support, and reform initiatives that are "in tune" with assessment, are major factors identified as having a substantial affect on the successful adoption, implementation, and institutionalization of science reforms.

  8. Secondary School Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching about Topics That Bridge Science and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Berry; Riga, Fran; Taber, Keith S.; Newdick, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The question of where to locate teaching about the relationships between science and religion has produced a long-running debate. Currently, science and religious education (RE) are statutory subjects in England and are taught in secondary schools by different teachers. This paper reports on an interview study in which 16 teachers gave their…

  9. Using Thinking Skills as a Bridge between ELA and Science Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robin Lee

    2008-01-01

    This article presents five activities that demonstrate developing thinking skills in students, uses comparable ELA and science skills. The thinking skills of Blooms Taxonomy are the organizer. Skills and processes gleaned from NYS ELA and Science Standards included in the article are: categorizing, comparing, following procedures, sequencing,…

  10. Towards a pedagogical model for science education: bridging educational contexts through a blended learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidarra, José; Rusman, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a design framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). The development of this design framework started as a response to complex

  11. Bridging the Gap Between Science and Clinical Efficacy: Physiology, Imaging, and Modeling of Aerosols in the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquenne, Chantal; Fleming, John S; Katz, Ira; Martin, Andrew R; Schroeter, Jeffry; Usmani, Omar S; Venegas, Jose; Schmid, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Development of a new drug for the treatment of lung disease is a complex and time consuming process involving numerous disciplines of basic and applied sciences. During the 2015 Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, a group of experts including aerosol scientists, physiologists, modelers, imagers, and clinicians participated in a workshop aiming at bridging the gap between basic research and clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. This publication summarizes the current consensus on the topic. It begins with a short description of basic concepts of aerosol transport and a discussion on targeting strategies of inhaled aerosols to the lungs. It is followed by a description of both computational and biological lung models, and the use of imaging techniques to determine aerosol deposition distribution (ADD) in the lung. Finally, the importance of ADD to clinical efficacy is discussed. Several gaps were identified between basic science and clinical efficacy. One gap between scientific research aimed at predicting, controlling, and measuring ADD and the clinical use of inhaled aerosols is the considerable challenge of obtaining, in a single study, accurate information describing the optimal lung regions to be targeted, the effectiveness of targeting determined from ADD, and some measure of the drug's effectiveness. Other identified gaps were the language and methodology barriers that exist among disciplines, along with the significant regulatory hurdles that need to be overcome for novel drugs and/or therapies to reach the marketplace and benefit the patient. Despite these gaps, much progress has been made in recent years to improve clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. Also, the recent efforts by many funding agencies and industry to support multidisciplinary networks including basic science researchers, R&D scientists, and clinicians will go a long way to further reduce the gap between science and clinical efficacy.

  12. Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying

  13. A Citizen Science Approach: A Detailed Ecological Assessment of Subtropical Reefs at Point Lookout, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Chris; Thurstan, Ruth; Beger, Maria; Dudgeon, Christine; Loder, Jennifer; Kovacs, Eva; Gallo, Michele; Flower, Jason; Gomez Cabrera, K-le; Ortiz, Juan; Lea, Alexandra; Kleine, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Marine scientists trained fifty citizen scientists in survey techniques that included mapping of habitat features, recording of substrate, fish and invertebrate composition, and quantifying impacts (e.g., occurrence of substrate damage, presence of litter). In 2014 these volunteers conducted four seasonal surveys along semi-permanent transects, at five sites, across three reefs. The project presented is a model on how citizen science can be conducted in a marine environment through collaboration of volunteer researchers, non-researchers and local marine authorities. Significant differences in coral and algal cover were observed among the three sites, while fluctuations in algal cover were also observed seasonally. Differences in fish assemblages were apparent among sites and seasons, with subtropical fish groups observed more commonly in colder seasons. The least physical damage occurred in the most exposed sites (Flat Rock) within the highly protected marine park zones. The broad range of data collected through this top-down/bottom-up approach to citizen science exemplifies the projects' value and application for identifying ecosystem trends or patterns. The results of the project support natural resource and marine park management, providing a valuable contribution to existing scientific knowledge and the conservation of local reefs.

  14. Orthodox Theology and Empirical Science: Kant as a Bridge to the Apophatic Revelation of the Orthodox East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. GOODIN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox theological worldview often finds itself confronted by the unspoken nihilism of empiricism, with little common ground for dialogue. This article establishes that common ground for discursive exchange through exploring the apophatic aspects of Kantian transcendental theology, which in turn can become a bridge to the Orthodox negative theology. Kant drew continental thought along certain foundational lines with his critique of pure reason and transcendental idealism; it was his way to locate empirical science with respect to the perceptual foundations of thought, which are properly understood philosophically. In this project, Kant would seek to secure the Christian faith in the transcendental—i.e., that which underlies all empirical experience. Even so, certain openings to traditional religious mysticism are also to be found in his project, particularly with respect to transcendental theology. This article explores these Kantian foundations for an apophatic transcendental theology in relation to the hesychastic writings of Gregory of Sinai, Gregory Palamas, and Nikitas Stithatos. This in turn becomes a new inroad for dialogue with empirical science.

  15. Bridging the Chasm: Challenges, Opportunities, and Resources for Integrating a Dissemination and Implementation Science Curriculum into Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; Heckman, Carolyn J; Cragun, Deborah; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Proctor, Enola K; Chambers, David A; Skolarus, Ted; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-01-01

    Physicians are charged with implementing evidence-based medicine, yet few are trained in the science of Dissemination and Implementation (D&I). In view of the potential of evidence-based training in D&I to help close the gap between research and practice, the goal of this review is to examine the importance of D&I training in medical education, describe challenges to implementing such training, and provide strategies and resources for building D&I capacity. We conducted (1) a systematic review to identify US-based D&I training efforts and (2) a critical review of additional literature to inform our evaluation of the challenges and opportunities of integrating D&I training in medical education. Out of 269 unique articles reviewed, 11 described US-based D&I training. Although vibrant and diverse training opportunities exist, their capacity is limited, and they are not designed to meet physicians' needs. Synthesis of relevant literature using a critical review approach identified challenges inherent to changing medical education, as well as challenges related to D&I science. Finally, selected strategies and resources are available for facilitating incorporation of D&I training into medical education and overcoming existing challenges. Integrating D&I training in the medical education curriculum, and particularly in residency and fellowship training, holds promise for bridging the chasm between scientific discoveries and improved patient care and outcomes. However, unique challenges should be addressed, including the need for greater evidence.

  16. Capacity Building on the Use of Earth Observation for Bridging the Gaps between Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Bajracharya, B.

    2017-12-01

    Although the geospatial technologies and Earth observation (EO) data are getting more accessible, lack of skilled human resources and institutional capacities are the major hurdles in the effective applications in Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. Designing efficient and cost effective capacity building (CB) programs fitting needs by different users on the use of EO information for decision making will provide options in bridging the gaps in the region. This paper presents the strategies adopted by SERVIR-HKH as an attempt to strengthen the capacity of governments and development stakeholders in the region. SERVIR-HKH hub plays vital role in CB on EO applications by bringing together the leading scientists from the Globe and the key national institutions and stakeholders in the region. We conducted country consultation workshops in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal to identify national priorities, requirements and the capacity of the institutions to utilize EO information in decision making. The need assessments were focused on four thematic areas of SERVIR where capacity gaps in utilization of EO data in policy decisions were identified in thirteen key service areas. Geospatial capacities in GIT infrastructure, data, and human resources were varied. Linking EO information to policy decision is mostly lacking. Geospatial data sharing provision among the institutions in the region is poor. We developed a capacity building strategy for HKH region which bridges the gaps in a coordinated manner through customized training programs, institutional strengthening, coordination and regional cooperation. Using the strategy, we conducted training on FEWS NET remote sensing products for agro-climatological analysis, which focused on technical interpretation and analysis of the remote sensing and modeled products, eg, CHIRPS, RFE2, CHIRTS, GFS, NDVI, GeoCLIM and GeoGLAM. Scientists from USGS FEWS NET program delivered the training to mid-level managers and decision

  17. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

  18. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  19. Formation of ecological and legal science: resource aspect and its integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Гетьман

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. Social and environmental issues of waste management facing society relatively recently, but showed a tendency to expand and deepen, which in turn caused the necessity of formation of effective policy in this area. Recent research and publications analysis. Some aspects of the present stage of the formation of environmental law and its relationship to nature and resources law, structural and systemic connections was studied by various researchers in the context of environmental policy and legislation analysis, regulation of wildlife relationships, expanding the scope of regulation of resource. In particular, they can mark out V. Andreytsev, A. Getman, M. Krasnova, N. Malisheva and others. However, comprehensive studies of this policy is currently not available. Paper objective. The purpose of the article is a theoretical analysis of the current state of environmental law, the formation of the next stage of development of natural resource relationships, their expansion and transformation into a resource (ecologic and resource in order to adequately respond to the differentiation and complexity of structural and systemic linkages. Paper main body. The development and dynamics of the environmental, natural resources legislation is largely driven by global and European processes and requires constant updating in order to overcome gaps, timely and adequate response to contemporary challenges, changes in value paradigms and so forth. One of these problems is the development of traditional branches of law and directions research that, in turn, raises the question of substantive content, structural and systemic links of these areas of law. Any delay in the establishment of the theoretical and methodological and scientific and legal framework for a new legal phenomena in the framework of ecological and legal science creates the preconditions for the expansion of research not only to them but also in relation to the already well

  20. Can biosemiotics be a "science" if its purpose is to be a bridge between the natural, social and human sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Central to the attempt to develop a biosemiotics has been the discussion of what it means to be scientific. In Marcello Barbieri's latest argument for leaving Peircean biosemiotics and creating an alternative code-biology the definition of what it means to be scientific plays a major role. For Barbieri "scientific knowledge is obtained by building machine-like models of what we observe in nature". Barbieri interestingly claims that - in combination with the empirical and experimental basis - mechanism is virtually equivalent to the scientific method. The consequences of this statement seem to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another type of trans- and interdisciplinary wissenschaft than the received view of "science". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Michelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required.

  2. The need to bridge the gap between science and technology in energy for a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrita, Isabel; Bongardt, A; Gulyurtlu, I; Joyce, A.

    2007-07-01

    According to studies developed by Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), the earth's temperature has been increasing and, although there is some degree of uncertainty, the human influence is believed to significantly contribute to this as a result of activities that lead to the release of greenhouse gases. The energy sector is considered as a significant share of the overall balance. In spite of efforts taken by various countries, the situation is that technology development has not responded to the challenge so rapidly as expected and fast enough to meet needs to diversify energy resources to substitute carbon intensive fossil fuels at competitive prices and, simultaneously, CO2 removal and storage still need to reach application phase, on a large scale. New paths and new approaches have to be considered. The paper assesses the need to bridge knowledge created by basic research with its application, taking technology development to deployment, and the specificity of one country, Portugal, on the path chosen to tackle this issue. (auth)

  3. Integration of Local Ecological Knowledge and Conventional Science: a Study of Seven Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2 supplement, ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1981-06-01

    This supplement replaces the list of Publications and Presentations in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1980 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, PNL-3700 PT2, Ecological Sciences. The listings in the report as previously distributed were incomplete owing to changeovers in the bibliographic-tracking system.

  5. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2003-01-01

    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  6. Bridging the Arts and Computer Science: Engaging At-Risk Students through the Integration of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Lisa; Klopfer, Michelle; Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2018-01-01

    Linux Laptop Orchestra (L2Ork), founded in 2009 in the Virginia Tech Music Department's Digital and Interactive Sound & Intermedia Studio, "explores the power of gesture, communal interaction, and the multidimensionality of arts, as well as technology's potential to seamlessly integrate arts and sciences with particular focus on K-12…

  7. Bridging views in cinema: a review of the art and science of view integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Daniel T; Baker, Lewis J

    2017-09-01

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the relationship between film and cognitive science. This is reflected in a new science of cinema that can help us both to understand this art form, and to produce new insights about cognition and perception. In this review, we begin by describing how the initial development of cinema involved close observation of audience response. This allowed filmmakers to develop an informal theory of visual cognition that helped them to isolate and creatively recombine fundamental elements of visual experience. We review research exploring naturalistic forms of visual perception and cognition that have opened the door to a productive convergence between the dynamic visual art of cinema and science of visual cognition that can enrich both. In particular, we discuss how parallel understandings of view integration in cinema and in cognitive science have been converging to support a new understanding of meaningful visual experience. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1436. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1436 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bridging Professional Teacher Knowledge for Science and Literary Integration via Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Xavier; Gallagher, Tiffany L.

    2018-01-01

    We offer insights for using design-based research (DBR) as a model for constructing professional development that supports curriculum and instructional knowledge regarding science and literacy integration. We spotlight experiences in the DBR process from data collected from a sample of four elementary teachers. Findings from interviews, focus…

  9. Building Bridges between Psychological Science and Education: Cultural Stereotypes, STEM, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This presents a worldwide problem of inequity. Sociocultural stereotypes associating STEM with males act as barriers that prevent girls from developing interests in STEM. This article aims to show that we can increase equity and enhance outcomes for a…

  10. Experiencing biodiversity as a bridge over the science-society communication gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinard, Yves; Quétier, Fabien

    2014-06-01

    Drawing on the idea that biodiversity is simply the diversity of living things, and that everyone knows what diversity and living things mean, most conservation professionals eschew the need to explain the many complex ways in which biodiversity is understood in science. On many biodiversity-related issues, this lack of clarity leads to a communication gap between science and the general public, including decision makers who must design and implement biodiversity policies. Closing this communication gap is pivotal to the ability of science to inform sound environmental decision making. To address this communication gap, we propose a surrogate of biodiversity for communication purposes that captures the scientific definition of biodiversity yet can be understood by nonscientists; that is, biodiversity as a learning experience. The prerequisites of this or any other biodiversity communication surrogate are that it should have transdisciplinary relevance; not be measurable; be accessible to a wide audience; be usable to translate biodiversity issues; and understandably encompass biodiversity concepts. Biodiversity as a learning experience satisfies these prerequisites and is philosophically robust. More importantly, it can effectively contribute to closing the communication gap between biodiversity science and society at large. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Video Game Player Profiles: Bridging Industry, Game Studies and Social Science Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, game designers and game studies experts have largely sought to understand video game players through a lens of experience and observation. Meanwhile, social science research has focused on the empirical understanding of video game players using a variety of psychological constructs. This study focuses on the creation and evaluation of…

  12. Cybersecurity Protection: Design Science Research toward an Intercloud Transparent Bridge Architecture (ITCOBRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joe M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses design science research and engineering to develop a cloud-based simulator for modeling next-generation cybersecurity protection frameworks in the United States. The claim is made that an agile and neutral framework extending throughout the cyber-threat plane is needed for critical infrastructure protection (CIP). This…

  13. Bridging the Gap--Using Social Media to Bring Together Science and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Toby; Vanstone, Emma

    2017-01-01

    In this article, first Toby Tyler describes how using Twitter to engage the community and to pursue the ICE principle (Introduce, Consolidate, and Extend) to enhance learning has brought his school community closer together. Then, Emma Vanstone highlights how schools can draw on support for engaging children with science at home by using social…

  14. Ecological research and environmental management: We need different interfaces based on different knowledge types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Frédéric; Cordonnier, Thomas; Bilger, Isabelle; Jappiot, Marielle; Chauvin, Christophe; Gosselin, Marion

    2018-04-25

    The role of ecological science in environmental management has been discussed by many authors who recognize that there is a persistent gap between ecological science and environmental management. Here we develop theory through different perspectives based on knowledge types, research categories and research-management interface types, which we combine into a common framework. To draw out insights for bridging this gap, we build our case by:We point out the complementarities as well as the specificities and limitations of the different types of ecological research, ecological knowledge and research-management interfaces, which is of major importance for environmental management and research policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring long-term ecological changes through the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network: science-based and policy relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, H; Brydges, T; Fenech, A; Lumb, A

    2001-01-01

    Ecological monitoring and its associated research programs have often provided answers to various environmental management issues. In the face of changing environmental conditions, ecological monitoring provides decision-makers with reliable information as they grapple with maintaining a sustainable economy and healthy environment. The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is a national ecological monitoring network consisting of (1) about 100 case study sites across the country characterized by long-term multi-disciplinary environmental work conducted by a multitude of agencies (142 partners and counting); (2) a variety of less comprehensive yet more extensive monitoring sites; (3) a network where core monitoring variables of ecosystem change are measured; and (4) geo-referenced environmental observations. Environment Canada is the co-ordinating partner for the network through the EMAN Co-ordinating Office. EMAN's mission is to focus a scientifically-sound, policy-relevant ecosystem monitoring and research network based on (a) stabilizing a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and (b) developing a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives in order to deliver unique and needed goods and services. These goods and services include: (1) an efficient and cost-effective early warning system which detects, describes and reports on changes in Canadian ecosystems at a national or ecozone scale; and (2) cross-disciplinary and cross-jurisdictional assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes. The early warning system and assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes provide Environment Canada and partner organizations with timely information that facilitates increasingly adaptive policies and priority setting. Canadians are also informed of changes and trends occurring in Canadian ecosystems and, as a result, are better able to make decisions related to conservation and sustainability.

  16. A conceptual framework for understanding the perspectives on the causes of the science-practice gap in ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuol-Garcia, Diana; Morsello, Carla; N El-Hani, Charbel; Pardini, Renata

    2018-05-01

    Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making. We based our review on 1563 sentences describing causes of the science-practice gap extracted from 122 articles and on discussions with eight scientists on how to classify these sentences. The resulting process-based framework describes three distinct perspectives on the relevant processes, knowledge and actors in the science-practice interface. The most common perspective assumes only scientific knowledge should support practice, perceiving a one-way knowledge flow from science to practice and recognizing flaws in knowledge generation, communication, and/or use. The second assumes that both scientists and decision-makers should contribute to support practice, perceiving a two-way knowledge flow between science and practice through joint knowledge-production/integration processes, which, for several reasons, are perceived to occur infrequently. The last perspective was very rare, and assumes scientists should put their results into practice, but they rarely do. Some causes (e.g. cultural differences between scientists and decision

  17. New Frontiers in Analyzing Dynamic Group Interactions: Bridging Social and Computer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Hung, Hayley; Keyton, Joann

    2017-10-01

    This special issue on advancing interdisciplinary collaboration between computer scientists and social scientists documents the joint results of the international Lorentz workshop, "Interdisciplinary Insights into Group and Team Dynamics," which took place in Leiden, The Netherlands, July 2016. An equal number of scholars from social and computer science participated in the workshop and contributed to the papers included in this special issue. In this introduction, we first identify interaction dynamics as the core of group and team models and review how scholars in social and computer science have typically approached behavioral interactions in groups and teams. Next, we identify key challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration between social and computer scientists, and we provide an overview of the different articles in this special issue aimed at addressing these challenges.

  18. Eric Kandel's Reductionism in Art and Brain Science - Bridging the Two Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsky, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Reductive art is a term to describe an artistic style or an aesthetic, rather than an art movement. It is stripping down as a new way of seeing. Movements and other terms that are sometimes associated with reductive art include abstract art, minimalism, ABC art, anti-illusionism, cool art, and rejective art. Eric Kandel's fifth book focuses on reductionism as the principle guiding an ongoing dialogue between the worlds of science and art .

  19. The Cuba–United States Thaw: Building Bridges through Science and Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G.; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States. PMID:28719268

  20. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  1. Investigation necessities in ecology and environmental sciences as support to the environmental administration of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Forero, Eduardo; Angel Sanint, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    This work intends to establish the knowledge demand in ecology and environmental sciences needed for the environmental management of energy projects; in this development a large number of people were consulted in order to obtain results as broad and valid as possible. Using several methodological strategies and sources (pool, workshop, document search and feedback from experts) an analysis on the needs of research as a necessary input to the environmental management process was obtained. A sub-sector analysis (coal, electricity, oil and alternative energies) was preformed to get the detail necessary to point out specific topics that are considered a priority for the allocation of research funds. This work should be a guide to orient the ecological an environment research with the management needs of the energy sector. It also should be useful as a reference for the definition of science and technology policies for the energy sector, the national environmental system and the national system of science and technology

  2. Bridging basic science and clinical research: the EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, Tobias; Moradpour, Darius; Thimme, Robert; Zoulim, Fabien

    2014-09-01

    The EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis brought together a group of leading scientists and clinicians working on both, basic and clinical aspects of viral hepatitis, thereby building bridges from bench to bedside. This report recapitulates the presentations and discussions at the conference held in Lyon, France on November 29-30, 2013. In recent years, great advances have been made in the field of viral hepatitis, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The identification of IL28B genetic polymorphisms as a major determinant for spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance was a seminal discovery. Currently, hepatologists are at the doorstep of even greater advances, with the advent of a wealth of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. Indeed, promising results have accumulated over the last months and few years, showing sustained virological response (SVR) rates of up to 100% with interferon-free DAA combination therapies. Thus, less than 25 years after its identification, HCV infection may soon be curable in the vast majority of patients, highlighting the great success of HCV research over the last decades. However, viral hepatitis and its clinical complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain major global challenges. New therapeutic strategies to tackle hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection are needed, as current therapies have undeniable limitations. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) can efficiently control HBV replication and reduce or even reverse liver damage. However, these drugs have to be given for indefinite periods in most patients to maintain virological and biochemical responses. Although sustained responses off treatment can be achieved by treatment with (pegylated) interferon-α, only about 10-30% of patients effectively resolve chronic hepatitis B. It was the goal of this conference to review the progress made over the last

  3. Computational Ecology and Open Science: Tools to Help Manage Lakes for Cyanobacteria in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational ecology is an interdisciplinary field that takes advantage of modern computation abilities to expand our ecological understanding. As computational ecologists, we use large data sets, which often cover large spatial extents, and advanced statistical/mathematical co...

  4. What is Soft Computing? Bridging Gaps for 21st Century Science!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Seising

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution serves historical and philosophical reflecting cognitions on the role of Soft Computing in the 21st century. Referring to Magdalena's article in this issue, this paper considers the aspects of mixtures of techniques, the opposite pair qHard Computingq and qSoft Computingq, and Computational Intelligence. From the historical perspective the paper goes back to three articles by Warren Weaver that appeared after World War II. A concentrated study of these papers helps to understand that Soft Computing will be able to play a key role in the future development of science and technology.

  5. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  6. Building Bridges Between Geoscience and Data Science through Benchmark Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Ebert-Uphoff, I.; Demir, I.; Gel, Y.; Hill, M. C.; Karpatne, A.; Güereque, M.; Kumar, V.; Cabral, E.; Smyth, P.

    2017-12-01

    The changing nature of observational field data demands richer and more meaningful collaboration between data scientists and geoscientists. Thus, among other efforts, the Working Group on Case Studies of the NSF-funded RCN on Intelligent Systems Research To Support Geosciences (IS-GEO) is developing a framework to strengthen such collaborations through the creation of benchmark datasets. Benchmark datasets provide an interface between disciplines without requiring extensive background knowledge. The goals are to create (1) a means for two-way communication between geoscience and data science researchers; (2) new collaborations, which may lead to new approaches for data analysis in the geosciences; and (3) a public, permanent repository of complex data sets, representative of geoscience problems, useful to coordinate efforts in research and education. The group identified 10 key elements and characteristics for ideal benchmarks. High impact: A problem with high potential impact. Active research area: A group of geoscientists should be eager to continue working on the topic. Challenge: The problem should be challenging for data scientists. Data science generality and versatility: It should stimulate development of new general and versatile data science methods. Rich information content: Ideally the data set provides stimulus for analysis at many different levels. Hierarchical problem statement: A hierarchy of suggested analysis tasks, from relatively straightforward to open-ended tasks. Means for evaluating success: Data scientists and geoscientists need means to evaluate whether the algorithms are successful and achieve intended purpose. Quick start guide: Introduction for data scientists on how to easily read the data to enable rapid initial data exploration. Geoscience context: Summary for data scientists of the specific data collection process, instruments used, any pre-processing and the science questions to be answered. Citability: A suitable identifier to

  7. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  8. An integrated course in pain management and palliative care bridging the basic sciences and pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Justin; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Unni, Elizabeth; Hanson, Eric

    2013-08-12

    To describe the development of an integrated pain and palliative care course and to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the course during doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and in their practice after graduation. Roseman University College of Pharmacy faculty developed a 3-week elective course in pain and palliative care by integrating relevant clinical and pharmaceutical sciences. Instructional strategies included lectures, team and individual activities, case studies, and student presentations. Students who participated in the course in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed anonymously to gain their perception about the class as well as the utility of the course during their APPEs and in their everyday practice. Traditional and nontraditional assessment of students confirmed that the learning outcomes objectives were achieved. Students taking the integrated course on pain management and palliative care achieved mastery of the learning outcome objectives. Surveys of students and practicing pharmacists who completed the course showed that the learning experience as well as retention was improved with the integrated mode of teaching. Integrating basic and clinical sciences in therapeutic courses is an effective learning strategy.

  9. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Climate Science and Water-resource Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. R.; Clark, M. P.; Wood, A.; Gutmann, E. D.; Nijssen, B.; Brekke, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2010, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Program has supported development of a coordinated system of products and tools to improve use of climate information in water-resource planning and management. The key products include: 1) a new understanding of the limitations of methods used to quantify impacts of climate change on water resources; 2) development and evaluation of national-domain climate downscaling and hydrologic simulation capabilities to provide information from climate model output relevant to the multiple scales of water resources decision-making with a spatially consistent assessment of the impacts of climate change on hydrologic conditions; and 3) development and evaluation of advanced streamflow forecasting methods. This will support USACE Districts and their stakeholders and partners with new data, new and newly evaluated model output, and specific tools in a framework to help with routine applications for managing water resources throughout the U.S., and to enhance considerations of climate preparedness and resilience in that work. This presentation will summarize the collaborative development of some of those products; describe current and planned future USACE capabilities for incorporating advanced climate information at multiple scales of analysis and decision; discuss uses of climate information in water-resources planning and management; and outline key unanswered science questions being addressed to increase utility and use of information in short- and longer-term planning. Specifically, we will describe the current suite and planned trajectory of new products, moving from capability development through to testing in limited pilot domains, on to product applications throughout the U.S., and, ultimately, into actual implementation at the level of USACE Districts to address climate change issues. Two key foci of this talk will be: 1) where climatological and hydrologic science is currently

  11. Stand up and Speak Out: Professional Training Can Help Bridge the Science Communication Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, E.; Simler Smith, B.; Baron, N.

    2011-12-01

    Science and technology have become firmly entrenched in our daily lives, and as a society we depend on this advanced knowledge in order to maintain - and improve - our standard of living. At the same time, social media and other advanced tools have made it easier than ever to communicate scientific findings to a wide and diverse audience. Yet herein lies a paradox: evidence shows that scientific literacy among the general public remains frustratingly low. Why does this gap remain, given such a seemingly fertile climate for scientific literacy? The answer to this question is complex, but a historical lack of communications training and support for scientists is unquestionably a part of it. Effectively explaining research findings - and why they are important - to journalists, policymakers, and other non-scientists requires specific skills that aren't accounted for in most graduate programs. For decades, in fact, scientific institutions have made communications a very low priority. Some have even discouraged outreach for fear of backlash or out of reluctance to sacrifice research time. There are indications that the culture is shifting, however. The integration of formal, for-credit communications training into graduate curricula is one promising sign. Also, professional, extracurricular communications training is now readily available from a number of sources. COMPASS (the Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea) has pioneered this latter model for more than a decade, both independently and as the lead communication trainers for the prestigious Aldo Leopold Leadership Program. Working with some of the most accomplished marine and environmental scientists in North America and beyond, COMPASS has helped equip the community with the tools to make their science clear, compelling and relevant for non-scientist audiences. We have led communication workshops for scientists at all career levels - from beginning graduate students to tenured senior faculty. A key to

  12. "From the Beginning, I Felt Empowered": Incorporating an Ecological Approach to Learning in Elementary Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Daniel; Smetana, Lara; Coleman, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    While a renewed national dialog promotes the importance of science education for future technological and economic viability, students must find science personally relevant to themselves and their communities if the goals set forth in recent reform movements are to be achieved. In this paper, we investigate how incorporating an ecological perspective to learning in teacher education, including opportunities to participate with science in connection to their everyday lives, influenced the ways in which elementary teacher candidates (TCs) envisioned learning and doing science and its potential role in their future classroom. We draw from data collected across three sections of a field-based elementary methods course focused on learning to teach science and social studies through inquiry. We argue that participating in an authentic interdisciplinary inquiry project impacted the ways in which TCs conceived of science, their identities as science learners and teachers and their commitments to bringing inquiry-based science instruction to their future classrooms. This paper addresses issues regarding access to quality science learning experiences in elementary classrooms through empowering TCs to build identities as science learners and teachers in order to impact conditions in their future classrooms.

  13. River corridor science: Hydrologic exchange and ecological consequences from bedforms to basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson; Gooseff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Previously regarded as the passive drains of watersheds, over the past 50 years, rivers have progressively been recognized as being actively connected with off-channel environments. These connections prolong physical storage and enhance reactive processing to alter water chemistry and downstream transport of materials and energy. Here we propose river corridor science as a concept that integrates downstream transport with lateral and vertical exchange across interfaces. Thus, the river corridor, rather than the wetted river channel itself, is an increasingly common unit of study. Main channel exchange with recirculating marginal waters, hyporheic exchange, bank storage, and overbank flow onto floodplains are all included under a broad continuum of interactions known as “hydrologic exchange flows.” Hydrologists, geomorphologists, geochemists, and aquatic and terrestrial ecologists are cooperating in studies that reveal the dynamic interactions among hydrologic exchange flows and consequences for water quality improvement, modulation of river metabolism, habitat provision for vegetation, fish, and wildlife, and other valued ecosystem services. The need for better integration of science and management is keenly felt, from testing effectiveness of stream restoration and riparian buffers all the way to reevaluating the definition of the waters of the United States to clarify the regulatory authority under the Clean Water Act. A major challenge for scientists is linking the small-scale physical drivers with their larger-scale fluvial and geomorphic context and ecological consequences. Although the fine scales of field and laboratory studies are best suited to identifying the fundamental physical and biological processes, that understanding must be successfully linked to cumulative effects at watershed to regional and continental scales.

  14. Competitive exclusion: an ecological model demonstrates how research metrics can drive women out of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hapgood, K.

    2012-12-01

    While universities are often perceived within the wider population as a flexible family-friendly work environment, continuous full-time employment remains the norm in tenure track roles. This traditional career path is strongly re-inforced by research metrics, which typically measure accumulated historical performance. There is a strong feedback between historical and future research output, and there is a minimum threshold of research output below which it becomes very difficult to attract funding, high quality students and collaborators. The competing timescales of female fertility and establishment of a research career mean that many women do not exceed this threshold before having children. Using a mathematical model taken from an ecological analogy, we demonstrate how these mechanisms create substantial barriers to pursuing a research career while working part-time or returning from extended parental leave. The model highlights a conundrum for research managers: metrics can promote research productivity and excellence within an organisation, but can classify highly capable scientists as poor performers simply because they have not followed the traditional career path of continuous full-time employment. Based on this analysis, we make concrete recommendations for researchers and managers seeking to retain the skills and training invested in female scientists. We also provide survival tactics for women and men who wish to pursue a career in science while also spending substantial time and energy raising their family.

  15. Generalized bibliographic format as used by the Ecological Sciences Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, L.J.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Collier, B.N.

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information data base has a number of identifying characteristics. Each of these characteristics or data fields can be recognized and searched by the computer. The information for each field must have an alphanumeric label or field descriptor. All of the labels presently used are sets of upper-case letters approximating the name of the field they represent. Presently, there are 69 identified fields; additional fields may be included in the future. The format defined here is designed to facilitate the input of information to the ADSEP program. This program processes data for the ORNL on-line (ORLOOK) search system and is a special case of the ADSEP text input option

  16. Beyond 3-D: The New Spectrum of Lidar Applications for Earth and Ecological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Jan U. H.; Hofle, Bernhard; Vierling, Lee A.; Abellan, Antonio; Asner, Gregory P.; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Glennie, Craig L.; Joerg, Phillip C.; LeWinter, Adam L.; Magney, Troy S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Capturing and quantifying the world in three dimensions (x,y,z) using light detection and ranging (lidar) technology drives fundamental advances in the Earth and Ecological Sciences (EES). However, additional lidar dimensions offer the possibility to transcend basic 3-D mapping capabilities, including i) the physical time (t) dimension from repeat lidar acquisition and ii) laser return intensity (LRI?) data dimension based on the brightness of single- or multi-wavelength (?) laser returns. The additional dimensions thus add to the x,y, and z dimensions to constitute the five dimensions of lidar (x,y,z, t, LRI?1... ?n). This broader spectrum of lidar dimensionality has already revealed new insights across multiple EES topics, and will enable a wide range of new research and applications. Here, we review recent advances based on repeat lidar collections and analysis of LRI data to highlight novel applications of lidar remote sensing beyond 3-D. Our review outlines the potential and current challenges of time and LRI information from lidar sensors to expand the scope of research applications and insights across the full range of EES applications.

  17. Generalized bibliographic format as used by the Ecological Sciences Information Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, L.J.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Collier, B.N.

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information data base has a number of identifying characteristics. Each of these characteristics or data fields can be recognized and searched by the computer. The information for each field must have an alphanumeric label or field descriptor. All of the labels presently used are sets of upper-case letters approximating the name of the field they represent. Presently, there are 69 identified fields; additional fields may be included in the future. The format defined here is designed to facilitate the input of information to the ADSEP program. This program processes data for the ORNL on-line (ORLOOK) search system and is a special case of the ADSEP text input option.

  18. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  19. On the Science-Policy Bridge: Do Spatial Heat Vulnerability Assessment Studies Influence Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wolf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human vulnerability to heat varies at a range of spatial scales, especially within cities where there can be noticeable intra-urban differences in heat risk factors. Mapping and visualizing intra-urban heat vulnerability offers opportunities for presenting information to support decision-making. For example the visualization of the spatial variation of heat vulnerability has the potential to enable local governments to identify hot spots of vulnerability and allocate resources and increase assistance to people in areas of greatest need. Recently there has been a proliferation of heat vulnerability mapping studies, all of which, to varying degrees, justify the process of vulnerability mapping in a policy context. However, to date, there has not been a systematic review of the extent to which the results of vulnerability mapping studies have been applied in decision-making. Accordingly we undertook a comprehensive review of 37 recently published papers that use geospatial techniques for assessing human vulnerability to heat. In addition, we conducted an anonymous survey of the lead authors of the 37 papers in order to establish the level of interaction between the researchers as science information producers and local authorities as information users. Both paper review and author survey results show that heat vulnerability mapping has been used in an attempt to communicate policy recommendations, raise awareness and induce institutional networking and learning, but has not as yet had a substantive influence on policymaking or preventive action.

  20. On the Science-Policy Bridge: Do Spatial Heat Vulnerability Assessment Studies Influence Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Tanja; Chuang, Wen-Ching; McGregor, Glenn

    2015-10-23

    Human vulnerability to heat varies at a range of spatial scales, especially within cities where there can be noticeable intra-urban differences in heat risk factors. Mapping and visualizing intra-urban heat vulnerability offers opportunities for presenting information to support decision-making. For example the visualization of the spatial variation of heat vulnerability has the potential to enable local governments to identify hot spots of vulnerability and allocate resources and increase assistance to people in areas of greatest need. Recently there has been a proliferation of heat vulnerability mapping studies, all of which, to varying degrees, justify the process of vulnerability mapping in a policy context. However, to date, there has not been a systematic review of the extent to which the results of vulnerability mapping studies have been applied in decision-making. Accordingly we undertook a comprehensive review of 37 recently published papers that use geospatial techniques for assessing human vulnerability to heat. In addition, we conducted an anonymous survey of the lead authors of the 37 papers in order to establish the level of interaction between the researchers as science information producers and local authorities as information users. Both paper review and author survey results show that heat vulnerability mapping has been used in an attempt to communicate policy recommendations, raise awareness and induce institutional networking and learning, but has not as yet had a substantive influence on policymaking or preventive action.

  1. Bridging the Science-Management Divide: Moving from Unidirectional Knowledge Transfer to Knowledge Interfacing and Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Roux

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable ecosystem management relies on a diverse and multi-faceted knowledge system in which techniques are continuously updated to reflect current understanding and needs. The challenge is to minimize delay as ideas flow from intent through scientific capability, and finally to implementation to achieve desired outcomes. The best way to do this is by setting the stage for the flow of knowledge between researchers, policy makers, and resource managers. The cultural differences between these groups magnify the challenge. This paper highlights the importance of the tacit dimension of knowledge, and how this renders the concept of knowledge transfer much less useful than the concepts of information transfer and technology transfer. Instead of knowledge transfer, we propose that "co-production" of knowledge through collaborative learning between "experts" and "users" is a more suitable approach to building a knowledge system for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This can be achieved through knowledge interfacing and sharing, but requires a shift from a view of knowledge as a "thing" that can be transferred to viewing knowledge as a "process of relating" that involves negotiation of meaning among partners. Lessons from informal communities of practice provide guidance on how to nurture and promote knowledge interfacing between science and management in R&D programs.

  2. Bridging the social and the biomedical: engaging the social and political sciences in HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan C; Holt, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-09-27

    This supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society focuses on the engagement of the social and political sciences within HIV research and, in particular, maintaining a productive relationship between social and biomedical perspectives on HIV. It responds to a number of concerns raised primarily by social scientists, but also recognized as important by biomedical and public health researchers. These concerns include how best to understand the impact of medical technologies (such as HIV treatments, HIV testing, viral load testing, male circumcision, microbicides, and pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis) on sexual cultures, drug practices, relationships and social networks in different cultural, economic and political contexts. The supplement is also concerned with how we might examine the relationship between HIV prevention and treatment, understand the social and political mobilization required to tackle HIV, and sustain the range of disciplinary approaches needed to inform and guide responses to the global pandemic. The six articles included in the supplement demonstrate the value of fostering high quality social and political research to inform, guide and challenge our collaborative responses to HIV/AIDS.

  3. Former Hawaii Restoration Ecologist Now Favors 'Tinkering' Over Rigor. Review of Cabin, Robert J. 2011. Intelligent tinkering: bridging the gap between science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Cordell

    2012-01-01

    In his new book, Bob Cabin uses his personal involvement in the restoration of Hawai'i dry forests to illustrate the tensions that he feels exists between the science and practice of ecological restoration. It is a journey that starts out among the multidisciplinary, multi-interest perspectives associated with a grass-roots communitybased working group (Part 1,...

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1980-02-01

    Research in Environment, Health, and Safety conducted during fiscal year 1979 is reported. This volume consists of project reports from the Ecological Sciences research department. The reports are grouped under the following subject areas: National Environmental Research Park and land use; Alaskan resource research; shale oil; synfuels; nuclear waste; fission; marine research programs; statistical development of field research; nuclear fusion; pumped storage and hydroelectric development; pathways modelling, assessment and Hanford project support; electric field and microwave research; and energy research for other agencies

  5. Confluence of arts, humanities, and science at sites of long-term ecological inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, ecology, the arts, and humanities diverged, but are now converging again, especially at sites of long-term, place-based ecological inquiry. This convergence has been inspired in part by the works of creative, boundary-spanning individuals and the long-standing examples of artshumanities programs in intriguing landscapes, such as artist and writer...

  6. Searching for Synergy: Integrating Traditional and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Robin Wall

    2012-01-01

    Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…

  7. Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness. Part 2. Ecological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1982-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences

  8. Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness. Part 2. Ecological Sciences. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1982-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences.

  9. From Civic Conservation to the Age of Ecology: The Rise and Synthesis of Ecological Ideas in the American High School Science Curriculum, 1900-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological ideas have been manifested in diverse ways in American high schools since the early twentieth century. Core scientific concepts in ecology--the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment--include adaptations, plant succession, ecosystem ecology, and population ecology. This dissertation argues, however, that there…

  10. Fire!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Chemistry and Fire Ecology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or physical science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  11. How landscape ecology informs global land-change science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey L. Mayer; Brian Buma; Am??lie Davis; Sara A. Gagn??; E. Louise Loudermilk; Robert M. Scheller; Fiona K.A. Schmiegelow; Yolanda F. Wiersma; Janet Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Landscape ecology is a discipline that explicitly considers the influence of time and space on the environmental patterns we observe and the processes that create them. Although many of the topics studied in landscape ecology have public policy implications, three are of particular concern: climate change; land use–land cover change (LULCC); and a particular type of...

  12. French citizens monitoring ordinary birds provide tools for conservation and ecological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Julliard, Romain; Couvet, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Volunteer-based standardized monitoring of birds has been widely implemented in Europe and North America. In France, a breeding bird survey is running since 1989 and offers keen birdwatchers to count spring birds annually during 5 min exactly on 10 fix points within a randomly selected square. The first goal of such breeding bird surveys is to measure temporal trends in order to detect possible species declines. Combining annual indices of species sharing ecological affinities or a protected/red list status further provides biodiversity indicators for policy makers. Because the sampling effort is similar among sites, and because the initial selection of monitored sites is random, the temporal trends can be considered representative of national trends, and spatial comparisons of the obtained metrics are possible. Species abundance, community richness but also community specialization and average trophic level can be estimated for each site and each year and further related to the wide range of habitat and landscape characteristics and to agricultural or forestry practices. The large number of sites allows overcoming the opposition between adaptive and passive monitoring, making such schemes fitted to adaptive monitoring. This provides opportunities to determine which type of management or practices favour biodiversity. The comparison of population fate or community dynamics across a wide range of climates and temperatures, e.g. from southern to northern Europe, revealed how European birds are already affected by climate change. Bird communities are shifting northwards, but at a slower rate than temperatures, while bird populations have larger growth rates away from their hot thermal limit. Finally, such large-scale long-term monitoring data on a complete taxonomic group (Aves) is original and offers the opportunity to compare different measures of biological diversity, such as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Such a citizen science scheme is an

  13. Bridging Anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical centers in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. A more detailed description of the study is ... Your Personal Message Send Message Share on Social Media Bridging Anticoagulation The BRIDGE Study Investigators Circulation. 2012; ...

  14. BioVeL: a virtual laboratory for data analysis and modelling in biodiversity science and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Alex R; Bacall, Finn; Beard, Niall; Balcázar-Vargas, Maria-Paula; Balech, Bachir; Barcza, Zoltán; Bourlat, Sarah J; De Giovanni, Renato; de Jong, Yde; De Leo, Francesca; Dobor, Laura; Donvito, Giacinto; Fellows, Donal; Guerra, Antonio Fernandez; Ferreira, Nuno; Fetyukova, Yuliya; Fosso, Bruno; Giddy, Jonathan; Goble, Carole; Güntsch, Anton; Haines, Robert; Ernst, Vera Hernández; Hettling, Hannes; Hidy, Dóra; Horváth, Ferenc; Ittzés, Dóra; Ittzés, Péter; Jones, Andrew; Kottmann, Renzo; Kulawik, Robert; Leidenberger, Sonja; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Mathew, Cherian; Morrison, Norman; Nenadic, Aleksandra; de la Hidalga, Abraham Nieva; Obst, Matthias; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Paymal, Elisabeth; Pesole, Graziano; Pinto, Salvatore; Poigné, Axel; Fernandez, Francisco Quevedo; Santamaria, Monica; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Sipos, Gergely; Sylla, Karl-Heinz; Tähtinen, Marko; Vicario, Saverio; Vos, Rutger Aldo; Williams, Alan R; Yilmaz, Pelin

    2016-10-20

    Making forecasts about biodiversity and giving support to policy relies increasingly on large collections of data held electronically, and on substantial computational capability and capacity to analyse, model, simulate and predict using such data. However, the physically distributed nature of data resources and of expertise in advanced analytical tools creates many challenges for the modern scientist. Across the wider biological sciences, presenting such capabilities on the Internet (as "Web services") and using scientific workflow systems to compose them for particular tasks is a practical way to carry out robust "in silico" science. However, use of this approach in biodiversity science and ecology has thus far been quite limited. BioVeL is a virtual laboratory for data analysis and modelling in biodiversity science and ecology, freely accessible via the Internet. BioVeL includes functions for accessing and analysing data through curated Web services; for performing complex in silico analysis through exposure of R programs, workflows, and batch processing functions; for on-line collaboration through sharing of workflows and workflow runs; for experiment documentation through reproducibility and repeatability; and for computational support via seamless connections to supporting computing infrastructures. We developed and improved more than 60 Web services with significant potential in many different kinds of data analysis and modelling tasks. We composed reusable workflows using these Web services, also incorporating R programs. Deploying these tools into an easy-to-use and accessible 'virtual laboratory', free via the Internet, we applied the workflows in several diverse case studies. We opened the virtual laboratory for public use and through a programme of external engagement we actively encouraged scientists and third party application and tool developers to try out the services and contribute to the activity. Our work shows we can deliver an operational

  15. Wabanaki Youth in Science (WaYS): A Tribal Mentoring and Educational Program Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    tish carr; Laura S. Kenefic; Darren J. Ranco

    2017-01-01

    The Wabanaki Youth in Science (WaYS) program provides mentoring and training opportunities in the life sciences for Native American youth in Maine. This program, which was motivated by a shortage of young natural resource professionals to manage tribal lands, uses a multifaceted approach (i.e., camps, community outreach, and internships with cultural resource and...

  16. 77 FR 22316 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Ecological Processes and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory... . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http... appropriate SAB Staff Office procedural policies. EPA's Office of the Science Advisor has requested that the...

  17. 77 FR 4319 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Ecological Processes and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory... . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http... to recommendations in a 2007 SAB Report, ``Advice to EPA on Advancing the Science and Application of...

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1980-02-01

    Research in Environment, Health, and Safety conducted during fiscal year 1979 is reported. This volume consists of project reports from the Ecological Sciences research department. The reports are grouped under the following subject areas: National Environmental Research Park and land use; Alaskan resource research; shale oil; synfuels; nuclear waste; fission; marine research programs; statistical development of field research; nuclear fusion; pumped storage and hydroelectric development; pathways modelling, assessment and Hanford project support; electric field and microwave research; and energy research for other agencies. (ACR)

  19. Is an Early Start the Best Start?: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Political Science Summer Bridge Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Gina Serignese; Herrera, Richard; Thompson, Joshua R.; Ortega, Jorge Coss

    2017-01-01

    Summer bridge programs are supposed to connect a graduating high school senior's summer to their first semester in college, easing the transition away from home and into a university setting. Although research is plentiful on the programs, assessments regarding the overall effectiveness of such programs have been mixed (e.g., Cabrera, Miner, and…

  20. The ecosystem services agenda: bridging the worlds of natural science and economics, conservation and development, and public and private policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Groot, de R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The Ecosystem Services Journal starts in 2012 with a formidable basis in the reports and books from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and TEEB projects. Following a half-century history of growing awareness and associated scientific based policy development a bridging concept with natural and

  1. State of the science and challenges of breeding landscape plants with ecological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, H Dayton; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Colson, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Exotic plants dominate esthetically-managed landscapes, which cover 30–40 million hectares in the United States alone. Recent ecological studies have found that landscaping with exotic plant species can reduce biodiversity on multiple trophic levels. To support biodiversity in urbanized areas, the increased use of native landscaping plants has been advocated by conservation groups and US federal and state agencies. A major challenge to scaling up the use of native species in landscaping is providing ornamental plants that are both ecologically functional and economically viable. Depending on ecological and economic constraints, accelerated breeding approaches could be applied to ornamental trait development in native plants. This review examines the impact of landscaping choices on biodiversity, the current status of breeding and selection of native ornamental plants, and the interdisciplinary research needed to scale up landscaping plants that can support native biodiversity. PMID:26504560

  2. Natural histories of infectious disease: ecological vision in twentieth-century biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2004-01-01

    During the twentieth century, disease ecology emerged as a distinct disciplinary network within infectious diseases research. The key figures were Theobald Smith, F. Macfarlane Burnet, René Dubos, and Frank Fenner. They all drew on Darwinian evolutionism to fashion an integrative (but rarely holistic) understanding of disease processes, distinguishing themselves from reductionist "chemists" and mere "microbe hunters." They sought a more complex, biologically informed epidemiology. Their emphasis on competition and mutualism in the animated environment differed from the physical determinism that prevailed in much medical geography and environmental health research. Disease ecology derived in part from studies of the interaction of organisms - micro and macro - in tropical medicine, veterinary pathology, and immunology. It developed in postcolonial settler societies. Once a minority interest, disease ecology has attracted more attention since the 1980s for its explanations of disease emergence, antibiotic resistance, bioterrorism, and the health impacts of climate change.

  3. The Rise and Demise of the International Council for Science Policy Studies (ICSPS) as a Cold War Bridging Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Aant

    2012-01-01

    When the journal "Minerva" was founded in 1962, science and higher educational issues were high on the agenda, lending impetus to the interdisciplinary field of "Science Studies" "qua" "Science Policy Studies." As government expenditures for promoting various branches of science increased dramatically on…

  4. Ecological Design of Fernery based on Bioregion Classification System in Ecopark Cibinong Science Center Botanic Gardens, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar, S.; Gunawan, A.

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia as mega biodiversity country has a wide variety of ferns. However, the natural habitats of ferns are currently degrading, particularly in lowlands due to the increasing level of urban-sprawl and industrial zones development. Therefore, Ecology Park (Ecopark) Cibinong Science Center-Botanic Gardens as an ex-situ conservation area is expected to be the best location to conserve the lowland ferns. The purpose of this study is to design a fernery through an ecological landscape design process. The main concept is The Journey of Fern, this concept aiming on providing users experiences in fernery by associating conservational, educational, and recreational aspects. Ecological landscape design as general is applied by the principal of reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R). Bioregion classification system is applied by grouping the plants based on the characteristics of light, water, soil, air, and temperature. The design concept is inspired by the morphology of fern and its growth patterns which is transformed into organic and geometric forms. The result of this study is a design of fernery which consist of welcome area, recreation area, service area, and conservation education area as the main area that providing 66 species of ferns.

  5. A conceptual change analysis of nature of science conceptions: The deep roots and entangled vines of a conceptual ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Adam Thomas

    This research used theories of conceptual change to analyze learners' understandings of the nature of science (NOS). Ideas regarding the NOS have been advocated as vital aspects of science literacy, yet learners at many levels (students and teachers) have difficulty in understanding these aspects in the way that science literacy reforms advocate. Although previous research has shown the inadequacies in learners' NOS understandings and have documented ways by which to improve some of these understandings, little has been done to show how these ideas develop and why learners' preexisting conceptions of NOS are so resistant to conceptual change. The premise of this study, then, was to describe the nature of NOS conceptions and of the conceptual change process itself by deeply analyzing the conceptions of individual learners. Toward this end, 4 individuals enrolled in a physical science course designed for preservice elementary teachers were selected to participate in a qualitative research study. These individuals answered questionnaires, surveys, direct interview questions, and a variety of interview probes (e.g., critical incidents, responses to readings/videos, reflections on coursework, card sorting tasks, etc.) which were administered throughout the duration of a semester. By utilizing these in-depth, qualitative probes, learners' conceptions were not only assessed but also described in great detail, revealing the source of their conceptions as well as identifying many instances in which a learner's directly stated conception was contradictory to that which was reflected by more indirect probes. As a result of this research, implications regarding NOS conceptions and their development have been described. In addition, various descriptions of conceptual change have been further refined and informed. Especially notable, the influence of a learner's conceptual ecology and its extrarational influences on conceptual change have been highlighted. It is argued that

  6. Art/Science Collaborations: New Explorations of Ecological Systems, Values, and their Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron M. Ellison; Carri J. LeRoy; Kim J. Landsbergen; Emily Bosanquet; David Buckley Borden; Paul J. CaraDonna; Katherine Cheney; Robert Crystal-Ornelas; Ardis DeFreece; Lissy Goralnik; Ellie Irons; Bethann Garramon Merkle; Kari E. B. O' Connell; Clint A. Penick; Lindsey Rustad; Mark Schulze; Nickolas M. Waser; Linda M. Wysong

    2018-01-01

    Collaborations between artists and scientists have a long history. In recent years, artists have joined with ecologists to showcase biodiversity, links between biodiversity and ecosystem function, and the effects of human activities on the broader environment. In many cases, artists also have provided “broader impacts” for ecological research activities, communicating...

  7. Social science in the context of the long term ecological research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted L. Gragson; Morgan Grove

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of Society and Natural Resources brings the results of long-term ecological research with an explicit social dimension to the attention of the social scientific research community. Contributions are from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER, the Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER, the Coweeta LTER and the Northern Temperate Lakes LTER. The range of practice...

  8. Ecological corridors, connecting science and politics : the case of the Green River in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Windt, Henny J.; Swart, J. A. A.

    1. During recent decades, the ecological corridor has become a popular concept among ecologists, politicians and nature conservationists. However, it has been criticized from a scientific point of view. In this paper we question why this concept has been accepted so readily in policy and practice.

  9. The Reciprocal Links between Evolutionary-Ecological Sciences and Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the reciprocal relationships between the sciences and environmental ethics by examining the Darwinian theory of evolution and discussing its implications for ecologists and ethicists. (CCM)

  10. Transforming "Ecosystem" from a Scientific Concept into a Teachable Topic: Philosophy and History of Ecology Informs Science Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Efimia; Stamou, George

    2017-04-01

    This study conducts a textbook analysis in the frame of the following working hypothesis: The transformation of scientific knowledge into school knowledge is expected to reproduce the problems encountered with the scientific knowledge itself or generate additional problems, which may both induce misconceptions in textbook users. Specifically, we describe four epistemological problems associated with how the concept of "ecosystem" is elaborated within ecological science and we examine how each problem is reproduced in the biology textbook utilized by Greek students in the 12th grade and the resulting teacher and student misunderstandings that may occur. Our research demonstrates that the authors of the textbook address these problems by appealing simultaneously to holistic and reductionist ideas. This results in a meaningless and confused depiction of "ecosystem" and may provoke many serious misconceptions on the part of textbook users, for example, that an ecosystem is a system that can be applied to every set of interrelated ecological objects irrespective of the organizational level to which these entities belong or how these entities are related to each other. The implications of these phenomena for science education research are discussed from a perspective that stresses the role of background assumptions in the understanding of declarative knowledge.

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  12. An Ecological System Curriculum: An Integrated MST Approach to Environmental Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Nina A.

    This paper describes an inquiry-based, student-centered mathematics, science, and technology curriculum guide. It features activities addressing such environmental science topics as groundwater modeling, water filtration, soil permeability and porosity, water temperature and salinity, and quadrant studies. Activities are organized so that the…

  13. What Makes Science Relevant?: Student Perceptions of Multimedia Case Learning in Ecology and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Lundeberg, Mary A.; Bergland, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The perception of science as boring is a major issue for teachers at all instructional levels. Tertiary classes especially suffer from a reputation for being dry, instructor-centered, and irrelevant to the lives of students. However, previous research has shown that science can be interesting to students if it is presented in such a manner as to…

  14. Exploring dimensions, scales, and cross-scale dynamics from the perspectives of change agents in social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, J.M.; Rutting, L.; Kok, K.; Hermans, F.L.P.; Veldkamp, A.; Bregt, A.K.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of scale play a crucial role in the governance of social–ecological systems. Yet, attempts to bridge interdisciplinary perspectives on the role of scale have thus far largely been limited to the science arena. This study has extended the scale vocabulary to allow for the inclusion of

  15. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  16. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila-Viçosa Carlos M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved.

  17. Measuring sustainability. Why the ecological footprint is bad economics and bad environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiala, Nathan [Department of Economics, University of California, Irvine, 3151 Social Science Plaza, Irvine, CA 92697-5100 (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The ecological footprint is a measure of the resources necessary to produce the goods that an individual or population consumes. It is also used as a measure of sustainability, though evidence suggests that it falls short. The assumptions behind footprint calculations have been extensively criticized; I present here further evidence that it fails to satisfy simple economic principles because the basic assumptions are contradicted by both theory and historical data. Specifically, I argue that the footprint arbitrarily assumes both zero greenhouse gas emissions, which may not be ex ante optimal, and national boundaries, which makes extrapolating from the average ecological footprint problematic. The footprint also cannot take into account intensive production, and so comparisons to biocapacity are erroneous. Using only the assumptions of the footprint then, one could argue that the Earth can sustain greatly increased production, though there are important limitations that the footprint cannot address, such as land degradation. Finally, the lack of correlation between land degradation and the ecological footprint obscures the effects of a larger sustainability problem. Better measures of sustainability would address these issues directly. (author)

  18. Synergy Between Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Conservation Science Supports Forest Preservation in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dustin Becker

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the desires of individuals while sustaining ecological "public goods" is a central challenge in natural resources conservation. Indigenous communities routinely make common property decisions balancing benefits to individuals with benefits to their communities. Such traditional knowledge offers insight for conservation. Using surveys and field observations, this case study examines aspects of indigenous institutions and ecological knowledge used by rural Ecuadorians to manage a forest commons before and after interacting with two U.S.-based conservation NGOs: Earthwatch Institute and People Allied for Nature. The rural farming community of Loma Alta has legal property rights to a 6842-ha watershed in western Ecuador. This self-governing community curtailed destruction of their moist forest commons, but not without the influence of modern scientific ecological knowledge. When Earthwatch Institute scientists provided evidence that forest clearing would reduce water supply to the community, villagers quickly modified land allocation patterns and set rules of use in the forest establishing the first community-owned forest reserve in western Ecuador. This case demonstrates that synergy between traditional knowledge and western knowledge can result in sustaining both ecosystem services and biodiversity in a forest commons.

  19. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

  20. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Mohr, R; Benbow, M E; Tarone, A M; VanLaerhoven, S

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council issued a report in 2009 that heavily criticized the forensic sciences. The report made several recommendations that if addressed would allow the forensic sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology and forensic entomology hinging on a framework built on basic research concepts in ecology, evolution, and genetics. Unifying both basic and applied research fields under a common umbrella of terminology and structure would facilitate communication in the field and the production of scientific results. It would also help to identify novel research areas leading to a better understanding of principal underpinnings governing ecosystem structure, function, and evolution while increasing the accuracy of and ability to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge can be built between basic and applied decomposition ecology research, culminating in science that could withstand the rigors of emerging legal and cultural expectations.

  1. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  2. Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Manu E; Duffy, Meghan A; Heard, Stephen B; Kosmala, Margaret; Leather, Simon R; McGlynn, Terrence P; Ollerton, Jeff; Parachnowitsch, Amy L

    2017-10-01

    The popularity of science blogging has increased in recent years, but the number of academic scientists who maintain regular blogs is limited. The role and impact of science communication blogs aimed at general audiences is often discussed, but the value of science community blogs aimed at the academic community has largely been overlooked. Here, we focus on our own experiences as bloggers to argue that science community blogs are valuable to the academic community. We use data from our own blogs ( n  = 7) to illustrate some of the factors influencing reach and impact of science community blogs. We then discuss the value of blogs as a standalone medium, where rapid communication of scholarly ideas, opinions and short observational notes can enhance scientific discourse, and discussion of personal experiences can provide indirect mentorship for junior researchers and scientists from underrepresented groups. Finally, we argue that science community blogs can be treated as a primary source and provide some key points to consider when citing blogs in peer-reviewed literature.

  3. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  4. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—A synthesis of science, 2005 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Albers, Janice L.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B; Haas, Justin D.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    This report is intended to synthesize the state of the scientific understanding of pallid sturgeon ecological requirements to provide recommendations for future science directions and context for Missouri River restoration and management decisions. Recruitment of pallid sturgeon has been low to non-existent throughout its range. Emerging understanding of the genetic structure of pallid sturgeon populations sets a broad framework for species and river management decisions, including decisions about managing the future genetic diversity of the species, but also decisions about where and what type of river restoration actions will be effective for subpopulations of this highly migratory species. Adult pallid sturgeon may migrate hundreds of kilometers (km) to spawn and their progeny may disperse even greater distances downstream as drifting free embryos. As a result of their complex life history pallid sturgeon naturally exploit a wide range of habitats during their life cycles. The construction of dams and reservoirs has fragmented habitats and may have shifted Missouri River subpopulations downstream. Research has not identified one primary biological or ecological constraint that appears to limit populations of the pallid sturgeon. With the present (2013) state of knowledge many life stages and life-stage transitions cannot be ruled out as contributing to recruitment failure.

  5. Integrating Remote Sensing and Citizen Science to Study the Environmental Context and Ecological Consequences of Returning Avian Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, B.; McCabe, J.; Yin, H.; Pidgeon, A. M.; Bonter, D. N.; Radeloff, V.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization causes the simplification of animal communities dominated by exotic and invasive species with few top predators. In recent years, however, many animal predators (e.g., coyotes, cougars, and hawks) have become increasingly common in urban environments. As predator recovery is central to the mission of conservation biology, this colonization of urban environments represents a unique experiment in predator colonization and its associated ecological consequences. One such predator that is recovering from decades of widespread population declines are accipiter hawks. These woodland hawks are widely distributed throughout North America and are increasingly common in urban and suburban landscapes. Using data from Project FeederWatch, a national citizen science program, we quantified 25 years (1990-2015) of changes in the spatiotemporal dynamics of accipiter hawks in Washington D.C. and Chicago. We estimated change in hawk occupancy over time and identified the environmental characteristics associated with occupancy for two accipiter hawk species, Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus), using Bayesian hierarchical models and remotely-sensed temperature (MODIS) and land cover data (NLCD). We found the proportion of sites recording the presence of accipiter hawks increased from 10% in the early 1990's to over 80% in 2015. This increase in occupancy followed a discrete pattern of establishment, growth, and saturation. Colonizing hawks were more strongly associated with remnant forest patches in urban environments. Over time, we found hawks became more tolerant of urban landscapes with higher amounts of impervious surface, suggesting that these predators became adapted to urbanization. The implications of returning predators and altered ecological dynamics in urban environments is of critical importance to conservation biology, and integrating remote sensing observations and citizen science allowed for an unprecedented

  6. Meaningful Statistics in Professional Practices as a Bridge between Mathematics and Science: An Evaluation of a Design Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorp, Adri; Bakker, Arthur; van Maanen, Jan A.; Eijkelhof, Harrie M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Creating coherence between school subjects mathematics and science and making these school subjects meaningful are still topical challenges. This study investigates how students make meaningful connections between mathematics, statistics, science and applications when they engage in a specially developed unit that is based on…

  7. Earth Science Data Analytics: Bridging Tools and Techniques with the Co-Analysis of Large, Heterogeneous Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Mathews, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The continuum of ever-evolving data management systems affords great opportunities to the enhancement of knowledge and facilitation of science research. To take advantage of these opportunities, it is essential to understand and develop methods that enable data relationships to be examined and the information to be manipulated. This presentation describes the efforts of the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster to understand, define, and facilitate the implementation of ESDA to advance science research. As a result of the void of Earth science data analytics publication material, the cluster has defined ESDA along with 10 goals to set the framework for a common understanding of tools and techniques that are available and still needed to support ESDA.

  8. Results of the studies of radiation ecology and radiation biology at the Institute of Biology of Komi Science Centre, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences. (On the 40th anniversary of the radiation ecology department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, A.I.; Kudyasheva, A.G.; Popova, O.N.; Materij, L.D.; Shuktomova, I.I.; Frolova, N.P.; Kozubov, G.M.; Zajnullin, V.G.; Ermakova, O.V.; Rakin, A.O.; Bashlykova, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Materials on the history of foundation of the radiation Ecology Department at the Institute of Biology of the Komi Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the occasion of its 40-th anniversary are presented. The results of studies on radiation effects in low doses on the plant and animal populations as well as on radionuclide migration in natural biogeocenoses by increased radiation levels are analyzed. The performed complex studies were used as the basis for developing methodological approaches to the solution of a number of problems on the surface radioecology. Multiyear studies on the biogeocenoses of increased radioactivity of different origin made it possible to obtain multiple materials, indicating high diversity and specificity of reaction of living organisms in response to the background low level chronic irradiation. Attention was paid to studies on the Komi contamination by atmospheric radioactive fall-outs as well as to studies on the consequences of radioactive contamination of the Ukrainian Polesje due to the Chernobyl accident [ru

  9. Science, ethics, and the historical roots of our ecological crisis - was White right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1967 historian Lynn White Jr. suggested that values developed and perpetuated by Christian theology permeate Western science and technology and are responsible for human's seemingly continuous abuse of the environment. Our failure to solve environmental problems is due to a belief that humans are...

  10. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  11. An ecological perspective of science and math academic achievement among African American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Endya Bentley

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), path analytic procedures were performed to test an ecological model of the effects of family, individual and school characteristics on the academic African American students. A distinctive study is the inclusion of school computer use in the model. The study results show that several of the variables directly or indirectly affected 12th grade academic achievement. Furthermore, most of the individual influence variables were directly related to 12 th grade achievement. Two surprising findings from this study were the insignificant effects of family income and school computer use on 12 th grade achievement. Overall, the findings support the notion that family, individual, and school characteristics are important predictors of academic success among African American students.

  12. Linking ecological science to decision-making: delivering environmental monitoring information as societal feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Hague; Whitelaw, Graham; Craig, Brian; Stewart, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network's (EMAN) operational and program response to certain challenges of environmental monitoring in Canada, in particular, efforts to improve the ability of the network to deliver relevant information to decision makers. In addition to its familiar roles, environmental monitoring should deliver feedback to society on environmental changes associated with development patterns, trends, processes and interventions. In order for such feedback to be effective, it must be relevant, timely, useful and accessible: all characteristics that are defined by the user, not the provider. Demand driven environmental monitoring is explored through EMAN's experiences with Canada's Biosphere Reserves, the NatureWatch Program and the Canadian Community Monitoring Network.

  13. Perspective: Transforming science into medicine: how clinician-scientists can build bridges across research's "valley of death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Scott F; Fischhoff, Martin A; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L

    2012-03-01

    Significant increases in National Institutes of Health (NIH) spending on medical research have not produced corresponding increases in new treatments and cures. Instead, laboratory discoveries remain in what has been termed the "valley of death," the gap between bench research and clinical application. Recently, there has been considerable discussion in the literature and scientific community about the causes of this phenomenon and how to bridge the abyss. In this article, the authors examine one possible explanation: Clinician-scientists' declining role in the medical research enterprise has had a dilatory effect on the successful translation of laboratory breakthroughs into new clinical applications. In recent decades, the percentage of MDs receiving NIH funding has drastically decreased compared with PhDs. The growing gap between the research and clinical enterprises has resulted in fewer scientists with a true understanding of clinical problems as well as scientists who are unable to or uninterested in gleaning new basic research hypotheses from failed clinical trials. The NIH and many U.S. medical schools have recognized the decline of the clinician-scientist as a major problem and adopted innovative programs to reverse the trend. However, more radical action may be required, including major changes to the NIH peer-review process, greater funding for translational research, and significantly more resources for the training, debt relief, and early career support of potential clinician-scientists. Such improvements are required for clinician-scientists to conduct translational research that bridges the valley of death and transforms biomedical research discoveries into tangible clinical treatments and technologies.

  14. The Impact of High School Science Teachers' Beliefs, Curricular Enactments and Experience on Student Learning during an Inquiry-Based Urban Ecology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Pimentel, Diane Silva; Strauss, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Inquiry-based curricula are an essential tool for reforming science education yet the role of the teacher is often overlooked in terms of the impact of the curriculum on student achievement. Our research focuses on 22 teachers' use of a year-long high school urban ecology curriculum and how teachers' self-efficacy, instructional practices,…

  15. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  16. Ensuring that ecological science contributes to natural resource management using a Delphi-derived approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Arthur, Taryn A [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This chapter approaches participatory modeling in environmental decision making from an atypical perspective. It broadly addresses the question of how to assure that science conducted to assist practitioners improves resource management. More specifically, it describes a case involving environmental science and natural resource management at Fort Benning, a U.S. Army installation in the southeastern United States where disparate environmental research projects were funded by a single federal agency to enhance the ability of Fort Benning resource managers to achieve their resource management goals. The role of our effort was to integrate the scientific studies in a manner that would be meaningful and useful for resource managers. Hence we assembled a team consisting of an anthropologist, ecologist, microbiologist, statistician, and geographic information systems specialist who developed a common framework that served as the basis for this integration. The team first used a Delphi expert elicitation, which evolved into an approach more akin to facilitated negotiation. This second approach arose organically, particularly when our team took advantage of an opportunity for face-to-face interaction. Although the shift in our approach was unplanned, it proved to be highly productive. We discuss the potential utility of our approach for other situations and suggest that it would be useful to initiate at the beginning of research where the aim is to produce scientific results that meet practitioners needs, specifically in the realm of environmental science and resource management.

  17. Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkema, Katie K; Griffin, Robert; Maldonado, Sergio; Silver, Jessica; Suckale, Jenny; Guerry, Anne D

    2017-07-01

    Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecting property. We operationalize the concept of natural and nature-based solutions for coastal protection by adopting an ecosystem services framework that propagates the outcome of a management action through ecosystems to societal benefits. We review the literature on the basis of the steps in this framework, considering not only the supply of coastal protection provided by ecosystems but also the demand for protective services from beneficiaries. We recommend further attention to (1) biophysical processes beyond wave attenuation, (2) the combined effects of multiple habitat types (e.g., reefs, vegetation), (3) marginal values and expected damage functions, and, in particular, (4) community dependence on ecosystems for coastal protection and co-benefits. We apply our approach to two case studies to illustrate how estimates of multiple benefits and losses can inform restoration and development decisions. Finally, we discuss frontiers for linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based solutions to coastal protection. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. The knowledge-learning-instruction framework: bridging the science-practice chasm to enhance robust student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Corbett, Albert T; Perfetti, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Despite the accumulation of substantial cognitive science research relevant to education, there remains confusion and controversy in the application of research to educational practice. In support of a more systematic approach, we describe the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework. KLI promotes the emergence of instructional principles of high potential for generality, while explicitly identifying constraints of and opportunities for detailed analysis of the knowledge students may acquire in courses. Drawing on research across domains of science, math, and language learning, we illustrate the analyses of knowledge, learning, and instructional events that the KLI framework affords. We present a set of three coordinated taxonomies of knowledge, learning, and instruction. For example, we identify three broad classes of learning events (LEs): (a) memory and fluency processes, (b) induction and refinement processes, and (c) understanding and sense-making processes, and we show how these can lead to different knowledge changes and constraints on optimal instructional choices. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. The ecology of team science: understanding contextual influences on transdisciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokols, Daniel; Misra, Shalini; Moser, Richard P; Hall, Kara L; Taylor, Brandie K

    2008-08-01

    Increased public and private investments in large-scale team science initiatives over the past two decades have underscored the need to better understand how contextual factors influence the effectiveness of transdisciplinary scientific collaboration. Toward that goal, the findings from four distinct areas of research on team performance and collaboration are reviewed: (1) social psychological and management research on the effectiveness of teams in organizational and institutional settings; (2) studies of cyber-infrastructures (i.e., computer-based infrastructures) designed to support transdisciplinary collaboration across remote research sites; (3) investigations of community-based coalitions for health promotion; and (4) studies focusing directly on the antecedents, processes, and outcomes of scientific collaboration within transdisciplinary research centers and training programs. The empirical literature within these four domains reveals several contextual circumstances that either facilitate or hinder team performance and collaboration. A typology of contextual influences on transdisciplinary collaboration is proposed as a basis for deriving practical guidelines for designing, managing, and evaluating successful team science initiatives.

  20. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  1. Metal bioavailability in ecological risk assessment of freshwater ecosystems: From science to environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Kristiina; Leppänen, Matti T; Chen, XuePing; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2018-01-01

    Metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems is a global issue and metal discharges to aquatic environments are monitored in order to protect aquatic life and human health. Bioavailability is an important factor determining metal toxicity. In aquatic systems, metal bioavailability depends on local water and sediment characteristics, and therefore, the risks are site-specific. Environmental quality standards (EQS) are used to manage the risks of metals in aquatic environments. In the simplest form of EQSs, total concentrations of metals in water or sediment are compared against pre-set acceptable threshold levels. Now, however, the environmental administration bodies have stated the need to incorporate metal bioavailability assessment tools into environmental regulation. Scientific advances have been made in metal bioavailability assessment, including passive samplers and computational models, such as biotic ligand models (BLM). However, the cutting-edge methods tend to be too elaborate or laborious for standard environmental monitoring. We review the commonly used metal bioavailability assessment methods and introduce the latest scientific advances that might be applied to environmental management in the future. We present the current practices in environmental management in North America, Europe and China, highlighting the good practices and the needs for improvement. Environmental management has met these new challenges with varying degrees of success: the USA has implemented site-specific environmental risk assessment for water and sediment phases, and they have already implemented metal mixture toxicity evaluation. The European Union is promoting the use of bioavailability and BLMs in ecological risk assessment (ERA), but metal mixture toxicity and sediment phase are still mostly neglected. China has regulation only for total concentrations of metals in surface water. We conclude that there is a need for (1) Advanced and up-to-date guidelines and legislation

  2. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  3. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy as a Culturally Relevant Approach in the Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates…

  4. Crossing the Gap between Indigenous Worldview and Western Science: Millet Festival as a Bridge in the Teaching Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Lee, Huei

    2015-01-01

    The worldview within indigenous people's traditional knowledge and western science can be a world of difference. In order to help indigenous students cross the gap and develop a sense of cultural identification. Taking Bunun, one of the Taiwanese indigenous tribes, as our subject, this study aims to develop a teaching module through Bunun's Millet…

  5. Abstracts of the GAC-MAC-CSPG-CSSS 2005 joint meeting : building bridges across science, through time, around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This joint meeting of the Geological Association of Canada, the Mineralogical Association of Canada, the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, and the Canadian Society of Soil Science addressed many topical issues dealing with geosciences, with particular reference to resource exploration. The 7 sessions within the general session were: (1) economic geology, (2) structural geology and tectonics, (3) mineralogy, crystallography and crystal chemistry, (4) igneous petrology, volcanology and metamorphic petrology, (5) sedimentology, paleontology and micropaleontology, (6) geophysics, and (7) soil science. In addition to the general session, the conference included exhibits, symposia, special courses, workshops, poster sessions, field trips and an outreach program. The conference featured approximately 80 presentations, of which 45 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. (author)

  6. Abstracts of the GAC-MAC-CSPG-CSSS 2005 joint meeting : building bridges across science, through time, around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This joint meeting of the Geological Association of Canada, the Mineralogical Association of Canada, the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, and the Canadian Society of Soil Science addressed many topical issues dealing with geosciences, with particular reference to resource exploration. The 7 sessions within the general session were: (1) economic geology, (2) structural geology and tectonics, (3) mineralogy, crystallography and crystal chemistry, (4) igneous petrology, volcanology and metamorphic petrology, (5) sedimentology, paleontology and micropaleontology, (6) geophysics, and (7) soil science. In addition to the general session, the conference included exhibits, symposia, special courses, workshops, poster sessions, field trips and an outreach program. The conference featured approximately 80 presentations, of which 45 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  7. From Risk Assessment to Knowledge Mapping: Science, Precaution, and Participation in Disease Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy C. Stirling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Governance of infectious disease risks requires understanding of often indeterminate interactions between diverse, complex, open, and dynamic human and natural systems. In the face of these challenges, worldwide policy making affords disproportionate status to " science-based" risk-assessment methods. These reduce multiple, complex dimensions to simple quantitative parameters of "outcomes" and "probabilities," and then re-aggregate across diverse metrics, contexts, and perspectives to yield a single ostensibly definitive picture of risk. In contrast, more precautionary or participatory approaches are routinely portrayed as less rigorous, complete, or robust. Yet, although conventional reductive-aggregative techniques provide powerful responses to a narrow state of risk, they are not applicable to less tractable conditions of uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance. Strong sensitivities to divergent framings can render results highly variable. Reductive aggregation can marginalize important perspectives and compound exposure to surprise. The value of more broad-based precautionary and participatory approaches may be appreciated. These offer ways to be more rigorous and complete in the mapping of different framings. They may also be more robust than reductive-aggregative appraisal methods, in "opening up" greater accountability for intrinsically normative judgements in decision making on threats like pandemic avian influenza.

  8. Bridging Communities: Culturing a Professional Learning Community that Supports Novice Teachers and Transfers Authentic Science and Mathematics to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, B. E.; Miller, H. R.; Loving, C. L.; Pedersen, S.

    2006-12-01

    Professional Learning Community Model for Alternative Pathways (PLC-MAP) is a partnership of North Harris Montgomery Community Colleges, Texas A&M University, and 11 urban, suburban, and rural school districts in the Greater Houston area focused on developing a professional learning community that increases the retention and quality of middle and high school mathematics and science teachers who are being certified through the NHMCCD Alternative Certification Program. Improved quality in teaching refers to increased use of effective inquiry teaching strategies, including information technology where appropriate, that engage students to ask worthy scientific questions and to reason, judge, explain, defend, argue, reflect, revise, and/or disseminate findings. Novice teachers learning to adapt or designing authentic inquiry in their classrooms face two enormous problems. First, there are important issues surrounding the required knowledgebase, habit of mind, and pedagogical content knowledge of the teachers that impact the quality of their lesson plans and instructional sequences. Second, many ACP intern teachers teach under challenging conditions with limited resources, which impacts their ability to implement authentic inquiry in the classroom. Members of our professional learning community, including scientists, mathematicians and master teachers, supports novice teachers as they design lesson plans that engage their students in authentic inquiry. The purpose of this research was to determine factors that contribute to success or barriers that prevent ACP secondary science intern and induction year teachers from gaining knowledge and engaging in classroom inquiry as a result of an innovative professional development experience. A multi-case study design was used for this research. We adopted a two-tail design where cases from both extremes (good and poor gains) were deliberately chosen. Six science teachers were selected from a total of 40+ mathematics and science

  9. Citizen science data reveal ecological, historical and evolutionary factors shaping interactions between woody hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Maruyama, Pietro K; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Laessøe, Thomas; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Woody plants host diverse communities of associated organisms, including wood-inhabiting fungi. In this group, host effects on species richness and interaction network structure are not well understood, especially not at large geographical scales. We investigated ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of fungal species richness and network modularity, that is, subcommunity structure, across woody hosts in Denmark, using a citizen science data set comprising > 80 000 records of > 1000 fungal species on 91 genera of woody plants. Fungal species richness was positively related to host size, wood pH, and the number of species in the host genus, with limited influence of host frequency and host history, that is, time since host establishment in the area. Modularity patterns were unaffected by host history, but largely reflected host phylogeny. Notably, fungal communities differed substantially between angiosperm and gymnosperm hosts. Host traits and evolutionary history appear to be more important than host frequency and recent history in structuring interactions between hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi. High wood acidity appears to act as a stress factor reducing fungal species richness, while large host size, providing increased niche diversity, enhances it. In some fungal groups that are known to interact with live host cells in the establishment phase, host selectivity is common, causing a modular community structure. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Like a bridge over troubled water – Opening pathways for integrating social sciences and humanities into nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, Catrinel; Schröder, Jantine; Meskens, Gaston; Perko, Tanja; Rossignol, Nicolas; Carlé, Benny; Hardeman, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear domain – emphasize that 'the social' and 'the technical' dimensions of technology development are inter-related and co-produced. In an effort to create links between nuclear research and innovation and society in mutually beneficial ways, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre started fifteen years ago a ‘Programme of Integration of Social Aspects into nuclear research’ (PISA). In line with broader science-policy agendas (responsible research and innovation and technology assessment), this paper argues that the importance of such programmes is threefold. First, their multi-disciplinary basis and participatory character contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between science, technology and society, in general, and the complexity of nuclear technology assessment in particular. Second, their functioning as (self -)critical policy supportive research with outreach to society is an essential prerequisite for policies aiming at generating societal trust in the context of controversial issues related to nuclear technologies and exposure to ionising radiation. Third, such programmes create an enriching dynamic in the organisation itself, stimulating collective learning and transdisciplinarity. The paper illustrates with concrete examples these claims and concludes by discussing some key challenges that researchers face while engaging in work of this kind. - Highlights: • Needs and possibilities for multi-disciplinary research in the nuclear field are discussed. • The added value of multi-disciplinary approaches is illustrated with exemplary cases. • Key challenges are summarised.

  11. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  12. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  13. Case study research as bridge builder between science and the society. The rationale behind the ASTRA 2005 winter storm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanpaeae, S.; Peltonen, L.

    2007-07-01

    The challenge of climate change as a complex global issue is that it demands locally grounded solutions that bring together actors from various fields. As a 'wicked' problem climate change adaptation demands deliberation between different subsystems of society, including scientific research. While answering the complex needs of the society, it has to be re-evaluated what 'good' science means. This brings about a need for socially robust knowledge. The need for contextualisation of scientific knowledge is supported by theoretical development in the fields of policy analysis and risk governance. It also entails an epistemic shift away from the 'quest for certainty' towards a pragmatist understanding of knowledge. The underlying request is to integrate expert knowledge with the needs of other stakeholders - to bring in the people to add to the policy formation a notion of emotional knowledge. As a research method, case studies readily contextualise scientific information and therefore offer valuable insights into the underlying social values of the problems at hand. As locally grounded narratives they can offer a shortcut to the formation of a new kind of expertise needed as the demands from the society reform the claims on scientific information. It is argued that developing the science-policy interface and risk communication can both benefit from a contextual research approach using case studies. Such studies have critical and persuasive functions, and they provide a basis for further case-based learning exercises with opportunities for awareness raising, institutional capacity building and practical adaptation measures. (orig.)

  14. Scientist-teacher collaboration: Integration of real data from a coastal wetland into a high school life science ecology-based research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Wendy L.

    Project G.R.O.W. is an ecology-based research project developed for high school biology students. The curriculum was designed based on how students learn and awareness of the nature of science and scientific practices so that students would design and carry out scientific investigations using real data from a local coastal wetland. This was a scientist-teacher collaboration between a CSULB biologist and high school biology teacher. Prior to implementing the three-week research project, students had multiple opportunities to practice building requisite skills via 55 lessons focusing on the nature of science, scientific practices, technology, Common Core State Standards of reading, writing, listening and speaking, and Next Generation Science Standards. Project G.R.O.W. culminated with student generated research papers and oral presentations. Outcomes reveal students struggle with constructing explanations and the use of Excel to create meaningful graphs. They showed gains in data organization, analysis, teamwork and aspects of the nature of science.

  15. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  16. How Global Science has yet to Bridge Global Differences - A Status Report of the IUGS Taskforce on Global Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, C. M.; Gonzales, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences, with endorsement by UNESCO, has established a taskforce on global geosciences workforce and has tasked the American Geological Institute to take a lead. Springing from a session on global geosciences at the IGC33 in Oslo, Norway, the taskforce is to address three issues on a global scale: define the geosciences, determine the producers and consumers of geoscientists, and frame the understandings to propose pathways towards improved global capacity building in the geosciences. With the combination of rapid retirements in the developed world, and rapid economic expansion and impact of resource and hazard issues in the developing world, the next 25 years will be a dynamic time for the geosciences. However, to date there has been little more than a cursory sense of who and what the geosciences are globally and whether we will be able to address the varied needs and issues in the developed and the developing worlds. Based on prior IUGS estimates, about 50% of all working geoscientists reside in the Unites States, and the US was also producing about 50% of all new geosciences graduate degrees globally. Work from the first year of the taskforce has elucidated the immense complexity of the issue of defining the geosciences, as it bring is enormous cultural and political frameworks, but also shed light on the status of the geosciences in each country. Likewise, this leads to issues of who is actually producing and consuming geoscience talent, and whether countries are meeting domestic demand, and if not, is external talent available to import. Many US-based assumptions about the role of various countries in the geosciences’ global community of people, namely China and India, appear to have been misplaced. In addition, the migration of geoscientists between countries raised enormous questions about what is nationality and if there is an ideal ‘global geoscientist.’ But more than anything, the taskforce is revealing clear

  17. Science Innovation Through Industry Partnership: Lessons from AMPERE in Bridging the Federal Sponsor/Private Corporation Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) was made possible by harnessing an fortuitous capability of the Iridium Communications constellation of 70 polar orbiting satellites. In 1996 it was realized that the attitude magnetometers on-board the Iridium satellites, then in fabrication, could potentially be used to obtain the first ever global and continuous measurements of the Birkeland currents with a sufficiently short re-sampling cadence (10 minutes) to track the dynamic evolution of the large-scale currents. The experience of taking this idea from 1996 through various research grant supported efforts, mission of opportunity proposal attempts, and finally through funding and implementation as a National Science Foundation geospace facility, revealed a number of challenges both in proposing innovative solutions to existing sponsor programs and also in working between the federal sponsor community and the private commercial space environment. Implementing AMPERE required a code change to on-board software on the Iridium satellites and it proved necessary to engage NASA to adjust the solicitation language to allow AMPERE. For NASA proposals we also encountered a conflict with respect to federal sponsorship such that the original business configuration of Iridium could not accept the accounting regime implied by a sub-contract derived from a federal contract acquisition. Subsequent mission of opportunity efforts encountered various other challenges including the cancellation of an explorer to fund the exploration initiative in 2001. The facilities proposal to NSF was almost not submitted owing a funding vehicle disparity between the preferred proposer structure (contract) vs NSF's requirement to fund only grants and a final hurdle concerned the structure of the contract with Iridium which was initially a sub-contract but was changed to a fixed-price data purchase due to NSF's limitations on funding fee-bearing engineering

  18. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience......, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobič and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open...

  19. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  20. Environmental Education & Ecology in a Life Science Course for Preservice K-8 Teachers Using Project Wildlife in Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Allan

    2010-01-01

    During laboratory sessions devoted to ecology, 182 preservice K-8 teachers participated in a Project Wildlife in Learning Design (WILD) workshop. Participants rated the workshop highly, indicated they would use more inquiry-based activities, and were more interested in teaching ecology following the workshop. Post-test scores indicated an…

  1. Bridging the digital divide through the integration of computer and information technology in science education: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail Laverne

    The presence of a digital divide, computer and information technology integration effectiveness, and barriers to continued usage of computer and information technology were investigated. Thirty-four African American and Caucasian American students (17 males and 17 females) in grades 9--11 from 2 Georgia high school science classes were exposed to 30 hours of hands-on computer and information technology skills. The purpose of the exposure was to improve students' computer and information technology skills. Pre-study and post-study skills surveys, and structured interviews were used to compare race, gender, income, grade-level, and age differences with respect to computer usage. A paired t-test and McNemar test determined mean differences between student pre-study and post-study perceived skills levels. The results were consistent with findings of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (2000) that indicated the presence of a digital divide and digital inclusion. Caucasian American participants were found to have more at-home computer and Internet access than African American participants, indicating that there is a digital divide by ethnicity. Caucasian American females were found to have more computer and Internet access which was an indication of digital inclusion. Sophomores had more at-home computer access and Internet access than other levels indicating digital inclusion. Students receiving regular meals had more computer and Internet access than students receiving free/reduced meals. Older students had more computer and Internet access than younger students. African American males had been using computer and information technology the longest which is an indication of inclusion. The paired t-test and McNemar test revealed significant perceived student increases in all skills levels. Interviews did not reveal any barriers to continued usage of the computer and information technology skills.

  2. Bridging Human and Natural Sciences for a Better Understanding of Urban Floral Patterns: the Role of Planting Practices in Mediterranean Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Marco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity research in urban settings constitutes an interdisciplinary field combining both the natural and human sciences. A full understanding of the patterns and processes underlying the dynamic of biodiversity in urban ecosystems needs to include humans in models of ecological functioning. We focus on the planting practices of gardeners to identify the bottom-up and top-down human influences on the floral diversity of the Mediterranean gardens in an urbanizing rural zone. An initial ecological study of cultivated flora in 120 private gardens showing floristic pattern variations along an urbanization gradient was combined with a sociological survey. This survey aimed at collecting reasons for planting in gardens in connection with cultivated species. These reasons were classified into categories and analyzed according to the frequency of cultivated species within the entire gradient. Floristic heterogeneity in gardens, represented by the richness of uncommon species, is predominantly caused by social factors, particularly related to the practices and social networks of gardeners who tend to diversify the range of species that are planted. Floristic uniformity, defined by a high frequency of occurrence of plant species, results not only from social factors but also from natural factors that exert high pressure in the Mediterranean region. This "floristic norm" is also influenced by the urban context, which can modify the expression of natural and social factors and lead to differences in plant species compositions between housing density zones. More generally, these results stress the importance of considering both individual choices and city-level influences through an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the underlying processes that establish urban biodiversity patterns at a small scale.

  3. Critical race theory as a bridge in science training: the California State University, Northridge BUILD PODER program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetermoe, Carrie L; Chavira, Gabriela; Khachikian, Crist S; Boyns, David; Cabello, Beverly

    2017-01-01

    program of biomedical research training that supports students as they achieve their goals. Biomedical research programs may benefit from a reanalysis of the fit between current training programs and student strengths. By incorporating the voices of talented youth, drawing upon their native strengths, we will generate a new science that links biomedical research to community health and social justice, generating progress toward health equity through a promising new generation of scholars.

  4. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle John Wilby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25 of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25 of students stated that the mixed

  5. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; Nasr, Ziad Ghantous

    2016-11-01

    Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges) analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25) of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25) of students stated that the mixed

  6. [Applied ecology: retrospect and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui

    2004-10-01

    Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.

  7. A knowledge transfer scheme to bridge the gap between science and practice: an integration of existing research frameworks into a tool for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Voogt, Nelly; Bruinsma, Anja; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    Evidence of effectiveness does not equal successful implementation. To progress the field, practical tools are needed to bridge the gap between research and practice and to truly unite effectiveness and implementation evidence. This paper describes the Knowledge Transfer Scheme integrating existing implementation research frameworks into a tool which has been developed specifically to bridge the gap between knowledge derived from research on the one side and evidence-based usable information and tools for practice on the other.

  8. Bridge resource program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The mission of Rutgers Universitys Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) Bridge Resource Program (BRP) is to provide bridge engineering support to the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)s Bridge Engineering an...

  9. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wallis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin’s model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  10. The New Science Education Leadership: An IT-Based Learning Ecology Model. Technology, Education--Connections (TEC) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielack, Jane F., Ed.; Knight, Stephanie L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    How can we use new technology to support and educate the science leaders of tomorrow? This unique book describes the design, development, and implementation of an effective science leadership program that promotes collaboration among scientists and science educators, provides authentic research experiences for educators, and facilitates adaptation…

  11. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15th annual meeting: Abstract book. Ecological risk: Science, policy, law, and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the ecological risks of toxic chemicals. Presentations covered research in the following areas: environmental transport; monitoring; pollution sources; analysis; remediation; policies; environmental effects; and biological effects. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  13. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  14. Beyond positivist ecology: toward an integrated ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bryan G

    2008-12-01

    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an "ecological ethic" indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of "reflexive" ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for their choices in developing models; this self-reflexive approach opens the door to a new way of integrating values into public discourse and to a more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change. This reflexive building of ecological models is introduced through the transformative simile of Aldo Leopold, which shows that learning to "think like a mountain" involves a shift in both ecological modeling and in values and responsibility. An adequate, interdisciplinary approach to ecological valuation, requires a re-framing of the evaluation questions in entirely new ways, i.e., a review of the current status of interdisciplinary value theory with respect to ecological values reveals that neither of the widely accepted theories of environmental value-neither economic utilitarianism nor intrinsic value theory (environmental ethics)-provides a foundation for an ecologically sensitive evaluation process. Thus, a new, ecologically sensitive, and more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change would include an examination of the metaphors that motivate the models used to describe environmental change.

  15. The International Biological Program in Eastern Europe. Science Diplomacy, Comecon and the Beginnings of Ecology in Czechoslovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšáková, Doubravka

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-25 ISSN 0967-3407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : cold war * science diplomacy * environmental history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2016

  16. Complexity and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Giraldo, Luis Jair

    2002-01-01

    The present article examines the transformation that the construction of the theoretical body of ecology as a science has been going through since it first appeared in the XIX century within the logic of classical science until recent developments comprised within complex systemic. Mainly departing from the analysis from thermodynamics of irreversible phenomena

  17. Numerical ecology with R

    CERN Document Server

    Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...

  18. Expert and Generalist Local Knowledge about Land-cover Change on South Africa's Wild Coast: Can Local Ecological Knowledge Add Value to Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Chalmers

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Local ecological knowledge (LEK can shed light on ecosystem change, especially in under-researched areas such as South Africa's Wild Coast. However, for ecosystem planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the accuracy and validity of LEK, and determine where such knowledge is situated in a community, and how evenly it is spread. Furthermore, it is relevant to ask: does LEK add value to science, and how do science and local knowledge complement one another? We assessed change in woodland and forest cover in the Nqabara Administrative Area on South Africa's Wild Coast between 1974 and 2001. The inhabitants of Nqabara are "traditional" Xhosa-speaking people who are highly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods. More recently, however, infrastructural development has influenced traditional lifestyles at Nqabara, although poverty remains high and formal education levels low. We assessed LEK about changes in woodland and forest cover over the past 30 years by interviewing 11 local "experts," who were recognized as such by the Nqabara community, and 40 senior members of randomly selected households in each village. We also analyzed land-cover change, using orthorectified aerial photos taken in 1974 and 2001. Forest and woodland cover had increased by 49% between 1974 and 2001. The 11 "experts" had a nuanced understanding of these changes and their causes. Their understanding was not only remarkably consistent with that of scientists, but it added considerable value to scientific understanding of the ultimate causes of land-cover change in the area. The experts listed combinations of several causal factors, operating at different spatial and temporal scales. The 40 randomly selected respondents also knew that forest and woodland cover had increased, but their understanding of the causes, and the role of fire in particular, was somewhat simplistic. They could identify only three causal factors and generally listed single factors rather

  19. Predicting who will major in a science discipline: Expectancy-value theory as part of an ecological model for studying academic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Ellen S.; Hernandez, Delia; Fuller, Carol; Shiro Tashiro, Jay

    Research on factors that shape recruitment and retention in undergraduate science majors currently is highly fragmented and in need of an integrative research framework. Such a framework should incorporate analyses of the various levels of organization that characterize academic communities (i.e., the broad institutional level, the departmental level, and the student level), and should also provide ways to study the interactions occurring within and between these structural levels. We propose that academic communities are analogous to ecosystems, and that the research paradigms of modern community ecology can provide the necessary framework, as well as new and innovative approaches to a very complex area. This article also presents the results of a pilot study that demonstrates the promise of this approach at the student level. We administered a questionnaire based on expectancy-value theory to undergraduates enrolled in introductory biology courses. Itself an integrative approach, expectancy-value theory views achievement-related behavior as a joint function of the person's expectancy of success in the behavior and the subjective value placed on such success. Our results indicated: (a) significant gender differences in the underlying factor structures of expectations and values related to the discipline of biology, (b) expectancy-value factors significantly distinguished biology majors from nonmajors, and (c) expectancy-value factors significantly predicted students' intent to enroll in future biology courses. We explore the expectancy-value framework as an operationally integrative framework in our ecological model for studying academic communities, especially in the context of assessing the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the sciences. Future research directions as well as practical implications are also discussed.

  20. Developing a translational ecology workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Davis, Frank W.; Garfin, Gregg; Jackson, Stephen T.; Terando, Adam J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Morelli, Toni; Williamson, Matthew A.; Brunson, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We define a translational ecologist as a professional ecologist with diverse disciplinary expertise and skill sets, as well as a suitable personal disposition, who engages across social, professional, and disciplinary boundaries to partner with decision makers to achieve practical environmental solutions. Becoming a translational ecologist requires specific attention to obtaining critical non‐scientific disciplinary breadth and skills that are not typically gained through graduate‐level education. Here, we outline a need for individuals with broad training in interdisciplinary skills, use our personal experiences as a basis for assessing the types of interdisciplinary skills that would benefit potential translational ecologists, and present steps that interested ecologists may take toward becoming translational. Skills relevant to translational ecologists may be garnered through personal experiences, informal training, short courses, fellowships, and graduate programs, among others. We argue that a translational ecology workforce is needed to bridge the gap between science and natural resource decisions. Furthermore, we argue that this task is a cooperative responsibility of individuals interested in pursuing these careers, educational institutions interested in training scientists for professional roles outside of academia, and employers seeking to hire skilled workers who can foster stakeholder‐engaged decision making.

  1. An "ecological" view of styles of science and of art: Alois Riegl’s explorations of the style concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the views of styles of science of Alistair Crombie and Ian Hacking with the notion of styles of art, as developed by Alois Riegl at the end of the 19th Century. Important similarities are noted, notably in the conceptualization of the autonomy of styles. Riegl developed in

  2. Problem Solving in the Natural Sciences and Early Adolescent Girls' Gender Roles and Self-Esteem a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis from AN Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael

    What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.

  3. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  4. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  5. Bridge Scour Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Scour and flooding are the leading causes of bridge failures in the United States and therefore should be monitored. New applications of tools and technologies are being developed, tested, and implemented to reduce bridge scour risk. The National Coo...

  6. LTBP bridge performance primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    "The performance of bridges is critical to the overall performance of the highway transportation system in the United States. However, many critical aspects of bridge performance are not well understood. The reasons for this include the extreme diver...

  7. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  8. An ecohydrological sketch of climate change impacts on water and natural ecosystems for the Netherlands: bridging the gap between science and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, J.P.M.; Runhaar, J.; van Ek, R.; van der Hoek, D.C.J.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Batelaan, O.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Wassen, M.J.; van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    For policy making and spatial planning, information is needed about the impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems. To provide this information, commonly hydrological and ecological models are used. We give arguments for our assessment that modelling only is insufficient for determining the

  9. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  10. Characterizing a scientific elite: the social characteristics of the most highly cited scientists in environmental science and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John N; Lortie, Christopher; Allesina, Stefano

    2010-10-01

    In science, a relatively small pool of researchers garners a disproportionally large number of citations. Still, very little is known about the social characteristics of highly cited scientists. This is unfortunate as these researchers wield a disproportional impact on their fields, and the study of highly cited scientists can enhance our understanding of the conditions which foster highly cited work, the systematic social inequalities which exist in science, and scientific careers more generally. This study provides information on this understudied subject by examining the social characteristics and opinions of the 0.1% most cited environmental scientists and ecologists. Overall, the social characteristics of these researchers tend to reflect broader patterns of inequality in the global scientific community. However, while the social characteristics of these researchers mirror those of other scientific elites in important ways, they differ in others, revealing findings which are both novel and surprising, perhaps indicating multiple pathways to becoming highly cited.

  11. eEcoLiDAR, eScience infrastructure for ecological applications of LiDAR point clouds : reconstructing the 3D ecosystem structure for animals at regional to continental scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissling, W.D.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Foppen, R.P.B.; Bouten, W.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of high-resolution measurements of 3D ecosystem structure across broad spatial extents impedes major advancements in animal ecology and biodiversity science. We aim to fill this gap by using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology to characterize the vertical and horizontal

  12. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  13. Automatic Bridge Control System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Niraimathi; S.Sivakumar; R.Vigneshwaran; R.Vinothkumar; P.Babu

    2012-01-01

    Bridge vibration control is an important issue whose purpose is to extend the structural service life of bridges. Normally, the bridge is modeled as an elastic beam or plate subject to a moving vehicle. However, the moving truck on a bridge is a complicated problem that must still be researched. In this paper, wepropose a new method, to overcome the huge load in the bridge a load cell is used at the entry which will monitor the load continuously at both ends. To escape from the heavy water fl...

  14. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  15. Synthesizing research and education: Ecology and genetics of independent fern gametophytes and teaching science inquiry and content through simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Aaron M.

    Two of the main areas of focus in university academics are research and education. The mission statements of Utah State University and the Department of Biology emphasize both areas, as do the requirements of funding agencies. I attempted to integrate research and education by using tools that I developed to support and inform my biological research projects to teach science. Ferns have a life cycle with alternating haploid and diploid life stages, both of which are free-living and potentially long-lived. The haploid gametophytes of some ferns reproduce asexually and may have different environmental requirements than the diploid sporophytes, so it is possible for populations of gametophytes to exist without sporophytes. This dissertation includes a description of surveys for Hymenophyllum wrightii, a fern with independent gametophytes in the Pacific Northwest, and improves our understanding of the range, distribution, and habitat requirements of these plants which were previously assumed to be rare. It also describes an attempt to explore the population genetics of gametophytes of Crepidomanes intricatum, a widespread fern in the Appalachian Mountains for which no sporophytes have ever been found. To help visualize evolutionary processes in independent gametophyte populations I developed the Virtual Population Genetics Simulator (VPGsim) to simulate populations of ferns in a 3-dimensional environment. This dissertation includes a description of VPGsim, a learning module using it to teach undergraduate genetics, and a study demonstrating its effectiveness at improving students' understanding of science content and confidence in their ability to perform science inquiry. That simulation tool led to a collaboration to find other ways to teach science with simulations, and to the development of a Virtual Plant Community simulator (VPCsim) for teaching middle school students about the effects of the environment and human impacts on living organisms. This dissertation

  16. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission's Red Planet program: Bridging the gap in elementary school science through climate studies of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of 2011 of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. In our interaction with elementary teachers, it is also apparent that many are uncomfortable with science concepts. In order for us to successfully address the Next Generation Science Standards, teachers must be able to reconcile all of the different requirements placed on them in a given school day and in a given school environment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Red Planet: Read, Write, Explore program, developed for the MAVEN mission, is a science, art, and literacy program designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. Red Planet tackles climate change through Mars' geologic history and makes Mars-Earth comparisons, while encouraging students to reflect on the environmental requirements needed to keep a biological organisms (including humans) happy, healthy, and alive. The Red Planet program is currently being pilot tested at Acres Green Elementary School in Colorado.

  17. Can Biosemiotics be a “Science” if its Purpose is to be a Bridge between the Natural, Social and Human Sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts...... are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view...... is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another...

  18. Citizen Science for Post-disaster Sustainable Community Development in Ecologically Fragiel Regions - A Case from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ming, Meng; Lu, Ye; Jin, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The world's mountains host some of the most complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems and are also hotspots for natural disasters, such as earthquake, landslide and flood. One factor that limits the mountain communities to recover from disasters and pursue sustainable development is the lack of locally relevant scientific knowledge, which is hard to gain from global and regional scale observations and models. The rapid advances in ICT, computing, communication technologies and the emergence of citizen science is changing the situation. Here we report a case from Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary World Natural Heritage in China on the application of citizen science in a community reconstruction project. Dahe, a mountainous community (ca. 8000 ha in size) is located covering part of the World Heritage's core and buffer zones, with an elevation range of 1000-3000 meters. The community suffered from two major earthquakes of 7.9 and 6.9 Mw in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Landslides and flooding threat the community and significantly limit their livelihood options. We integrated participatory disaster risk mapping (e.g., community vulnerability and capacity assessment) and mobile assisted natural hazards and natural resources mapping (e.g., using free APP GeoODK) into more conventional community reconstruction and livelihood building activities. We showed that better decisions are made based on results from these activities and local residents have a high level of buy-in in these new knowledge. We suggest that initiatives like this, if successfully scale-up, can also help generate much needed data and knowledge in similar less-developed and data deficient regions of the world.

  19. Combining Public Health Education and Disease Ecology Research: Using Citizen Science to Assess Chagas Disease Entomological Risk in Texas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Curtis-Robles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a zoonotic parasitic disease well-documented throughout the Americas and transmitted primarily by triatomine 'kissing bug' vectors. In acknowledgment of the successful history of vector control programs based on community participation across Latin America, we used a citizen science approach to gain novel insight into the geographic distribution, seasonal activity, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection prevalence of kissing bugs in Texas while empowering the public with information about Chagas disease.We accepted submissions of kissing bugs encountered by the public in Texas and other states from 2013-2014 while providing educational literature about Chagas disease. In the laboratory, kissing bugs were identified to species, dissected, and tested for T. cruzi infection. A total of 1,980 triatomines were submitted to the program comprised of at least seven species, of which T. gerstaeckeri and T. sanguisuga were the most abundant (85.7% of submissions. Triatomines were most commonly collected from dog kennels and outdoor patios; Overall, 10.5% of triatomines were collected from inside the home. Triatomines were submitted from across Texas, including many counties which were not previously known to harbor kissing bugs. Kissing bugs were captured primarily throughout April-October, and peak activity occurred in June-July. Emails to our dedicated account regarding kissing bugs were more frequent in the summer months (June-August than the rest of the year. We detected T. cruzi in 63.3% of tested bugs.Citizen science is an efficient approach for generating data on the distribution, phenology, and infection prevalence of kissing bugs-vectors of the Chagas disease parasite-while educating the public and medical community.

  20. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  1. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  2. Building a multi-scaled geospatial temporal ecology database from disparate data sources: Fostering open science through data reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Bissell, E.G.; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Christel, Samuel T.; Collins, Sarah M.; Fergus, C. Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lotting, Noah R.; Oliver, Samantha K.; Scott, Caren E.; Smith, Nicole J.; Stopyak, Scott; Yuan, Shuai; Bremigan, Mary Tate; Downing, John A.; Gries, Corinna; Henry, Emily N.; Skaff, Nick K.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stow, Craig A.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable site-based data for individual or groups of ecosystems, these datasets are widely scattered, have different data formats and conventions, and often have limited accessibility. At the broader scale, national datasets exist for a large number of geospatial features of land, water, and air that are needed to fully understand variation among these ecosystems. However, such datasets originate from different sources and have different spatial and temporal resolutions. By taking an open-science perspective and by combining site-based ecosystem datasets and national geospatial datasets, science gains the ability to ask important research questions related to grand environmental challenges that operate at broad scales. Documentation of such complicated database integration efforts, through peer-reviewed papers, is recommended to foster reproducibility and future use of the integrated database. Here, we describe the major steps, challenges, and considerations in building an integrated database of lake ecosystems, called LAGOS (LAke multi-scaled GeOSpatial and temporal database), that was developed at the sub-continental study extent of 17 US states (1,800,000 km2). LAGOS includes two modules: LAGOSGEO, with geospatial data on every lake with surface area larger than 4 ha in the study extent (~50,000 lakes), including climate, atmospheric deposition, land use/cover, hydrology, geology, and topography measured across a range of spatial and temporal extents; and LAGOSLIMNO, with lake water quality data compiled from ~100 individual datasets for a subset of lakes in the study extent (~10,000 lakes). Procedures for the integration of datasets included: creating a flexible database design; authoring and integrating metadata; documenting data provenance; quantifying spatial measures of geographic data; quality-controlling integrated and derived data; and extensively documenting the database. Our procedures make a large, complex, and integrated

  3. Building a multi-scaled geospatial temporal ecology database from disparate data sources: fostering open science and data reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A; Bissell, Edward G; Cheruvelil, Kendra S; Christel, Samuel T; Collins, Sarah M; Fergus, C Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lottig, Noah R; Oliver, Samantha K; Scott, Caren E; Smith, Nicole J; Stopyak, Scott; Yuan, Shuai; Bremigan, Mary Tate; Downing, John A; Gries, Corinna; Henry, Emily N; Skaff, Nick K; Stanley, Emily H; Stow, Craig A; Tan, Pang-Ning; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable site-based data for individual or groups of ecosystems, these datasets are widely scattered, have different data formats and conventions, and often have limited accessibility. At the broader scale, national datasets exist for a large number of geospatial features of land, water, and air that are needed to fully understand variation among these ecosystems. However, such datasets originate from different sources and have different spatial and temporal resolutions. By taking an open-science perspective and by combining site-based ecosystem datasets and national geospatial datasets, science gains the ability to ask important research questions related to grand environmental challenges that operate at broad scales. Documentation of such complicated database integration efforts, through peer-reviewed papers, is recommended to foster reproducibility and future use of the integrated database. Here, we describe the major steps, challenges, and considerations in building an integrated database of lake ecosystems, called LAGOS (LAke multi-scaled GeOSpatial and temporal database), that was developed at the sub-continental study extent of 17 US states (1,800,000 km(2)). LAGOS includes two modules: LAGOSGEO, with geospatial data on every lake with surface area larger than 4 ha in the study extent (~50,000 lakes), including climate, atmospheric deposition, land use/cover, hydrology, geology, and topography measured across a range of spatial and temporal extents; and LAGOSLIMNO, with lake water quality data compiled from ~100 individual datasets for a subset of lakes in the study extent (~10,000 lakes). Procedures for the integration of datasets included: creating a flexible database design; authoring and integrating metadata; documenting data provenance; quantifying spatial measures of geographic data; quality-controlling integrated and derived data; and extensively documenting the database. Our procedures make a large, complex, and integrated

  4. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives: A Physicist's Perspective on Ecology. Vishwesha Guttal. Series Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 368-375. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Statistical ecology comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  6. Statistical ecology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.

  7. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...... relationship between the levels of bridging and bonding capital, suggesting that bonding social capital in the immigrant group does not seem to impede the establishment of the bridging social capital needed for integration....

  8. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  9. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco R, Carmenza

    2007-01-01

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  10. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ... to critically examining the gender-specific aspects of ICT use and its impact on development in ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  11. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  13. Timber in Bridge Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Detkin, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this final year project was to study the properties of timber as a structural material and the suitability of wood in load bearing members for bridge structures. For a case study, an existing timber bridge was selected. Due to its condition the bridge should be replaced. The design of a new bridge with steel beams holding a glulam deck was made. During the case study the replacement of steel beams by glulam timber ones was discussed. Some calculations were made in order to ...

  14. Engaging Faculty for Innovative STEM Bridge Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfien, Andrea C.; Badway, Norena Norton

    2014-01-01

    Bridge programs, in which underprepared students gain the academic and technical skills necessary for college level courses and entry-level employment, are a promising initiative for expanding access to, and success in, community college education. For career pathways related to science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM), bridge…

  15. Bridge health monitoring metrics : updating the bridge deficiency algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    As part of its bridge management system, the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) must decide how best to spend its bridge replacement funds. In making these decisions, ALDOT managers currently use a deficiency algorithm to rank bridges that ...

  16. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  17. Bridging the Benefits of Online and Community Supported Citizen Science: A Case Study on Motivation and Retention with Conservation-Oriented Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Frensley

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the motivations and barriers for participation and persistence in an innovative citizen science pilot project with Virginia Master Naturalist volunteers. The project combines self-guided online training, in-person meetings, and collaboration through social networking and “mental modeling” to support on-the-ground development and execution of citizen science projects developed by participants. Results suggest that the two strongest motivators for volunteers to participate in the project were an interest in the environment and an interest in protecting a local natural resource. Our findings indicate that volunteers with more prior experience participating in citizen science projects and those with higher gross incomes were more likely to persist in the project. Our data also suggest that decisions to persist or drop out of the project were influenced by volunteers’ time commitment, their ability to use the online tools, the perceived relevance of the resources, and the saliency of the project. Projects that arose from pre-existing environmental issues seemed to be more salient and may have enhanced volunteer persistence. We discuss the influence of our findings and the implications for the development of future citizen science projects.

  18. Biologists Bridging Science and the Conservation Movement : The Rise of Nature Conservation and Nature Management in the Netherlands, 1850-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, Henny J.

    This paper investigates the importance and various roles of amateur naturalists and biologists in the conservation movement between 1850 and 1950, in particular in the Netherlands. It is concluded that biological sciences were important resources for Dutch nature conservation, although the extent of

  19. The Indiana University Center for Healthcare Innovation and Implementation Science: Bridging healthcare research and delivery to build a learning healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Jose; Adams, Nadia; Boustani, Malaz

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, it is estimated that 75,000 deaths every year could be averted if the healthcare system implemented high quality care more effectively and efficiently. Patient harm in the hospital occurs as a consequence of inadequate procedures, medications and other therapies, nosocomial infections, diagnostic evaluations and patient falls. Implementation science, a new emerging field in healthcare, is the development and study of methods and tools aimed at enhancing the implementation of new discoveries and evidence into daily healthcare delivery. The Indiana University Center for Healthcare Innovation and Implementation Science (IU-CHIIS) was launched in September 2013 with the mission to use implementation science and innovation to produce great-quality, patient-centered and cost-efficient healthcare delivery solutions for the United States of America. Within the first 24 months of its initiation, the IU-CHIIS successfully scaled up an evidence-based collaborative care model for people with dementia and/or depression, successfully expanded the Accountable Care Unit model positively impacting the efficiency and quality of care, created the first Certificate in Innovation and Implementation Science in the US and secured funding from National Institutes of Health to investigate innovations in dementia care. This article summarizes the establishment of the IU-CHIIS, its impact and outcomes and the lessons learned during the journey. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Ecological and general systems an introduction to systems ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Odum, Howard T.

    1994-01-01

    Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

  1. The role of ecological theory in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, James I; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Curtis, Tom P; Ellis, Richard J; Firestone, Mary K; Freckleton, Rob P; Green, Jessica L; Green, Laura E; Killham, Ken; Lennon, Jack J; Osborn, A Mark; Solan, Martin; van der Gast, Christopher J; Young, J Peter W

    2007-05-01

    Microbial ecology is currently undergoing a revolution, with repercussions spreading throughout microbiology, ecology and ecosystem science. The rapid accumulation of molecular data is uncovering vast diversity, abundant uncultivated microbial groups and novel microbial functions. This accumulation of data requires the application of theory to provide organization, structure, mechanistic insight and, ultimately, predictive power that is of practical value, but the application of theory in microbial ecology is currently very limited. Here we argue that the full potential of the ongoing revolution will not be realized if research is not directed and driven by theory, and that the generality of established ecological theory must be tested using microbial systems.

  2. National Bridge Inventory System (NBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI System is the collection of bridge inspection information and costs associated with bridge replacements of structurally deficient bridges on and off the NHS....

  3. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  4. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  5. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  6. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  7. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Maier, Eugen; Pecnik, Rene; Holler, Gert; Eisenkoelbl, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  8. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,

  9. The ecological century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.

  10. Estimates of the commission on ecological situation around the enterprise Mayak of the USSR Minatomenergoprom that was organized by the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences No. 1140-501, June 12 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shakov, V.N.; Aleksakhin, R.M.; Bol'shov, L.A.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Tsyb, A.F.; Chukanov, V.N.; Petukhov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Experts commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences under supervision of a Soviet academician V.N.Bol'shakov revealed crisis ecological situation created in the basin if the Techa river by the operation of the industrial plant Mayak. Although the experts commission results were not complete and many aspect of radioecological safety escaped the experts attention the given data on contamination of the region and human populations reflect the truthful crisis situation in the region of the industrial plant Mayak

  11. Ecological footprint as indicator of students environmental awareness level at Faculties of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade and University of Maribor

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Nataša; Išljamović, Sonja; Jeremić, Veljko; Vuk, Drago; Senegačnik, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint is a complex sustainability indicator that answers a simple question: How much of the Earth’s resources is demanded to support humankind lifestyle and activities? Ecological Footprint translates consumption and waste flow data into a measurement of the biologically productive area required to sustain that flow. We used Ecological Footprint as input feature that provides an effective heuristic and pedagogic tool for capturing current human resource use. The key aspect ...

  12. An ecohydrological sketch of climate change impacts on water and natural ecosystems for the Netherlands: bridging the gap between science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. M. Witte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For policy making and spatial planning, information is needed about the impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems. To provide this information, commonly hydrological and ecological models are used. We give arguments for our assessment that modelling only is insufficient for determining the impacts of climate changes on natural ecosystems at regional scales. Instead, we proposed a combination of hydrological simulations, a literature review and process-knowledge on climate-hydrology-vegetation interactions, to compile a sketch map that indicates climate change effects on a number of ecosystems in the Netherlands. Soon after a first version of our sketch map was published by a Dutch professional journal, copies appeared in policy documents, and also in a commercial and popular atlas of the Netherlands. Moreover, the map led to a question in the Dutch parliament about the sustainability of bog reserves under the future climate. Apparently, there was an urgent need for the information provided by the map.

    The map shows that climate change will presumably have the largest influence on ecosystems in the Netherlands that depend on precipitation as the major water source, like heathlands, dry grasslands, rain-fed moorland pools and raised bogs. Also highly susceptible are fens in reserves surrounded by deeply drained polders, because such fens depend on the inlet of surface water, of which quality is likely to deteriorate upon climate change. While the map is indicative for directions of change, in view of the uncertainties of our study, no conclusions should be drawn that may have far-reaching consequences, such as giving up certain nature targets that might no longer be feasible in the future climate. Instead, we advise to anticipate the potential threats from climate change by taking a number of adaptation measures that enhance the robustness of nature reserves.

    To improve climate change projections on hydrology and ecosystems

  13. An ecohydrological sketch of climate change impacts on water and natural ecosystems for the Netherlands: bridging the gap between science and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. P. M.; Runhaar, J.; van Ek, R.; van der Hoek, D. C. J.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; Batelaan, O.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Wassen, M. J.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2012-11-01

    For policy making and spatial planning, information is needed about the impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems. To provide this information, commonly hydrological and ecological models are used. We give arguments for our assessment that modelling only is insufficient for determining the impacts of climate changes on natural ecosystems at regional scales. Instead, we proposed a combination of hydrological simulations, a literature review and process-knowledge on climate-hydrology-vegetation interactions, to compile a sketch map that indicates climate change effects on a number of ecosystems in the Netherlands. Soon after a first version of our sketch map was published by a Dutch professional journal, copies appeared in policy documents, and also in a commercial and popular atlas of the Netherlands. Moreover, the map led to a question in the Dutch parliament about the sustainability of bog reserves under the future climate. Apparently, there was an urgent need for the information provided by the map. The map shows that climate change will presumably have the largest influence on ecosystems in the Netherlands that depend on precipitation as the major water source, like heathlands, dry grasslands, rain-fed moorland pools and raised bogs. Also highly susceptible are fens in reserves surrounded by deeply drained polders, because such fens depend on the inlet of surface water, of which quality is likely to deteriorate upon climate change. While the map is indicative for directions of change, in view of the uncertainties of our study, no conclusions should be drawn that may have far-reaching consequences, such as giving up certain nature targets that might no longer be feasible in the future climate. Instead, we advise to anticipate the potential threats from climate change by taking a number of adaptation measures that enhance the robustness of nature reserves. To improve climate change projections on hydrology and ecosystems, future research should especially

  14. Experiments in a floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisetschläger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2010-01-01

    In a high-voltage direct-current experiment, a watery connection formed between two beakers filled with deionized water, giving the impression of a `floating water bridge'. Having a few millimeters diameter and up to 2.5 cm length, this watery connection reveals a number of interesting phenomena currently discussed in water science. Focusing on optical measurement techniques, the flow through the bridge was visualized and data were recorded such as flow velocity and directions, heat production, density fluctuations, pH values, drag force and mass transfer. To provide a better understanding of the basic phenomena involved the discussion references related literature.

  15. Dynamics of the floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Gatterer, Karl; Holler, Gert; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled into two beakers close to each other, a water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. The build-up mechanism, the chemical properties and the dynamics of this bridge as well as related additional phenomena are presented and discussed

  16. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  17. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  18. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  19. Reaching out in new Ways: Bridging the gap Between Science and Media Through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Ocean Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, F. R.; Martinez, C.

    2006-12-01

    NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (OE) was created in response to the recommendations of the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration in 2000. With the establishment of OE, NOAA developed a great opportunity to reach out to teachers, students, and the general public to share the excitement of discovery. As exciting expeditions are the core of our NOAA program, outreach efforts are focused around these cruises. Through various initiatives, OE works with the science community to share the excitement of ocean science and discovery with a wide variety of audiences. Initiatives include media events held during port calls, media conference calls arranged with scientists at sea, journalists' participation in expeditions, and select interviews with scientist-explorers. NOAA OE is now poised to initiate a major ongoing satellite-based education and public outreach program from its new dedicated research vessel, the Okeanos Explorer that will become operational in 2008. Through telepresence technology designed by the Institute for Exploration (IFE) in Mystic, CT, expeditions can be managed `virtually' by scientists working from Science Command Centers on land, live education broadcasts can be produced in real-time, and media events can be held through shore-based consoles connected to scientists at sea. Three pilot programs were successfully completed in the past few years demonstrating the potential for this new technology to allow for unlimited access to data, including video, from expeditions, sharing in real-time the excitement of discovery through multiple virtual pathways. News media provide a powerful means to inform and educate the public. In some cases, scientists may believe that interaction with media representatives poses risks unmatched by rewards. While it is important to serve the public's right to know, scientist-explorers on NOAA-sponsored ocean expeditions have a recognized interest in protecting certain data, including images, for a number of legitimate

  20. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  1. Development and characteristics of applied ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Sooth, Farina

    2014-01-01

    Master i anvendt økologi. Evenstad 2014 The science of applied ecology is lacking a general theory and a commonly acknowledged definition. Additionally, information about the development of applied ecology over the past years, the relation to other disciplines and the importance of applied ecology in different continents are scarce. This is problematic because applied ecology is confronted with growing problems and the society demands more and more that it fulfils its promise of solving pr...

  2. Institutional Profile: University of California San Diego Pharmacogenomics Education Program (PharmGenEd™): bridging the gap between science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Grace M; Ma, Joseph D; Lee, Kelly C; Halpert, James R; Bourne, Philip E; Ganiats, Theodore G; Taylor, Palmer

    2011-02-01

    Clinical application of evidence-based pharmacogenomics information has the potential to help healthcare professionals provide safe and effective medication management to patients. However, there is a gap between the advances of pharmacogenomics discovery and the health professionals' knowledge regarding pharmacogenomics testing and therapeutic uses. Furthermore, pharmacogenomics education materials for healthcare professionals have not been readily available or accessible. Pharmacogenomics Education Program (PharmGenEd™) is an evidence-based pharmacogenomics education program developed at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and the School of Medicine (CA, USA), with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Program components include continuing education modules, train-the-trainer materials and shared curriculum modules based on therapeutic topics, and virtual communities with online resources.

  3. Bridge removal plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  4. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  5. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  6. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  7. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  8. Interim balance: Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.) [de

  9. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

  10. Accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River watershed: part II quantitative effects-based analysis integrating Western science and traditional ecological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E; Waterhouse, Jon

    2013-07-01

    This article is the second in a 2-part series assessing the accumulated state of the transboundary Yukon River (YR) basin in northern Canada and the United States. The determination of accumulated state based on available long-term (LT) discharge and water quality data is the first step in watershed cumulative effect assessment in the absence of sufficient biological monitoring data. Long-term trends in water quantity and quality were determined and a benchmark against which to measure change was defined for 5 major reaches along the YR for nitrate, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC, respectively), total phosphate (TP), orthophosphate, pH, and specific conductivity. Deviations from the reference condition were identified as "hot moments" in time, nested within a reach. Significant increasing LT trends in discharge were found on the Canadian portion of the YR. There were significant LT decreases in nitrate, TOC, and TP at the Headwater reach, and significant increases in nitrate and specific conductivity at the Lower reach. Deviations from reference condition were found in all water quality variables but most notably during the ice-free period of the YR (May-Sept) and in the Lower reach. The greatest magnitudes of outliers were found during the spring freshet. This study also incorporated traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) into its assessment of accumulated state. In the summer of 2007 the YR Inter Tribal Watershed Council organized a team of people to paddle down the length of the YR as part of a "Healing Journey," where both Western Science and TEK paradigms were used. Water quality data were continuously collected and stories were shared between the team and communities along the YR. Healing Journey data were compared to the LT reference conditions and showed the summer of 2007 was abnormal compared to the LT water quality. This study showed the importance of establishing a reference condition by reach and season for key indicators of water

  11. Latent Class Models in action: bridging social capital & Internet usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Barbara Barbosa; Fonseca, Jaime R S

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores how Latent Class Models (LCM) can be applied in social research, when the basic assumptions of regression models cannot be validated. We examine the usefulness of this method with data collected from a study on the relationship between bridging social capital and the Internet. Social capital is defined here as the resources that are potentially available in one's social ties. Bridging is a dimension of social capital, usually related to weak ties (acquaintances), and a source of instrumental resources such as information. The study surveyed a stratified random sample of 417 inhabitants of Lisbon, Portugal. We used LCM to create the variable bridging social capital, but also to estimate the relationship between bridging social capital and Internet usage when we encountered convergence problems with the logistic regression analysis. We conclude by showing a positive relationship between bridging and Internet usage, and by discussing the potential of LCM for social science research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rull, V.

    2014-01-01

    Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia), which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a...

  13. IceBridge: Bringing a Field Campaign Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J.; Beck, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2015-12-01

    IceBridge, a six-year NASA mission, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice. Data collected during IceBridge will help scientists bridge the gap in polar observations between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) -- in orbit since 2003 -- and ICESat-2, planned for 2017. ICESat stopped collecting science data in 2009, making IceBridge critical for ensuring a continuous series of observations. IceBridge will use airborne instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year at a minimum, with new campaigns being developed during the Arctic melt season. IceBridge flights are conducted in the spring and summer for the Arctic and in the fall over Antarctica. Other smaller airborne surveys around the world are also part of the IceBridge campaign. IceBridge actively engages the public and educators through a variety of outlets ranging from communications strategies through social media outlets, to larger organized efforts such as PolarTREC. In field activities include blog posts, photo updates, in flight chat sessions, and more intensive live events to include google hangouts, where field team members can interact with the public during a scheduled broadcast. The IceBridge team provides scientists and other team members with the training and support to become communicators in their own right. There is an exciting new initiative where IceBridge will be collaborating with Undergraduate and Graduate students to integrate the next generation of scientists and communicators into the Science Teams. This will be explored through partnerships with institutions that are interested in mentoring through project based initiatives.

  14. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  15. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...

  16. Managing Transitions, Building Bridges: An Evaluation of a Summer Bridge Program for African American Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to highlight the potential of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) summer bridge programs to promote college persistence by fostering a positive science identity among participants that is culturally consistent with the values and experiences of African American students. Design/methodology/approach:…

  17. Nonlinearity in oscillating bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gazzola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We first recall several historical oscillating bridges that, in some cases, led to collapses. Some of them are quite recent and show that, nowadays, oscillations in suspension bridges are not yet well understood. Next, we survey some attempts to model bridges with differential equations. Although these equations arise from quite different scientific communities, they display some common features. One of them, which we believe to be incorrect, is the acceptance of the linear Hooke law in elasticity. This law should be used only in presence of small deviations from equilibrium, a situation which does not occur in widely oscillating bridges. Then we discuss a couple of recent models whose solutions exhibit self-excited oscillations, the phenomenon visible in real bridges. This suggests a different point of view in modeling equations and gives a strong hint how to modify the existing models in order to obtain a reliable theory. The purpose of this paper is precisely to highlight the necessity of revisiting the classical models, to introduce reliable models, and to indicate the steps we believe necessary to reach this target.

  18. Ecological economics and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Rigaud, G.

    1991-09-01

    What is the subject of ecology? What is the primary concern of economics? How can the interface between ecology and economics be described? Is there a relationship between the two different sciences which constitutes a new research field? This book raises some of these basic questions and reflects on major misleading assumptions research in ecological economics unwittingly relies on. An outlook is given as to the aspects on which research in this field should now primarily concentrate. This publication addresses first of all natural scientists and politicians, though economists, too, might find some new aspects apart from traditional economic reasoning. (orig./KW)

  19. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the bridge-to-bridge...

  1. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    by a more theoretical debate and increased interaction between the heterodox schools of ecological economics and post-Keynesian economics. In addition, both the degrowth community and the research community organized around sustainable transitions of socio-technical systems have contributed to discussions...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  2. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  3. Bridge deterioration models to support Indiana's bridge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    An effective bridge management system that is equipped with reliable deterioration models enables agency engineers to carry out : monitoring and long-term programming of bridge repair actions. At the project level, deterioration models help the agenc...

  4. Development of bridge girder movement criteria for accelerated bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    End diaphragms connect multiple girders to form a bridge superstructure system for effective resistance to earthquake loads. Concrete : girder bridges that include end diaphragms consistently proved to perform well during previous earthquake events. ...

  5. Learning Bridge: Curricular Integration of Didactic and Experiential Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Cassandra S.; Cawley, Pauline; Buhler, Amber V.; Elbarbry, Fawzy; Roberts, Sigrid C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of a program to integrate introductory pharmacy practice experiences with pharmaceutical science topics by promoting active learning, self-directed learning skills, and critical-thinking skills. Design The Learning Bridge, a curriculum program, was created to better integrate the material first-year (P1) students learned in pharmaceutical science courses into their introductory pharmacy practice experiences. Four Learning Bridge assignments required students to interact with their preceptors and answer questions relating to the pharmaceutical science material concurrently covered in their didactic courses. Assessment Surveys of students and preceptors were conducted to measure the effectiveness of the Learning Bridge process. Feedback indicated the Learning Bridge promoted students' interaction with their preceptors as well as development of active learning, self-directed learning, and critical-thinking skills. Students also indicated that the Learning Bridge assignments increased their learning, knowledge of drug information, and comprehension of relevant data in package inserts. Conclusion The Learning Bridge process integrated the didactic and experiential components of the curriculum, enhancing student learning in both areas, and offered students educational opportunities to interact more with their preceptors. PMID:20498741

  6. Rational Use of Natural Potential State Dendropark "Аlexandria" of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the Concept of Ecological Network in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkin, S.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides information about scientific research and technological activities undertaken to create a socionatural structure – nature trail in the State deontological park «Alexandria» NAS in the concept of development of ecological network in Ukraine. Its purpose and method of research, objectives and purpose, criteria for the building of the trail, the length and the number of constituent elements of ecological trails in the deontological park “Alexandria” are presented. The data on the history of the building of nature trails in Ukraine and the deontological park “Alexandria”, information about objects or parts of the trail, the species composition of introduction collections is given. List of new species in the deontological park that are planted for optimization of introduction and natural plant communities, rare and endangered species of plants and animals, permanent collection sites and a list of technical measures for resettlement ecological trail is presented.

  7. Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed. PMID:22736840

  8. Theoretical ecology as etiological from the start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donhauser, Justin

    2016-12-01

    The world's leading environmental advisory institutions look to ecological theory and research as an objective guide for policy and resource management decision-making. In addition to the theoretical and broadly philosophical merits of doing so, it is therefore practically significant to clear up confusions about ecology's conceptual foundations and to clarify the basic workings of inferential methods used in the science. Through discussion of key moments in the genesis of the theoretical branch of ecology, this essay elucidates a general heuristic role of teleological metaphors in ecological research and defuses certain enduring confusions about work in ecology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  10. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  11. Virginia Bridge Information Systems Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report presents the results of applied data mining of legacy bridge databases, focusing on the Pontis and : National Bridge Inventory databases maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). Data : analysis was performed using a...

  12. Public response to bridge colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    To determine people's reactions to bridges painted in colors as white, yellow, green, blue, red, brown, black, and aluminum, two test bridges were selected in Charlottesville, Virginia. One was painted a different color each month and the other was k...

  13. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  14. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  15. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH) [de

  16. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit...

  17. eEcoLiDAR, eScience infrastructure for ecological applications of LiDAR point clouds: reconstructing the 3D ecosystem structure for animals at regional to continental scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Daniel Kissling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of high-resolution measurements of 3D ecosystem structure across broad spatial extents impedes major advancements in animal ecology and biodiversity science. We aim to fill this gap by using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology to characterize the vertical and horizontal complexity of vegetation and landscapes at high resolution across regional to continental scales. The newly LiDAR-derived 3D ecosystem structures will be applied in species distribution models for breeding birds in forests and marshlands, for insect pollinators in agricultural landscapes, and songbirds at stopover sites during migration. This will allow novel insights into the hierarchical structure of animal-habitat associations, into why animal populations decline, and how they respond to habitat fragmentation and ongoing land use change. The processing of these massive amounts of LiDAR point cloud data will be achieved by developing a generic interactive eScience environment with multi-scale object-based image analysis (OBIA and interpretation of LiDAR point clouds, including data storage, scalable computing, tools for machine learning and visualisation (feature selection, annotation/segmentation, object classification, and evaluation, and a PostGIS spatial database. The classified objects will include trees, forests, vegetation strata, edges, bushes, hedges, reedbeds etc. with their related metrics, attributes and summary statistics (e.g. vegetation openness, height, density, vertical biomass distribution etc.. The newly developed eScience tools and data will be available to other disciplines and applications in ecology and the Earth sciences, thereby achieving high impact. The project will foster new multi-disciplinary collaborations between ecologists and eScientists and contribute to training a new generation of geo-ecologists.

  18. The ecology and management of moist mixed-conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington: a synthesis of the relevant biophysical science and implications for future land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Stine; Paul Hessburg; Thomas Spies; Marc Kramer; Christopher J. Fettig; Andrew Hansen; John Lehmkuhl; Kevin O' Hara; Karl Polivka; Peter Singleton; Susan Charnley; Andrew Merschel; Rachel. White

    2014-01-01

    Land managers in the Pacific Northwest have reported a need for updated scientific information on the ecology and management of mixed-conifer forests east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Of particular concern are the moist mixed-conifer forests, which have become drought-stressed and vulnerable to high-severity fire after decades of human disturbances...

  19. Editorial : Laudation to prof.dr. Hans-Toni Tarre- towards conceptual, theory-based ecological science and its transfer to the applied field of ecotoxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Giesy, J.P.; Heimbach, F.; Hollert, H.; Ross-Nickoll, M.; Schaffer, A.; Steinhauser, K.G.

    2011-01-01

    In order to thank Prof. Dr. Hans-Toni Ratte on the occasion of his retirement for his outstanding experimental and modelling merits in the field of ecotoxicology and ecology and his personal 65th anniversary on November 25th this article will present a laudation.

  20. Looking Beyond the Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Rosholm, Michael

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the stepping-stone effect of temporary agency employment on unemployed workers. Using the timing-of-events approach, we not only investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment but also analyze its effect on post-unemployment wages...

  1. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  2. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  3. Bridging the Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…

  4. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  5. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  6. Bridging the Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a model water quality monitoring project, Project Bridge, established to train minority girls about to enter eighth grade in scientific procedures followed by hands-on experimentation. Students spent a week monitoring water in an urban stream and analyzing results. (LZ)

  7. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The fixed link between Denmark and Sweden connects two busy cities and a large international airport with many of its travelers and employees. 18,000 vehicles and 160 passenger trains transport each day more than 70,000 people across the combined road and rail Øresund Bridge and through the Øresu...... in its final report to the Danish and Swedish transport authorities while drawing upon experiences from two recent comparable cases of infrastructure disruptions: The Champlain Bridge (2009) and the Forth Road Bridge (2015).......The fixed link between Denmark and Sweden connects two busy cities and a large international airport with many of its travelers and employees. 18,000 vehicles and 160 passenger trains transport each day more than 70,000 people across the combined road and rail Øresund Bridge and through the Øresund...... Tunnel, approximately 25,000 of them critical to the regional work market. Even though the risk analysis states that the likelihood of a long-term closure (100C days) is very low Danish and Swedish transport authorities have demanded that the infrastructure operator conducts a survey of the preparedness...

  8. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  9. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  11. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges...

  12. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  13. Wasteland ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Bertoni, Filippo; Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2018-01-01

    landscapes, this article argues, are the result of unheralded multispecies collaboration that can be traced empirically by attending ethnographically to multispecies forms of “gain-making,” the ways in which humans and other species leverage difference to find economic and ecological opportunity....... in the 1970s, when prevailing perceptions were that the entire mining area was a polluted wasteland, the AFLD Fasterholt waste and recycling plant has since changed in response to new EU waste management regulations, as well as the unexpected proliferation of non-human life in the area. Based on field...... research at this site—an Anthropocene landscape in the heartland of an EU-configured welfare state — this article is a contribution to the multispecies ethnography and political ecology of wastelands. We argue that “waste” is a co-species, biopolitical happening — a complex symbolic, political, biological...

  14. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  15. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  16. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones that have their superstructure cast integrally with their substructure. The jointless bridges cost less to construct and require less maintenance then equivalent bridges with expansion joints. Integral bridges present a challenge for load distribution calculations because the bridge deck, piers, abutments, embankments and soil must all be considered as single compliant system. This paper presents some of the important features of integral abutment and jointless bridge design and some guidelines to achieve improved design. The goal of this paper is to enhance the awareness among the engineering community to use integral abutment and jointless bridges in Romania.

  17. Proceedings of 5. international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2005: Ecological problems of XXI century'. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Okeanov, A.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.

    2005-05-01

    The first part of proceedings of the fifth international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2005: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University, contents materials on topics: socio-ecological problems, medical ecology, biological ecology. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)

  18. Proceedings of 7. international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2007: Ecological problems of XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2007-05-01

    Abstracts of the seventh international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2007: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov environmental university, contents materials on topics: socio-ecological problems, medical ecology, biomonitoring and bioindication, biological ecology. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)

  19. Proceedings of 5. international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2005: Ecological problems of XXI century'. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Okeanov, A.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.

    2005-05-01

    The first part of proceedings of the fifth international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2005: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University, contents materials on topics: radioecology, ecological and radiation monitoring, new information systems and technologies in ecology, priority ecological power engineering, management in ecology, ecological education. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, dosimetry, engineers, teachers, students and post-graduate students

  20. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  1. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  2. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  3. Book Reviews Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and emergent properties), and scientific method in ecology. ... this science: particularly the interface of habitat dynamics ... characteristic trophic structure and material cycles, six separate .... tion in using parts of it for extra readings in my senior.

  4. Understanding cities as social-ecological systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on earlier ecological approaches to urban development, as well as more recent thinking in the fields of sustainability science, resilience thinking and complexity theory, to propose a conceptual framework for understanding cities...

  5. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J

    2014-11-01

    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social-ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social-ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social-ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social-ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  7. Ecology – A Pocket Guide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. Ecology – A Pocket Guide. Renee M Borges. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 99-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/08/0099-0102. Author Affiliations.

  8. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  9. A question of fit: reflections on boundaries, organizations and social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlieb, Faith; Bixler, R Patrick; Huber-Stearns, Heidi; Huayhuaca, Ch'aska

    2013-11-30

    Although there is acknowledgment that the complexity of social-ecological systems governance demands representation from diverse perspectives, there is little agreement in the literature on how to cross both fiat (human-demarcated) and bona fide (physical) boundaries to address such complexities. As a cohort of interdisciplinary scholars, we navigate the boundary between science and practice to address the question of fit regarding the role of organizations in transcending boundaries. We found there is a need to rectify discrepancies between theories about boundaries and theories about organizations. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework to analyze transboundary organizations, an umbrella term to group the literature on boundary organizations, intermediaries and bridging organizations; we introduce this term to illustrate they are not mutually exclusive and to facilitate interdisciplinary research. We first examine social-ecological systems (SES), a framework intended to improve understandings of boundaries and governance. We then continue to unpack the complexity of boundaries and organizations, specifically through important transboundary concepts such as scale and organizational learning. This helps frame our examination of the literature on: 1) boundary organizations; 2) bridging organizations (third-party entities); and 3) intermediaries (distinguished by their position between other actors). Our review identifies a number of discrepancies that pertain to the types of boundaries discussed and the roles assigned to organizations governing SES. Important characteristics have emerged from our review of transboundary organizations including legitimacy, saliency, urgency, and credibility. In developing a conceptual framework, we argue that transboundary organizations: 1) expand upon the boundary spectrum, 2) incorporate transboundary concepts, and 3) hybridize characteristics of boundary, bridging, and intermediary organizations. We conclude with a number

  10. BALKANS: Building bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At a time when upheaval and political unrest in some Balkan countries gives cause for concern, it is good to know that physics, once again, is building bridges between nations. The new international mobility in the region was marked by a major activity of the Balkan Physical Union - the first Balkan School of Physics, held on the banks of the Bosphorus during the first two weeks of September

  11. Resonance journal of science education

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    347 Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and. Biological Sciences. Chemistry Nobel Prize – 2013. Saraswathi Vishveshwara. SERIES ARTICLES. 368 Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives. A Physicist's Perspective on Ecology. Vishwesha Guttal. 310. 368 ...

  12. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  13. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  14. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujinović, Almira; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Gojak, Refet

    2013-11-01

    Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the "tunnel" segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33%) above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64 ± 9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23 ± 1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  15. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...... decisive for choosing the form of trusses, arches and cable-stayed bridges are outlined, and several examples show bridges designed without giving priority to the structural aspects....

  16. MODERN ASPECTS OF BRIDGES MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevych

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The major concepts of the elaboration and realization of the bridge construction monitoring systemic approach are presented in this paper. The main peculiarity of the bridge monitoring modern aspect is pointed out here, namely, the transition from the demands of providing the reliability to the demands of providing the whole complex of the structure consumer qualities. The criteria of diagnostics of the bridge exploitation reliability as the fundamental aim of monitoring are formulated here.

  17. For an ecology of scientific work: science, politics and the case of streams Pampa and Luiz Rau in Novo Hamburgo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meirelles

    Full Text Available If, like Weber writes, every knowledge is objective in terms of evolving the interests of researchers and the agencies, in this article, we investigate that, which has been researched about two streams: Pampa and Luiz Rau. In doing so, in addition to highlighting what has caught the researchers' attention, this paper manages to point out a few gaps and fruitful fields of study which extend beyond the hard sciences. This study is, therefore, characterized as an essay review paper that sets out to use anthropology of science to think about the limitations and advances the studies about the two streams have achieved, as well as their social impact.

  18. For an ecology of scientific work: science, politics and the case of streams Pampa and Luiz Rau in Novo Hamburgo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, M; Pedde, V; Figueiredo, J A S

    2015-12-01

    If, like Weber writes, every knowledge is objective in terms of evolving the interests of researchers and the agencies, in this article, we investigate that, which has been researched about two streams: Pampa and Luiz Rau. In doing so, in addition to highlighting what has caught the researchers' attention, this paper manages to point out a few gaps and fruitful fields of study which extend beyond the hard sciences. This study is, therefore, characterized as an essay review paper that sets out to use anthropology of science to think about the limitations and advances the studies about the two streams have achieved, as well as their social impact.

  19. Landscape ecology: Past, present, and future [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jeffrey S. Evans; Kevin McGarigal

    2010-01-01

    In the preceding chapters we discussed the central role that spatial and temporal variability play in ecological systems, the importance of addressing these explicitly within ecological analyses and the resulting need to carefully consider spatial and temporal scale and scaling. Landscape ecology is the science of linking patterns and processes across scale in both...

  20. 33 CFR 332.5 - Ecological performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ecological performance standards..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMPENSATORY MITIGATION FOR LOSSES OF AQUATIC RESOURCES § 332.5 Ecological performance... objective and verifiable. Ecological performance standards must be based on the best available science that...

  1. Nondestructive testing for bridge diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Toshiyuki; Mikami, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    There are many motivations for bridge diagnosis using Nondestructive testing (NDT) to monitor its integrity. The measured frequency and damping on real bridge are compared in one figure as a function of span length and general aspects are explained. These date were measured in every construction of bridges and applied to design new bridges. Ultrasonic testing is also well used for concrete and steel members mainly to detect internal damages or delaminations. Detail analysis on reflected waves gives us more accurate information about the defect. Experimental results are shown as examples in this paper.

  2. Steel-soil composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2017-01-01

    viability, while their environmental performance is overlooked. Today’s designers are urged to seek new design options to reduce the environmental burdens. Sweden owns more than 24574 bridges and most of them are short spans. Among them, the slab frame bridge (CFB) is a common solution. Soil steel composite...... bridge (SSCB), alternatively, is a functionally equivalent solution to CFB and shows advantages in low cost and easy construction. This paper compares the environmental performance between these two bridge types based on life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis and result shows that, the SSCB...

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of fracture critical bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Two-girder steel bridges are classified as fracture critical bridges based on the definition given in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. In a fracture critical bridge a failure of a tension member leads to collapse of the bridge. However, ...

  4. Community Garden: A Bridging Program between Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children's science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and…

  5. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  6. Bivariate Gaussian bridges: directional factorization of diffusion in Brownian bridge models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranstauber, Bart; Safi, Kamran; Bartumeus, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    In recent years high resolution animal tracking data has become the standard in movement ecology. The Brownian Bridge Movement Model (BBMM) is a widely adopted approach to describe animal space use from such high resolution tracks. One of the underlying assumptions of the BBMM is isotropic diffusive motion between consecutive locations, i.e. invariant with respect to the direction. Here we propose to relax this often unrealistic assumption by separating the Brownian motion variance into two directional components, one parallel and one orthogonal to the direction of the motion. Our new model, the Bivariate Gaussian bridge (BGB), tracks movement heterogeneity across time. Using the BGB and identifying directed and non-directed movement within a trajectory resulted in more accurate utilisation distributions compared to dynamic Brownian bridges, especially for trajectories with a non-isotropic diffusion, such as directed movement or Lévy like movements. We evaluated our model with simulated trajectories and observed tracks, demonstrating that the improvement of our model scales with the directional correlation of a correlated random walk. We find that many of the animal trajectories do not adhere to the assumptions of the BBMM. The proposed model improves accuracy when describing the space use both in simulated correlated random walks as well as observed animal tracks. Our novel approach is implemented and available within the "move" package for R.

  7. IDRC at the World Conference of Science Journalists 2017 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... IDRC at the World Conference of Science Journalists 2017 ... “Bridging Science and Societies”, the theme of WCSJ2017, reflects the vital role of science journalists and ... Using digital tech to improve life for refugees.

  8. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    is counted as. Per the TDTC, a test bridge with longitudinal and/or lateral symmetry under non- eccentric loading can be considered as 1, 2, or 4...Level Run036 3 MLC70T (tracked) BA Run046 6 AB Run055 9 AB Run060 9 BA Run064 12 BA Run071 15 AB Run155 3 MLC96W ( wheeled ) AB...Run331 9 AB Run359 15 AB Run430 12 MLC96W ( wheeled ) BA Run434 12 AB Run447 3 BA Bank Condition: Side Slope, Even Strain Channels High

  9. Understanding Global Change (UGC) as a Unifying Conceptual Framework for Teaching Ecology: Using UGC in a High School Biology Program to Integrate Earth Science and Biology, and to Demonstrate the Value of Modeling Global Systems in Promoting Conceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Global change science is ideal for NGSS-informed teaching, but presents a serious challenge to K-12 educators because it is complex and interdisciplinary- combining earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Global systems are themselves complex. Adding anthropogenic influences on those systems creates a formidable list of topics - greenhouse effect, climate change, nitrogen enrichment, introduced species, land-use change among them - which are often presented as a disconnected "laundry list" of "facts." This complexity, combined with public and mass-media scientific illiteracy, leaves global change science vulnerable to misrepresentation and politicization, creating additional challenges to teachers in public schools. Ample stand-alone, one-off, online resources, many of them excellent, are (to date) underutilized by teachers in the high school science course taken by most students: biology. The Understanding Global Change project (UGC) from the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology has created a conceptual framework that organizes, connects, and explains global systems, human and non-human drivers of change in those systems, and measurable changes in those systems. This organization and framework employ core ideas, crosscutting concepts, structure/function relationships, and system models in a unique format that facilitates authentic understanding, rather than memorization. This system serves as an organizing framework for the entire ecology unit of a forthcoming mainstream high school biology program. The UGC system model is introduced up front with its core informational graphic. The model is elaborated, step by step, by adding concepts and processes as they are introduced and explained in each chapter. The informational graphic is thus used in several ways: to organize material as it is presented, to summarize topics in each chapter and put them in perspective, and for review and critical thinking exercises that supplement the usual end-of-chapter lists of

  10. Community ecology in a changing environment: Perspectives from the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen T; Blois, Jessica L

    2015-04-21

    Community ecology and paleoecology are both concerned with the composition and structure of biotic assemblages but are largely disconnected. Community ecology focuses on existing species assemblages and recently has begun to integrate history (phylogeny and continental or intercontinental dispersal) to constrain community processes. This division has left a "missing middle": Ecological and environmental processes occurring on timescales from decades to millennia are not yet fully incorporated into community ecology. Quaternary paleoecology has a wealth of data documenting ecological dynamics at these timescales, and both fields can benefit from greater interaction and articulation. We discuss ecological insights revealed by Quaternary terrestrial records, suggest foundations for bridging between the disciplines, and identify topics where the disciplines can engage to mutual benefit.

  11. Media Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ašković

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.

  12. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  13. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must conduct...

  14. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit or...

  15. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  16. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  17. Seismic Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    stations, bridges, constructions, etc.) are given.

  18. Foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology: Consequences for Media Education and Mobile Learning in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rummler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper offers insights to the foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology and relates this concept to traditional concepts of Ecology e.g. media ecology or Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of child development. It will further discuss the term «ecology» as a relation between learners and their surrounding physical and structural world, e. g. an ecology of resources or the classroom as an ecological system. Thirdly more recent concepts in ecology will be considered e. g. Digital Media Ecology including media ecology (German: Medienökologie from a German perspective. This contribution tries to describe common principles of (media ecologies and will ask after their meaning and relation to media education and mobile learning. One of the main results is the realisation that cultural practices of school learning and cultural practices of media acquisition take place in different worlds or in different ecological spheres. The question is thus again of how to bridge these ecological spheres, and how «agency» developed outside school, can be nourished inside school. In other words: how can we bridge socio-cultural and technological structures within these cultural practices.

  19. Proceedings of 8. international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2008: Ecological problems of XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2008-05-01

    The proceedings of the eighth international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2008: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov environmental university, contents materials on topics: socio-ecological problems in the light of ideas of academic A. Sakharov; medical ecology; bioecology; biomonitoring, bioindication and bioremediation; radioecology and radiation protection; information systems and technologies in ecology; ecological management; ecological monitoring; ecological education, education for sustainable development; ecological ethics in bioethics education system; problems and prospects of renewable energetics development in Belarus. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)

  20. Adding Value to Ecological Risk Assessment with Population Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Calow, Peter; Grimm, Volker

    2011-01-01

    population models can provide a powerful basis for expressing ecological risks that better inform the environmental management process and thus that are more likely to be used by managers. Here we provide at least five reasons why population modeling should play an important role in bridging the gap between...

  1. Monitoring bridge scour using fiber optic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The scouring process excavates and carries away materials from the bed and banks of streams, and from : around the piers and abutments of bridges. Scour undermines bridges and may cause bridge failures due to : structural instability. In the last 30 ...

  2. Faster bridge construction using precast substructures : brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Bridge replacement often requires road closures and detours that frustrate road users. It remains a key goal of Wisconsin DOT to reduce construction-related road use interruptions. This will be a challenge with bridges: Bridge inspections in 2007 ide...

  3. Lean Construction Applications for Bridge Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Lean philosophy was used to analyze the efficiency of bridge inspection. Emphasis was put on identifying activities that add value to the final output, an owner approved bridge inspection report. 26 bridge inspections were shadowed. Time spent on bri...

  4. Ecology of three monogenean ectoparasites of Barbus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... The ecology of fish parasites provides important information ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 101:9661 – 9668. ISSN 1997– ..... Sciences de l'Université de Yaoundé I, Série. Sciences ... International Journal of. Zoological ...

  5. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. Science Smiles. RKLaxman. I bought the plot to build my office. But the activists would not let me touch anything lest it should upset the ecological balance here. R -E-SO-N-A-N-C-E -, -Fe-b-ru-ary-19-9-S -----~-------------

  6. The violin bridge as filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George

    2006-07-01

    The violin bridge filter role was investigated using modal and acoustic measurements on 12 quality-rated violins combined with systematic bridge rocking frequency f(rock) and wing mass decrements deltam on four bridges for two other violins. No isolated bridge resonances were observed; bridge motions were complex (including a "squat" mode near 0.8 kHz) except for low frequency rigid body pivot motions, all more or less resembling rocking motion at higher frequencies. A conspicuous broad peak near 2.3 kHz in bridge driving point mobility (labeled BH) was seen for good and bad violins. Similar structure was seen in averaged bridge, bridge feet, corpus mobilities and averaged radiativity. No correlation between violin quality and BH driving point, averaged corpus mobility magnitude, or radiativity was found. Increasing averaged-over-f(rock) deltam(g) from 0 to 0.12 generally increased radiativity across the spectrum. Decreasing averaged-over-deltam f(rock) from 3.6 to 2.6 kHz produced consistent decreases in radiativity between 3 and 4.2 kHz, but only few-percent decreases in BH frequency. The lowest f(rock) values were accompanied by significantly reduced radiation from the Helmholtz A0 mode near 280 Hz; this, combined with reduced high frequency output, created overall radiativity profiles quite similar to "bad" violins among the quality-rated violins.

  7. Fatigue test on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, van IJ.J.

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge

  8. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also endan...

  9. Superconductivity in small metal bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannah, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Josephson effects in weaklinks are discussed for low and high frequency regimes using simple perturbation techniques. It is proven that no measurement of the supercurrent dependence upon frequency above the Riedel peak frequency can be made using rf sources whose frequencies are below the Riedel peak. Thus the bulk of work done in the field on the high frequency structure of the Josephson current is shown to be invalid. Metal bridges shorter than a newly defined temperature independent length for superconductors, l/sub PHONON/, are proven to be identical in their Josephson current behavior to tunneling junctions. The BCS gap equation is generalized to include voltage gradient effects on pairs within the bridge. The oscillation frequency for long bridges (l/sub BRIDGE/ greater than l/sub PHONON/) is shown to be limited to less than 10'' Hz. An experimental test of the new voltage dependent gap is made as well as tests of the pair reforming time of bridges

  10. Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Colyvan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of ecology has been slow to become established as an area of philosophical interest, but it is now receiving considerable attention. This area holds great promise for the advancement of both ecology and the philosophy of science. Insights from the philosophy of science can advance ecology in a number of ways. For example, philosophy can assist with the development of improved models of ecological hypothesis testing and theory choice. Philosophy can also help ecologists understand the role and limitations of mathematical models in ecology. On the other side, philosophy of science will be advanced by having ecological case studies as part of the stock of examples. Ecological case studies can shed light on old philosophical topics as well as raise novel issues for the philosophy of science. For example, understanding theoretical terms such as "biodiversity" is important for scientific reasons, but such terms also carry political importance. Formulating appropriate definitions for such terms is thus not a purely scientific matter, and this may prompt a reevaluation of philosophical accounts of defining theoretical terms. We consider some of the topics currently receiving attention in the philosophy of ecology and other topics in need of attention. Our aim is to prompt further exchange between ecology and philosophy of science and to help set the agenda for future work in the philosophy of ecology. The topics covered include: the role of mathematical models, environmental problem formulation, biodiversity, and environmental ethics.

  11. Proceedings of 6. international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2006: Ecological problems of XXI century'. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Okeanov, A.E.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2006-05-01

    The second part of proceedings of the sixth international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2006: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov environmental university, contents materials on topics: radioecology, environmental monitoring, information systems and technologies in ecology, ecological priority energy engineering, ecological management and ecological education. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)

  12. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  13. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  14. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  15. Majorana entanglement bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, Stephan; Zazunov, Alex; Sodano, Pasquale; Egger, Reinhold

    2015-06-01

    We study the concurrence of entanglement between two quantum dots in contact to Majorana bound states on a floating superconducting island. The distance between the Majorana states, the charging energy of the island, and the average island charge are shown to be decisive parameters for the efficiency of entanglement generation. We find that long-range entanglement with basically distance-independent concurrence is possible over wide parameter regions, where the proposed setup realizes a "Majorana entanglement bridge." We also study the time-dependent concurrence obtained after one of the tunnel couplings is suddenly switched on, which reveals the time scales for generating entanglement. Accurate analytical expressions for the concurrence are derived both for the static and the time-dependent cases. Our results indicate that entanglement formation in interacting Majorana devices can be fully understood in terms of an interplay of elastic cotunneling (also referred to as "teleportation") and crossed Andreev reflection processes.

  16. Electrothermally Tunable Bridge Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Alcheikh, Nouha; Ramini, Abdallah; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator compressed by a force due to electrothermal actuation. We demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally, by passing a DC current through it. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and to simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results.

  17. Electrothermally Tunable Bridge Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2016-12-05

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator compressed by a force due to electrothermal actuation. We demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally, by passing a DC current through it. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and to simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results.

  18. Half Bridge Inductive Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán GERMÁN-SALLÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating performs contactless, efficient and fast heating of conductive materials, therefore became one of the preferred heating procedure in industrial, domestic and medical applications. During induction heating the high-frequency alternating currents that heat the material are induced by means of electromagnetic induction. The material to be heated is placed inside the time-varying magnetic field generated by applying a highfrequency alternating current to an induction coil. The alternating electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the workpiece, resulting resistive losses, which then heat the material. This paper describes the design of a power electronic converter circuit for induction heating equipment and presents the obtained results. The realized circuit is a low power half bridge resonant inverter which uses power MOS transistors and adequate driver circuits.

  19. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  20. Bridge esthetic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    As esthetics is not an exact science, differences of opinion occur, even between experts; however, studies had found that in most cases there were statistical preferences. These preferences are presented. For the convenience of the designer, a format...