WorldWideScience

Sample records for science basis contribution

  1. Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Abstract for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Qin, Dahe; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Tignor, Melinda M.B.; Allen, Simon K.; Boschung, Judith; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Bex, Vincent; Midgley, Pauline M.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Allen, Simon K.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Church, John A.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Emori, Seita; Forster, Piers; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Jansen, Eystein; Kirtman, Ben; Knutti, Reto; Kumar Kanikicharla, Krishna; Lemke, Peter; Marotzke, Jochem; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Meehl, Gerald A.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Piao, Shilong; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Dahe, Qin; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Randall, David; Rhein, Monika; Rojas, Maisa; Sabine, Christopher; Shindell, Drew; Stocker, Thomas F.; Talley, Lynne D.; Vaughan, David G.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Allen, Myles R.; Boucher, Olivier; Chambers, Don; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Peter U.; Collins, Matthew; Comiso, Josefino C.; Vasconcellos de Menezes, Viviane; Feely, Richard A.; Fichefet, Thierry; Fiore, Arlene M.; Flato, Gregory; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hezel, Paul J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kaser, Georg; Kattsov, Vladimir; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert M.G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Myhre, Gunnar; Osborn, Timothy; Payne, Antony J.; Perlwitz, Judith; Power, Scott; Prather, Michael; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Rogelj, Joeri; Rusticucci, Matilde; Schulz, Michael; Sedlacek, Jan; Stott, Peter A.; Sutton, Rowan; Thorne, Peter W.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-10-01

    The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a

  2. Major contributions to science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-03-15

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental.

  3. Major contributions to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-01-01

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental

  4. Cognitive science contributions to decision science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-02-01

    This article briefly reviews the history and interplay between decision theory, behavioral decision-making research, and cognitive psychology. The review reveals the increasingly important impact that psychology and cognitive science have on decision science. One of the main contributions of cognitive science to decision science is the development of dynamic models that describe the cognitive processes that underlay the evolution of preferences during deliberation phase of making a decision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contributions of polarizabilities to four basis polarizations of electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukina, E.N.; Dubovik, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    All contributions to four basis polarizations of an arbitrary electromagnetic medium at the expense of mixed polarizabilities up to fourth rank tensors are presented. Some concrete examples are considered

  6. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field…

  7. The basis of chemoradiotherapy: pragmatism vs science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Of all of the methods evaluated to improve Radiotherapy through biologic means, the combination of simultaneous chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been by far the most successful. Improved local control and survival have been proven in randomized trials and by meta-analysis. It has taken fifty years to progress from early predictions of favorable interactions between radiation and cytotoxic drugs to improved survival at many tumor sites. How much has pragmatism and empiricism contributed to progress and how much has the lack of predictable effects of new agents in the laboratory delayed progress? Much of the progress has depended on serendipity and chance observations of interactions such as D'Angio's observation of the potentiation of radiation effects by actinomycin-D in 1959. Initial fear of adverse reactions if drug and radiation were concurrent further delayed progress. Laboratory experiments in the 1970's and 1980's provided the ground work for a scientific approach to predicting interaction, more successfully for normal tissues than for tumors. This presentation will summarize the development of proven clinical approaches which have become standard therapy and review the present status of predictive laboratory tests which have the potential to predict favorable interactions and accelerate the introduction of new combinations into the clinic

  8. Australian contribution to the science of radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, B.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has made numerous major contributions to the science of radioastronomy and played a leading role in its early development. The history of the Australian effort is reviewed, from this early seminal work until the present day when contributions continue at an important level

  9. 26 CFR 1.723-1 - Basis of property contributed to partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis of property contributed to partnership. 1... property contributed to partnership. The basis to the partnership of property contributed to it by a.... Since such property has the same basis in the hands of the partnership as it had in the hands of the...

  10. The contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to electrical science

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, R A R

    1966-01-01

    The Contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to Electrical Science deals with the development of electromagnetic theory following the establishment of the basis for the first law of circulation relating to the magnetic fields generated by steady currents. This book is organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters that specifically treat the provision of the basis for the second law of circulation, the law that deals with the induction of currents, which was predominantly the work of British physicists, Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Part I highlights their life, career, and contri

  11. Politics as Culture: Contribution of Political Science to Democratic Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Padjen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the contribution of Croatian political science to the development of democracy in Croatia. The focus of the analysis is the concept of culture which author talks about in five steps. In the first step it is understood in the modern key, in the second step as different for nature and in the third as different from society. In the fourth step author differentiates political culture from political economy and political institutions, but in the fifth part there is an attempt to show culture as a fundamental part of politics, policy and polity. On the basis of these insights author shows that the matrix of Croatian political science is more and more devoted to scientific investigation of politics as culture as both study of political culture and as a source of development as politics as culture.

  12. 26 CFR 1.722-1 - Basis of contributing partner's interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... partnership capital results in taxable income to a partner, such income shall constitute an addition to the... money under section 752(b), is treated as capital gain from the sale or exchange or a partnership... contributing partner's interest. The basis to a partner of a partnership interest acquired by a contribution of...

  13. Continuum contributions to dipole oscillator-strength sum rules for hydrogen in finite basis sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jens; Ogilvie, John F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Calculations of the continuum contributions to dipole oscillator sum rules for hydrogen are performed using both exact and basis-set representations of the stick spectra of the continuum wave function. We show that the same results are obtained for the sum rules in both cases, but that the conver......Calculations of the continuum contributions to dipole oscillator sum rules for hydrogen are performed using both exact and basis-set representations of the stick spectra of the continuum wave function. We show that the same results are obtained for the sum rules in both cases......, but that the convergence towards the final results with increasing excitation energies included in the sum over states is slower in the basis-set cases when we use the best basis. We argue also that this conclusion most likely holds also for larger atoms or molecules....

  14. Continental Contributions to Philosophy of Science

    OpenAIRE

    REGINE KATHER

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews the book Continental Philosophy of Science, edited by Gary Gutting. Introductory remarks about the historical relationship between philosophy and science are followed by a presentation and discussion of different philosophies of science and commentaries on the eleven German and French authors whose texts are found in this volume. In addition to her assessment of Guttings’s collection, the author’s overall conclusion is that one characteristic trait of the Continental philos...

  15. Commentaries on Hilbert's Basis Theorem | Apine | Science World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The famous basis theorem of David Hilbert is an important theorem in commutative algebra. In particular the Hilbert's basis theorem is the most important source of Noetherian rings which are by far the most important class of rings in commutative algebra. In this paper we have used Hilbert's theorem to examine their unique ...

  16. Contributions from Women to the Radiation Sciences: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicole E

    2017-04-01

    Contributions from men to radiation science are well known, particularly the early contributions from such luminaries as William Roentgen, James Chadwick, Niels Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, and the like. Although not ignored per se, beyond Marie Curie and Lise Meitner, the contributions of female nuclear scientists are not as widely recognized. This paper provides a concise historical summary of contributions to radiation science from the discovery of radiation through the current status of international leadership within the radiation protection community. Beyond lead scientists and academics, this paper also considers support personnel as well as the role women have played in the advancement of radiation epidemiology.

  17. Steponas Kolupaila's contribution to hydrological science development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiuškevičius, Gintaras

    2017-08-01

    Steponas Kolupaila (1892-1964) was an important figure in 20th century hydrology and one of the pioneers of scientific water gauging in Europe. His research on the reliability of hydrological data and measurement methods was particularly important and contributed to the development of empirical hydrological calculation methods. Kolupaila was one of the first who standardised water-gauging methods internationally. He created several original hydrological and hydraulic calculation methods (his discharge assessment method for winter period was particularly significant). His innate abilities and frequent travel made Kolupaila a universal specialist in various fields and an active public figure. He revealed his multilayered scientific and cultural experiences in his most famous book, Bibliography of Hydrometry. This book introduced the unique European hydrological-measurement and computation methods to the community of world hydrologists at that time and allowed the development and adaptation of these methods across the world.

  18. A century of nuclear science. Important contributions of early generation Chinese physicist to nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chunkai; Xu Furong

    2003-01-01

    The great discoveries and applications of nuclear science have had tremendous impact on the progress and development of mankind over the last 100 years. In the 1920's to 1940's, many young Chinese who yearned to save the country through science and education went to west Europe and north America to study science, including physics. Studying and working with famous physicists throughout the world, they made many important contributions and discoveries in the development of nuclear science. This paper describes the historical contributions of the older generation of Chinese physicists to nuclear science

  19. Political science, public administration, and natural hazards: contributions and connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.

    2009-04-01

    The connection between the natural and social sciences has become stronger, and has increasingly been recognized as a vital component in the area of natural hazards research. Moving applied natural hazards research into the public policy or administration realm is not often easy, or effective. An improved understanding of the connection between the natural and social sciences can assist in this process and result in better public policy, acceptance from the public for these policies, and a safer and better educated public. This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. Specifically we will review the current contribution of the formal academic disciplines of political science and public administration within recent natural hazards-related scholarship. The general characteristics of the contributions (e.g. coauthored, interdisciplinary, etc.), specific theories and methods being applied, and the types of natural hazards being scrutinized by these related fields will be assessed. In conclusion we will discuss future contributions and areas for potential collaboration between the natural and social sciences in the area of natural hazards research.

  20. Merlin C. Wittrock's Enduring Contributions to the Science of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Among his many accomplishments in educational psychology, Merlin C. Wittrock is perhaps best remembered for his enduring contributions to the science of learning. His vision of how learning works is best explicated in articles published in "Educational Psychologist" (Wittrock, 1974, 1978, 1989, 1991, 1992), beginning with his classic 1974 article,…

  1. Contributions of a Science Museum for the Initial Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Manuel Tempesta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some results obtained in a master’s research which aimed to evaluate what are the contributions that the acting as Physical monitor in a Science Museum has for the initial training and the beginning of the teaching career. Basing our analysis, we have adopted as theoretical assumptions the Teachers Knowledge and the Training Needs. We interviewed a group of ten teachers who played the function of Physics mediator in the Interdisciplinary Dynamic Museum (MUDI of the State University of Maringá, and submit to the Textual Analysis Discursive process. The results allowed us to realize that the contributions go beyond the expected, revealing the great potential of the Science museums of as an aid to initial training, contributing to the development of competencies and abilities that today is required of the teacher, and them providing experiences load which otherwise would not be reached.

  2. Brazilian science communication research: national and international contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Caldas, Graça; Gascoigne, Toss

    2017-08-31

    Science communication has emerged as a new field over the last 50 years, and its progress has been marked by a rise in jobs, training courses, research, associations, conferences and publications. This paper describes science communication internationally and the trends and challenges it faces, before looking at the national level. We have documented science communication activities in Brazil, the training courses, research, financial support and associations/societies. By analyzing the publication of papers, dissertations and theses we have tracked the growth of this field, and compared the level of activity in Brazil with other countries. Brazil has boosted its national research publications since 2002, with a bigger contribution from postgraduate programs in education and communication, but compared to its national research activity Brazil has only a small international presence in science communication. The language barrier, the tradition of publishing in national journals and the solid roots in education are some of the reasons for that. Brazil could improve its international participation, first by considering collaborations within Latin America. International publication is dominated by the USA and the UK. There is a need to take science communication to the next level by developing more sophisticated tools for conceptualizing and analyzing science communication, and Brazil can be part of that.

  3. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.

  4. Contributions of early Arab scholars to color science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2017-09-01

    The Islamic world made important discoveries in the field of color science during the medieval era. These included many fundamental ideas on the nature of color. Some of the first hue scales, though partial were developed by these scholars. They also showed that color was a percept and light and color were ontologically distinct. Other contributions by these scholars include descriptions of the color mixtures, color tops, color theory, etc. A few of these contributions will be discussed in this paper with particular attention to the work of Ibn al-Haytham on color.

  5. Impact of contributions of Glenn T. Seaborg on nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2000-01-01

    Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-199) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten U.S. presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights the profound impact of his contributions on nuclear science, both in the U.S. and in the international community

  6. Impact of contributions of Glenn T. Seaborg on nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2000-12-26

    Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-199) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten U.S. presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights the profound impact of his contributions on nuclear science, both in the U.S. and in the international community.

  7. Professor Barry Fraser's contributions to science education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jill M.

    2011-09-01

    In this article, I endeavour to convey the depth of Barry Fraser's contributions to science education research, including his tireless endeavours to promote and advance research, especially the field of learning environments, the realisation of his vision to create one of the largest doctoral programs in science and mathematics education in the world, his leadership capacity in terms of guiding and leading an internationally renowned centre and large-scale cross-national and cross-cultural studies, his dedication towards human capacity building in Africa, Asia and elsewhere, his capacity as a mentor and editor that have seen the publication of numerous journal articles and books and the ongoing success of science education research journals.

  8. Challenges of citizen science contributions to modelling hydrodynamics of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Thaine Herman; Popescu, Ioana; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2017-04-01

    Citizen science is an established mechanism in many fields of science, including ecology, biology and astronomy. Citizen participation ranges from collecting and interpreting data towards designing experiments with scientists and cooperating with water management authorities. In the environmental sciences, its potential has begun to be explored in the past decades and many studies on the applicability to water resources have emerged. Citizen Observatories are at the core of several EU-funded projects such as WeSenseIt, GroundTruth, GroundTruth 2.0 and SCENT (Smart Toolbox for Engaging Citizens into a People-Centric Observation Web) that already resulted in valuable contributions to the field. Buytaert et al. (2014) has already reviewed the role of citizen science in hydrology. The work presented here aims to complement it, reporting and discussing the use of citizen science for modelling the hydrodynamics of floods in a variety of studies. Additionally, it highlights the challenges that lie ahead to utilize more fully the citizen science potential contribution. In this work, focus is given to each component of hydrodynamic models: water level, velocity, flood extent, roughness and topography. It is addressed how citizens have been contributing to each aspect, mainly considering citizens as sensors and citizens as data interpreters. We consider to which kind of model (1D or 2D) the discussed approaches contribute and what their limitations and potential uses are. We found that although certain mechanisms are well established (e.g. the use of Volunteer Geographic Information for soft validation of land-cover and land-use maps), the applications in a modelling context are rather modest. Also, most studies involving models are limited to replacing traditional data with citizen data. We recommend that citizen science continue to be explored in modelling frameworks, in different case studies, taking advantage of the discussed mechanisms and of new sensor technologies

  9. The "Man-Labour" System as the Basis for Interdisciplinarity of Pedagogical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychkalo, Nellya

    2014-01-01

    We consider the philosophical and pedagogical aspects of "man-labour" system and justify its interdisciplinarity. On the basis of results of scientific researches the need for an objective systematization and specialization in pedagogy is emphasized. Four areas of education sciences systematization, proposed by Z. Vyatrovsky are…

  10. Crowd science user contribution patterns and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry; Franzoni, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research performed with the involvement of the broader public (the crowd) attracts increasing attention from scientists and policy makers. A key premise is that project organizers may be able to draw on underused human resources to advance research at relatively low cost. Despite a growing number of examples, systematic research on the effort contributions volunteers are willing to make to crowd science projects is lacking. Analyzing data on seven different projects, we quantify the financial value volunteers can bring by comparing their unpaid contributions with counterfactual costs in traditional or online labor markets. The volume of total contributions is substantial, although some projects are much more successful in attracting effort than others. Moreover, contributions received by projects are very uneven across time-a tendency toward declining activity is interrupted by spikes typically resulting from outreach efforts or media attention. Analyzing user-level data, we find that most contributors participate only once and with little effort, leaving a relatively small share of users who return responsible for most of the work. Although top contributor status is earned primarily through higher levels of effort, top contributors also tend to work faster. This speed advantage develops over multiple sessions, suggesting that it reflects learning rather than inherent differences in skills. Our findings inform recent discussions about potential benefits from crowd science, suggest that involving the crowd may be more effective for some kinds of projects than others, provide guidance for project managers, and raise important questions for future research.

  11. SOCIAL SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO DISCUSSIONS AFFECT THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santiago Quintal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its origins, the social sciences have focused on technological issues. Social scientists have devoted much attention to the subject affects the action of technological progress on the conformation of human life in General, as well as keeping an eye on more concreteness about the aspects related to the way the technique is acquired, the ways employed to protect her and the tools used to Exchange and protection. In this context, the article aims to identify the contributions of social sciences-notably of the applied social sciences-to discussions involving science, technology and innovation. The survey used the inductive method, applied to the literature review. The findings point to multidisciplinarity of significant thematic affects to science, technology and innovation. Keywords: Scientific knowledge; Social Sciences; Technology and society.

  12. Contributions of research Reactors in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Bashir, J.

    1992-12-01

    In the present paper, after defining a research reactor, its basic constituents, types of reactors, their distribution in the world, some typical examples of their uses are given. Particular emphasis in placed on the contribution of PARR-I (Pakistan Research Reactor-I), the 5 MW Swimming Pool Research reactor which first became critical at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) in Dec. 1965 and attained its full power in June 1966. This is still the major research facility at PINSTECH for research and development. (author)

  13. The contribution of nuclear science and technology to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The United Nations and many individual States and organisations have given increasing attention to the topic of sustainable development in recent years. This has arisen because of concerns about the increasing population of the planet, increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and other pollutants in the biosphere, and the need for increasing amounts of food, water and energy. The paper will use the recent reports of these organisations as background and give an overview of the perceived problems needed to be addressed in the 21st Century to allow sustainable development. The ways in which nuclear science and technology is already contributing to the solution of these problems will then be summarised and comments made on how it can contribute even more in the future

  14. Factors Contributing to Lifelong Science Learning: Amateur Astronomers and Birders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Corin, Elysa Nicole; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    This research examined lifelong science learning reported by amateur astronomers and birders. One hundred seven adults who reported engaging in an informal (out-of-school) science interest were interviewed as part of an ongoing series of studies of lifelong science learners. The goal of the study was to gain insight into how and why amateur…

  15. Contributions of behavioral primatology to veterinary science and comparative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G; Clarke, A S

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral primatology is a subdiscipline of the research area referred to as primatology. Like primatology, behavioral primatology is an eclectic field of study made up of researchers from diverse basic disciplines having very different historical roots and employing extremely different methodologies biased by emphases and assumptions dictated by their histories. Psychologists, zoologists, anthropologists, and psychiatrists make up the majority of those currently active in behavioral primatology, but others, including those in veterinary science, are active in research in the area. Behavioral data can be useful to veterinary scientists and to those in comparative medicine and are interesting in their own right. Veterinarians and medical scientists may specialize in behavioral disorders. In addition, those not directly interested in behavior itself may still make use of behavioral indices of potential physiologic and morphologic abnormality. Often an animal may be inadvertently stressed by social and nonsocial environmental factors, and such stress effects may be first and best recognized by behavioral means. A recognition by those not in the behavioral sciences of the basic feral behavior of primates can go a long way toward prevention or alleviation of both behavioral and physical stress of primates in captivity. Studies of free-ranging but captive troops are sources of information almost as good as, and sometimes even better than, field studies. In addition, there is a growing realization that "natural experiments" on primates in zoos can be of value, especially since many species held in zoologic parks are those least well known in more traditional captive research settings. It must be recognized that the findings from research done on captive primates living in large field cages are not directly comparable to those derived from more directly invasive but more experimental laboratory settings. A comparative perspective on captive environments, as well as on

  16. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant......To address the obesity epidemic, European researchers need to come together to find the best solutions and use their combined knowledge to provide the most innovative research ideas. By gathering more than 50 researchers and stakeholders from around Europe, we took an important step towards...... establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...

  17. The contributions of biological science to national development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and prosperity, and on human physical well being in societies around the world. ... Some science questions have immediate goals, clearly directed towards ... such as TV transmission, power distribution, or computer chip manufacture.

  18. Plasma Science Contribution to the SCaLeS Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In June of 2003, about 250 computational scientists and mathematicians being funded by the DOE Office of Science met in Arlington, VA, to attend a 2-day workshop on the Science Case for Large-scale Simulation (SCaLeS). This document was the output of the Plasma Science Section of that workshop. The conclusion is that exciting and important progress can be made in the field of Plasma Science if computer power continues to grow and algorithmic development continues to occur at the rate that it has in the past. Full simulations of burning plasma experiments could be possible in the 5-10 year time frame if an aggressive growth program is launched in this area

  19. Contribution statistics can make to "strengthening forensic science"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available draw on inputs from other countries and much of the report is relevant to forensic science in other countries. The report makes thirteen detailed recommendations, several of which will require statistics and statisticians for their implementation...

  20. Contribution of computer science to the evaluation of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuerwald, J.

    1978-11-01

    The GALE data acquisition system and EDDAR data processing system, used at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, serve to illustrate some of the various ways in which computer science plays a major role in developing the evaluation of experimental data. (orig.) [de

  1. The contribution of IUPAC to polymer science education

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chan, C. H.; Fellows, C. M.; Hess, M.; Hiorns, R. C.; Hoven, V. P.; Russell, G. T.; dos Santos, C. G.; Šturcová, Adriana; Theato, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2017), s. 1618-1628 ISSN 0021-9584 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : graduate education/research * internet /web-based learning * nomenclature/units/symbols * polymer chemistry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.419, year: 2016

  2. Penicillin for Education: How Cognitive Science Can Contribute to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Education can benefit from knowledge derived from cognitive and developmental psychology. Family demographics have actually improved between 1970 and 90 and so have NAEP scores. Three innovative programs demonstrating cognitive science applications include the Teaching Number Sense elementary math program, reciprocal teaching (reading strategy),…

  3. Photogrammetry and Its Potential Application in Medical Science on the Basis of Selected Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey-Chmielewska, Halina; Chruściel-Nogalska, Małgorzata; Frączak, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Photogrammetry is a science and technology which allows quantitative traits to be determined, i.e. the reproduction of object shapes, sizes and positions on the basis of their photographs. Images can be recorded in a wide range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The most common is the visible range, but near- and medium-infrared, thermal infrared, microwaves and X-rays are also used. The importance of photogrammetry has increased with the development of computer software. Digital image processing and real-time measurement have allowed the automation of many complex manufacturing processes. Photogrammetry has been widely used in many areas, especially in geodesy and cartography. In medicine, this method is used for measuring the widely understood human body for the planning and monitoring of therapeutic treatment and its results. Digital images obtained from optical-electronic sensors combined with computer technology have the potential of objective measurement thanks to the remote nature of the data acquisition, with no contact with the measured object and with high accuracy. Photogrammetry also allows the adoption of common standards for archiving and processing patient data.

  4. Contributions to the rare earths to science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spedding, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    This is a brief summary of some areas of science where the rare earths have already played an important role and of other areas where they are almost certain to be helpful. The discovery, abundance, separation, and properties of rare earths are discussed. It is pointed out that the rare earths comprise almost one-fourth of the known metals, and their alloys a third of the possible alloys

  5. The systematic review team: contributions of the health sciences librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, Rosalind F; Protzko, Shandra L

    2011-01-01

    While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy on a variety of databases, documenting the searches, record keeping, and writing the search methodology. It also discusses challenges encountered such as irregular timelines, providing education, communication, and learning new technologies for record keeping. Rewards include building relationships with researchers, expanding professional expertise, and receiving recognition for contributions to health care outcomes.

  6. Contributions of a unique β-clamp to substrate recognition illuminates the molecular basis of exolysis in ferulic acid esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; Cote, Chris; McAllister, Tim A; Abbott, D Wade

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable resource; however, deconstruction of this material is still the rate-limiting step. Major obstacles in the biocatalytic turnover of lignocellulose are ester-linked decorations that prevent access to primary structural polysaccharides. Enzymes targeting these esters represent promising biotools for increasing bioconversion efficiency. Ruminant livestock are unique in their ability to degrade lignocellulose through the action of their gut microbiome. The anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are key members of this ecosystem that express a large repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) with little sequence identity with characterized CAZymes [Lombard, Golaconda, Drula, Coutinho and Henrissat (2014) Nucleic Acids Res. 42: , D490-D495]. We have identified a carbohydrate esterase family 1 (CE1) ferulic acid esterase (FAE) belonging to Anaeromyces mucronatus(AmCE1/Fae1a), and determined its X-ray structure in both the presence [1.55 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm)] and absence (1.60 Å) of ferulic acid. AmCE1 adopts an α/β-hydrolase fold that is structurally conserved with bacterial FAEs, and possesses a unique loop, termed the β-clamp, that encloses the ligand. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that substrate binding is driven by enthalpic contributions, which overcomes a large entropic penalty. A comparative analysis of AmCE1 with related enzymes has uncovered the apparent structural basis for differential FAE activities targeting cross-linking ferulic acid conjugates compared with terminal decorations. Based on comparisons to structurally characterized FAEs, we propose that the β-clamp may define the structural basis of exolytic activities in FAEs. This provides a structure-based tool for predicting exolysis and endolysis in CE1. These insights hold promise for rationally identifying enzymes tailored for bioconversion of biomass with variations in cell wall composition. © 2016 Authors; published by

  7. On the Contribution of Raman Spectroscopy to Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2010-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy has only recently sparked interest from forensic laboratories. The Raman technique has demonstrated important advantages such as its nondestructive nature, its fast analysis time, and especially the possibility of performing microscopical in situ analyses. In forensic applications, it is a versatile technique that covers a wide spectrum of substances such as trace evidence, illicit drugs and inks. An overview of the recent developments of Raman spectroscopy in forensic science will be discussed. Also, the requirements for an analytical technique for the examination of physical evidence will be described. Examples of casework will be depicted.

  8. How can design science contribute to a circular economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    Circular Economy is increasingly seen as a key approach to operationalising goals and supporting the transition to a sustainable society by enhancing competitiveness and economic growth. Creating a Circular Economy requires fundamental changes throughout the value chain, from innovation, product...... design and production processes all the way to end of life, new business models and consumption patterns. This paper explores how design science can support the transition from the traditional linear 'take-make-consume-dispose' approach, to a Circular Economy. By means of a systematic literature review...

  9. Archibald V. Hill’s contribution to science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerta Vrbová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of A.V. Hill’s contribution to our understanding of muscle contraction is given. This includes an overview of discoveries that led to solving the problem how chemical events provide the energy for mechanical work. Hill helped to train and educate a generation of scientists to use concise mathematical treatment of biological phenomena. He also taught his students moral values important when pursuing research. Finally Hill’s deep belief in the international nature of scientific work and his human qualities led him to join Lord Rutherford to become founder member of the Academic Assistance Council, an organization that rescued around 1500 academics from Nazi occupied Europe during the Second World War. With all these activities taken together Hill can be considered a person who made an exceptionally important contribution to the cultural and scientific life of the 20th and 21st century.

  10. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE-BORN INFORMATION TO CLIMATE SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKA J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Observed climate processes play important role in understanding the ongoing changes in the climate system. Our paper intends to present this cross-section of climate science illustrated by selected satellite images and diagrams in four parts. (i. Technical possibilities of the observations are briefly surveyed first. Many satellite platforms and devices started working in the 1980 and 1990s, definitely for climate purposes. (ii. Climate forcing factors and their radiation effects are comprehended, including direct observation of solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol concentration allowing us to compare natural factors to the anthropogenic ones. (iii. Detection of changes in the Earth climate system follows next, including the atmosphere, the oceans and the cryosphere, as well. (iv. Finally, satellite-born results in validation of climate models are presented in three aspects: reconstruction of present climate, validation of simulated changes and investigation of feedback mechanisms driving climate sensitivity to the external forcing factors. The above possibilities of using satellite information in climate science are mostly illustrated by key figures of the IPCC AR5 Report (2013.

  11. Supporting and structuring "contributing student pedagogy" in Computer Science curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Contributing student pedagogy (CSP) builds upon social constructivist and community-based learning principles to create engaging and productive learning experiences. What makes CSP different from other, related, learning approaches is that it involves students both learning from and also explicitly valuing the contributions of other students. The creation of such a learning community builds upon established educational psychology that encourages deep learning, reflection and engagement. Our school has recently completed a review and update of its curriculum, incorporating student content-creation and collaboration into the design of key courses across the curriculum. Our experiences, based on several years of experimentation and development, support CSP-based curriculum design to reinforce the value of the student perspective, the clear description of their own transformative pathway to knowledge and the importance of establishing student-to-student networks in which students are active and willing participants. In this paper, we discuss the tools and approaches that we have employed to guide, support and structure student collaboration across a range of courses and year levels. By providing an account of our intentions, our approaches and tools, we hope to provide useful and transferrable knowledge that can be readily used by other academics who are considering this approach.

  12. The Contribution of Science-Rich Resources to Public Science Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.; Pattison, Scott; Meier, David; Bibas, David; Livingston, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect that five major sources of public science education--schools, science centers, broadcast media, print media, and the Internet--had on adults' science interest "values" and "cognitive predispositions." Over 3,000 adults were sampled in three U.S. metropolitan areas: Los Angeles,…

  13. Mendel in Genetics Teaching: Some Contributions from History of Science and Articles for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2015-01-01

    School science descriptions about Mendel and his story are problematic because several statements that are controversial among historians of science are repeated over and over again as if they were established facts. Another problem is the neglect of other scientists working on inheritance in the second half of the nineteenth century, including Darwin, Spencer, Galton, Nägeli, Brooks, Weismann and de Vries, who paved the way for the reinterpretation of Mendel's work in 1900. These problems are often found in textbooks and are likely to be present in school science throughout the world. Here, we discuss the contributions that history of science and papers published in journals that target teachers may bring to improve how school science deals with Mendel and his contributions. Evidently the idea is not that school teachers could solve problems still under discussion in the historical literature. The point is, rather, that it is important to avoid treating Mendel's contributions as uncontroversial, mentioning, for instance, that there are ongoing debates on whether he proposed the laws named after him by appealing to invisible factors underlying phenotypic traits that are seen as the heritable potentials for those traits, and would in due time be known as genes. History of science can contribute to put the mythic Mendel into question in the science classroom, bringing school science closer to the controversies around the interpretation of his work.

  14. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  15. The Jesus of Paul: A contribution from the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Guijarro

    2011-04-01

    Determining the relationship between Jesus and Paul is one of the fundamental tasks of those who, like Prof. Andries van Aarde, study the origins of Christianity and the beginnings of Christian theology. The basic question in this regard, at least as it has been formulated recently by David Wenham (1995, is whether Paul was a follower of Jesus or the founder of Christianity (see also Wedderburn [1989] and Barbaglio [2006]. In this brief article, I would like to consider one aspect of this general topic and to offer a few suggestions that might contribute to a better understanding of the peculiar vision of Jesus that we find in the letters of Paul. In them, in fact, the apostle moves from the incarnation to the death and resurrection, leaving in the shadows the activity and teaching of Jesus to which the gospels subsequently give so much importance. This contrast raises some questions concerning the knowledge which Paul had of the Jesus tradition and the value he accorded to it: What did he know about Jesus? Did he know the traditions which the evangelists later collected? Why does he not refer to them in his letters more frequently? By contrast, why does he give so much importance to the death and resurrection of Jesus and to Jesus’ divine condition?

  16. Bayer CropScience model village project: Contributions to agricultural suppliers’ competitiveness and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moczadlo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bayer CropScience is carrying out a Model Village Project (MVP in rural India as part of their supply chain management and their corporate social responsibility activities. The MVP includes actions related to future business cases and higher competitiveness as well as philanthropic activities. The preparation of future business case actions aims at creating prerequisites for win-win-situations. In the long run, these prerequisites, such as long-term business relations with suppliers based on trust from both sides, can lead to a higher competitiveness of the whole supply chain and simultaneously improve human development. The impacts on the latter are evaluated using the capability approach (CA developed by Amartya Sen (2000, c1999. The case of the MVP indicates the potential of companies to contribute to human development on a strategic win-win basis. Actions have to be distinguished based on the living and financial conditions different supplier groups face. In the future, the MVP aims at assessing whether and how MNCs may be able to combine competitive enhancement with human development, provided that potential corporate risks for the villagers’ human development are also taken into account.

  17. Research in Library and Information Science and the Contribution of Ranganathan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Traces historical developments and recent trends in library and information science research in United States, Great Britain, and India; discusses factors contributing to developments in United States and United Kingdom; and reviews Ranganathan's contributions in detail. Some factors hindering research in India and areas which require research are…

  18. Ocean to Outback: Leonie Rennie's Contribution to Science Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady

    2009-01-01

    In this article I initially borrow a metaphor from an art exhibition, "Ocean to Outback," as a way to express my perspective on the contribution that Leonie Rennie has made to science education in Australia. I then consider Leonie's contributions as overlapping themes. In particular, Leonie's well-known research on gender and issues of…

  19. Transformation of conceptual basis of political science under cultural and historical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Tokovenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is submitted to a scientific discussion the possibility of considering the idea of political science, based on the criteria of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity. In this context, generally accepted among professionals and political scientists idea that political science as a scientific discipline occurs in the early twentieth century and its conceptual framework is still in a state of development, and a long preceding period should be characterized as a period of political thought is being challenged. The main idea that is being proved is recognition the existence of such scientific discipline as political science requires recognition of the existence of specific inherent ideals of science, cognitive standards, rules, procedures, explanations, etc. They allow political thinkers from the ancient world as well as modern researchers to combine it into a single, unique, different from others in their methodological principles and heuristic potential Science. It is convinced that the existence of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity in Political Science is possible due to the existence of the ideals of scholarship, which are closely related to the cultural and historical context in which Political Science is being developed. The possibility of applying such disciplinary and integrated approach is considered as an example of the impact that was made by changes of the Great French Revolution and its consequences on transformation of the conceptual framework of Political Science.  It is concluded that the consideration of the peculiarities of political thought development in the social and cultural contexts related to the events of the Great French Revolution and its consequences argues that political science is responsive to changing the social context, makes changes in categorical apparatus, introduces the new field of scientific inquiry, actualized subject field. These actions are due to the specific disciplinary unity

  20. Rediscovering Clusius. How Dutch Commerce Contributed to the Emergence of Modern Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas van Berkel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available H.J. Cook, Matters of exchange. Commerce, medicine, and science in the Dutch Golden AgeRediscovering Clusius. How Dutch Commerce contributed to the Emergence of Modern ScienceIn his highly stimulating book Matters of Exchange. Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age, Harold J. Cook argues that the intellectual activities we call science emerged from ways of knowing that were valued most highly by merchant-rulers. He demonstrates this thesis by describing and analyzing scientific developments in the Dutch Republic. However, both Cook’s one-sided description of the new science and his idealized reconstruction of the mentality of the merchant elite in the Dutch Republic weaken his case considerably. A more ecumenical view of early modern science and a more realistic picture of the values and the conduct of merchants in Europe are needed to bolster an argument that still looks very promising.

  1. Needs assessment of science teachers in secondary schools in Kumasi, Ghana: A basis for in-service education training programs at the Science Resource Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Alexander

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, it identified the priority needs common to all science teachers in secondary schools in Kumasi, Ghana. Second, it investigated the relationship existing between the identified priority needs and the teacher demographic variables (type of school, teacher qualification, teaching experience, subject discipline, and sex of teacher) to be used as a basis for implementing in-service education training programs at the Science Resource Centers in Kumasi Ghana. An adapted version of the Moore Assessment Profile (MAP) survey instrument and a set of open-ended questions were used to collect data from the science teachers. The researcher handed out one hundred and fifty questionnaire packets, and all one hundred and fifty (100%) were collected within a period of six weeks. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics reported the frequency of responses, and it was used to calculate the Need Index (N) of the identified needs of teachers. Sixteen top-priority needs were identified, and the needs were arranged in a hierarchical order according to the magnitude of the Need Index (0.000 ≤ N ≤ 1.000). Content analysis was used to analyze the responses to the open-ended questions. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses of the study on each of the sixteen identified top-priority needs and the teacher demographic variables. The findings of this study were as follows: (1) The science teachers identified needs related to "more effective use of instructional materials" as a crucial area for in-service training. (2) Host and Satellite schools exhibited significant difference on procuring supplementary science books for students. Subject discipline of teachers exhibited significant differences on utilizing the library and its facilities by students, obtaining information on where to get help on effective science teaching

  2. Meta-Theoretical Contributions to the Constitution of a Model-Based Didactics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Yefrin; Lorenzano, Pablo; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2016-10-01

    There is nowadays consensus in the community of didactics of science (i.e. science education understood as an academic discipline) regarding the need to include the philosophy of science in didactical research, science teacher education, curriculum design, and the practice of science education in all educational levels. Some authors have identified an ever-increasing use of the concept of `theoretical model', stemming from the so-called semantic view of scientific theories. However, it can be recognised that, in didactics of science, there are over-simplified transpositions of the idea of model (and of other meta-theoretical ideas). In this sense, contemporary philosophy of science is often blurred or distorted in the science education literature. In this paper, we address the discussion around some meta-theoretical concepts that are introduced into didactics of science due to their perceived educational value. We argue for the existence of a `semantic family', and we characterise four different versions of semantic views existing within the family. In particular, we seek to contribute to establishing a model-based didactics of science mainly supported in this semantic family.

  3. Academe-Industry Partnership: Basis for Enhanced Learning Guide in the New Science General Education Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma D. Agero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the academe-industry partnership of Cebu Technological University Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management and Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology major in Food Preparation and Services courses, SY 2014-2015 to improve the quality of course offering. It takes on the feedback received from supervisors of 50 different hotels and restaurants of Cebu province, as well as the self-rating of 185 OJTs of the two courses as regard to OJTs' level of functional and science-based core competencies. This descriptive research utilizes Likert-type research-made survey questionnaire which was previously tested for validity and reliability. The findings revealed that industry supervisors evaluated the trainees as Competent in core competencies (Bartending, Bread and pastry products, Cookery, Customer services, Front office services, food and beverages as well as functional skills (Problem solving, Leadership, Communication, Independent work, Creativity, Negotiation, Teamwork, Time management and Initiative. However, they found the students need of strengthening their problem solving and communication skills. The researchers therefore developed an enhanced learning guide for the New Science GE course to address the gaps based on the industry feedback.

  4. CYBERNETIC BASIS AND SYSTEM PRACTICE OF REMOTE SENSING AND SPATIAL INFORMATION SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cybernetics provides a new set of ideas and methods for the study of modern science, and it has been fully applied in many areas. However, few people have introduced cybernetics into the field of remote sensing. The paper is based on the imaging process of remote sensing system, introducing cybernetics into the field of remote sensing, establishing a space-time closed-loop control theory for the actual operation of remote sensing. The paper made the process of spatial information coherently, and improved the comprehensive efficiency of the space information from acquisition, procession, transformation to application. We not only describes the application of cybernetics in remote sensing platform control, sensor control, data processing control, but also in whole system of remote sensing imaging process control. We achieve the information of output back to the input to control the efficient operation of the entire system. This breakthrough combination of cybernetics science and remote sensing science will improve remote sensing science to a higher level.

  5. Cybernetic Basis and System Practice of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Jing, X.; Chen, R.; Ming, Z.; He, L.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    Cybernetics provides a new set of ideas and methods for the study of modern science, and it has been fully applied in many areas. However, few people have introduced cybernetics into the field of remote sensing. The paper is based on the imaging process of remote sensing system, introducing cybernetics into the field of remote sensing, establishing a space-time closed-loop control theory for the actual operation of remote sensing. The paper made the process of spatial information coherently, and improved the comprehensive efficiency of the space information from acquisition, procession, transformation to application. We not only describes the application of cybernetics in remote sensing platform control, sensor control, data processing control, but also in whole system of remote sensing imaging process control. We achieve the information of output back to the input to control the efficient operation of the entire system. This breakthrough combination of cybernetics science and remote sensing science will improve remote sensing science to a higher level.

  6. Learning Environments as Basis for Cognitive Achievements of Students in Basic Science Classrooms in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomatofa, Rachel; Okoye, Nnamdi; Igwebuike, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The nature of classroom learning environments created by teachers had been considered very important for learning to take place effectively. This study investigated the effect of creating constructivist and transmissive learning environments on achievements of science students of different ability levels. 243 students formed the entire study…

  7. Advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations: The contributions of nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Patricia A

    Nursing science has a critical role to inform practice, promote health, and improve the lives of individuals across the lifespan who face the challenges of advanced cardiorespiratory disease. Since 1997, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) has focused attention on the importance of palliative and end-of-life care for advanced heart failure and advanced pulmonary disease through the publication of multiple funding opportunity announcements and by supporting a cadre of nurse scientists that will continue to address new priorities and future directions for advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Material science as basis for nuclear medicine: Holmium irradiation for radioisotopes production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Otuka, Naohiko

    2018-05-01

    Material Science, being an interdisciplinary field, plays important roles in nuclear science. These applications are seen in weaponry, armoured vehicles, accelerator structure and development, semiconductor detectors, nuclear medicine and many more. Present study presents the applications of some metals in nuclear medicine (radioisotope production). The charged-particle-induced nuclear reactions by using cyclotrons or accelerators have become a very vital feature of the modern nuclear medicine. Realising the importance of excitation functions for the efficient production of medical radionuclides, some very high purity holmium metals are generally prepared or purchased for bombardment in nuclear accelerators. In the present work, various methods to obtain pure holmium for radioisotope production have been discussed while also presenting details of our present studies. From the experimental work of the present studies, some very high purity holmium foils have been used in the work for a comprehensive study of residual radionuclides production cross-sections. The study was performed using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with γ-ray spectrometry. The stack was bombarded with 50.4 MeV alpha particle beam from AVF cyclotron of RI Beam Factory, Nishina Centre for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Japan. The work produced thulium radionuclides useful in nuclear medicine.

  9. Sociology, Basis for the Secondary-School Subject of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke Meijs

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reformulates the question of ‘sociology, who needs it’ in two ways, The first question we address is that of the reason why the educational system itself did not come to sociology for help in their long quest for a clear-cut content of the subject. The second question is why sociology did not adopt the orphaned subject of social studies back in 1960. The answer to the first question lies in the vulnerability of a subject that is dependent for its continued existence on the political leanings of the day. This led to a new goal for the subject almost every decade: from social education in the sixties and social and political education in the seventies, to a focus on citizenship education in the nineties. Although the objective was renamed on several occasions, the prescriptive viewpoint is recognizable in each. This perspective is difficult to reconcile with a social science content. The answer to the second questions points towards Dutch social scientists with a strong focus on academic sociology and not for critical, policy or public sociology. This choice was also made in order to win the competition with psychologists and for the discipline to get rid of the poor image it had acquired in the 1960s. The new subject social sciences, with a strong focus on science made it possible for sociology to become the pillar of this new subject.

  10. How does the science of physical and sensory properties contribute to gastronomy and culinary art?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Varela, P.; Fiszman, S.

    2013-01-01

    What occurs in a physical properties and sensory research laboratory is relevant to food developers, chefs, and others working in the hospitality/culinary sector as well as to any curious food lover. Thanks to the contributions of science, the latest food innovations are percolating through to the

  11. Artificial intelligence to maximise contributions of nondestructive evaluation to materials science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Rajagopalan, C.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E), in relation to materials science and technology. It suggests a path of growth for Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, taking into account the increase in data and knowledge. We recommend Artificial Intelligence (AI) concepts for maximising the contributions of and benefits from, Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. (author)

  12. Nuclear instrument engineering - the measuring and informative basis of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.V.; Krasheninnikov, I.S.; Murin, I.D.; Stas', K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The cornerstones of developing nuclear instrument engineering in the USSR are shortly discussed. The industry is based on a well developed theory. A system approach is a characteristic feature of the present-day measuring and control systems engineering. Major functions of reactor instruments measuring different types of ionizing radiation are discussed at greater length. Nuclear measuring and control instruments and methods are widely used in different fields of science and technoloay and in different industries in the USSR. The efficient and safe operation of a nuclear facility is underlined to depend strongly upon a correlation between a technological process and the information and control system of the facility

  13. Why and How Political Science Can Contribute to Public Health? Proposals for Collaborative Research Avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, France; Bergeron, Pierre; Clavier, Carole; Fafard, Patrick; Martin, Elisabeth; Blouin, Chantal

    2017-04-05

    Written by a group of political science researchers, this commentary focuses on the contributions of political science to public health and proposes research avenues to increase those contributions. Despite progress, the links between researchers from these two fields develop only slowly. Divergences between the approach of political science to public policy and the expectations that public health can have about the role of political science, are often seen as an obstacle to collaboration between experts in these two areas. Thus, promising and practical research avenues are proposed along with strategies to strengthen and develop them. Considering the interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature of population health, it is important to create a critical mass of researchers interested in the health of populations and in healthy public policy that can thrive working at the junction of political science and public health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Mathematics, chemistry and science connection as a basis of scientific thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific thinking is a basic skill that can support problemsolving of interdisciplinary tasks in science. Our research is leading us to creation of materials and resources that will support this interdisciplinary approach to education. The research includes interviews with high-school teachers of mathematics, chemistry and science, item analysis of extensive testing of knowledge and skills of high school students in chemistry in Czech Republic, follow-up survey of students’ problem-solving processes in tasks requiring the use of combined knowledge of mathematics and chemistry and the creation of educational materials. The article contains a few examples of proposed educational materials. The effectiveness of created materials is verified in high-schools. Students have got the most difficulties applying algebraic calculations in chemistry, using proportions, solving equations, expressing the unknown, the spatial imagination, geometry and stereometry and the resulting arrangement of atoms and shapes of molecules, chemical analytical tasks with logical thinking, interpretation of information from graphs and tables, plotting measured values into graphs and statistical evaluation.

  15. Personality Questionnaires as a Basis for Improvement of University Courses in Applied Computer Science and Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivančević

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we lay the foundation for an adaptation of the teaching process to the personality traits and academic performance of the university students enrolled in applied computer science and informatics (ACSI. We discuss how such an adaptation could be supported by an analytical software solution and present the initial version of this solution. In the form of a case study, we discuss the scores from a personality questionnaire that was administered to a group of university students enrolled in an introductory programming course at the Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia. During a non-mandatory workshop on programming, the participants completed the 48-item short-scale Eysenck Personality Questionnaire–Revised (EPQ– R. By using various exploratory and analytical techniques, we inspect the student EPQ–R scores and elaborate on the specificities of the participating student group. As part of our efforts to understand the broader relevance of different student personality traits in an academic environment, we also discuss how the EPQ–R scores of students could provide information valuable to the process of improving student learning and performance in university courses in ACSI.

  16. Soil science basis and the effect of oil contamination on chemical properties of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.; Miehlich, G.

    1993-01-01

    The changes in soil chemistry properties due to oil contamination and decontamination are examined. One main point of the work is the determination of the effect of oil on the availability of nutrients in the soil. Nutrients are not only present dissolved in the soil solution, but are for the most part reversibly adsorbed by exchangers on loaded surfaces. The clay minerals, the organic substance and iron and manganese oxide act as exchangers. Knowledge on surface structure and reactions in soils contaminated by oil is to be obtained via examination of the exchange behaviour of different bio-elements. The results supply the basis for the cleaning up technique, the judgement of cleaned materials and their reusability. (orig.) [de

  17. Bulgarian Contribution to World Science and Main Criteria for Assessing the Achievements of Scientists [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and the new developments in world science are both discussed. The transition from the ‘normal science’ (Kuhn to the ‘post-normal science’ (Funtowicz & Ravetz is commented. The integration processes in science, the mass higher education and its mcdonaldization are also considered. The difference between ‘science’ and ‘surrogate science’ is explained. The existence of marginal journals as an attribute of the surrogate science is discussed. Such a broad-based consideration allows a realistic assess of the contribution of Bulgarian scientists in the development of world science to be made. Some of the most important scientific achievements made by Bulgarians are listed.

  18. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Features of construction of the individual trajectory education to computer science on the basis dynamic integrated estimation of level of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In article features of realisation of the mechanism of construction of an optimum trajectory of education to computer science on the basis of a dynamic integrated estimation of level of knowledge are considered.

  20. SCIENTIFIC POLICY OF SAUDI ARABIA: INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Tyukaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In less than a century of its existence Saudi Arabia has developed from mass illiteracy and lack of education of its population into the current state of complex structure of educational and research institutions and organizations equipped with most modern and advanced technologies and top world specialists in accordance with the highest international standards. It is especially important that the Kingdom has managed to achieve such success in no time. Until lately scientifi c development in Saudi Arabia was mostly concentrated on applied research, especially in the Kingdom’s key economic sphere – energy. Despite the country’s abundant financial resources, science was considerably underfunded and lacked any development strategy. Meanwhile, in the last 15 years the Saudi Kingdom has made a huge leap in scientifi c development with a clear action plan worked out, a solid structure of scientifi c institutes formed and the world experience effi ciently used. The success came with the Saudi authorities’ realization of the importance of scientifi c and technical progress both for the national economy and political positions of the state in the region and in the world. The article aims to analyze the scientifi c policy of Saudi Arabia on the stage of its birth and in the current state by means of studying offi cial documents, statistics and the existing institutes in the scientifi c system of the Kingdom. The author concludes that the key features of the Saudi scientifi c policy are prevailing role of the state, priority of applied over fundamental research and internalization with serious dependency on foreign support in the absence of a national scientifi c tradition.

  1. Educational Psychology's Past and Future Contributions to the Science of Learning, Science of Instruction, and Science of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2018-01-01

    Patricia Alexander (2018) provides a thought-provoking analysis of the past and future of educational psychology. Based on the themes in Alexander's paper, the present paper explores the past and future of educational psychology's contributions to: (a) the science of learning, corresponding to Alexander's theme of "a focus on learning as a…

  2. The Development of a Scientific Motive: How Preschool Science and Home Play Reciprocally Contribute to Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Judith; Fleer, Marilyn

    2017-07-01

    There are a growing number of studies that have examined science learning for preschool children. Some research has looked into children's home experiences and some has focused on transition, practices, routines, and traditions in preschool contexts. However, little attention has been directed to the relationship between children's learning experiences at preschool and at home, and how this relationship can assist in the development of science concepts relevant to everyday life. In drawing upon Hedegaard's (Learning and child development, 2002) cultural-historical conception of motives and Vygotsky's (The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: problems of general psychology, 1987) theory of everyday and scientific concept formation, the study reported in this paper examines one child, Jimmy (4.2 years), and his learning experiences at home and at preschool. Data gathering featured the video recording of 4 weeks of Jimmy's learning in play at home and at preschool (38.5 h), parent questionnaire and interviews, and researcher and family gathered video observations of home play with his parents (3.5 h). Findings show how a scientific motive develops through playful everyday learning moments at home and at preschool when scientific play narratives and resources are aligned. The study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the science learning of young children and a conception of pedagogy that takes into account the reciprocity of home and school contexts for learning science.

  3. Examination of factors which may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rita C. F.

    Throughout this country the student population is becoming increasingly diverse, yet the teacher population does not reflect this diversity. This lack of diversity in the teacher population deprives students of color from having role models of the same race/ethnicity who look like them and who might have experiences which are similar to theirs (Epstein, 2005; Nettles & Perna, 1997). Having role models from their own race in the classroom could have a positive impact on students' attitudes about science (Perine, 2003), and facilitate their learning of the subject matter, and give students an incentive to do well in school (Vegas, Murnane, & Willett, 2001). In 2000, a national survey study of math and science teachers was conducted (Horizon Research, 2001). The majority of biology (90%), chemistry (93%), and physics (94%) teachers who participated in the study were White. Findings of the study revealed that only 55% to 60% of these teachers considered themselves well prepared to effectively teach a culturally diverse student population (Banilower, 2002; Smith, 2002; Wood, 2002). The majority of the teacher pool, which is White, prefer not to teach in urban communities as they have a preference for teaching jobs in the nonurban communities that are similar to those in which they were raised (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005; Epstein, 2005). The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine factors that may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science. More specifically, it was decided to examine the high school experiences of in-service teachers. Study participants were teachers and other certificated faculty in two school districts located in the southern portion of the United States. Findings of the study revealed a statistically significant relationship between a teacher's decision to become certified in science and the following high school experiences: teachers and guidance counselors encouraging students to

  4. Interview with Warren Wiscombe on scientific programing and his contributions to atmospheric science tool making

    OpenAIRE

    Flatau, Piotr J.

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2013 I talked with Warren Wiscombe about his contributions to scientific computer programming, atmospheric science and radiative transfer. Our conversation is divided into three parts related to light scattering, radiative transfer and his general thoughts about scientific programming. There are some reflections on how radiative transfer parameterizations gradually sneaked in to modern climate and atmospheric Global Circulation Models. Why some software programs such as light sca...

  5. The life and contribution of Dr. Ronald Gitelman: a pioneer of modern chiropractic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The life and contribution to chiropractic science of Dr. Ronald Gitelman is reviewed. Sources for this article included review of the notes prepared by Dr. Joseph Keating in his "biography" of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC); review of the important articles published by Dr. Gitelman; review of the important projects undertaken by him along with various colleagues; notes from reminiscences obtained from many of these colleagues and discussions with his family. Dr. Gitelman's academic career spanned from 1963 to the late 1980's. During that time, he made foundational contributions to the development of chiropractic science including: developing the Archives (1974), the first collection of scientific articles supporting chiropractic science (which was subsequently published as the Chiropractic Archives Research Collection (CRAC)); delivering one of the few chiropractic papers at the seminal NINCDS conference (1975) and, developing the collaboration between CMCC and Dr. Kirkaldy-Willis at the University of Saskatoon (1976). He practiced in Toronto from 1961 to 2007. Dr. Gitelman was a pioneer in the development of chiropractic science. He died on October 7, 2012.

  6. Contribution of soil sciences for recovering from damages by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Eitaro; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nanzyo, Masami

    2014-01-01

    This symposium was held in September 2013, under the joint hosting of Science Council of Japan, Agricultural Academy of Japan, and Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, as one of the programs of the Nagoya convention of Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. The theme was the contribution of soil science to the restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake and the issues involved in this. As the restoration from the tsunami, the following two topics were presented: 'Situation of Miyagi Prefecture and challenge of soil science', and 'Technological measures for the resumption of farming in tsunami-hit areas in Soma City, Fukushima Prefecture.' As the restoration from the radiation damage caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident, the following four topics were presented: 'Cooperation between villagers and scholars at Iitate Village; efforts for survey and decontamination with the hands of villagers,' 'Cesium fixation related to on-site soil,' 'Concentration and separation of cesium,' and 'Volume reduction of contaminated soil.' This paper summarizes these six topics of lectures, keynote comments by other specialists and relevant persons, and the atmosphere of the convention on the day. (A.O)

  7. Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu's contribution to the development of science and culture in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Alexandru; Petrovai, Ion; Rotaru, Horatiu

    2016-01-01

    When speaking about Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu (1863-1926) and his major contribution to the establishment of Romanian medical education in Cluj, he should be considered not only in terms of scientist and creator of the Dental School, but also through his commitment to the development of science and culture in Romania. A wealthy dentist in Budapest where he graduated from the Dental School, he supported a lot of Romanian students to attend schools and universities in the Budapest, thus contributing to the development of culture in his own country. Finally, he left his private practice in the Capital of Hungary to come to Cluj to support the efforts of building the Dental School and profession in Romania. This paper illustrates the contribution that Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu made to the development of higher education in Romania, as well as his support of the local culture.

  8. Lessons from COASST: How Does Citizen Science Contribute to Natural Resource Management & Decision-Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metes, J.; Ballard, H. L.; Parrish, J.

    2016-12-01

    As many scholars and practitioners in the environmental field turn to citizen science to collect robust scientific data as well as engage with wider audiences, it is crucial to build a more complete understanding of how citizen science influences and affects different interests within a social-ecological system. This research investigates how federal, state, and tribal natural resource managers interact with data from the Coastal Observation & Seabird Survey Team (COASST) project—a citizen science program that trains participants to monitor species and abundance of beach-cast birds on the Pacific Northwest Coast. Fifteen coastal and fisheries managers who previously requested COASST data were interviewed about how and why they used data from the project and were asked to describe how information gained from COASST affected their management decisions. Results suggest that broadly, managers value and learn from the program's capacity to gather data spanning a wide spatial-temporal range. This contribution to baseline monitoring helps managers signal and track both short- and long-term environmental change. More specifically, managers use COASST data in conjunction with other professional monitoring programs, such as the National Marine Fisheries Observer Program, to build higher degrees of reliability into management decisions. Although managers offered diverse perspectives and experiences about what the role of citizen science in natural resource management generally should be, there was agreement that agencies on their own often lack personnel and funding required to sufficiently monitor many crucial resources. Additionally, managers strongly suggested that COASST and other citizen science projects increased public awareness and support for agency decision-making and policies, and indirect yet important contribution to natural resource management.

  9. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-09-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to prepare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.

  10. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based.

  11. Ensuring that ecological science contributes to natural resource management using a Delphi-derived approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Arthur, Taryn A [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This chapter approaches participatory modeling in environmental decision making from an atypical perspective. It broadly addresses the question of how to assure that science conducted to assist practitioners improves resource management. More specifically, it describes a case involving environmental science and natural resource management at Fort Benning, a U.S. Army installation in the southeastern United States where disparate environmental research projects were funded by a single federal agency to enhance the ability of Fort Benning resource managers to achieve their resource management goals. The role of our effort was to integrate the scientific studies in a manner that would be meaningful and useful for resource managers. Hence we assembled a team consisting of an anthropologist, ecologist, microbiologist, statistician, and geographic information systems specialist who developed a common framework that served as the basis for this integration. The team first used a Delphi expert elicitation, which evolved into an approach more akin to facilitated negotiation. This second approach arose organically, particularly when our team took advantage of an opportunity for face-to-face interaction. Although the shift in our approach was unplanned, it proved to be highly productive. We discuss the potential utility of our approach for other situations and suggest that it would be useful to initiate at the beginning of research where the aim is to produce scientific results that meet practitioners needs, specifically in the realm of environmental science and resource management.

  12. Contribution for the teaching of natural sciences: Mapuche and school knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Quintriqueo M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Mapuche families and communities, this paper focuses on the relationship between knowledge and educational methods in teaching the natural sciences. It aims to identify educational methods that have been forged and re-forged in connection with the social, cultural, political, economical and spiritual development experienced by Mapuche communities. Our educational research methodology is based on a qualitative approach in order to unveil the subjective and inter-subjective dimensions that characterize the subjects' educational knowledge in their life context. Our fieldwork has been carried out from a sample of interviews conducted with Mapuche wise men (sabios living in the Araucanía. The results of the study are divided in four categories: 1 Relationship towards the natural environment; 2 Knowledge regarding living beings; 3 Küyen cycle (phases of the Moon; and finally, 4 Healthy lifestyle. The collected data have allowed us to link different contents (conceptual, practical and attitudinal underlying the proper Mapuche educational methods to underline their rationalities with reference to core knowledge. Thus, we want to make a case for an epistemological basis substantiating the teaching of natural sciences in relation to Mapuche knowledge. This will allow us to contextualize natural science teaching within the framework of an intercultural educational approach. By doing so, we aim to establish an intellectual dialogue in a context of interethnic and intercultural relationships.

  13. Anticipation learning from the past the Russian/Soviet contributions to the science of anticipation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the work of leading scientists from Russia, Georgia, Estonia, Lithuania, Israel, and the USA, revealing major insights long unknown to the scientific community. Without any doubt their work will provide a springboard for further research in anticipation. Until recently, Robert Rosen (Anticipatory Systems) and Mihai Nadin (MIND – Anticipation and Chaos) were deemed forerunners in this still new knowledge domain. The distinguished neurobiologist, Steven Rose, pointed to the fact that Soviet neuropsychological theories have not on the whole been well received by Western science. These earlier insights as presented in this volume make an important contribution to the foundation of the science of anticipation. It is shown that the daring hypotheses and rich experimental evidence produced by Bernstein, Beritashvili, Ukhtomsky, Anokhin, and Uznadze, among others—extend foundational work to aspects of neuroscience, physiology, motorics, education.

  14. Contributions from research on irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels to materials science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, D. S.

    1990-05-01

    Ferritic and martensitic steels are finding increased application for structural components in several reactor systems. Low-alloy steels have long been used for pressure vessels in light water fission reactors. Martensitic stainless steels are finding increasing usage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors and are being considered for fusion reactor applications when such systems become commercially viable. Recent efforts have evaluated the applicability of oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels. Experiments on the effect of irradiation on these steels provide several examples where contributions are being made to materials science and engineering. Examples are given demonstrating improvements in basic understanding, small specimen test procedure development, and alloy development.

  15. Contribution of a Master Program to Building Competencies in Nuclear Sciences in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, Oum Keltoum

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion and perspectives: Given the high number of demands from African countries to join the master and as the master program has developed a wide and structured network of collaborations and partnerships with national and international institutions. We wish to have the support of IAEA and other international organizations to establish a regional master program in nuclear science and engineering focused on safety, security and nonproliferation aspects in order to meet the needs of the African region and to contribute to the proper management of radioactive and nuclear material

  16. Patterns of contribution to citizen science biodiversity projects increase understanding of volunteers' recording behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Elizabeth H; Gliozzo, Gianfranco; Seymour, Valentine; Harvey, Martin; Smith, Chloë; Roy, David B; Haklay, Muki

    2016-09-13

    The often opportunistic nature of biological recording via citizen science leads to taxonomic, spatial and temporal biases which add uncertainty to biodiversity estimates. However, such biases may also give valuable insight into volunteers' recording behaviour. Using Greater London as a case-study we examined the composition of three citizen science datasets - from Greenspace Information for Greater London CIC, iSpot and iRecord - with respect to recorder contribution and spatial and taxonomic biases, i.e. when, where and what volunteers record. We found most volunteers contributed few records and were active for just one day. Each dataset had its own taxonomic and spatial signature suggesting that volunteers' personal recording preferences may attract them towards particular schemes. There were also patterns across datasets: species' abundance and ease of identification were positively associated with number of records, as was plant height. We found clear hotspots of recording activity, the 10 most popular sites containing open water. We note that biases are accrued as part of the recording process (e.g. species' detectability) as well as from volunteer preferences. An increased understanding of volunteer behaviour gained from analysing the composition of records could thus enhance the fit between volunteers' interests and the needs of scientific projects.

  17. Research insights and insides:"Science-in-Fiction" as a contribution to the Third Culture Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C; Falaturi, Puran

    2009-05-01

    Here we suggest to encourage more "Science-In-Fiction" [SIF], a genre which has been explored by Carl Djerassi since the late 1980s with the intent to convey science in writing beyond traditional publication categories and "to smuggle scientific facts into the consciousness of a scientifically illiterate public". In our view, SIF can serve 3 purposes: (a) inform the public at large about scientific findings, ethics and procedures; (b) infuse lay readers with interest in scientific endeavours; (c) enable the general population to better evaluate and judge scientific conduct, results and implications. While it would be desirable to have more scientists write about their own (like Watson and Maguejo) and others' discoveries (like Voltaire and Perutz), this expectation is not realistic. Indeed, some scientists may not want to share and write about their experiences and others simply should not. As one recipe for informing the lay public and instigating interest in research insights and insides, science-in-fiction such as Dr. Djerassi's novels could be written and read. This may contribute to the The Third Culture Concepts envisaged by Snow in the 1960s and elaborated by Brockman in 1995.

  18. Partnerships in Nuclear Science and Technology contributing to the `high road` to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, H. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The focus of this AINSE conference is a celebration of the many contributions that nuclear science and technology have made to the development of knowledge over the past forty years. While understanding and reviewing the past can help us along the road to the future, and in particular help us avoid mistakes of the past, such an historical review cannot determine what the future road will be. Underpinning many of the emerging technologies, considered likely to contribute to socioeconomic development, are both material science and various processing technologies. There is also a need to better understand natural processes. An analysis of the structure, function and performance of materials requires the use of the fundamental probes, neutrons, charged particles and X-rays. Understanding natural processes is facilitated by isotopes. The past has delivered a solid knowledge base for understanding the properties of these probes and their potential applications. Each has unique properties and access to all types of probe is required. Recent innovations, in materials development, have themselves resulted in the design of facilities to deliver these probes more efficiently and effectively and in the construction of better detectors to `visualise` the outcome, thereby allowing a broader range of questions to be answered. Access to solutions for materials and processing problems will be required in an ever-decreasing time span for any company wishing to maintain the competitive edge. Nuclear science and technology can and will be an essential component of this innovation cycle, assisting Australian enterprises to be at the leading edge of competitive markets. To achieve this, we must not just create knowledge but also create the opportunities to assist in adding value, influence external environment and create the networks to make the `high road` a reality

  19. Partnerships in Nuclear Science and Technology contributing to the 'high road' to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this AINSE conference is a celebration of the many contributions that nuclear science and technology have made to the development of knowledge over the past forty years. While understanding and reviewing the past can help us along the road to the future, and in particular help us avoid mistakes of the past, such an historical review cannot determine what the future road will be. Underpinning many of the emerging technologies, considered likely to contribute to socioeconomic development, are both material science and various processing technologies. There is also a need to better understand natural processes. An analysis of the structure, function and performance of materials requires the use of the fundamental probes, neutrons, charged particles and X-rays. Understanding natural processes is facilitated by isotopes. The past has delivered a solid knowledge base for understanding the properties of these probes and their potential applications. Each has unique properties and access to all types of probe is required. Recent innovations, in materials development, have themselves resulted in the design of facilities to deliver these probes more efficiently and effectively and in the construction of better detectors to 'visualise' the outcome, thereby allowing a broader range of questions to be answered. Access to solutions for materials and processing problems will be required in an ever-decreasing time span for any company wishing to maintain the competitive edge. Nuclear science and technology can and will be an essential component of this innovation cycle, assisting Australian enterprises to be at the leading edge of competitive markets. To achieve this, we must not just create knowledge but also create the opportunities to assist in adding value, influence external environment and create the networks to make the 'high road' a reality

  20. A National contribution to the GEO Science and Technology roadmap: GIIDA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mazzetti, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pirrone, Nicola; Santolieri, Rosalia; Viola, Angelo; Tartari, Gianni; Santoro, Mattia

    2010-05-01

    The GIIDA (Gestione Integrata e Interoperativa dei Dati Ambientali) project is an initiative of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) launched in 2008 as an inter-departmental project, aiming to design and develop a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure (cyber-infrastructure) for the management, processing, and evaluation of Earth and Environmental resources -i.e. data, services, models, sensors, best practices. GIIDA has been contributing to the implementation of the GEO (Group of Earth Observation) Science and Technology (S&T) roadmap by: (a) linking relevant S&T communities to GEOSS (GEO System of Systems); (b) ensuring that GEOSS is built based on state-of-the-art science and technology. GIIDA co-ordinates the CNR's digital infrastructure development for Earth Observation resources sharing and cooperates with other national agencies and existing projects pursuing the same objective. For the CNR, GIIDA provides an interface to European and international interoperability programmes (e.g. INSPIRE, and GMES). It builds a national network for dialogue and resolution of issues at varying scientific and technical levels. To achieve such goals, GIIDA introduced a set of guidance principles: • To shift from a "traditional" data centric approach to a more advanced service-based solution for Earth System Science and Environmental information. • To shift the focus from Data to Information Spatial Infrastructures in order to support decision-making. • To be interoperable with analogous National (e.g. SINAnet, and the INSPIRE National Infrastructure) and international initiatives (e.g. INSPIRE, GMES, SEIS, and GEOSS). • To reinforce the Italian presence in the European and international programmes concerning digital infrastructures, geospatial information, and the Mega-Science approach. • To apply the National and International Information Technology (IT) standards for achieving multi-disciplinary interoperability in the Earth and Space Sciences (e.g. ISO, OGC

  1. System understanding as a basis for sustainable decision-making. A science - school collaboration within the Sparkling Science project "Traisen w3"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Michaela; Böck, Kerstin; Loach, Andreas; Scheikl, Sigrid; Zitek, Andreas; Heidenreich, Andrea; Kurz-Aigner, Roman; Schrittwieser, Martin; Muhar, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Equipping young people with the skills to participate successfully in increasingly complex environments and societies is a central issue of policy makers around the world. Only the understanding of complex socio-environmental systems establishes a basis for making decisions leading to sustainable development. However, OECD Pisa studies indicated, that only a low percentage of 15-year-old students was able to solve straightforward problems. Additionally, students get less interested in natural science education. In Austria "Sparkling Science" projects funded by the Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy in Austria target at integrating science with school learning by involving young people into scientific research for the purpose of developing new and engaging forms of interactive, meaningful learning. Within the Sparkling Science Project "Traisen.w3" scientists work together with 15 to 18-year-old students of an Austrian Secondary School over two years to identify and evaluate ecosystem services within the catchment of the river Traisen. One of the aims of the project is to foster system understanding of the youths by multi-modal school activities. To support the development of causal systems thinking, students developed qualitative causal models on processes in the catchment of the river Traisen with an interactive, hierarchically structured learning environment that was developed within the EU-FP7 project "DynaLearn" (http://www.dynalearn.eu) based on qualitative reasoning. Students worked in small groups and were encouraged to interlink entities, processes and simulate the results of the proposed interactions of hydrological, biological, ecological, spatial and societal elements. Within this setting collaborative problem solving competency through sharing knowledge, understanding and different perspectives was developed. Additionally, in several school workshops the ecosystem services concept was used as communication tool to show the

  2. Contributions of Behavioral Systems Science to Leadership for a New Progressive Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattaini, Mark A; Aspholm, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    We argue in this paper that we are in the midst of a period in which fundamental global change will be required if societies and many species, perhaps even our own, are to survive. The realities are inescapable, and the potential implications are likely to affect nearly every dimension of human life in the USA and globally. Current trends are discouraging and will be extraordinarily difficult to shift, given global structural realities. It is hard to imagine a time when effective leadership is more necessary or will be more challenging. Our thesis here is that behavioral systems science can contribute in meaningful ways to shaping and sustaining such leadership, leadership required to advance a new progressive movement.

  3. Female Contributions in Nuclear Science: Experiences at the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN/LAPOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrijo da Silva Dias, D.; Leandro Bonifácio, R.; Augusto da Silva Alfenas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Female professional contributions in nuclear science and technology are no longer a novelty. Names such as Marie Curie, Chen Shiung Wu and Rosalyn Yalow are evidence of the incessant, worldwide efforts of women to take part in fields largely reserved for men. Although society has witnessed high level female achievements as early as in the 1800s, female scientists and technicians still face a long journey ahead in empowering themselves into full and equal participation in these areas. Today, the Laboratory of Poços de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN/LAPOC) experiences a process of women empowerment at all levels of the institution. At the Technical Section, two of the seven research departments are headed by female researchers who play essential roles in the institution’s quest for excellence. Today, their work include coordination of a major environmental research project involving most researchers at LAPOC, successful participations on international intercomparisons of radiometric analysis and development of new methodologies in nuclear field applications. At the administrative level, female collaborators lead the Administration Section, improving several aspects of internal management, promoting further interaction at the workplace and strengthening cooperation among all departments. Regarding the capacitation level, the Commission has a long tradition of welcoming students and junior researchers through institutional programmes of training and collaboration in several projects. Today CNEN/LAPOC works with twenty scholarship grantees — half of which are women. Not only the Laboratory has reached equality in participation, but unarguably the female participants have demonstrated the most remarkable achievements among the group, attested by their continuous academic pursuit through Master’s and Doctoral degrees, full collaboration in scientific publishing and attendance in training programmes at international level. The purpose

  4. Contributions of Science and Technology Parks Towards Firms' Performance in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, W.B.; Naqvi, I.B.

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have adopted different strategies, models and policies to assist companies to develop their technological capabilities. These include high tech cluster development, creation of venture capital fund, establishment of technology incubation center, and Science and Technology parks. In turn, the creation of knowledge base industries, regional development, improves the technological infrastructure and life standard of the people. This paper discusses the contribution of science and technology parks in firms' performance in particularly employment, sales and profitability and also in creation of new businesses in information technology sector in Pakistan. This study is based on the case study of STPs (Software Technology Parks) of Islamabad. The results revealed that the establishment of STPs could be helpful in the creation of new companies as half of firms located at the STPs were startup enterprises. It helps firms to enhance its growth performance in the first five years after starting their business at these STPs. By developing software parks in three major cities, Pakistan Software Export Board have achieved partially its objectives. (author)

  5. Meta-Theoretical Contributions to the Constitution of a Model-Based Didactics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Yefrin; Lorenzano, Pablo; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    There is nowadays consensus in the community of didactics of science (i.e. science education understood as an academic discipline) regarding the need to include the philosophy of science in didactical research, science teacher education, curriculum design, and the practice of science education in all educational levels. Some authors have…

  6. Discovery of non-volcanic tremor and contribution to earth science by NIED Hi-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    Progress of seismic observation network brings breakthroughs in the earth science at each era. High sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) was constructed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) as a national project in order to improve the detection capability of microearthquake after disastrous 1995 Kobe earthquake. Hi-net has been contributing to not only monitoring of seismicity but also producing many research results like as discoveries of non-volcanic tremor and other slow earthquakes. More important thing is that we have continued to make efforts to monitor all of data visually and effectively. The discovery of tremor in southwest Japan stimulated PGC researchers to search similar seismic signature in Cascadia because of a couple of common features in the tremor in Japan and slow slip event (SSE) they already discovered in Cascadia. At last, episodic tremor and slip (ETS) was discovered, then the SSE associated with tremor was also detected in Japan by using the tilting data measured by high-sensitivity accelerometer attached with the Hi-net. This coupling phenomena strengthened the connection between seismology and geodesy. Widely separated spectrum of tremor and SSE motivated us to search intervened phenomena, then we found very low frequency earthquake during ETS episode. These slow earthquakes obey a scaling law different from ordinary earthquake. This difference is very important to resolve the earthquake physics. Hi-net is quite useful for not only three-dimensional imaging of underground structure beneath the Japan Islands, but also resolving deep Earth interior by using teleseismic events or ambient noises and source rupture process of large earthquakes by using back-projection analysis as a remote array. Hi-net will continue to supply unexpected new discoveries. I expect that multiple installation of similar dense seismic array in the world will give us great opportunity to discover more important and

  7. Forensic aspects of digital evidence: contributions and initiatives by the National Center for Forensic Science (NCFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Carrie M.

    2002-07-01

    Digital evidence is information of probative value that is either stored or transmitted in a digital form. Digital evidence can exist as words (text), sound (audio), or images (video or still pictures). Law enforcement and forensic scientists are faced with collecting and analyzing these new forms of evidence that previously existed on paper or on magnetic tapes. They must apply the law and science to the processes they use. Extrapolating the old processes into the new formats has been proceeding since the 1980's. Regardless of the output format, all digital evidence has a certain commonality. One would assume that the rules of evidence and the scientific approach would also have some common characteristics. Obviously, there is also a divergence due to the differences in outputs. It is time to approach the issues regarding digital evidence in a more deliberate, organized, and scientific manner. The program outlined by the NCFS would explore these various formats, the features common to traditional types of forensic evidence, and their divergent features and explore the scientific basis for handling of digital evidence. Our web site, www.ncfs.org, describes our programs.

  8. Forensic aspects of digital evidence: contributions and initiatives by the National Center for Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Carrie M.

    2002-08-01

    Digital evidence is information of probative value that is either stored or transmitted in a digital form. Digital evidence can exist as words (text), sound (audio), or images (video or still pictures). Law enforcement and forensic scientists are faced with collecting and analyzing these new forms of evidence that previously existed on paper or on magnetic tapes. They must apply the law and science to the processes they use. Extrapolating the old processes into the new formats has been proceeding since the 1980's. Regardless of the output format, all digital evidence has a certain commonality. One would assume that the rules of evidence and the scientific approach would also have some common characteristics. Obviously, there is also a divergence due to the differences in outputs. It is time to approach the issues regarding digital evidence in a more deliberate, organized, and scientific manner. The program outlined by the NCFS would explore these various formats, their features common to traditional types of forensic evidence, and their divergent features and explore the scientific basis for handling of digital evidence. Our web site, www.ncfs.org, describes our programs.

  9. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; contributed papers. Proceedings. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The first International Conference on Advances in Materials Science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in Cairo. The specialists discussed advances in materials science formation, development and observation. The applications of materials science technique in the field of construction material, Moessbauer measurements, physico science, corrosion and mechanical alloying were discussed at the meeting. more than 700 papers were presented in the meeting

  10. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; contributed papers. Proceedings. V.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The first International Conference on Advances in Materials Science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in Cairo. The specialists discussed advances in materials science formation, development and observation. The applications of materials science technique in the field of construction material, Moessbauer measurements, physico science, corrosion and mechanical alloying were discussed at the meeting. more than 700 papers were presented in the meeting.

  11. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  12. Citizen science contributes to our knowledge of invasive plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Panke, Brendon; Renz, Mark; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is commonly cited as an effective approach to expand the scale of invasive species data collection and monitoring. However, researchers often hesitate to use these data due to concerns over data quality. In light of recent research on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we aimed to demonstrate the extent to which citizen science data can increase sampling coverage, fill gaps in species distributions, and improve habitat suitability models compared to professionally generated data sets used in isolation. We combined data sets from professionals and volunteers for five invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii, Cirsium palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Polygonum cuspidatum) in portions of Wisconsin. Volunteers sampled counties not sampled by professionals for three of the five species. Volunteers also added presence locations within counties not included in professional data sets, especially in southern portions of the state where professional monitoring activities had been minimal. Volunteers made a significant contribution to the known distribution, environmental gradients sampled, and the habitat suitability of P. cuspidatum. Models generated with professional data sets for the other four species performed reasonably well according to AUC values (>0.76). The addition of volunteer data did not greatly change model performance (AUC > 0.79) but did change the suitability surface generated by the models, making them more realistic. Our findings underscore the need to merge data from multiple sources to improve knowledge of current species distributions, and to predict their movement under present and future environmental conditions. The efficiency and success of these approaches require that monitoring efforts involve multiple stakeholders in continuous collaboration via established monitoring networks.

  13. Trophic basis of production for a mayfly in a North Island, New Zealand, forest stream : contributions of benthic versus hyporheic habitats and implications for restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, K.J.; Wright-Stow, A.E.; Smith, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leptophlebiid mayfly Acanthophlebia cruentata (Hudson) is restricted to the North Island and some associated offshore islands of northern New Zealand where it commonly occurs in benthic and hyporheic habitats of forested streams. We investigated: (1) life history; (2) secondary production in benthic and hyporheic habitats; and (3) major energy sources contributing to nutrition and production of this species in a pristine forest stream. Most nymphal size classes were present throughout the year, and emergence extended over several months, peaking from February to April. Despite apparently having extended emergence and recruitment periods, Acanthophlebia exhibited a predominantly univoltine life history. Annual benthic production (calculated by the size-frequency method) was 0.318 g dry mass (DM) m -2 year -1 , compared to 4.601 g DM m -2 year -1 in high-density benthic habitats at the tails of pools, and 34.476 g m -3 year -1 for colonisation baskets set at 15-45 cm deep in the substratum. On a habitat weighted basis averaged out over the entire sampling reach, it was estimated that 76% of annual production occurred in hyporheic habitats >10 cm below the streambed surface. Gut contents were dominated by fine particulate matter (FPM) ≤75 μm and larger inorganic material on all dates in individuals from both benthic and hyporheic habitats. Fungi were relatively abundant in guts of benthic animals collected on some dates, whereas spores and pollen were relatively common food items in both habitats on occasions. Analysis of the trophic basis of production, based on gut contents and assumed assimilation and net production efficiencies, indicated that benthic secondary production was supported largely by fungi (48% of production) and FPM (37%), whereas FPM supported a higher level of hyporheic production (52%) than fungi (27%). Although stable carbon isotope values suggested dependence on epilithon, the enriched δ 15 N values for this food source implicated the

  14. Contributions of the SCK.CEN Academy to education and training in nuclear science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeck, Michele [SCK.CEN Academy, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of nuclear science and technology, its innovative research and the availability of large and unique nuclear installations, SCK.CEN is not only a renowned nuclear research institution, but also an important partner for nuclear education and training in Belgium as well as at international level. Within the SCK.CEN Academy, more than 60 years of nuclear expertise and experience gained from our different research projects is collected and transferred. In the interest of maintaining a competent workforce in industry, Healthcare, research, and policy, and of transferring nuclear knowledge and skills to the next generations, the SCK.CEN Academy takes it as its mission to: - provide guidance for students and early-stage researchers; - organize academic courses and customized training for professionals; - offer policy support with regard to education and training matters; - care for critical-intellectual capacities for society. Specifically in the domain of nuclear instrumentation the SCK.CEN Academy provides an opportunity to students at Bachelor, Master and PhD level to make use of the SCK.CEN infrastructure to support their thesis research or to perform an internship with the aim to improve and extend their knowledge and skills in a specific research or technical domain. Further, they can contribute to new findings in the field of nuclear instrumentation. The students are guided by our scientists, engineers and technicians who have years of experience in the relevant field. In addition, the SCK.CEN Academy contributes to traditional university education programs and delivers courses in several nuclear topics such as dosimetry. We also coordinate the Belgian Nuclear higher Engineering Network (BNEN), a one year (60 ECTS) master-after-master specialization in nuclear engineering in which 6 Belgian universities and SCK.CEN are involved. Beyond the contributions to academic education, we also provide several customized training

  15. Contributions of the SCK.CEN Academy to education and training in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of nuclear science and technology, its innovative research and the availability of large and unique nuclear installations, SCK.CEN is not only a renowned nuclear research institution, but also an important partner for nuclear education and training in Belgium as well as at international level. Within the SCK.CEN Academy, more than 60 years of nuclear expertise and experience gained from our different research projects is collected and transferred. In the interest of maintaining a competent workforce in industry, Healthcare, research, and policy, and of transferring nuclear knowledge and skills to the next generations, the SCK.CEN Academy takes it as its mission to: - provide guidance for students and early-stage researchers; - organize academic courses and customized training for professionals; - offer policy support with regard to education and training matters; - care for critical-intellectual capacities for society. Specifically in the domain of nuclear instrumentation the SCK.CEN Academy provides an opportunity to students at Bachelor, Master and PhD level to make use of the SCK.CEN infrastructure to support their thesis research or to perform an internship with the aim to improve and extend their knowledge and skills in a specific research or technical domain. Further, they can contribute to new findings in the field of nuclear instrumentation. The students are guided by our scientists, engineers and technicians who have years of experience in the relevant field. In addition, the SCK.CEN Academy contributes to traditional university education programs and delivers courses in several nuclear topics such as dosimetry. We also coordinate the Belgian Nuclear higher Engineering Network (BNEN), a one year (60 ECTS) master-after-master specialization in nuclear engineering in which 6 Belgian universities and SCK.CEN are involved. Beyond the contributions to academic education, we also provide several customized training

  16. Contribution to the human society from the nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shojiro

    1999-01-01

    century to come, while greater possibility is expected for its exploitation, it must contribute to the solution of issues like energy shortage or global environmental problems. Still, we need to admit; just the same that even water or wind involves hazards, the nuclear energy has its own curses; the biggest of which, of course, is the nuclear weapon. Besides it there are several other possible hazards when a nuclear facility or a radiation source is wrongly operated. The real role of the nuclear science and technology shall be so defined that it will provide the society with 'knowledge and ingenuity' so as to maximize its blessings to mankind while reducing the risks associated with the exploitation of the nuclear power and radiation to a minimum level. (author)

  17. Contribution to the human society from the nuclear science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Shojiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    century to come, while greater possibility is expected for its exploitation, it must contribute to the solution of issues like energy shortage or global environmental problems. Still, we need to admit; just the same that even water or wind involves hazards, the nuclear energy has its own curses; the biggest of which, of course, is the nuclear weapon. Besides it there are several other possible hazards when a nuclear facility or a radiation source is wrongly operated. The real role of the nuclear science and technology shall be so defined that it will provide the society with 'knowledge and ingenuity' so as to maximize its blessings to mankind while reducing the risks associated with the exploitation of the nuclear power and radiation to a minimum level. (author)

  18. The Contribution of Trade Books to Early Science Literacy: In and out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Meadow; Mckeough, Anne; Graham, Susan; Stock, Hayli; Bisanz, Gay

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong science literacy begins with attitudes and interests established early in childhood. The use of trade books (i.e., a literary work intended for sale to the general public) in North American school classrooms to support the development of science literacy invites an examination of the quality of science content disseminated to students. A…

  19. Exploring what contributes to the knowledge development of secondary physics and physical science teachers in a continuous professional development context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, April Wagnon

    This dissertation used qualitative methodologies, specifically phenomenological research, to investigate what contributes to the development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of physics and physical science teachers who participate in a content-specific continuous professional development program. There were five participants in this study. The researcher conducted participant observations and interviews, rated participants degree of reformed teaching practices using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, surveyed participants' self-efficacy beliefs using the Science Teacher Efficacy Belief Instrument "A," and rated participants'' level of PCK using the PCK Rubrics.. All data were analyzed, and a composite description of what contributes to physics and physical science teachers' PCK development through a continuous professional development program emerged. A theory also emerged from the participants' experiences pertaining to how teachers' assimilate new conditions into their existing teaching schema, how conditions change teachers' perceptions of their practice, and outcomes of teachers' new ideas towards their practice. This study contributed to the literature by suggesting emergent themes and a theory on the development of physics and physical science teachers' PCK. PCK development is theorized to be a spiral process incorporating new conditions into the spiral as teachers employ new science content knowledge and pedagogical practices in their individual classroom contexts.

  20. Fusion connection: contributions to industry, defense, and basic science resulting from scientific advances made in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, T.; Woo, J.; Temkin, R.

    1985-10-01

    Fusion research has led to significant contributions in many different areas of industry, defense, and basic science. This diversity is represented visually in the introductory figure which shows both a radio galaxy, and a microchip produced by plasma etching. Some of these spin-off technologies are discussed

  1. To What Extent Do Biology Textbooks Contribute to Scientific Literacy? Criteria for Analysing Science-Technology-Society-Environment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Florbela M.; Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Our article proposes a set of six criteria for analysing science-technology-society-environment (STSE) issues in regular textbooks as to how they are expected to contribute to students' scientific literacy. We chose genetics and gene technology as fields prolific in STSE issues. We derived our criteria (including 26 sub-criteria) from a literature…

  2. Clear as Crystal: The Story of the Braggs--How X-Ray Crystallography Has Contributed to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert; Patterson, John

    2014-01-01

    Here is a brief history of the work of two of Australia's most famous scientists, Sir William Bragg and his son Sir Lawrence Bragg. Jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1915 for their groundbreaking research into the use of X-rays to study the chemical structure and function of molecules, they have contributed to our heritage and to science at an…

  3. [The state's physics examinations for medical students and the construction of a natural science basis for academic medical training between 1865-1880].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieburg, M J

    1995-01-01

    Betweem 1865, when the new Dutch Health Acts introduced the legal monopoly of the academic medical profession, and 1879, when a new law for higher education provided the basis for the integration of the non-academic teaching of medicine within the universities, non-academic students could pass state medical examinations in order to become a physician. In this article I studied in detail the first phase of this examination route, when students were questioned about their knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry and the life sciences. The state commissions responsible for taking these examinations have certainly played an important role in the process of the introduction of scientific medicine into the universities as well as the introduction of the sciences into secondary schools, preparing scholars for academic medical training. Moreover, because scientists, physicians and secondary school teachers participated together in these commissions, the science examination boards linked the several educational echelons and divisions in science and medicine concerned with this process of transformation of the medical professions and medical science in the 1860s and 1870s.

  4. TRADITIONS OF SCIENCE POPULARIZATION IN RUSSIA AS A METHODOLOGICAL BASIS TO DEVELOP THE NEW MASTER’S PROGRAM “POPULAR SCIENCE JOURNALISM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balashova, Y.B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new master’s program “Popular science journalism”, which started three years ago at Saint Petersburg State University, Russia. The author of this article is the creator, developer and head of this program. The goal of this article is to characterize historical and cultural grounds of the master’s program, and their reflection in the curriculum. Installation for the commonwealth of sciences, targeting a broad audience comprised a profiling installation of the classical system of Russian popular science journalism. In accordance with this, the master’s program was designed as an interdisciplinary, with the incorporated idea of the sciences convergence, which based on the Russian history of scientific enlightenment. The article aims to show productivity of the interdisciplinary educational programs, combined into modules.

  5. Science Engagement at the Museum School: Teacher Perspectives on the Contribution of Museum Pedagogy to Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the accounts of science teachers working within the UK's only "museum school" and what they perceive as the benefits and shortcomings of "museum pedagogy" as a process of object-based teaching (and learning). Museum pedagogy is in this context considered for its potential in harmonising informal and formal…

  6. Practical Environmental Education and Local Contribution in the Environmental Science Laboratory Circle in the College of Science and Technology in Nihon University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Ito, Ken-Ichi; Sakamaki, Hiroshi

    In this paper, we presented a method and knowledge about a practical and project management education and local contribution obtained through the student activities of “Environmental science laboratory circle in the College of Science and technology in Nihon University” from 1991 to 2001. In this circle, four major projects were acted such as research, protection, clean up and enlightenment projects. Due to some problems from inside or outside of this circle, this circle projects have been stopped. The diffusion and popularization of the internet technology will help to resolve some of these problems.

  7. Mendel in Genetics Teaching: Some Contributions from History of Science and Articles for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2015-01-01

    School science descriptions about Mendel and his story are problematic because several statements that are controversial among historians of science are repeated over and over again as if they were established facts. Another problem is the neglect of other scientists working on inheritance in the second half of the nineteenth century, including…

  8. Society, reality and STEM-education : challenging contributions to ‘science as practice’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taconis, R.; Pepin, B.

    2017-01-01

    Connecting school science and mathematics to real-life is a key issue in STEM education. This symposium presents four studies on ‘realistic’ STEM-education from various STEM-domains that all involve ‘science as practice’. Key issues addressed are: How can students’ understanding and appreciation of

  9. A mathematical approach to research problems of science and technology theoretical basis and developments in mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ei, Shin-ichiro; Koiso, Miyuki; Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kanzo; Saito, Shingo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with one of the most novel advances in mathematical modeling for applied scientific technology, including computer graphics, public-key encryption, data visualization, statistical data analysis, symbolic calculation, encryption, error correcting codes, and risk management. It also shows that mathematics can be used to solve problems from nature, e.g., slime mold algorithms. One of the unique features of this book is that it shows readers how to use pure and applied mathematics, especially those mathematical theory/techniques developed in the twentieth century, and developing now, to solve applied problems in several fields of industry. Each chapter includes clues on how to use "mathematics" to solve concrete problems faced in industry as well as practical applications. The target audience is not limited to researchers working in applied mathematics and includes those in engineering, material sciences, economics, and life sciences.

  10. Critique and Contribute: A Practice-Based Framework for Improving Critical Data Studies and Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Gina; Tanweer, Anissa; Fiore-Gartland, Brittany; Osburn, Laura

    2017-06-01

    What would data science look like if its key critics were engaged to help improve it, and how might critiques of data science improve with an approach that considers the day-to-day practices of data science? This article argues for scholars to bridge the conversations that seek to critique data science and those that seek to advance data science practice to identify and create the social and organizational arrangements necessary for a more ethical data science. We summarize four critiques that are commonly made in critical data studies: data are inherently interpretive, data are inextricable from context, data are mediated through the sociomaterial arrangements that produce them, and data serve as a medium for the negotiation and communication of values. We present qualitative research with academic data scientists, "data for good" projects, and specialized cross-disciplinary engineering teams to show evidence of these critiques in the day-to-day experience of data scientists as they acknowledge and grapple with the complexities of their work. Using ethnographic vignettes from two large multiresearcher field sites, we develop a set of concepts for analyzing and advancing the practice of data science and improving critical data studies, including (1) communication is central to the data science endeavor; (2) making sense of data is a collective process; (3) data are starting, not end points, and (4) data are sets of stories. We conclude with two calls to action for researchers and practitioners in data science and critical data studies alike. First, creating opportunities for bringing social scientific and humanistic expertise into data science practice simultaneously will advance both data science and critical data studies. Second, practitioners should leverage the insights from critical data studies to build new kinds of organizational arrangements, which we argue will help advance a more ethical data science. Engaging the insights of critical data studies will

  11. Can the History of Science Contribute to Modelling in Physics Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Juliana; Braga, Marco Antônio Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    A characterization of the modelling process in science is proposed for science education, based on Mario Bunge's ideas about the construction of models in science. Galileo's Dialogues are analysed as a potentially fruitful starting point to implement strategies aimed at modelling in the classroom in the light of that proposal. It is argued that a modelling process for science education can be conceived as the evolution from phenomenological approaches towards more representational ones, emphasizing the role of abstraction and idealization in model construction. The shift of reference of theories—from sensible objects to conceptual objects—and the black-box models construction process, which are both explicitly presented features in Galileo's Dialogues, are indicated as highly relevant aspects for modelling in science education.

  12. The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Contributions and Opportunities in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick O; Grigsby, R Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges plays a leading role in supporting the expansion and evolution of academic medicine and medical science in North America, which are undergoing high-velocity change. Behavioral and social science concepts have great practical value when applied to the leadership practices and administrative structures that guide and support the rapid evolution of academic medicine and medical sciences. The authors are two behavioral and social science professionals who serve as academic administrators in academic medical centers. They outline their career development and describe the many ways activities have been shaped by their work with the Association of American Medical Colleges. Behavioral and social science professionals are encouraged to become change agents in the ongoing transformation of academic medicine.

  13. Utility of the clue - From assessing the investigative contribution of forensic science to supporting the decision to use traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding environmental contributions to autism: Causal concepts and the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Krakowiak, Paula

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science. Causal concepts are introduced, including root causes; pitfalls in interpreting time trends as clues to etiologic factors; susceptible time windows for exposure; and implications of a multi-factorial model of ASD. An historical background presents early research into the origins of ASD. The epidemiologic literature from the last fifteen years is briefly but critically reviewed for potential roles of, for example, air pollution, pesticides, plastics, prenatal vitamins, lifestyle and family factors, and maternal obstetric and metabolic conditions during her pregnancy. Three examples from the case-control CHildhood Autism Risks from Genes and the Environment Study are probed to illustrate methodological approaches to central challenges in observational studies: capturing environmental exposure; causal inference when a randomized controlled clinical trial is either unethical or infeasible; and the integration of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on development. We conclude with reflections on future directions, including exposomics, new technologies, the microbiome, gene-by-environment interaction in the era of -omics, and epigenetics as the interface of those two. As the environment is malleable, this research advances the goal of a productive and fulfilling life for all children, teen-agers and adults. Autism Res 2018, 11: 554-586. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  15. Science Production in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg: Comparing the Contributions of Research Universities and Institutes to Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Justin J W; Dusdal, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Charting significant growth in science production over the 20th century in four European Union member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe's position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition as well as collaboration. Despite the policy goals to foster innovation and further expand research capacity, in cross-national and historical comparison neither the level of R&D investments nor country size accounts completely for the differential growth of scientific productivity. Based on a comprehensive historical database from 1900 to 2010, this analysis uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of production and productivity in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Measured in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters' Science Citation Index Expanded, which includes journals in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health, we show the varying contributions of different organizational forms, especially research universities and research institutes. Comparing the institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous and strong growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science emphasizes that the research university is the key organizational form across countries.

  16. Comparison of scientists of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA on the basis of the h-index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mugnaini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A new scientometric indicator, the h-index, has been recently proposed (Hirsch JE. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2005; 102: 16569-16572. The index avoids some shortcomings of the calculation of the total number of citations as a parameter to evaluate scientific performance. Although it has become known only recently, it has had widespread acceptance. A comparison of the average h-index of members of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (BAS and of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (NAS-USA was carried out for 10 different areas of science. Although, as expected, the comparison was unfavorable to the members of the BAS, the imbalance was distinct in different areas. Since these two academies represent, to a significant extent, the science of top quality produced in each country, the comparison allows the identification of the areas in Brazil that are closer to the international stakeholders of scientific excellence. The areas of Physics and Mathematics stand out in this context. The heterogeneity of the h-index in the different areas, estimated by the median dispersion of the index, is significantly higher in the BAS than in the NAS-USA. No elements have been collected in the present study to provide an explanation for this fact.

  17. Useful lower limits to polarization contributions to intermolecular interactions using a minimal basis of localized orthogonal orbitals: theory and analysis of the water dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, R Julian; Horn, Paul Richard; Sundstrom, Eric Jon; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2013-02-28

    The problem of describing the energy-lowering associated with polarization of interacting molecules is considered in the overlapping regime for self-consistent field wavefunctions. The existing approach of solving for absolutely localized molecular orbital (ALMO) coefficients that are block-diagonal in the fragments is shown based on formal grounds and practical calculations to often overestimate the strength of polarization effects. A new approach using a minimal basis of polarized orthogonal local MOs (polMOs) is developed as an alternative. The polMO basis is minimal in the sense that one polarization function is provided for each unpolarized orbital that is occupied; such an approach is exact in second-order perturbation theory. Based on formal grounds and practical calculations, the polMO approach is shown to underestimate the strength of polarization effects. In contrast to the ALMO method, however, the polMO approach yields results that are very stable to improvements in the underlying AO basis expansion. Combining the ALMO and polMO approaches allows an estimate of the range of energy-lowering due to polarization. Extensive numerical calculations on the water dimer using a large range of basis sets with Hartree-Fock theory and a variety of different density functionals illustrate the key considerations. Results are also presented for the polarization-dominated Na(+)CH4 complex. Implications for energy decomposition analysis of intermolecular interactions are discussed.

  18. The contribution of biological, mathematical, clinical, engineering and social sciences to combatting the West African Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Christopher J M

    2017-05-26

    The tragic West African Ebola epidemic claimed many lives, but would have been worse still if scientific insights from many disciplines had not been integrated to create a strong technical response. Epidemiology and modelling triggered the international response and guided where response efforts were directed; virology, engineering and clinical science helped reduce deaths and transmission in and from hospitals and treatment centres; social sciences were key to reducing deaths from funerals and in the community; diagnostic and operational research made the response more efficient; immunology and vaccine research contributed to the final stages of the epidemic and will help prevent future epidemics. These varied scientific contributions had to be integrated into a combined narrative, communicated to policymakers to inform decisions, and used by courageous local and international responders in the field in real time. Not every area of science was optimal, and in particular, clinical trials of simple interventions such as fluid management were slow to be adopted and sharing of data was initially poor. This Ebola epidemic demonstrated how science can respond to a major emergency, but also has lessons for better responses in future infectious emergencies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic: data, decision-making and disease control'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY FOR THE APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES: CRITICAL ANALYSES ABOUT RESEARCH METHODS, TYPOLOGIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS FROM MARX, WEBER AND DURKHEIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corrêa da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the importance of the scientific method to conduct and advertise research in applied social sciences and research typologies, as well as to highlight contributions from Marx, Weber and Durkheim to the scientific methodology. To reach this objective, we conducted a review of the literature on the term research, the scientific method,the research techniques and the scientific methodologies. The results of the investigation revealed that it is fundamental that the academic investigator uses a scientific method to conduct and advertise his/her academic works in applied social sciences in comparison with the biochemical or computer sciences and in the indicated literature. Regarding the contributions to the scientific methodology, we have Marx, dialogued, the dialectical, striking analysis, explicative of social phenomenon, the need to understand the phenomena as historical and concrete totalities; Weber, the distinction between “facts” and “value judgments” to provide objectivity to the social sciences and Durkheim, the need to conceptualize very well its object of study, reject sensible data and imbue with the spirit of discovery and of being surprised with the results.

  20. Changing Face of Wood Science in Modern Era: Contribution of Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pawan Kumar; Giagli, Kyriaki; Tsalagkas, Dimitrios; Mishra, Harshita; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Gryc, Vladimír; Wimmer, Rupert

    2018-02-14

    Wood science and nanomaterials science interact together in two different aspects; a) fabrication of lignocellulosic nanomaterials derived from wood and plant-based sources and b) surface or bulk wood modification by nanoparticles. In this review, we attempt to visualize the impact of nanoparticles on the wood coating and preservation treatments based on a thorough registration of the patent databases. The study was carried out as an overview of the scientifically most followed trends on nanoparticles utilization in wood science and wood protection depicted by recent universal filed patents. This review is exclusively targeted on the solid (timber) wood as a subject material. Utilization of mainly metal nanoparticles as photoprotection, antibacterial, antifungal, antiabrasive and functional component on wood modification treatments was found to be widely patented. Additionally, an apparent minimization in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been succeeded. Bulk wood preservation and more importantly, wood coating, splay the range of strengthening wood dimensional stability and biological degradation, against moisture absorption and fungi respectively. Nanoparticle materials have addressed various issues of wood science in a more efficient and environmental way than the traditional methods. Nevertheless, abundant tests and regulations are still needed before industrializing or recycling these products. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. How behavioural science can contribute to health partnerships: the case of The Change Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie M T; Bull, Eleanor R; Burton, Amy; Dharni, Nimarta; Gillison, Fiona; Maltinsky, Wendy; Mason, Corina; Sharma, Nisha; Armitage, Christopher J; Johnston, Marie; Byrne, Ged J; Hart, Jo K

    2017-06-12

    Health partnerships often use health professional training to change practice with the aim of improving quality of care. Interventions to change practice can learn from behavioural science and focus not only on improving the competence and capability of health professionals but also their opportunity and motivation to make changes in practice. We describe a project that used behavioural scientist volunteers to enable health partnerships to understand and use the theories, techniques and assessments of behavioural science. This paper outlines how The Change Exchange, a collective of volunteer behavioural scientists, worked with health partnerships to strengthen their projects by translating behavioural science in situ. We describe three case studies in which behavioural scientists, embedded in health partnerships in Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique, explored the behaviour change techniques used by educators, supported knowledge and skill development in behaviour change, monitored the impact of projects on psychological determinants of behaviour and made recommendations for future project developments. Challenges in the work included having time and space for behavioural science in already very busy health partnership schedules and the difficulties in using certain methods in other cultures. Future work could explore other modes of translation and further develop methods to make them more culturally applicable. Behavioural scientists could translate behavioural science which was understood and used by the health partnerships to strengthen their project work.

  2. Women in computer science: An interpretative phenomenological analysis exploring common factors contributing to women's selection and persistence in computer science as an academic major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Lynn Roy

    The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning that women make of the social and cultural factors that influence their reasons for entering and remaining in study of computer science. The twenty-first century presents many new challenges in career development and workforce choices for both men and women. Information technology has become the driving force behind many areas of the economy. As this trend continues, it has become essential that U.S. citizens need to pursue a career in technologies, including the computing sciences. Although computer science is a very lucrative profession, many Americans, especially women, are not choosing it as a profession. Recent studies have shown no significant differences in math, technical and science competency between men and women. Therefore, other factors, such as social, cultural, and environmental influences seem to affect women's decisions in choosing an area of study and career choices. A phenomenological method of qualitative research was used in this study, based on interviews of seven female students who are currently enrolled in a post-secondary computer science program. Their narratives provided meaning into the social and cultural environments that contribute to their persistence in their technical studies, as well as identifying barriers and challenges that are faced by female students who choose to study computer science. It is hoped that the data collected from this study may provide recommendations for the recruiting, retention and support for women in computer science departments of U.S. colleges and universities, and thereby increase the numbers of women computer scientists in industry. Keywords: gender access, self-efficacy, culture, stereotypes, computer education, diversity.

  3. Malaysian perspective on the contribution of nuclear science and technology to national development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair [Unit Tenaga Nuklear, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-04-01

    The development of nuclear science and technology in Malaysia began with the inception of The Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) in 1972. In 1985, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board was set up as a regulatory body to enforce the Atomic Energy Licensing Act. Ten years after UTN`s establishment, the first of its major facilities, a one Megawatt TRIGA MkII nuclear research reactor (RTP), was commissioned. This is the first step of any type of nuclear reactor for Malaysia. The healthy development of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology in malaysia has enabled UTN to acquire several other major facilities. These facilities support research and development, in line with UTN`s mission, viz, to enhance national development through the applications of nuclear science and technology. This paper describes selected activities at UTN and some of its successes in linking the results of research and development to real-world applications through services and/or technology transfers.

  4. Malaysian perspective on the contribution of nuclear science and technology to national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    1994-01-01

    The development of nuclear science and technology in Malaysia began with the inception of The Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) in 1972. In 1985, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board was set up as a regulatory body to enforce the Atomic Energy Licensing Act. Ten years after UTN's establishment, the first of its major facilities, a one Megawatt TRIGA MkII nuclear research reactor (RTP), was commissioned. This is the first step of any type of nuclear reactor for Malaysia. The healthy development of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology in malaysia has enabled UTN to acquire several other major facilities. These facilities support research and development, in line with UTN's mission, viz, to enhance national development through the applications of nuclear science and technology. This paper describes selected activities at UTN and some of its successes in linking the results of research and development to real-world applications through services and/or technology transfers

  5. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to "harmonize" the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  6. The NASA Airborne Astronomy Program: A perspective on its contributions to science, technology, and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Harold P.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific, educational, and instrumental contributions from NASA's airborne observatories are deduced from the program's publication record (789 citations, excluding abstracts, involving 580 authors at 128 institutions in the United States and abroad between 1967-1990).

  7. The Contribution of Perceived Classroom Learning Environment and Motivation to Student Engagement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated middle school students' engagement in science in relation to students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment (teacher support, student cohesiveness, and equity) and motivation (self-efficacy beliefs and achievement goals). The participants were 315 Turkish sixth and seventh grade students. Four hierarchical…

  8. A Model Retention Program for Science and Engineering Students: Contributions of the Institutional Research Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sally J.; Stigall, Sam; Kappus, Sheryl S.; Ruddock, Maryann; Oburn, Martha

    This paper asserts that the continuing decline in admissions to science and engineering graduate programs may lead to a shortage of skilled professionals that undermines the U.S. economy and to a shortage in higher education faculty. The Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP) provides academic activities and retention services to…

  9. Constructing and Using Multimodal Narratives to Research in Science Education: Contributions Based on Practical Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J. B.; Silva, A. A.; Cravino, J. P.; Santos, C. A.; Cunha, A.; Pinto, A.; Silva, A.; Viegas, C.; Saraiva, E.; Branco, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the problem of how to collect genuine and useful data about science classroom practices, and preserving the complex and holistic nature of teaching and learning. Additionally, we were looking for an instrument that would allow comparability and verifiability for teaching and research purposes. Given the multimodality of…

  10. The Study of LGBT Politics and Its Contributions to Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciaroni, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Although the study of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) politics appears to be widely accepted within political science, a recent survey of political scientists reported some skepticism about its legitimacy and scholarly worth (Novkov and Barclay 2010). This article examines potential concerns about LGBT studies and draws attention to the…

  11. Researchers' Perceptions of Statistical Significance Contribute to Bias in Health and Exercise Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Taylor L.; Lohse, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed researchers in the health and exercise sciences to explore different areas and magnitudes of bias in researchers' decision making. Participants were presented with scenarios (testing a central hypothesis with p = 0.06 or p = 0.04) in a random order and surveyed about what they would do in each scenario. Participants showed significant…

  12. Teaching and Learning in Exercise Science: Contributing to the Health of the Nation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Stewart, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Students of exercise science are well positioned to facilitate a shift of the nation's attitude on health care from disease treatment to disease prevention. This report chronicles our efforts toward transforming the exercise physiology core course from a lecture-based, instructor-centered class to a student-centered environment in which…

  13. Approaching Science by Watching TV: What Do Entertainment Programs Contribute to Viewers' Competence in Genetic Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Carina; Löb, Charlotte; Mattheiß, Tamara; Vorderer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the potential of entertainment-education (E-E) for promoting engagement with a science issue. It was assumed that certain entertaining features of a media experience increase viewers' perceived knowledge about an issue. Drawing on different theoretical models of E-E and on persuasive effects of narrative media messages, three…

  14. Multimodal Representation Contributes to the Complex Development of Science Literacy in a College Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William Drew

    2011-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the science literacy of college genetics students who were given a modified curriculum to address specific teaching and learning problems from a previous class. This study arose out of an interest by the professor and researcher to determine how well students in the class Human Genetics in the 21st Century…

  15. Developing Student Science and Information Literacy through Contributions to the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.; Farley, I.; Geary, A.

    2016-12-01

    Introductory-level Earth science courses provide the opportunity for science and non-science majors to expand discipline-specific content knowledge while enhancing skill sets applicable to all disciplines. The outcomes of the student work can then benefit the education and outreach efforts of an international organization - in this case, a wiki devoted exclusively to the geosciences, managed by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). The course Environment Earth at Penn State Brandywine is a general education science course with the overarching course goal for students to understand, communicate examples, and make informed decisions relating to big ideas and fundamental concepts of Earth science. To help accomplish this goal, students carry out a semester-long digital engaged scholarship project that benefits the users of the SEG Wiki (http://wiki.seg.org/). To begin with developing the literacy of students and their ability to read, interpret, and evaluate sources of scientific news, the first assignment requires students to write an annotated bibliography on a specific topic that serves as the foundation for a new SEG Wiki article. Once students have collected and summarized information from reliable sources, students learn how writing for a wiki is different than writing a term paper and begin drafting their wiki page. Students peer review each other's work for content and clarity before publishing their work on the SEG wiki. Students respond positively to this project, reporting a better understanding of and respect towards the authors of online wiki pages, as well as an overall satisfaction of knowing their work will benefit others. Links to student-generated pages and instructional materials can be found at: http://sites.psu.edu/segwiki/.

  16. Saving Human Lives: What Complexity Science and Information Systems can Contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens; Schutte, Sebastian; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-02-01

    We discuss models and data of crowd disasters, crime, terrorism, war and disease spreading to show that conventional recipes, such as deterrence strategies, are often not effective and sufficient to contain them. Many common approaches do not provide a good picture of the actual system behavior, because they neglect feedback loops, instabilities and cascade effects. The complex and often counter-intuitive behavior of social systems and their macro-level collective dynamics can be better understood by means of complexity science. We highlight that a suitable system design and management can help to stop undesirable cascade effects and to enable favorable kinds of self-organization in the system. In such a way, complexity science can help to save human lives.

  17. Psychological science's contributions to a sustainable environment: extending our reach to a grand challenge of society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of the environment are global problems associated with many other challenges (e.g., population increases, reduction of glaciers, and loss of critical habitats). Psychological science can play a critical role in addressing these problems by fostering a sustainable environment. Multiple strategies for fostering a sustainable environment could draw from the diversity of topics and areas of specialization within psychology. Psychological research on fostering environmentally sustainable behaviors is rather well developed, as illustrated by interventions focusing on education of the public, message framing, feedback, decision making, the media, incentives and disincentives, and social marketing. Other sciences and professions as well as religion and ethics are actively involved in fostering a sustainable environment. Psychology ought to be more involved directly, systematically, and visibly to draw on our current knowledge and to have palpable impact. We would serve the world very well and in the process our discipline and profession.

  18. The contribution of Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha (1928-2011 to History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sanjad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes and analyzes the historiographical works of Brazilian Herpetologist Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha (1928-2011, researcher of Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. It presents his published works, mainly in the field of History of Science, in which he studied the institution he belonged to and the scientists who lived in Amazonia. Cunha's complete works dedicated to the theme, composed along of almost 50 years, are reported in the paper.

  19. The mining town of Pribram in science and technology. Abstracts of contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The publication contains 125 abstracts of contributions presented at the conference, out of which 16 have been inputted in INIS. These primarily deal with uranium mining problems, although topics such as the irradiation of crystals, economic problems of coal mining, and spent fuel storage in the Slovak Republic are also included. Uranium ore is mined in the Czech Republic at various sites, using conventional mining as well as extraction by leaching. The environmental impacts of such activities and their contribution to population exposure are discussed. Attention is also paid to the future land reclamation at tailing dumping grounds. (M.D.)

  20. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Starling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  1. Spatial cognition and science achievement: The contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic spatial skills from 7 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkiss, Alex; Gilligan, Katie A; Tolmie, Andrew K; Thomas, Michael S C; Farran, Emily K

    2018-01-22

    Prior longitudinal and correlational research with adults and adolescents indicates that spatial ability is a predictor of science learning and achievement. However, there is little research to date with primary-school aged children that addresses this relationship. Understanding this association has the potential to inform curriculum design and support the development of early interventions. This study examined the relationship between primary-school children's spatial skills and their science achievement. Children aged 7-11 years (N = 123) completed a battery of five spatial tasks, based on a model of spatial ability in which skills fall along two dimensions: intrinsic-extrinsic; static-dynamic. Participants also completed a curriculum-based science assessment. Controlling for verbal ability and age, mental folding (intrinsic-dynamic spatial ability), and spatial scaling (extrinsic-static spatial ability) each emerged as unique predictors of overall science scores, with mental folding a stronger predictor than spatial scaling. These spatial skills combined accounted for 8% of the variance in science scores. When considered by scientific discipline, mental folding uniquely predicted both physics and biology scores, and spatial scaling accounted for additional variance in biology and variance in chemistry scores. The children's embedded figures task (intrinsic-static spatial ability) only accounted for variance in chemistry scores. The patterns of association were consistent across the age range. Spatial skills, particularly mental folding, spatial scaling, and disembedding, are predictive of 7- to 11-year-olds' science achievement. These skills make a similar contribution to performance for each age group. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Education Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  2. Medico-Science and School Hygiene: A Contribution to a History of the Senses in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This article takes as its inspiration Ian Grosvenor's conjectural essay presented for the symposium "Historiography of the Future: Looking Back to the Future" held at the International Standing Conference for History of Education (ISCHE) 33 in July 2011 in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It contributes to a sensory history of schooling by…

  3. Fundamental challenges for autism research: the science-practice gap, demarcating autism and the unsuccessful search for the neurobiological basis of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2015-08-01

    One of the central aims of autism research is to identify specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms that cause and explain the visible autistic signs and symptoms. In this short paper, I argue that the persistent search for autism-specific pathophysiologies has two fundamental difficulties. The first regards the growing gap between basic autism science and clinical practice. The second regards the difficulties with demarcating autism as a psychiatric condition. Instead of the unremitting search for the neurobiological basis of autism, I suggest that basic autism research should focus on experiences of impairment and distress, and on how these experiences relate to particular (autistic) behaviors in particular circumstances, regardless of whether we are dealing with an autism diagnosis or not.

  4. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators.

  5. Mill and Mental Phenomena: Critical Contributions to a Science of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Bistricky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to define cognition preceded John Stuart Mill’s life and continue to this day. John Stuart Mill envisioned a science of mental phenomena informed by associationism, empirical introspection, and neurophysiology, and he advanced specific ideas that still influence modern conceptions of cognition. The present article briefly reviews Mill’s personal history and the times in which he lived, and it traces the evolution of ideas that have run through him to contemporary cognitive concepts. The article also highlights contemporary problems in defining cognition and supports specific criteria regarding what constitutes cognition.

  6. Mill and mental phenomena: critical contributions to a science of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to define cognition preceded John Stuart Mill's life and continue to this day. John Stuart Mill envisioned a science of mental phenomena informed by associationism, empirical introspection, and neurophysiology, and he advanced specific ideas that still influence modern conceptions of cognition. The present article briefly reviews Mill's personal history and the times in which he lived, and it traces the evolution of ideas that have run through him to contemporary cognitive concepts. The article also highlights contemporary problems in defining cognition and supports specific criteria regarding what constitutes cognition.

  7. The Itinerary Method: A Methodological Contribution from Social Sciences to Consumer Research in Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Desjeux

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer choice has been a focus of interest in the study of consumer behavior for over 50 years. Over time, however, the focus has widened to include not only the moment of purchase itself but also gradually a reflection on the consumer decision process, concerning the selection, consumption and disposal of products and services. More recently, researchers trained in areas like anthropology and sociology have contributed with perspectives that view the process of choice as a social and cultural phenomenon. This paper presents the Itinerary Method — a research approach originally applied in anthropology studies investigating consumption. The method can contribute to consumer research in management inasmuch as it allows investigation of the consumption process - selection, consumption and disposal - within a systemic perspective, that can expand consumer research's comprehension of choice, since it stresses culture as a central element. The method is described, along with its assumptions, operational steps and concrete examples of researches on consumption. 

  8. Student Contributions to Citizen Science Programs As a Foundation for Independent and Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental monitoring projects on the grounds of a campus can serve as data collection sites for undergraduate research. Penn State Brandywine has utilized students in independent study projects to establish two citizen science programs and to begin collecting data, with the data sets serving as a foundation for authentic inquiry-based exercises in introductory-level Earth science courses. The first citizen science program is The Smithsonian Institution's Global Tree Banding Project, which contributes to research about tree biomass by tracking how trees respond to climate. We are going beyond the requirements of the Smithsonian project. Instead of only taking two measurements each in the spring and fall, undergraduate researchers are taking measurements every two weeks throughout the year. We started taking measurements of ten trees on campus in 2012 will continue until each tree outgrows its tree band. The data is available for download in Google Spreadsheets for students to examine changes in tree diameter within one or between growing seasons, supplemented with temperature and precipitation data (see http://sites.psu.edu/treebanding/). A second citizen science program we have begun on campus is the NASA-funded Digital Earth Watch (DEW) Picture Post Project, allowing students to monitor the environment and share observations through digital photography. We established four Picture Post sites on campus, with students taking weekly photos to establish an environmental baseline of the campus landscape and to document future environmental changes pre- and post-construction. We started taking digital photos on campus in 2014 will continue well past the completion of construction to continue to look for changes. The image database is less than a year old, but the images provide enough information for some early analyses, such as the variations in "greenness" over the seasons. We have created a website that shares the purpose of our participation in the Picture Post

  9. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-09-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS OF HEBB AND VYGOTSKY TO AN INTEGRATED SCIENCE OF MIND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemzadeh, Habibollah; Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    Hebb and Vygotsky are two of the most influential figures of psychology in the first half of the 20th century. They represent cultural and biological approaches to explaining human development, and thus a number of their ideas remain relevant to current psychology and cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we examine similarities and differences between these two important figures, exploring possibilities for a theoretical synthesis between their two literatures, which have had little contact each other. To pursue these goals the following topics are discussed: 1) Hebb and Vygotsky’s lives and training; 2) their innovations in theory building relating to an “objective psychology” and objective science of mind, 3) their developmental approach, 4) their treatment of mediation and neuropsychology and 5) their current relevance and possible integration of their views. We argue that considering the two together improves prospects for a more complete and integrated approach to mind and brain in society. PMID:23679195

  11. Dialogues between social and natural sciences: contribution to the debate on socio-environmental conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanez, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that attempting to solve real problems is a possible approach to bring social and natural sciences together, and suggest that - as Environmental Impact Assessment necessarily brings together social and environmental issues - this debate is a strong candidate for such a task. The argument is based on a general discussion about the possibilities and limitations of Environmental Impact Assessments, the social-environmental impacts of mining activities and three case studies. The analysis of the cases indicates possibilities and limitations of the dialogue between scientists from various areas - and of the collaboration with social movements and affected communities - in avoiding negative impacts of mining projects and, eventually, increasing their sustainability.

  12. The young and the policy: contributions of school of social sciences for socialization policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ingrassia Pereira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that the youth faces in a globalized world are enormous, and they expose it to achievements and stresses that are materialized during the scholar period, especially in High School, which is an era of transitions to the adult life and to the active citizenship. Therefore, politics should be rather than taught, lived and studied in school, due to the possibilities improved by the mandatory presence of Social Sciences in the curriculum of high school, and discuss the space of the student movement today to understand the political mediations that are in play. Objectively, this paper focuses on the set of beliefs, norms and values that promote political socialization of high school students from a private school located in Porto Alegre. Through a self-administrated questionnaire, it was possible to observe a scenario that ranges from apathy to disbelief, while the involvement in alternative spaces is increasing, such as volunteering and NGOs.

  13. Glenn Seaborg's Contributions to Heavy Element Science and the Periodic Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, David E.

    2012-01-01

    In celebrating the centennial anniversary of the birth of Glenn T. Seaborg it is fitting that we recount and pay tribute to his legacy. Many know of the scientific accomplishments of this man who became a legend and anyone who has attended his lectures can attest to how informative, educational, and entertaining he was. He had a beguiling and whimsical sense of humor and used this to drive home his points and share his passion and quest for discovery. The periodic table is a fundamental cornerstone of science and remains a central unifying principal. Seaborg was the architect of the actinide series of elements and their proper placement in the periodic table and co-discoverer of ten transuranium elements - one of which bears his name, element 106, seaborgium. The work and achievements of this Nobel laureate have touched the lives of many and his legacy will continue for generations to come.

  14. Glann Seaborg's Contributions to Heavy Element Science and the Periodic Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-17

    In celebrating the centennial anniversary of the birth of Glenn T. Seaborg it is fitting that we recount and pay tribute to his legacy. Many know of the scientific accomplishments of this man who became a legend and anyone who has attended his lectures can attest to how informative, educational, and entertaining he was. He had a beguiling and whimsical sense of humor and used this to drive home his points and share his passion and quest for discovery. The periodic table is a fundamental cornerstone of science and remains a central unifying principal. Seaborg was the architect of the actinide series of elements and their proper placement in the periodic table and co-discoverer of ten transuranium elements - one of which bears his name, element 106, seaborgium. The work and achievements of this Nobel laureate have touched the lives of many and his legacy will continue for generations to come.

  15. Probing the multifactorial basis of Plasmodium falciparum quinine resistance: evidence for a strain-specific contribution of the sodium-proton exchanger PfNHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Louis J; Riegelhaupt, Paul M; Moura, Pedro; Johnson, David J; Patel, Jigar; Hayton, Karen; Ferdig, Michael T; Wellems, Thomas E; Akabas, Myles H; Fidock, David A

    2009-06-01

    Quinine (QN) continues to be an important treatment option for severe malaria, however resistance to this drug has emerged in field isolates of the etiologic agent Plasmodium falciparum. Quantitative trait loci investigations of QN resistance have mapped three loci of this complex trait. Two coincide with pfcrt and pfmdr1, involved in resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other quinoline-based antimalarials. A third locus on chromosome 13 contains the sodium-proton exchanger (pfnhe) gene. Previous studies have associated pfnhe polymorphisms with reduced QN sensitivity in culture-adapted field isolates. Here, we provide direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that pfnhe contributes to QN resistance. Using allelic exchange, we reduced pfnhe expression by introducing a truncated 3' untranslated region (UTR) from pfcrt into the endogenous pfnhe 3'UTR. Transfections were performed with 1BB5 and 3BA6 (both CQ- and QN-resistant) as well as GC03 (CQ- and QN-sensitive), all progenies of the HB3xDd2 genetic cross. RNA and protein analyses of the ensuing recombinant clones demonstrated a approximately 50% decrease in pfnhe expression levels. A statistically significant 30% decrease in QN IC(50) values was associated with these decreased expression levels in 1BB5 and 3BA6 but not in GC03. CQ, mefloquine and lumefantrine IC(50) values were unaltered. Cytosolic pH values were similar in all parental lines and recombinant clones. Our observations support a role for pfnhe in QN resistance in a strain-dependent manner, which might be contingent on pre-existing resistance to CQ and/or QN. These data bolster observations that QN resistance is a complex trait requiring the contribution of multiple transporter proteins.

  16. The contribution of the social sciences to Andra's RK and M preservation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Andra's research in the field of social sciences and humanities (SSH) takes currently place in the context of a Groupement de laboratoires devoted to the general theme 'Trans-generational transfer and long-time scales'. The research focus of the Groupement has been put on practices and specific devices related to the Cigeo project (geological disposal) with a view to the transmission of means and resources to next generations. The aim is thus to continue the trans-disciplinary work they started on reversibility, but by expanding it towards the idea of next generations 'agency'. Within the axe of 'Knowledge and Memory', a framework is currently being derived, consisting of a review of academic literature and a benchmarking study on very long term memory. This work has identified some research fronts for the social sciences and humanities. For instance, in the field of economics, art and landscape, cultural studies, institutions, archives, etc. Nevertheless, a prominent result of the study is that although a lot of work has been conducted by RWM agencies, academic interest in the topic so far remains limited. RK and M management is usually approached according to the logic of demonstration inspired by safety analysis, and makes a distinction between active and passive safety. Various dilemmas concerning the purpose, as well as the content and the supports, intended for RK and M preservation result from this demonstration approach. For example; - What is the main objective, to facilitate or to avoid access (to remember or to forget, in fine, the existence of the repository)? - What should be preserved, information or contextualized knowledge? - Which are the most reliable devices, those intended for the long term or those for the short term, the technical (passive) or the social (active) devices? An alternative 'demonstration' would consist of approaching the memory issue in term of dilemmas. And dilemmas, by definition, cannot be solved. Taking dilemmas seriously and

  17. Anticipation: learning from the past. The Russian/Soviet contributions to the science of anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazac, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The focus on Russian/Soviet contributions is only an opportunity to understand the objective premises of anticipation. Since anticipation expresses a main concept characterizing human action, it is important to see whether and how it corresponds to the neuro-physiology of the human. The aim of this review is to show that anticipation is neuro-physiologically constitutive and is intertwined with all other reflective, cognitive, and coordinative functions that form an inseparable unity in the process of adaptation. The experiments described in the book draw attention to anticipation as the internal tendency of the living that cannot be ignored. The review highlights the dialectic of continuity and discontinuity in the living from the standpoint of anticipation, and the holistic conclusions of the scientific research regarding the living and the human being.

  18. Organic Chemistry in Portugal from 1900 to 1970: A Contribution to the History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nuno Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to describe the contributions made by various professors in Portuguese institutions, (located at Lisbon, Coimbra and Oporto, for the development of organic chemistry, between 1900 and 1970, so that we can get a better idea of the Portuguese work done in this area (i.e., teaching, pedagogical, etc.. For this purpose, we will take particular attention to technical books used in class (lecture and laboratory. Another point of this article is to refer the organic chemistry laboratories, existent in various Portuguese universities, in order to understand the importance of practice for the complete university student training. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i5.1086

  19. The NASA airborne astronomy program - A perspective on its contributions to science, technology, and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    The publication records from NASA's airborne observatories are examined to evaluate the contribution of the airborne astronomy program to technological development and scientific/educational progress. The breadth and continuity of program is detailed with reference to its publication history, discipline representation, literature citations, and to the ability of such a program to address nonrecurring and unexpected astronomical phenomena. Community involvement in the airborne-observation program is described in terms of the number of participants, institutional affiliation, and geographic distribution. The program utilizes instruments including heterodyne and grating spectrometers, high-speed photometers, and Fabry-Perot spectrometers with wide total spectral ranges, resolutions, and numbers of channels. The potential of the program for both astronomical training and further scientific, theoretical, and applied development is underscored.

  20. Development of the Simbol-X science verification model and its contribution for the IXO Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Daniel; Aschauer, Florian; Dick, Jürgen; Distratis, Giuseppe; Gebhardt, Henry; Herrmann, Sven; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Lauf, Thomas; Lechner, Peter; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanz, Thomas; Strüder, Lothar; Tenzer, Chris; Treis, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Like the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) mission, the Simbol-X mission is a projected X-ray space telescope with spectral and imaging capabilities covering the energy range from 500 eV up to 80 keV. To detect photons within this wide range of energies, a silicon based "Depleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor" (DePFET)- matrix is used as the Low Energy Detector (LED) on top of an array of CdTe-Caliste modules, which act as the High Energy Detector (HED). A Science Verification Model (SVM) consisting of one LED quadrant in front of one Caliste module will be set up at our institute (IAAT) and operated under laboratory conditions that approximate the expected environment in space. As a first step we use the SVM to test and optimize the performance of the LED operation and data acquisition chain, consisting of an ADC, an event-preprocessor, a sequencer, and an interface controller. All these components have been developed at our institute with the objective to handle the high readout rate of approximately 8000 frames per second. The second step is to study the behaviour and the interactions of LED and HED operating as a combined detector system. We report on the development status of the SVM and its associated electronics and present first results of the currently achieved spectral performance.

  1. Responding to violence against women: social science contributions to legal solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portwood, Sharon G; Heany, Julia Finkel

    2007-01-01

    Violence against women represents a serious problem in America. Not only does intimate partner violence represent a significant threat to women, but it also counts among its victims, children living in the violent household. By its very nature, intimate partner or domestic violence may be approached as either a legal or a social problem. However, there is a shortage of legal approaches that have been informed by sound social science research. One promising framework for developing such integrated responses to intimate partner violence is therapeutic jurisprudence, which encourages legal professionals to work closely with social scientists to develop system responses based on empirical data. Such an approach contrasts sharply with the current practice of developing law based on assumptions, which frequently reflect traditional paternalistic and sexist attitudes toward women. This paper begins by examining the current theories and scientific knowledge on domestic violence with particular emphasis on the supporting data. A theoretical framework for conceptualizing domestic violence characterized as patriarchal terrorism as distinct from common couple violence is examined and offered as a means of explaining inconsistencies in research findings. Following a review of current legal responses to domestic violence, the paper concludes by outlining alternative strategies and recommendations for future efforts that are supported by current theory and research.

  2. Critical assessment of progress of medical sciences in Iran and Turkey: the way developing countries with limited resources should make effective contributions to the production of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2011-11-01

    Scientific progress is an important indicator for the social and economic developments of any country. According to various reports, worldwide, Iran has the most growth in the field of science due to a high increase in the numbers of publications during the past decade. The aim of this study is to assess not only the quantity, but also the quality of publications of indexed Iranian journals and compare them to Turkey, as an Islamic neighboring country, in addition to the contributions of these two countries to our knowledge. A number of international journals with high impact factors were selected to assess the contributions of scientists from Iran and Turkey to the medical sciences. English medical journals from Iran and Turkey indexed by the ISI Web of Sciences with known impact factors (IF) announced at the beginning of 2010 were included for evaluation. We calculated the number of all articles published from the beginning of 2007 until the October 2010, the number of total citations, and citations from authors outside both countries for each journal. In addition, we selected all articles cited at least six times by authors outside of both countries and discussed their content with regard to originality and novelty, as well as their contributions to current knowledge. Furthermore, 60 international journals in basic or clinical research with IF greater than 6 were selected for the magnitude of contributions of both countries to our scientific knowledge. In 2010, out of a total of 21 Iranian journals indexed in ISI since 2007, only 12 have a known IF with a mean of 0.39 (range: 0.07-0.97), whereas out of 28 Turkish medical journals indexed in ISI, 15 have a known IF (mean: 0.35, range: 0.05-0.82). The total number of articles published since 2007 from Iran, total citations and total citations by authors from outside Iran were 2080, 1218, and 463, respectively. The same data related to Turkish journals were 4876, 2036, and 1331, respectively. Indeed, the mean

  3. nonlinMIP contribution to CMIP6: model intercomparison project for non-linear mechanisms: physical basis, experimental design and analysis principles (v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Good

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available nonlinMIP provides experiments that account for state-dependent regional and global climate responses. The experiments have two main applications: (1 to focus understanding of responses to CO2 forcing on states relevant to specific policy or scientific questions (e.g. change under low-forcing scenarios, the benefits of mitigation, or from past cold climates to the present day, or (2 to understand the state dependence (non-linearity of climate change – i.e. why doubling the forcing may not double the response. State dependence (non-linearity of responses can be large at regional scales, with important implications for understanding mechanisms and for general circulation model (GCM emulation techniques (e.g. energy balance models and pattern-scaling methods. However, these processes are hard to explore using traditional experiments, which explains why they have had so little attention in previous studies. Some single model studies have established novel analysis principles and some physical mechanisms. There is now a need to explore robustness and uncertainty in such mechanisms across a range of models (point 2 above, and, more broadly, to focus work on understanding the response to CO2 on climate states relevant to specific policy/science questions (point 1. nonlinMIP addresses this using a simple, small set of CO2-forced experiments that are able to separate linear and non-linear mechanisms cleanly, with a good signal-to-noise ratio – while being demonstrably traceable to realistic transient scenarios. The design builds on the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and CMIP6 DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima protocols, and is centred around a suite of instantaneous atmospheric CO2 change experiments, with a ramp-up–ramp-down experiment to test traceability to gradual forcing scenarios. In all cases the models are intended to be used with CO2 concentrations rather than CO2 emissions as the input. The

  4. nonlinMIP contribution to CMIP6: model intercomparison project for non-linear mechanisms: physical basis, experimental design and analysis principles (v1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Peter; Andrews, Timothy; Chadwick, Robin; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Lowe, Jason A.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    nonlinMIP provides experiments that account for state-dependent regional and global climate responses. The experiments have two main applications: (1) to focus understanding of responses to CO2 forcing on states relevant to specific policy or scientific questions (e.g. change under low-forcing scenarios, the benefits of mitigation, or from past cold climates to the present day), or (2) to understand the state dependence (non-linearity) of climate change - i.e. why doubling the forcing may not double the response. State dependence (non-linearity) of responses can be large at regional scales, with important implications for understanding mechanisms and for general circulation model (GCM) emulation techniques (e.g. energy balance models and pattern-scaling methods). However, these processes are hard to explore using traditional experiments, which explains why they have had so little attention in previous studies. Some single model studies have established novel analysis principles and some physical mechanisms. There is now a need to explore robustness and uncertainty in such mechanisms across a range of models (point 2 above), and, more broadly, to focus work on understanding the response to CO2 on climate states relevant to specific policy/science questions (point 1). nonlinMIP addresses this using a simple, small set of CO2-forced experiments that are able to separate linear and non-linear mechanisms cleanly, with a good signal-to-noise ratio - while being demonstrably traceable to realistic transient scenarios. The design builds on the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and CMIP6 DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) protocols, and is centred around a suite of instantaneous atmospheric CO2 change experiments, with a ramp-up-ramp-down experiment to test traceability to gradual forcing scenarios. In all cases the models are intended to be used with CO2 concentrations rather than CO2 emissions as the input. The understanding

  5. Science management in the Plant Health Research Institute and its contribution to the environment protection and sustainability of the Cuban agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-García Berta Lina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mission of INISAV is to contribute to the reduction of risks and losses by pests without affecting the environment on a sustainable basis. Its management is based on a science model linked with environment and characterized by 4 phases: the planning of research’s, their implementation, validation and adoption in the agriculture practice. Three main results of research are described: Biological control Program (PBC, Pest Management Programs (PMP and the Elimination of the use of methyl bromide. A national network of 251 Laboratories for reproduction of entomophagues and entomopathogens (CREE was designed and implemented, together with 4 biopesticide production plants. Thirteen (13 biological products and technologies were created. Furthermore, pest management programs (PMP were extended in more than 25 crops for conventional and agro-ecological systems, as well as adoption of PMP to replace methyl bromide. The impacts of the results to the environment, agricultural production, the country's economy, and rural communities, were confirmed by the significant reduction of imports of chemical pesticides, from 40 000 t in 1974 to about 3000 t in 2012. In 1988 the arable area benefited by bioproducts was 300 000 ha while in 2012 amounted to 1 354 000 ha. The elimination of 80 t of methyl bromide in tobacco, 35 t in the other sectors, the reduction of other agrochemicals, the incorporation of biological control applications and some management measures, are considered the main basis for sustainability in crops. At present, 72% of the total area planted is under applications of pesticides in PMP. Of these, 38% with only biological products, 34% the combination of biological and chemical pesticides and in the remaining 28% apply phytosanitary alternatives included in the pest management programs.

  6. Job satisfaction and its contributing factors amoung faculty members of Semnan university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namat Sotodeh Asl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skilled and motivated workforce is the most important asset of any organization. The progress of any society depends on the protection and proper utilization of human resources and the academic elite .This study was designed to investigate the job satisfaction rate and its related factors on the faculty members of Semnan University of Medical Sciences (SUMS in Iran.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2012 in SUMS. 83 faculty members of SUMS participated in this study. Job satisfaction questionnaire Smith, Kendall and Hulin demographic questionnaires were used for data collection.Results: The results showed that the participants expressed their job satisfaction as 15.7% with low satisfaction, 66.2% with moderate satisfaction and 18.1% with high satisfaction.The highest levels of job satisfaction have been in the nature of work and the lowest were in the job satisfaction rights and benefits. There was no significant difference in the areas of job satisfaction between men and women, degrees, and academic degrees. The option of "The pleasure of teaching and work in University and serving the scientific community" has had the highest level of satisfaction. Lack of encouragement and appropriate feedback system has been reported as a reason of the lowest satisfaction.Conclusion: The findings show that a proper evaluation system that leads to timely feedback of performance of faculty member is necessary. The activation of "Office of Industrial Relations" is a useful step in more community usage of faculty member empowering and enhancing their job satisfaction

  7. A review of the contributions of Albert Einstein to earth sciences--in commemoration of the World Year of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.

  8. The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.

    2017-12-01

    Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.

  9. Study on a multi-messenger basis and phenomenology of the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays: the pierre auger observatory contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decerprit, G.

    2010-09-01

    The field of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) is full of puzzling mysteries. The present state of the field is first outlined, as well as the contribution and prospects brought in by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The latter actually provided physicists with several key results: the measurement of the energy spectrum above a few EeV and the high-energy cutoff at a high significance level, the measurement of composition-sensitive variables that indicate the UHECRs are getting heavier with energy (though we can not rule out that it might be due to a significant modification of the hadronic physics around 100 TeV scale), and the measurement of a weak anisotropy signal except in a small region of the sky where an excess of events is observed, centered on an important source that might not being involved in this excess, Centaurus A. The second part of the thesis deals with UHECRs propagation in the extra-galactic medium and originating from their source. We study the implications of the composition at the sources and the acceleration parameters on the shape of propagated spectra at the Earth. We demonstrate the feasibility of an astrophysical model, the so-called low-Emax scenario, that fits both the spectrum and composition. A numerical code embedding protons and nuclei propagation, including magnetic fields, is also detailed in this section. In the fourth part, we present an independent study of the constraints brought in by the angular data of Auger on the effective density of UHECRs sources and the typical magnetic deflections they undergo. A percolation tool used to perform a direct data analysis (isotropy test) and demonstrating the weak anisotropy signal, is also presented. A whole part of the thesis is dedicated to a critical secondary particle: the photon. We discuss its extra-galactic propagation and its related numerical tool that was entirely developed during the thesis and incorporated in the existing proton/nuclei code. This leads to a global

  10. LOS ALAMOS NEUTRON SCIENCE CENTER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE POWER REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAVRON, VICTOR I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HILL, TONY S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PITCHER, ERIC J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; TOVESSON, FREDERIK K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-09

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a large spallation neutron complex centered around an 800 MeV high-currently proton accelerator. Existing facilities include a highly-moderated neutron facility (Lujan Center) where neutrons between thermal and keV energies are produced, and the Weapons Neutron Research Center (WNR), where a bare spallation target produces neutrons between 0.1 and several hundred MeV.The LANSCE facility offers a unique capability to provide high precision nuclear data over a large energy region, including that for fast reactor systems. In an ongoing experimental program the fission and capture cross sections are being measured for a number of minor actinides relevant for Generation-IV reactors and transmutation technology. Fission experiments makes use of both the highly moderated spallation neutron spectrum at the Lujan Center, and the unmoderated high energy spectrum at WNR. By combininb measurements at these two facilities the differential fission cross section is measured relative to the {sup 235}U(n,f) standard from subthermal energies up to about 200 MeV. An elaborate data acquisition system is designed to deal with all the different types of background present when spanning 10 energy decades. The first isotope to be measured was {sup 237}Np, and the results were used to improve the current ENDF/B-VII evaluation. Partial results have also been obtained for {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu, and the final results are expected shortly. Capture cross sections are measured at LANSCE using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). This unique instrument is highly efficient in detecting radiative capture events, and can thus handle radioactive samples of half-lives as low as 100 years. A number of capture cross sections important to fast reaction applications have been measured with DANCE. The first measurement was on {sup 237}Np(n,{gamma}), and the results have been submitted for publication. Other capture

  11. NASA Kennedy Space Center: Contributions to Sea Turtle Science and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Phillips, Lynne V.; Mako, Cheryle L.

    2018-01-01

    , and universities (UCF, University of Toronto, Texas A&M, UF). This presentation will review the various studies and collaborations on sea turtles at KSC that include: nest distributions and success, stranding network development, aerial survey testing for nest counts, predator control assessments, the earliest baseline blood chemistry health determinations on nesting females, stress hormones in nesting females, multi-year study of hatchling sex ratios, genetics, species composition, abundance and distribution of in-water juveniles, turtle cold stun response, exterior lighting impacts and control, and satellite tag tracking of post-nesting turtles in the vicinity of near shore shoals and sand mining sites. Through these studies, monitoring, and recommendations, KSC has provided excellent stewardship and protection of the local environment. While conducting its space program mission, KSC has also made significant contributions of information for agencies charged with the conservation and management of these species

  12. Contribution of the Science, the Technology and the Innovation of the Universidad de Oriente to the Local Economic Revitalizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Salvador Soulary–Carracedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to design a methodology to evaluate the contribution of the science, the technology and the innovation of universities to the local economic revitalizing. The scientific novelty resides in a sequence of procedures, based on administration, statistical and mathematical modeling methods that constitutes a tool for the qualitative improvement of this relationship. The application of the methodology in the Universidad de Oriente allowed to verify that if the optimal structure of scientific projects is implemented it would increase, in the year 2017, the economic impact of the scientific projects in 5% like average, what would improve the efficiency in the use of the financial and human resources, as well as the relevancy of its results. Also, the partial implementation of the proposed plan of actions, it has impacted positively on the detected problems denoting a more favorable situation that the one evaluated initially. 

  13. Science Forum of the renewables 2004: Networked knowledge for renewable energies - Research, development and education - Basis for wide-spread deployment of renewable energies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienges, S.; Stadermann, G.; Szczepanski, P. (eds.)

    2004-09-01

    Energy was one of five foci of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002. While the access to modern energy is crucial for poverty reduction in particular and development in general, the way of producing and providing that energy is as crucial for environmental and social sustainability. Hence, the renewables 2004 - the International Conference for Renewable Energies was the logical consequence and next step on the way forward. It was held from 1st June to 4th June 2004 in Bonn, Germany, and turned out to be a forum for stakeholders from all sectors: Governments as well as parliamentarians, the private sector, NGOs, International Organisations, and International Financial Institutions. On 1st June this multisectoral approach to the dissemination of renewables was completed by the Science Forum - Education, Research, and Training: Basis for Wide-spread Deployment of Renewable Energies. This one-day side-event brought together scientists and practitioners from allover the world, discussing the future requirements of research and development as well as needs and potentials of education and training for renewables in developing and industrialized countries. (orig.)

  14. The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH): reflecting on 60 years of contributions to groundwater science and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmeier, Willi; Howard, Ken; Chilton, John

    2016-08-01

    The 60th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is an important milestone that allows pause for reflection on how the association has evolved over the years and the contributions it has made to groundwater science and water management. IAH was founded in 1956 at the 20th International Geological Congress and developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s in response to a growing global interest in groundwater mapping and in sound approaches to resource protection and sustainable aquifer management. Incorporated in 2000, IAH has now secured its position as the world's leading international association specialising in groundwater with over 4,100 members in 131 countries. Much credit for this success must go to members, past and present, whose individual efforts and collaboration with sister institutions are documented here. These members have shaped the association's goals and contributed selflessly to its scientific programmes, publications and educational and charitable activities. Looking ahead to the next 60 years, it is essential that IAH does not rest on past achievements but listens and adjusts to the needs of members while continuing to pursue its mission of furthering the understanding, wise use and protection of groundwater resources throughout the world.

  15. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  16. Contributions to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbeck, O.W.; Matucha, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ten papers presented at a festive colloquium held on November 14, 1988 in Frankfurt to honour Prof. Peter Wincierz deal with the texture and mechanical anisotropy of zirconium alloys (by E. Tenckhoff), materials for cladding tubes (H. Boehm), aluminium materials achieved by near technology (W. Bunk), dispersion-strengthened materials (H. Fischmeister), materials for plain bearings (K.H. Matucha), and the archeometallurgy of copper (H.-G. Bachmann). (MM) [de

  17. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  18. Formulation and communication of evaluative forensic science expert opinion-A GHEP-ISFG contribution to the establishment of standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, António; Crespillo, Manuel; Luque, Juan A; Prieto, Lourdes; Garcia, Oscar; Gusmão, Leonor; Aler, Mercedes; Barrio, Pedro A; Saragoni, Victor G; Pinto, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Communicating and interpreting genetic evidence in the administration of justice is currently a matter of great concern, due to the theoretical and technical complexity of the evaluative reporting and large difference in expertise between forensic experts and law professionals. A large number of initiatives have been taken trying to bridge this gap, contributing to the education of both parties. Results however have not been very encouraging, as most of these initiatives try to cope globally with the problem, addressing simultaneously theoretical and technical approaches which are in a quite heterogeneous state of development and validation. In consequence, the extension and complexity of the resulting documents disheartens their study by professionals (both jurists and geneticists) and makes a consensus very hard to reach even among the genetic experts' community. Here we propose a 'back-to-basics', example-driven approach, in which a model report for the two most common situations faced by forensic laboratories is presented. We do hope that this strategy will provide a solid basis for a stepwise generalisation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How much can disaster and climate science contribute to loss and damage mechanisms in international climate policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Allen, Simon; Eicken, Hajo; Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2015-04-01

    proposals for mechanisms of financing suggested a role of causation and thus attribution of L&D to (anthropogenic) climate change. Yet, causation mechanisms are particularly delicate in terms of climate justice, development and implications of legal liabilities. Here, we outline potential contributions of science to L&D mechanisms in greater specificity, in particular for (i) threshold based mechanisms, and (ii) causation related mechanisms. We draw on recent concepts of L&D attribution suggesting a more comprehensive attribution framework based on risk concepts. We present a first-order proof-of-concept for the above mechanisms (i) and (ii), using case studies of recent disasters (both related to extreme events and gradual climate change) in the Indian Himalayas, Colombia, Alaska and Australia. We analyze whether science is in a position to substantially contribute to the different L&D policy proposals, including the question whether currently available data and datasets on climate and hazards, exposure and vulnerability are in line with such support, in particular with regards to developing country contexts. We conclude with a perspective on critical research and data needs to further strengthen L&D science and policy.

  20. An examination of key experiences which contribute to a positive change in attitude toward science in two elementary education teacher candidates at the University of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Maggie A.

    This investigation utilized life history methodology (Armstrong, 1987; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1977; Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Patton, 1987; Taylor & Bogdan; 1984) to examine lifelong science experiences of two elementary education teacher candidates at a land grant institution with a large, undergraduate teacher education program. Purposive sampling techniques (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) led to the selection of two teacher candidates who reported high science anxiety when they began university coursework. The investigation focused on five broad questions: (a) What were key experiences in the elementary teacher education program which contributed to a positive change in attitude toward science? (b) What science experiences, in and out of school, did the teacher candidates encounter while they were in elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college? (c) How did the elementary education program's science course structure, professors, and field experiences contribute to the change in attitude toward science? (d) How much time was involved in the change in attitude toward science? and (e) What were the effects of the change in attitude on the teaching of science in the elementary classroom? Each candidate completed approximately twenty hours of interviews yielding rich descriptions of their lifelong science experiences. Data also included interviews with science and science education professors, journaling, and observations of student teaching experiences. Data analysis revealed four over-arching themes with implications for teacher educators. First, data showed the importance of relationship building between professors and teacher candidates. Professors must know and work with teacher candidates, and provide a structure that encourages question asking. Second, course structure including hands-on teaching strategies and students working in small groups over an extended period of time was vital. Third, integrating language arts with

  1. Can the History of Science Contribute to Modelling in Physics Teaching? The Case of Galilean Studies and Mario Bunge's Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Juliana; Braga, Marco Antônio Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    A characterization of the modelling process in science is proposed for science education, based on Mario Bunge's ideas about the construction of models in science. Galileo's "Dialogues" are analysed as a potentially fruitful starting point to implement strategies aimed at modelling in the classroom in the light of that proposal. It is…

  2. Contribution to Forensic Science aimed to Contribute in Probatory Law in the Risk of Life in the Crime of Attempted Murder in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Muñoz P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of attempted murder requires the judicial inquiry to provide different evidences. Forensic technical report of nonfatal injuries at the request of the authorities can provide valuable medical concepts on the magnitude, location and severity of the injuries. So far, there has been no objective evidence built from medical science for the assessment of the likelihood of a fatal injury. In this article, we review the forensic and medical-legal concepts, which allow providing percentages of probability of fatal injury from world-renowned medical scales.

  3. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-01-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

  4. The applied philosopher-scientist: Intersections among phenomenological research, nursing science, and theory as a basis for practice aimed at facilitating boys' healing from being bullied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Danny G; Grace, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    This article uses an exemplar of phenomenological research of middle school boys, experiences of being bullied as applied philosophy and science to illuminate the intersection of the moral and scientific realms for theory-oriented research and practice. As a consequence, a clear foundation for advancing nursing science and envisioning innovative nursing practice with boys who experience being bullied is provided. Included is a weaving together of phenomenological perspective for research and practice, Roger's (nursing) Science of Unitary Human Beings (SUHB), and SUHB-derived middle range theories of self-transcendence and power.

  5. Professional Development of Science Teachers: History of Reform and Contributions of the STS-Based Iowa Chautauqua Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Pradeep M.; Yager, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last quarter of a century, it became abundantly clear that the desired reforms in science teaching and learning could not be accomplished without significant professional development of in-service science teachers. Yet, there was a dearth of effective professional development models that could lead to the kind of instructional reforms…

  6. The Director-General awards Professor Herwig Schopper, President of the SESAME Council, UNESCO's gold Albert Einstein medal in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the promotion of international cooperation, the advancement of the physical sciences and UNESCO's science programme.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    SESAME is an epitome of what international cooperation should be and there is no doubt that Professor Schopper's leadership has been one of the important factors that has allowed the project to reach its current advanced stageHerwig Schopper is an outstanding scientist who has made a remarkable contribution to the advancement of science in areas such as nuclear and particle physics.

  7. Study of co-authorship in the nets and the interdisciplinarity in the scientific production on the basis of social network analysis methods: evaluation of the posgraduation program in information science - PPGCI / UFMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Braz de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Social Network Analysis (SNA as a method to be broadly applied in researches in the Information Scienc (IS field. This science is, normally, presented as an interdisciplinary filed, but the reseaches lines conducted in Brazil have differents relationship with other disciplines, and doing so, dis-similars interdisciplinaries characteristics. The analysis of the co-authorship network of the professors of the PPGCI/UFMG emphasizes both, the strenght of the methodology and the characteristics of the colaboration in the IS. The article gives an overview of the theoretical basis of the SNA, and presents studies about subjects related to the Information Science field that are done applying SNA, mainly the coauthorship network analysis. Finally, the methodological approach of this research and the main results are presented.

  8. A Proposed Theoretical Model Using the Work of Thomas Kuhn, David Ausubel, and Mauritz Johnson as a Basis for Curriculum and Instruction Decisions in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Barbara Lynn

    This study presents a holistic framework which can be used as a basis for decision-making at various points in the curriculum-instruction development process as described by Johnson in a work published in 1967. The proposed framework has conceptual bases in the work of Thomas S. Kuhn and David P. Ausubel and utilizes the work of several perceptual…

  9. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE PRODUCTION OF DIGITAL VIDEOS BY DISCIPLES OF A MUNICIPAL SCHOOL IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CONTEXTUALIZED KNOWLEDGE IN SCIENCE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiao Silva Vieira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an intervention research and participant that analyzes how the production of digital videos by students of a municipal school brings contributions to the construction of the knowledge contextualized in the teaching of sciences. For this purpose, references were used to cover four thematic areas: the use of digital technologies in the school context; The contextualization of contents in science education; Communication and mediation in school; And finally the production of digital video in science education. The qualitative methodology used, using semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Previously, the beginnings of the work of the students, workshops were created to create digital video, then a semistructured interview was carried out, in the post-production phase, with the students and the teacher. The results show that the production of digital videos have brought significant contributions to the students since participating in the workshop of video production, to the stage of conclusion and presentation of digital video in the classroom. With this, the students used the production of digital video as a differentiated methodology, source of research and production of knowledge. Participants, directors, learners and authors in the elaboration of the video, searching information related to the content, performing readings, planning the production, the "script", accompanying the assembly, using digital technologies in production, disseminating and participating in debates collectively. They constructed the knowledge proposed in science teaching and brought the curricular content studied into practice, reinforcing the discussion about the use and production of digital video as an educational tool.

  10. Young Science Journalism: Writing Popular Scientific Articles May Contribute to an Increase of High-School Students' Interest in the Natural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K.; Steindl, Hanna; Larcher, Nicole; Kulac, Helga; Hotter, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Far too few high-school students choose subjects from the natural sciences (NaSc) for their majors in many countries. Even fewer study biology, chemistry or physics at university. Those, that do, often lack training to present and discuss scientific results and ideas in texts. To meet these challenges the center for didactics of biology of Graz…

  11. Active science as a contribution to the trauma recovery process: preliminary indications with orphans from the 1994 genocide in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Nsengiyumva, Jean-Baptiste

    2003-09-01

    Constructivist, hands-on, inquiry-based, science activities may have a curative potential that could be valuable in a psychological assistance programme for child victims of violence and war. To investigate this idea, pilot sessions were performed in an orphanage located in Ruhengeri, Rwanda, with seven young adults and two groups of 11 children aged from 9 to 16 years. Despite a number of imperfections in this attempt, significant observations have been made. First, a sound communication was established with all, even with the young adults who at the beginning were not as enthusiastic as the children. Furthermore, some children, originally isolated, silent and sad, displayed a high degree of happiness during the activities, and an overall increasing positive change of attitude. In addition, they appropriated well some principles of experimental science. This suggests that a joint development of science literacy and joy may be an interesting approach, both in education and therapy.

  12. Without blinders: Public values scholarship in Political Science, Economics, and Law—content and contribution to Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Gjalt; van der Wal, Z.

    2017-01-01

    How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political

  13. Active Science as a Contribution to the Trauma Recovery Process: Preliminary Indications with Orphans from the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frederic; Nsengiyumva, Jean-Baptiste

    2003-01-01

    Constructivist, hands-on, inquiry-based, science activities may have a curative potential that could be valuable in a psychological assistance programme for child victims of violence and war. To investigate this idea, pilot sessions were performed in an orphanage located in Ruhengeri, Rwanda, with seven young adults and two groups of 11 children…

  14. Learning More About Our Earth: An Exploration of NASA's Contributions to Earth Science Through Remote Sensing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Francis

    2017-01-01

    NASA is commonly known for its pioneering work in space exploration and the technological advancements that made access to space possible. NASA is now increasingly known for the agency's research and technologies that support the Earth sciences. This is a presentation focusing on NASA's Earth science efforts told mostly through the technological innovations NASA uses to achieve a greater understanding of the Earth, making it possible to explore the Earth as a system. Enabling this science is NASA's fleet of over two dozen Earth science spacecraft, supported by aircraft, ships and ground observations. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. With the launching of the three flagship satellite missions, Terra, Aqua and Aura, beginning in 1999, NASA's initial Mission to Planet Earth made it possible to measure aspects of the environment that touch the lives of every person around the world. NASA harnessing the unique space-based platform means, fortunately, no planet is better studied than the one we actually live on.

  15. Toward a Critique of the Information Age: Herbert Marcuse's Contribution to Information Science's Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibangu, Sylvain K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Just as we have created them, the new social media technologies have shaped every aspect of our societies. Meanwhile, information science has hardly addressed the ways in which these information technologies have shaped humans, and vice-versa. The major reason is the tendency and pressure to adjust (the needs of) humans to the ever…

  16. Setting a new paradigm in cognitive science information: contributions to the process of knowing the information professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Dal' Evedove

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies about human cognition represent a relevant perspective in information science, considering the subjective actions of information professionals and dialogic process that should permeate the activity of subjects dealing with the organization and representation of information.Objective: Explore the approach of the cognitive perspective in information science and their new settings by contemporary needs of information to reflect on the process of meeting the professional information through the social reality that permeates the contexts of information.Methodology: Reflection on theoretical aspects that deal with the cognitive development to discuss the implications of the cognitive approach in information science and its evolution in the scope of the representation and processing of information.Results: Research in Information Science must consider issues of cognitive and social order that underlie information processing and the process of knowing the information professional as knowledge structures must be explained from the social context of knowing subjects.Conclusions: There is a need to investigate the process of knowing the information professional in the bias of socio-cognitive approach, targeting new elements for the understanding of the relationship information (cognitive manifestations and its implications on the social dimension.

  17. The contribution of Japanese Soil Science Societies to scientific knowledge, education and sustainability: Good practices in the International Year of Soils 2015 towards the International Decade of Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Takashi; Matoh, Toru; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Katsutoshi

    2017-04-01

    The soil science community in Japan includes ca. 15,000 individuals from a variety of sectors, i.e. research, education, extension, business, national and local government, practitioners, non-governmental or non-profit organizations, etc., who have mostly (multi-)membership(s) in some of the academic societies. Among those societies, the Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, the Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology and the Japanese Society of Pedology played a leading role in the promotion of the International Year of Soils 2015. The activities, many of which were jointly organized and executed by the above three, can be summarized as follows; Scientific symposiums/workshops not only within the societies but together with other disciplines such as geosciences, quaternary research, biogeochemistry, ecology, biosciences, geotechnology, etc. in national as well as international gatherings, Symposiums, (mobile) exhibitions, photo contests, science cafes, talk shows, field days, agricultural fairs, edutainment programs for school children, etc. for promoting the public awareness of soil and soil science, Publication of the books and booklets on the topics of soils, soil science, soil and environment (and/or food, life, human security, etc.), targeting the moderately educated public, Articles in selected newspapers, Distribution or sale of the novelty/memorial goods and items, e.g. soil globe, logo stickers, specially brewed Sake wines, etc. Translation of "Vienna Soil Declaration" of the IUSS into Japanese language and its distribution to the public, and Scientific and action proposal and its international dispatch of "The need to reinforce soil science research and the information basis to respond to both gradual and sudden changes in our environment" together with the Science Council of Japan. Scientific forums and gatherings as symposiums and workshops with other disciplines were successful and satisfied by most of the participants. Those for the

  18. Factors that contribute to Hispanic English Language Learners' high academic performance in high school science in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas: A multicase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Antonio

    The purpose of this multicase study was to discover factors that contribute to Hispanic English language learners' (ELL) high academic performance in high school science in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Participants were high school seniors enrolled in college-level classes who had scored commended on the science exit-level Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills and ranked toward the top of their class. One student from each of four different high schools in south Texas were selected to participate. Schools identified students meeting the participant criteria and provided consent documents. In this qualitative research study, students were interviewed on three different dates. Administrators and science teachers were also interviewed for triangulation. Significant findings showed that intrinsic qualities were mainly responsible for factors contributing to high academic performance. Hispanic ELL students need meaningful responsibilities to internalize self-esteem and self-efficacy to realize high academic performance. Self-motivation, a contributing factor, provides students with a positive outlook on high academic performance and the ability to defer more immediate undermining rewards. Students expect to contribute to society by helping others. This helps their self-esteem as well as their self-worth and supports high academic performance. Parental and teacher support are critical for high academic performance. Low socioeconomic status alone is not a causal factor for poor academic performance. School administrations should assign willing and enthusiastic teachers as mentors to target students and provide skills to parents that promote, inspire, and motivate students' intrinsic qualities. Future studies should examine different leadership styles that maximize teachers' ability to influence students' high academic performance. Finally, students should be given guidance in setting career goals and demonstrating that high academic achievement is attainable and

  19. Individually - oriented a marching during study of natural-science disciplines - a basis of forming of professional competence of the future teacher of physical training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchuk O.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Directions of forming of professional competence of the future teachers are construed during study of natural-science disciplines. It is revealed, that in individually - oriented training one of the most efficient forms of preparation training is. Training is considered as the scheduled process of refilling of skills, knowledge, checks of the relation, idea, conduct. It is indicated, that the procedure of training rests on capabilities, tendencies, interests, valuable orientations, subject experience. She ensures intellectual development which affects in educational reachings.

  20. SSH & the City. A Network Approach for Tracing the Societal Contribution of the Social Sciences and Humanities for Local Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson-Garcia, N.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    Current evaluation frameworks in research policy were designed to address: 1) life and natural sciences, 2) global research communities, and; 3) scientific impact. This is problematic, as they do not adapt well to SSH scholarship, to local interests, or to consider broader societal impacts. This paper discusses three different evaluation frameworks and proposes a methodology to operationalize them and capture societal interactions between social sciences and humanities (SSH) researchers and their local context. To capture such interactions, we propose the use of social media and web-link analysis to identify interactions between academics and local stakeholders. We consider that the power of these tools is not so much on understanding their meaning as ‘acts’ to develop impact or visibility metrics whenever a mention to a research article is made, but as proxies for personal interactions. We offer some examples of the expected social networks we aim at developing for two Spanish cities: Granada and Valencia. (Author)

  1. Accident at Three Mile Island: the contribution of the social sciences to the evaluation of emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynes, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    At 4:00 A.M. on 28 March 1979, a serious accident occurred in the nuclear-power plant at Three Mile Island near Middletown, Pennsylvania. It was caused by mechanical malfunctions in the plant, and for the next four days the extent and severity of the accident were not clear. Because it raised serious concerns about the safety of nuclear power, on 11 April President Carter established a commission to study and investigate the accident. Several aspects of the formation and evolution of the commission are particularly relevant to the social sciences. One was the way the original problem was defined for the commission by the presidential executive order. A second was the commission's own definition of the problem that evolved as the investigation progressed. As that definition became more inclusive, the body of social science literature relating to emergencies became increasingly relevant

  2. Young science journalism: writing popular scientific articles may contribute to an increase of high-school students' interest in the natural sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K.; Steindl, Hanna; Larcher, Nicole; Kulac, Helga; Hotter, Annelies

    2016-03-01

    Far too few high-school students choose subjects from the natural sciences (NaSc) for their majors in many countries. Even fewer study biology, chemistry or physics at university. Those, that do, often lack training to present and discuss scientific results and ideas in texts. To meet these challenges the center for didactics of biology of Graz University has set up the program Young Science Journalism. This new workshop-based interdisciplinary concept was tested in an exploratory study with grade 10 students of one Austrian high school, engaging both the biology and the German teacher of the class. It was our aim to raise students' interest in the NaSc by encouraging them to write popular scientific articles about self-chosen topics, and to help them improve their writing competence. In this paper we focus on interest development through writing. Results from this pilot study were promising. Using a mixed-method approach (comparing pre- and post-test questionnaires and semi-structured interviews from different time points analyzed qualitatively), we found that almost all students valued the project-related work highly. Most of them showed higher interest in the NaSc at project end with girls, in average, seeming to profit more from project participation. We thus recommend integrating such writing tasks into school curricula to increase students' interest in NaSc or to even create new interest. Additionally, we introduce a network presentation of questionnaire data as a powerful tool to visualize the effect of an intervention on individual students and student profile groups. This paper is part of a series accompanying the Austrian Young Science Journalism program. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher's web-site.

  3. Academic D.K. Zabolotny and his contribution to the development of medical science (to the 150th birth anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavyalov A.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents biographical data of academician D. K. Zabolotny and his scientific and practical contribution to the fight against plague and cholera, to the research of germ and pathogenesis of syphilis and to the management of preventative disinfection department in Russia.

  4. The politics of Piketty: what political science can learn from, and contribute to, the debate on Capital in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's imposing volume has brought serious economics firmly into the mainstream of public debate on inequality, yet political science has been mostly absent from this debate. This article argues that political science has an essential contribution to make to this debate, and that Piketty's important and powerful book lacks a clear political theory. It develops this argument by first assessing and critiquing the changing nature of political science and its account of contemporary capitalism, and then suggesting how Piketty's thesis can be complemented, extended and challenged by focusing on the ways in which politics and collective action shape the economy and the distribution of income and wealth. Although Capital's principal message is that 'capital is back' and that without political interventions active political interventions will continue to grow, a political economy perspective would suggest another rather more fundamental critique: the very economic forces Piketty describes are embedded in institutional arrangements which can only be properly understood as political phenomena. In a sense capital itself - the central concept of the book - is almost meaningless without proper consideration of its political foundations. Even if the fact of capital accumulation may respond to an economic logic, the process is embedded in a very political logic. The examples of housing policy and the regulation, and failure to regulate, financial markets are used to illustrate these points. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  5. The potential contributions of geographic information science to the study of social determinants of health in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei-Dastjerdi, Hamidreza; Matthews, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the social determinants of health (SDOH) and the effects of neighborhood contexts on individual health and well-being has grown exponentially. In this brief communication, we describe recent developments in both analytical perspectives and methods that have opened up new opportunities for researchers interested in exploring neighborhoods and health research within a SDOH framework. We focus specifically on recent advances in geographic information science, statistical methods, and spatial analytical tools. We close with a discussion of how these recent developments have the potential to enhance SDOH research in Iran.

  6. Contributions to nuclear safety and radiation technologies in Ukraine by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranenko, L.; Janouch, F.; Owsiacki, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) activities devoted to furthering nuclear and radiation safety, which is a prioritized STCU area. The STCU, an intergovernmental organization with the principle objective of non-proliferation, administers financial support from the USA, Canada, and the EU to Ukrainian projects in various scientific and technological areas; coordinates projects; and promotes the integration of Ukrainian scientists into the international scientific community, including involving western collaborators. The paper focuses on STCU's largest project to date 'Program Supporting Y2K Readiness at Ukrainian NPPs' initiated in April 1999 and designed to address possible Y2K readiness problems at 14 Ukrainian nuclear reactors. Other presented projects demonstrate a wide diversity of supported directions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety, including reactor material improvement ('Improved Zirconium-Based Elements for Nuclear Reactors'), information technologies for nuclear industries ('Ukrainian Nuclear Data Bank in Slavutich'), and radiation health science ('Diagnostics and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Injuries of Human Biopolymers').

  7. Do Gender Differences in Perceived Prototypical Computer Scientists and Engineers Contribute to Gender Gaps in Computer Science and Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlinger, Joyce; Plant, E Ashby; Hartwig, Marissa K; Vossen, Jordan J; Columb, Corey J; Brewer, Lauren E

    2018-01-01

    Women are vastly underrepresented in the fields of computer science and engineering (CS&E). We examined whether women might view the intellectual characteristics of prototypical individuals in CS&E in more stereotype-consistent ways than men might and, consequently, show less interest in CS&E. We asked 269 U.S. college students (187, 69.5% women) to describe the prototypical computer scientist (Study 1) or engineer (Study 2) through open-ended descriptions as well as through a set of trait ratings. Participants also rated themselves on the same set of traits and rated their similarity to the prototype. Finally, participants in both studies were asked to describe their likelihood of pursuing future college courses and careers in computer science (Study 1) or engineering (Study 2). Across both studies, we found that women offered more stereotype-consistent ratings than did men of the intellectual characteristics of prototypes in CS (Study 1) and engineering (Study 2). Women also perceived themselves as less similar to the prototype than men did. Further, the observed gender differences in prototype perceptions mediated the tendency for women to report lower interest in CS&E fields relative to men. Our work highlights the importance of prototype perceptions for understanding the gender gap in CS&E and suggests avenues for interventions that may increase women's representation in these vital fields.

  8. Contributions to nuclear safety and radiation technologies in Ukraine by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranenko, L. E-mail: lyubov@stcu.kiev.ua; Janouch, F.; Owsiacki, L

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) activities devoted to furthering nuclear and radiation safety, which is a prioritized STCU area. The STCU, an intergovernmental organization with the principle objective of non-proliferation, administers financial support from the USA, Canada, and the EU to Ukrainian projects in various scientific and technological areas; coordinates projects; and promotes the integration of Ukrainian scientists into the international scientific community, including involving western collaborators. The paper focuses on STCU's largest project to date 'Program Supporting Y2K Readiness at Ukrainian NPPs' initiated in April 1999 and designed to address possible Y2K readiness problems at 14 Ukrainian nuclear reactors. Other presented projects demonstrate a wide diversity of supported directions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety, including reactor material improvement ('Improved Zirconium-Based Elements for Nuclear Reactors'), information technologies for nuclear industries ('Ukrainian Nuclear Data Bank in Slavutich'), and radiation health science ('Diagnostics and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Injuries of Human Biopolymers')

  9. Can citizen science contribute to fish assemblages monitoring in understudied areas? The case study of Tunisian marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lamine, Emna; Di Franco, Antonio; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Francour, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Resource monitoring is a key issue in ecosystem management especially for marine protected areas (MPAs), where information on the composition and structure of fish assemblages is crucial to design a sound management plan. Data on fish assemblage are usually collected using Underwater Visual Censuses (UVC). However, fish assemblages monitoring in MPAs usually calls for considerable resources in terms of costs, time and technical/scientific skills. Financial resources and trained scientific divers may, however, not be available in certain geographical areas, that are thus understudied. Therefore, involving citizen volunteer divers in fish assemblage monitoring and adopting easy-to-use underwater visual census methods could be an effective way to collect crucial data. Citizen science can be used only if it can provide information that is consistent with that collected using standard scientific monitoring. Here, we aim to: 1) compare the consistency of results from a Standard scientific UVC (S-UVC) and an Easy-to-use UVC (E-UVC) method in assessing fish assemblage spatial variability, and 2) test the consistency of data collected by Scientific Divers (SD) and Scientifically-Trained Volunteer divers (STV), using E-UVC. We used, in two consecutive years, three Tunisian future Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and adjacent areas as case studies. E-UVC and S-UVC data were consistent in highlighting the same spatial patterns for the three MPAs (between MPAs and, inside and outside each one). No significant difference was recorded between data collected by SD or STV. Our results suggest that E-UVC can provide information representing simplified proxies for describing fish assemblages and can therefore be a valuable tool for fish monitoring by citizen divers in understudied areas. This evidence could foster citizen science as an effective tool to raise environmental awareness and involve stakeholders in resource management.

  10. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions, Part 1. Science basis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Bybee, Jared; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J; Clause, Karen J.; Collins, Gail; Crist, Michele R.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Edwards, Fred; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Griffin, Paul; Haas, Jessica R.; Hanser, Steven E.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Joyce, Linda A; Kilkenny, Francis F.; Kulpa, Sarah M; Kurth, Laurie L; Maestas, Jeremy D; Manning, Mary E.; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Perea, Marco A.; Prentice, Karen L.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis is on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The approach provided in the Science Framework links sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive plant species to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. A geospatial process is presented that overlays information on ecosystem resilience and resistance, species habitats, and predominant threats and that can be used at the mid-scale to prioritize areas for management. A resilience and resistance habitat matrix is provided that can help decisionmakers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies. Prioritized areas and management strategies can be refined by managers and stakeholders at the local scale based on higher resolution data and local knowledge. Decision tools are discussed for determining appropriate management actions for areas that are prioritized for management. Geospatial data, maps, and models are provided through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ScienceBase and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Landscape Approach Data Portal. The Science Framework is intended to be adaptive and will be updated as additional data become available on other values and species at risk. It is anticipated that the Science Framework will be widely used to: (1) inform emerging strategies to conserve sagebrush ecosystems, sagebrush dependent species, and human uses of the sagebrush system, and (2) assist managers in prioritizing and planning on-the-ground restoration and mitigation actions across the sagebrush biome.

  11. [The contribution of L.G. Ramensky theoretical legacy to modern vegetation science (to the 130 anniversary of the scientist's birth)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, B M; Naumova, L G

    2015-01-01

    L.G. Ramensky (1884-1953) was an outstanding Soviet geobotanist of the first part of XX century. Considered is his theoretical legacy and its contribution to modern vegetation science. L.G. Ramensky formulated the principle of vegetation continuum based on which the modern paradigm of vegetation science has been put into shape. The scientist made a contribution to the development of such important theoretical conceptions as types of plant strategy, coenosis and coenobiosis (coexistence of species), patterns of interannual variability in plant communities, ecological successions. The unique ecological scales were established by L.G. Ramensky that characterize the distribution of 1400 species over the gradients of soil moistening, richness, and salinization as well as moistening variability, pastoral digression, and alluvial intensity. He came out against mechanistic notions by V.N. Sukachev on a biogeocoenosis structure. The scientist did not offer his own method of plant communities classification but his well-reasoned criticism of dominant classification played a great role in adoption of floristical classification principles (Braun-Blanquet approach) by phytocenology in our country.

  12. Contribuição ao debate entre psicanálise e ciência: Feyerabend Contribution to the debate between psychoanalysis and science: Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Menezes Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de apresentar a contribuição de Paul Feyerabend ao debate entre psicanálise e ciência. A obra deste autor parece fornecer um novo horizonte de discussão, pois esvazia a pretensão de idealizar a ciência e a apresenta como atividade humana, impura, sem qualquer regra racional de funcionamento. Primeiro, faremos uma 'varredura' pelo campo atual de discussão, destacando alguns artigos que contribuem para esse debate. Seguiremos com uma crítica ao esforço de regramento epistemológico; e, por fim, apresentaremos a obra de Feyerabend, concentrando nossa atenção na leitura do célebre volume Contra o método, e no que esta obra acrescenta ao debate.Our goal is to present the contribution of Paul Feyerabend's works to the debate between psychoanalysis and science. Feyerabend's works seem to presents a new discussion horizon, since it empties out there the pretension to idealize science, and presents it as a human activity, impure, without any rational rule of functioning. First, we will scan the current discussion field, highlighting some articles that contribute to the debate. We will follow by doing some critics to epistemology and its ruling efforts. Finally, we will present Feyerabend's works, concentrating our attention on the lecture of Against Method, his famous volume, and what this work adds to the debate.

  13. Science at the service of sustainable development. Contribution of French public research organizations; La science au service d'un developpement durable. Contribution des organismes publics de recherche francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The scientific knowledge has permitted to identify and to warn the public about many environmental problems. Today, in front of the challenges of the implementation of a sustainable development, the scientific community in its disciplinary diversity gives its contribution to the Johannesburg summit. This document was made by 16 French public research organizations under the coordination of the institute of research on development (IRD) on request of the Ministry of Research. It presents some elements of answer and some proposals in terms of priority of research about the following points: fight against paucity and promotion of viable ways of subsistence (reduction of inequalities, ecological agriculture and feeding security, urbanization, health); sustainable consumption and production means (energy stakes, transports, industry); more responsible management of natural resources (functioning of natural ecosystems, soils and biological resources management, durable management of water resources, oceans and coastal areas, climatic system, underground and mineral resources, knowledge and impact of natural catastrophes); implementation means (technology transfer, reinforcement of scientific capacity, education and training, expertise, public information); conclusion and proposals (priorities, organization of research activity). (J.S.)

  14. Science at the service of sustainable development. Contribution of French public research organizations; La science au service d'un developpement durable. Contribution des organismes publics de recherche francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The scientific knowledge has permitted to identify and to warn the public about many environmental problems. Today, in front of the challenges of the implementation of a sustainable development, the scientific community in its disciplinary diversity gives its contribution to the Johannesburg summit. This document was made by 16 French public research organizations under the coordination of the institute of research on development (IRD) on request of the Ministry of Research. It presents some elements of answer and some proposals in terms of priority of research about the following points: fight against paucity and promotion of viable ways of subsistence (reduction of inequalities, ecological agriculture and feeding security, urbanization, health); sustainable consumption and production means (energy stakes, transports, industry); more responsible management of natural resources (functioning of natural ecosystems, soils and biological resources management, durable management of water resources, oceans and coastal areas, climatic system, underground and mineral resources, knowledge and impact of natural catastrophes); implementation means (technology transfer, reinforcement of scientific capacity, education and training, expertise, public information); conclusion and proposals (priorities, organization of research activity). (J.S.)

  15. Conference RSIS - (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Education Ministry - Building 500, Council Chamber - Speech given by Ms. H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Princess of Thailand.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Conference RSIS - (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Education Ministry - Building 500, Council Chamber - Speech given by Ms. H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Princess of Thailand.

  16. Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

  17. Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. Mohammad Nahavandian, Vice-President for Research, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. Mohammad Nahavandian, Vice-President for Research, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran.

  18. Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: Climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Germar; Booth, Charles R.; Ehramjian, James C.; Stone, Robert; Dutton, Ellsworth G.

    2007-05-01

    Spectral ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiance has been measured near Barrow, Alaska (71°N, 157°W), between 1991 and 2005 with a SUV-100 spectroradiometer. The instrument is part of the U.S. National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network. Here we present results based on the recently produced "version 2" data release, which supersedes published "version 0" data. Cosine error and wavelength-shift corrections applied to the new version increased biologically effective UV dose rates by 0-10%. Corrected clear-sky measurements of different years are typically consistent to within ±3%. Measurements were complemented with radiative transfer model calculations to retrieve total ozone and surface albedo from measured spectra and for the separation of the different factors influencing UV and visible radiation. A climatology of UV and visible radiation was established, focusing on annual cycles, trends, and the effect of clouds. During several episodes in spring of abnormally low total ozone, the daily UV dose at 305 nm exceeded the climatological mean by up to a factor of 2.6. Typical noontime UV Indices during summer vary between 2 and 4; the highest UV Index measured was 5.0 and occurred when surface albedo was unusually high. Radiation levels in the UV-A and visible exhibit a strong spring-autumn asymmetry. Irradiance at 345 nm peaks on approximately 20 May, 1 month before the solstice. This asymmetry is caused by increased cloudiness in autumn and high albedo in spring, when the snow covered surface enhances downwelling UV irradiance by up to 57%. Clouds reduce UV radiation at 345 nm on average by 4% in March and by more than 40% in August. Aerosols reduce UV by typically 5%, but larger reductions were observed during Arctic haze events. Stratospheric aerosols from the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 enhanced spectral irradiance at 305 nm for large solar zenith angles. The year-to-year variations of spectral irradiance at 305 nm and of the UV Index are mostly caused

  19. Policy and science of FMD control: the stakeholders' contribution to decision making. A call for integrated animal disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M; Roger, P

    Effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--prevention, surveillance and response--requires integrated animal disease management as a cooperative effort between stakeholders, scientists and decision makers, at all levels: local, national, regional and international. This paper suggests a process and outlines specific critical issues that need to be addressed in order to best use the science and technology that is available now and to develop new technologies that will lead to significant improvements. The overall objective is not to allow the disease or the disease control measures to damage, violate or destroy public health, the environment, or the economy, or to allow politics to drive disease control policies at the expense of the ethical relationship between man and animals. Critical issues of prevention, surveillance and response policies are examined, and specific recommendations are made to reduce the risk or effect of natural and deliberate introductions. For prevention: a) rapid portable diagnostics and provision of vaccines to control and eradicate the reservoirs of disease. b) alerts, leading to increased controls at borders, animal movement restrictions and biosecurity on farms. For surveillance: a) reporting of unusual symptoms, rapid diagnostics and identification of patterns. b) enhanced role of geographic information systems (GIS) linked to an IT system. c) collection, storage and sharing of disease information. For response policies: a) the role and implementation of stamping out and of vaccination. b) simulation exercises with stakeholder participation. For all aspects of FMD control, consideration should be given to: a) the composition, responsibilities and role of the balanced, permanently operational Expert Group in EU member states as specified in the EU FMD Directive. b) establishment of a balanced, permanently operational European Expert Group. c) establishment of both a European and an International FMD Task Force. Stakeholders need

  20. Translational Science: How experimental research has contributed to the understanding of spontaneous Physical Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle D Benfato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous physical activity (SPA consists of all daily living activities other than volitional exercise (e.g. sports and fitness-related activities. SPA is an important component of energy expenditure and may protect from overweight and obesity. Little is known about the biological regulation of SPA, but animal researchhas contributedsignificantly to expand our knowledge in this field. Studies in rodents have shown that SPA is influenced by nutrients and volitional exercise. High-fat diet seems to decrease SPA, which contributes to weigh gain. Volitional exercisemayalso reduce SPA, helping to explain the commonly reported low efficiency of exercise to cause weight loss, and highlighting the need to finda volume/intensity of exercise to maximize total daily energy expenditure. Animal studieshave also allowed for the identification of some brain areas and chemical mediatorsinvolved in SPA regulation. These discoveries could enable the development of new therapeutics aiming to enhance SPA.

  1. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Camacho, Rodney; Johnson, Steven; McLean, Matthew; Maxin, Selino; Anson, Jorg; Joseph, Eugene; Nedlic, Osamu; Luckymis, Marston; Adams, Katrina; Hess, Don; Kabua, Emma; Yalon, Anthony; Buthung, Eva; Graham, Curtis; Leberer, Trina; Taylor, Brett; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA) networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i) grazing by large herbivores, (ii) high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii) high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem services that coral

  2. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Houk

    Full Text Available Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i grazing by large herbivores, (ii high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem

  3. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)

  4. Considerations for the composition of visual scene displays: potential contributions of information from visual and cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    Aided augmentative and alternative (AAC) interventions have been demonstrated to facilitate a variety of communication outcomes in persons with intellectual disabilities. Most aided AAC systems rely on a visual modality. When the medium for communication is visual, it seems likely that the effectiveness of intervention depends in part on the effectiveness and efficiency with which the information presented in the display can be perceived, identified, and extracted by communicators and their partners. Understanding of visual-cognitive processing - that is, how a user attends, perceives, and makes sense of the visual information on the display - therefore seems critical to designing effective aided AAC interventions. In this Forum Note, we discuss characteristics of one particular type of aided AAC display, that is, Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as they may relate to user visual and cognitive processing. We consider three specific ways in which bodies of knowledge drawn from the visual cognitive sciences may be relevant to the composition of VSDs, with the understanding the direct research with children with complex communication needs is necessary to verify or refute our speculations.

  5. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2016-09-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  6. The contribution of the Institute of Sciences of Food Production of CNR in the postharvest scientific context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agabbio, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Sciences of Food Production of CNR (National Research Council) has been designated to perform scientific studies in the postharvest field; they mainly aim at extending the life of horticultural commodities, maintaining their quality during storage and limiting fruit losses during the marketing period. The scientific work of the Institute concerns fruit and vegetable products, both fresh and minimally transformed. Experimental research on these commodities aims at providing process parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere) to managers of packinghouses, in order to have efficient cold storage. Another research field regards pathogen control for the purpose of maintaining product healthiness and at the same time of avoiding environmental pollution. Particularly in this field, research on commonly used compounds and the screening of new ones in order to prevent pathogen diseases are carried out with International protocols, contemporarily with other Countries. Surveys are completed with wide-reaching studies on alternative systems such as physical methods (thermotherapy, UV rays, curing), biological control (essential oils and antagonist microorganisms) and with GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) compounds, harmless for the consumer and the environment. A great deal of research is carried out in order to examine physiological phenomena, particularly during ripening and senescence periods of the fruit and aspects connected with quality. In twenty-five years of activity, almost five hundred papers have been issued illustrating technological innovations [it

  7. Memories of the past contribute to prevention: photography as a direct means for public understanding of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Piccione

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are thousands of ways to achieve a sustainable future for our Planet. Some of these follow high-value scientific research activities, while others simply aim to increase people’s awareness of what can and should be done to improve our, and our children’s, quality of life. The easiest way to develop this specific kind of ‘spread of culture’ consists of bringing back to life what was preserved of the history of a population and of a territory, by representing it in a renewed form, and by making it ‘food for thought’. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV followed this approach and decided to publish two volumes where the objective was to make people more aware of the geological and volcanic risks in some specific areas of Italy. The immediacy of the photography is used to tell the stories of volcanoes and earthquakes, to represent past events that have become ‘memories’. and to use these as a basis to build a better future. Terremoto Calabro Messinese, 1908/2008 and Terre di Fuoco are the two photographic books that have been published by INGV in cooperation with Alinari, the oldest firm in the world in the field of photography and image communication. The photographs selected to be included in the two books had a double significance: on the one side, they had to convey to the reader the immediacy of the emotions that other people had felt and lived; and on the other side, they had to make people understand the importance of prevention. The fascination of history, the importance of memories of the past, and the extraordinary strength of images help the reader build a link between the past, the present and the future, where the lessons learnt from past centuries and from the study of the Earth and its energy help us to understand which steps should be taken to achieve a ‘sustainable’ future.

  8. Technology transfer in human vaccinology: a retrospective review on public sector contributions in a privatizing science field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Jan

    2012-09-28

    As health intervention, vaccination has had a tremendous impact on reducing mortality and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. Traditionally vaccines were developed and made in the western, industrialised world and from there on gradually and with considerable delay became available for developing countries. Today that is beginning to change. Most vaccine doses are now produced in emerging economies, although industrialised countries still have a lead in vaccine development and in manufacturing innovative vaccines. Technology transfer has been an important mechanism for this increase in production capacity in emerging economies. This review looks back on various technology transfer initiatives and outlines the role of WHO and other public and private partners. It goes into a more detailed description of the role of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. For many decades RIVM has been providing access to vaccine technology by capacity building and technology transfer initiatives not only through multilateral frameworks, but also on a bilateral basis including a major project in China in the 90 s of the previous century. Looking forward it is expected that, in a globalizing world, the ambition of BRICS countries to play a role in global health will lead to an increase of south-south technology transfers. Further, it is argued that push approaches including technology transfer from the public domain, connecting innovative enabling platforms with competent developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVM), will be critical to ensure a sustainable supply of affordable and quality vaccines to national immunization programmes in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The principle of safety evaluation in medicinal drug - how can toxicology contribute to drug discovery and development as a multidisciplinary science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical (drug) safety assessment covers a diverse science-field in the drug discovery and development including the post-approval and post-marketing phases in order to evaluate safety and risk management. The principle in toxicological science is to be placed on both of pure and applied sciences that are derived from past/present scientific knowledge and coming new science and technology. In general, adverse drug reactions are presented as "biological responses to foreign substances." This is the basic concept of thinking about the manifestation of adverse drug reactions. Whether or not toxic expressions are extensions of the pharmacological effect, adverse drug reactions as seen from molecular targets are captured in the category of "on-target" or "off-target", and are normally expressed as a biological defense reaction. Accordingly, reactions induced by pharmaceuticals can be broadly said to be defensive reactions. Recent molecular biological conception is in line with the new, remarkable scientific and technological developments in the medical and pharmaceutical areas, and the viewpoints in the field of toxicology have shown that they are approaching toward the same direction as well. This paper refers to the basic concept of pharmaceutical toxicology, the differences for safety assessment in each stage of drug discovery and development, regulatory submission, and the concept of scientific considerations for risk assessment and management from the viewpoint of "how can multidisciplinary toxicology contribute to innovative drug discovery and development?" And also realistic translational research from preclinical to clinical application is required to have a significant risk management in post market by utilizing whole scientific data derived from basic and applied scientific research works. In addition, the significance for employing the systems toxicology based on AOP (Adverse Outcome Pathway) analysis is introduced, and coming challenges on precision

  10. Eco-drifters for a dispersion experiment at the mouth of the River Arno: the citizen-science contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Silvia; Locritani, Marina; Muccini, Filippo; Bianucci, Marco; Berta, Maristella; Giacomazzi, Fabio; Vico, Andrea; Perfetti, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    , some days after, by volunteers / students, in the large coastline around the mouth of Arno. Thus, pictures and movies taken by the drone cameras, together with records of spatial and temporal accumulation rates of the eco-drifters, shall give us information about the role of local currents in AMD deposition in the studied area. All collected information will be used to validate Lagrangian models describing local circulation. This is the first Italian dispersion experiment involving not only Research Centers (ISMAR and INGV), but also five Scholastic Institutes, two Educational Organizations (LABTER and TOSCIENCE) and a Regional Park. Citizenscience has a relevant scientific role in this experiment, starting from the eco-drifters construction to their recollection, but it represents also an effective way to raise young public awareness on the vulnerability of our coasts and marine environment. In the past years ISMAR has undertaken several marine litter monitoring programs supported by citizenscience (Merlino et al. 2015), also recounted through a Documentary (MARINE RUBBISH. A Challenge to share). This approach has proven to be very effective from the educational, social and scientific points of view. REFERENCES Suaria et. al.2016. Nature, Scientific Reports) http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37551 Giovacchini Alice, 2016. Monitoring and Analysis of Marine Debris beached in coastal areas surrounding the International Marine Protected Area "Pelagos Sanctuary". Master thesis of Marine Science, Pisa University. Merlino Silvia. 2016. SeaCleaner Project: Monitoring Marine Litter on Beaches around the "Pelagos Sanctuary". Human Ecology Journal, No 27: WASTE. Published by Commonwealth Human Ecology Council (CHEC), Hurlingham Studios, Ranelagh Gardens London, UK. Merlino S., Locritani M., Stroobant M., Mioni E., Tosi D. 2015. SeaCleaner - Focusing citizen-science and environment education on unravelling the marine litter problem. In: Blue Future: education the next generation

  11. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for the community of Food Sciences to contribute Towards a Society of Healthier Consumers and a Better World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris N. Lazarides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the tremendous scientific and technological achievements in the production of food, human well-being has not been served to a satisfactory extent. Millions of people are literally killing themselves by excessive eating or wrong use of food, leading to obesity and nutrition-related diseases. At the same time millions of people continue to suffer from lack of food, leading to starvation, malnutrition and death, often before reaching adult age. Parallel to striving for better-safer-healthier food, the community of Food Sciences is faced with the challenge to help educate the average consumer on how to select, handle, store and use food for safe and healthy eating. The need to reshape and reform public education to better serve this task is obvious. What is also obvious is the need for medical professionals to recognize healthy eating (and exercise as the most valuable tool in preventive medical care. This perspective will concentrate on challenges and opportunities for Food Scientists/Engineers: to contribute towards a society of well-informed, self-protected, active and considerate citizens; to support public (food-related education and actively participate in the fight against obesity and nutrition-related diseases; to intervene in decision making bodies and underline the importance of education on nutrition and food; to invent avenues and possibilities to contribute to the fight against world hunger; and all in all, to contribute towards a healthier world, a world that will not be split between hunger and obesity.

  13. Contributions of the National Institute of Nuclear Research to the advance of Science and Technology in Mexico. Commemorative edition 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque M, G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Romero H, S.; Serment G, J.

    2010-01-01

    From the second decade of the X X century the applications of the nuclear energy have been important part of the scientific and technological patrimony in Mexico. Records exist with regard to the use of the radioisotopes and the radiations in our country in that time, and in a formal way until the year of 1950, in a process that culminates with the creation of the Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN. January 1, 1956). In January 12, 1972 were published the Organic Law that created to the Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, being responsible for the works that the CNEN developed. The current Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) was constituted starting from the Regulation Law of the constitutional Article 27 in nuclear matter of January 26, 1979, abrogated and substituted by the Law in force of February 4, 1985. In this lapse they were undertaken multitude of projects with results and diverse achievements. From their creation, the mission of the ININ and the previous institutions has been to realize research in science and nuclear technology, to promote their peaceful uses and to diffuse the achieved advances, always searching for to link them to the economic, social, scientific and technological development of the country. In this occasion with the purpose of participating in the commemoration of the bicentennial of the independence and centennial of the Mexican revolution in our country, the ININ decided to publish this work, directed to a wide public, with the intention of providing a vision the most complete and appropriate possible of the activities in research and technology that it is carries out at the moment. This work also seeks to be a diffusion instrument of the tasks that they are carried out in the institute, in diverse subjects as: the basic research, the nuclear applications in the health, the agriculture and the industry, the studies on the contamination and the environment; the dosimetry; the radiological protection; as

  14. [Knowledge of the "Gräfenberg zone" and female ejaculation in ancient Indian sexual science. A medical history contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, R

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Indian texts in sexology (kamaśastra) from the 11th century onwards prove that their authors knew about the area later termed the "Gräfenberg zone" in Europe, as well as about the female ejaculation connected with the stimulation of this area. The Gräfenberg zone is a sexually arousable zone in the front part of the vagina, stimulation of which can lead to the discharge of liquid from the urethra, a phenomenon which is described as female ejaculation. The german gynaecologist Ernst Gräfenberg, who worked in America, described this zone, situated beneath the clitoris, for the first time (at least in this century) in Western medicine in an article published in 1950. (There are, however, evidences, that the 17th-century anatomist Regnier de Graaf had knowledge about the mentioned erogenous zone as well as female ejaculation.) Since the 1980s the so-called Gräfenberg zone, popularly termed "G-spot", and female ejaculation have been controversially discussed medically as well as in popular science, first in the United States, then in Europe; both phenomena have meanwhile been accepted as facts in medical manuals and reference books (e.g. the "Pschyrembel"). Whereas the oldest and most well-known sexological-erotological work of Ancient India, the Kamasutra, dating probably from the third century A.D., apparently did not know the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, texts such as the Pañcasayaka (11th century), Jayamangala (Yaśodhara's commentary on the Kamasutra from the 13th century), the Ratirahasya (13th century), as well as the late kamaśastra-works Smaradipika and Anangaranga (16th century?) demonstrably describe both, the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, in great detail. The female ejaculation is described already in the 7th century in a non-kamaśastra-text, in a work of the poet Amaru called the Amaruśataka.

  15. The Effective Contributing Factors in Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Transfer among Academic Staff at Tehran University of Medical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Ghodsian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge transfer is known as a core process in knowledge management. Its decent and influential function in organizations would result in regeneration and innovation of knowledge.Due to this importance, the most recent research in knowledge management has been inclined toward knowledge transfer concept. We aimed to investigate the most influencing contributing factors in knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing within the faculty members at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Method: This investigation has been conducted with a qualitative approach using grounded theory. Data were collected using semi- structured interview with 17 faculty members of ten distinct departments of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data has been transcribed and analyzed.Results: By carefully analyzing the interviews from 272 preliminary open codes after sequential analogies and induction, 54 concepts have been extracted that were categorized into one of eleven classes constituting the effective items and factors in knowledge transfer among faculty members,respectively. These categories could be placed into , non-communication factors and communication factors. The non-communication factors were knowledge actors (professors, organization (university, the knowledge, and surroundings. The communication factors are the factors that are formed in the dual relationships between the relevant factors.Conclusion: A decent knowledge flow in working groups and collaborative societies of faculty members within a department or through different university departments would lead to a better research and education management. This could also bring about some advantages: the research in each department falls in a well-defined, pre-missioned channel, avoiding scattered research works, and enhancing the training and research. The awareness of university senior managers about influencing contributing factors of knowledge transfer and their functions provide a

  16. `I Actually Contributed to Their Research': The influence of an abbreviated summer apprenticeship program in science and engineering for diverse high-school learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Stephen R.; McConnell, William J.; Flowers, Alonzo M., III

    2015-02-01

    This study describes an investigation of a research apprenticeship program that we developed for diverse high-school students often underrepresented in similar programs and in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professions. Through the apprenticeship program, students spent 2 weeks in the summer engaged in biofuels-related research practices within working university chemistry and engineering laboratories. The experience was supplemented by discussions and activities intended to impact nature of science (NOS) and inquiry understandings and to allow for an exploration of STEM careers and issues of self-identity. Participants completed a NOS questionnaire before and after the experience, were interviewed multiple times, and were observed while working in the laboratories. Findings revealed that as a result of the program, participants (1) demonstrated positive changes in their understandings of certain NOS aspects many of which were informed by their laboratory experiences, (2) had an opportunity to explore and strengthen STEM-related future plans, and (3) examined their self-identities. A majority of participants also described a sense of belonging within the laboratory groups and believed that they were making significant contributions to the ongoing work of those laboratories even though their involvement was necessarily limited due to the short duration of the program. For students who were most influenced by the program, the belonging they felt was likely related to issues of identity and career aspirations.

  17. [The connective tissues, from the origin of the concept to its "Maturation" to extracellular matrix. Application to ocular tissues. Contribution to the history of medical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat-Robert, J; Robert, L; Pouliquen, Y

    2011-06-01

    The "Tissue" concept emerged apparently in the medical literature at about the French revolution, during the second half of the 18(th) century. It was found in the texts written by the physicians of Béarn and Montpellier, the Bordeu-s and also by the famous physician, Felix Vicq d'Azyr, the last attending physician of the queen Marie-Antoinette, "Bordeu et al. (1775) et Pouliquen (2009)". It was elaborated into a coherent doctrine somewhat later by Xavier Bichat, considered as the founder of modern pathological anatomy, Bichat. With the advent of histochemistry, from the beginning of the 20(th) century, several of the principal macromolecular components of connective tissues, collagens, elastin, "acid mucopolysaccharides" (later glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans) and finally structural glycoproteins were characterized. These constituents of connective tissues were then designated as components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), closely associated to the cellular components of these tissues by adhesive (structural) glycoproteins as fibronectin, several others and cell receptors, "recognising" ECM-components as integrins, the elastin-receptor and others. This molecular arrangement fastens cells to the ECM-components they synthesize and mediates the exchange of informations between the cells to the ECM (inside-out) and also from the ECM-components to the cells (outside-in). This macromolecular arrangement is specific for each tissue as a result of the differentiation of their cellular components. It is also the basis and condition of the fulfillment of the specific functions of differentiated tissues. This is a short description of the passage of the "tissue" concept from its vague origin towards its precise identification at the cellular and molecular level up to the recognition of its functional importance and its establishment as an autonomous science. This can be considered as a new example of the importance of metaphors for the progress of science, Keller

  18. A grander challenge: the case of how Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS contributes to health outcomes in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groves Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background “Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively deliver strategies to improve health. In 2008, Makerere University began a radical institutional change to bring together four schools under one College of Health Sciences. This paper’s objective is to demonstrate how its leadership in training, research, and services can improve health in Uganda and internationally, which lies at the core of the College’s vision. Methods A comprehensive needs assessment involved five task forces that identified MakCHS’s contribution to the Ugandan government health priorities. Data were collected through analysis of key documents; systematic review of MakCHS publications and grants; surveys of patients, students and faculty; and key informant interviews of the College’s major stakeholders. Four pilot projects were conducted to demonstrate how the College can translate research into policy and practice, extend integrated outreach community-based education and service, and work with communities and key stakeholders to address their priority health problems. Results MakCHS inputs to the health sector include more than 600 health professionals graduating per year through 23 degree programs, many of whom assume leadership positions. MakCHS contributions to processes include strengthened approaches to engaging communities, standardized clinical care procedures, and evidence-informed policy development. Outputs include the largest number of outpatients and inpatient admissions in Uganda. From 2005-2009, MakCHS also produced 837 peer-reviewed research publications (67% in priority areas. Outcomes include an expanded knowledge pool, and contributions to coverage of health services and healthy behaviors. Impacts include discovery and applications of global significance, such as

  19. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization

  20. THE CASE STUDY TASKS AS A BASIS FOR THE FUND OF THE ASSESSMENT TOOLS AT THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE DIRECTION 01.03.02 APPLIED MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Aleksandrovna Kirillova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern reform of the Russian higher education involves the implementation of competence-based approach, the main idea of which is the practical orientation of education. Mathematics is a universal language of description, modeling and studies of phenomena and processes of different nature. Therefore creating the fund of assessment tools for mathematical disciplines based on the applied problems is actual. The case method is the most appropriate mean of monitoring the learning outcomes, it is aimed at bridging the gap between theory and practice.The aim of the research is the development of methodical materials for the creating the fund of assessment tools that are based on the case-study for the mathematical analisis for direction «Applied Mathematics and Computer Science». The aim follows from the contradiction between the need for the introduction of case-method in the educational process in high school and the lack of study of the theoretical foundations of using of this method as applied to mathematical disciplines, insufficient theoretical basis and the description of the process of creating case-problems for use their in the monitoring of the learning outcomes.

  1. Summaries of poster contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The 10. meeting covered subjects on the application of electron microscopy in numerous fields such as biology and medicine, solid state physics, semiconductor research and production, crystallography, materials science, and chemistry of polymers. 174 summaries of poster contributions are included

  2. Disentangling the major source areas for an intense aerosol advection in the Central Mediterranean on the basis of Potential Source Contribution Function modeling of chemical and size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Chiara; Crocchianti, Stefano; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Selvaggi, Roberta; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Lucarelli, Franco; Cappelletti, David

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we combined a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis of daily chemical aerosol composition data with hourly aerosol size distributions with the aim to disentangle the major source areas during a complex and fast modulating advection event impacting on Central Italy in 2013. Chemical data include an ample set of metals obtained by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), main soluble ions from ionic chromatography and elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) obtained by thermo-optical measurements. Size distributions have been recorded with an optical particle counter for eight calibrated size classes in the 0.27-10 μm range. We demonstrated the usefulness of the approach by the positive identification of two very different source areas impacting during the transport event. In particular, biomass burning from Eastern Europe and desert dust from Sahara sources have been discriminated based on both chemistry and size distribution time evolution. Hourly BT provided the best results in comparison to 6 h or 24 h based calculations.

  3. A contribuição da crítica feminista à ciência The contribution of the feminist criticism to science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Bandeira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute a contribuição trazida pela crítica feminista ao conhecimento científico " a ciência ", uma vez que se evidencia uma ampliação das formas de pensar. O pensamento parte da formulação de uma crítica em relação a alguns pressupostos, os quais nortearam a produção do conhecimento científico, tais como a condição de neutralidade, universalismo e objetividade da ciência, além de seu caráter masculinista. A crítica feminista evidenciou alguns limites impostos ao maior acesso das mulheres no campo científico. Enfatiza como a noção de gênero se torna significativa na medida em que introduz outros componentes na prática científica.The text discusses the contribution brought by the feminist criticism to the scientific knowledge, as an increasing variety of ways of thinking can be observed. Science, guided by the production of scientific knowledge, presupposes neutrality, universalism and objectiveness, which goes beyond its "masculine" characteristics. The feminist criticism evidenced some limits imposed to the greater access of women to scientific careers. The text emphasizes how the notion of gender becomes significant, since it introduces other components in the scientific practices.

  4. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  5. Review of the Contribution of the Scottish Science Centres Network to Formal and Informal Science Education: Report of Follow-Through Visits by HM Inspectorate of Education--June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Scottish Executive's Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department (SEETLLD) asked HM Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) to carry out a review of the four Scottish science centres--Glasgow Science Centre (GSC), Our Dynamic Earth (ODE) in Edinburgh, Satrosphere Science Centre in Aberdeen, and Sensation Science Centre in Dundee.…

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  7. Safety Basis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-01

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities

  8. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  9. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  10. CHARIS (Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow) Lessons Learned in Capacity-Building for Hydrological Sciences with Asian Partner Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzik, M. J.; Armstrong, R. L.; Armstrong, B. R.; Barrett, A. P.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hill, A. F.; Hughes, H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Rittger, K.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Funded by USAID and based at the University of Colorado, the Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice & Snow (CHARIS) project has among its objectives both scientific and capacity-building goals. We are systematically assessing the role of glaciers and seasonal snow in the freshwater resources of High Asia to better forecast future availability and vulnerability of water resources in the region. We are collaborating with Asian partner institutions in eight nations across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan). Our capacity-building activities include data-sharing, training, supporting field work and education and infrastructure development, which includes creating the only water-chemistry laboratory of its kind in Bhutan. We have also derived reciprocal benefits from our partners, learning from their specialized local knowledge and obtaining access to otherwise unavailable in situ data. Our presentation will share lessons learned in our annual training workshops with our Asian collaborators, at which we have interspersed remote sensing and hydrological modelling lectures with GIS and python programming, and hands-on applications using remote sensing data. Our challenges have included technological issues such as: power incompatibilities, reliable shipping methods to remote locations, bandwidth limitations to transferring large remote sensing data sets, cost of proprietary software, choosing among free software alternatives, and negotiating the formats and jargon of remote sensing data to get to the science as quickly as possible. We will describe successes and failures in training methods we have used, what we look for in training venue facilities, and how our approach has changed in response to student evaluations and partner feedback.

  11. [On Georges Canguilhem's "What does a scientific ideology mean?" and on French-German contributions on science and ideology in the last forty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debru, Claude

    2010-06-01

    This paper is based on Canguilhem's text on the concept of scientific ideology, which he introduced in 1969. We describe Canguilhem's attempts at designing a methodological framework for the history of science including the status of kinds of knowledge related to science, like scientific ideologies preceding particular scientific domains (like ideologies about inheritance before Mendel, or Spencer's universal evolutionary laws preceding Darwin). This attempt at picturing the relationships between science and ideology is compared with Jürgen Habermas's book Technology and Science as 'Ideology' in 1968. The philosphical issue of human normativity provides the framework of this discussion.

  12. A Theoretic Basis for IS? The Contribution of ANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Underwood

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Representation is a key issue of IS design and operation that is often ignored. Actor-network theory (ANT, a semiotic theory of stakeholders, provides a way of dealing with representation. Combining aspects of ANT and Foucault's discourse theory allows us to include concepts as actors and promises a flexible and durable foundation for IS practice, but ANT itself indicates that the search for a purely theoretical foundation for IS is misguided.

  13. Polish origins of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences of the University of Fribourg and the Polish contribution to the Fribourg industrial revolution (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOCUREK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to high-tech companies founded by Poles at the end of the 19th century in the rural canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, the author attempts to present the economic, social and political reality of Fribourg in a period of intense industrialization in the world and the formation of the liberal free market system. In this rapidly changing reality, the new Catholic-conservative authorities of the canton tried to lead to establishing of a comprehensive, but also different system of a “Christian republic”, whose aim was to achieve social justice consistent with the teachings of the Gospel. In order to complete the project, the cantonal government did not shy away from using the possibilities and measures offered by the contemporary world. Decision-makers, led by Georges Python, needed support from the society, who was aware of the changes. Due to this fact, it became necessary to establish a university capable of shaping new attitudes and views. However, the costs significantly exceeded the financial capabilities of the agricultural and relatively poor canton of Fribourg. In these less favourable circumstances, a conscious policy of industrialization was the way out of the deadlock. Newly created industrial institutions were to contribute to an increase of cash inflows to the canton and thus allow for the financing of the university, which would also become an intellectual foundation for the emerging industry. The activity of Polish scientists, which is the subject of the second part of the article, matched this philosophy perfectly. The Poles invited to cooperate with Python, i.e. Józef Wierusz-Kowalski, Ignacy Mościcki and Jan Modzelewski, created the foundations of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at the University of Fribourg. As members of the faculty, in addition to teaching, they conducted research into, among other things, nitric acid

  14. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  15. From BASIS to MIRACLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; E. Lechner, Ruep

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count...... are pivotal to the conceptual design of the next generation backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES at the European Spallation Source....

  16. Innovation outcomes of South African new technology-based firms: a contribution to the debate on the performance of science park firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ying Alice Chan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Science parks are often established to drive regional economic growth, especially in countries with emerging economies. However, mixed findings regarding the performances of science park firms are found in the literature. This study tries to explain these mixed findings by taking a relational approach and exploring (unintended knowledge transfers between new technology-based firms (NTBFs in the emerging South African economy. Moreover, the innovation outcomes of these NTBFs are examined by using a multi-dimensional construct. Results show that science park location plays a significant role in explaining innovative sales, but is insignificant when a different indicator of innovation outcomes is used. Furthermore, only for innovations that are new to the firms, both science park location and intended knowledge transfer via informal business relationships have a positive impact; whereas social relationships have a negative impact.

  17. Dynamical basis set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Heller, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cartesian basis set is defined that is suitable for the representation of molecular vibration-rotation bound states. The Cartesian basis functions are superpositions of semiclassical states generated through the use of classical trajectories that conform to the intrinsic dynamics of the molecule. Although semiclassical input is employed, the method becomes ab initio through the standard matrix diagonalization variational method. Special attention is given to classical-quantum correspondences for angular momentum. In particular, it is shown that the use of semiclassical information preferentially leads to angular momentum eigenstates with magnetic quantum number Vertical BarMVertical Bar equal to the total angular momentum J. The present method offers a reliable technique for representing highly excited vibrational-rotational states where perturbation techniques are no longer applicable

  18. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  19. Climate Change: The Physical Basis and Latest Results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes: "Warming in the climate system is unequivocal." Without the contribution of Physics to climate science over many decades, such a statement would not have been possible. Experimental physics enables us to read climate archives such as polar ice cores and so provides the context for the current changes. For example, today the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the second most important greenhouse gas, is 28% higher than any time during the last 800,000 years. Classical fluid mechanics and numerical mathematics are the basis of climate models from which estimates of future climate change are obtained. But major instabilities and surprises in the Earth System are still unknown. These are also to be considered when the climatic consequences of proposals for geo-engineering are estimated. Only Physics will permit us to further improve our understanding in order to provide the foundation for policy decisions facing the...

  20. The nature of science in science education: theories and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Morais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on results of research carried out by the ESSA Group (Sociological Studies of the Classroom centred on the inclusion of the nature of science (metascience on science education. The results, based on analyses of various educational texts and contexts – curricula/syllabuses, textbooks and pedagogic practices – and of the relations between those texts/contexts, have in general shown a reduced presence and low conceptualization of metascience. The article starts by presenting the theoretical framework of the research of the ESSA Group which was focused on the introduction of the nature of science in science education. It is mostly based on Ziman’s conceptualization of metascience (1984, 2000 and on Bernstein’s theorization of production and reproduction of knowledge, particularly his model of pedagogic discourse (1990, 2000 and knowledge structures (1999. This is followed by the description of a pedagogical strategy, theoretically grounded, which explores the nature of science in the classroom context. The intention is to give an example of a strategy which privileges a high level learning for all students and which may contribute to a reflection about the inclusion of the nature of science on science education. Finally, considerations are made about the applicability of the strategy on the basis of previous theoretical and empirical arguments which sustain its use in the context of science education.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  2. Using a replica of Leeuwenhoek's microscope to teach the history of science and to motivate students to discover the vision and the contributions of the first microscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepel, Lenira M N; Loreto, Elgion L S; Rocha, João B T

    2009-01-01

    The history of science should be incorporated into science teaching as a means of improving learning and also to increase the students' understanding about the nature of science. In biology education, the history of microscopy deserves a special place. The discovery of this instrument not only opened a new and fantastic microworld but also led to the development of one unifying principle of biological sciences (i.e., cell theory). The microscopes of Leeuwenhoek and Hooke opened windows into the microworld of living organisms. In the present work, the knowledge of these themes was analyzed in a group of students beginning an undergraduate biology course. Our data suggest that the history of microscopy is poorly treated at the secondary school level. We propose a didactic activity using a replica of Leeuwenhoek's microscope made with Plexiglas and a lens obtained from a key chain laser pointer or from a broken CD drive. The proposed activity motivated students to learn about microscopy and helped them to appreciate scientific knowledge from a historical perspective.

  3. Neutralidad axiológica de la ciencia. Contribución a la reflexión Axiologic Neutrality in Science. A contribution to reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Risco Turiño

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Los autores se proponen, a la luz del conocimiento actual de la ciencia y específicamente de las Ciencias Sociales, exponer su valoración sobre la necesaria interdependencia entre el objeto de la investigación científica y el sujeto investigador y la forma en que aquella toma partido en el contexto que la rodea. Acuciantes problemas epistemológicos, ya de larga data en la historia de la ciencia, cobran fuerza y actualidad ante la compleja situación que afronta el mundo contemporáneo. Entre ellos se aborda en este artículo el que alude una supuesta pureza ideológica de la ciencia y la orienta a tomar distancia de todo compromiso con la sociedad que la engendra: la pretendida neutralidad axiológicaThe authors intend, in the light of the current knowledge of science, specifically the social Sciences, to expose their valuation on the necessary interdependence between the object of the scientific investigation and the way it takes part in the context that surrounds it. Urgent epistemologist problems, already of long dates in the history of science, charge force and become current events, facing the complex situation that confronts contemporary world. Among them, it is approached in this article, the one that mentions a supposed ideological purity of science and guides it to take distance of all commitment with the society that engenders it: the claimed axiological neutrality.

  4. Elucidating elementary science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: A view to beliefs about both science and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, Kristina Palmer

    The purpose of this interpretive case study was to elucidate the conceptions of the nature of science held by seven elementary science teachers. The constructivist paradigm provided the philosophical and methodological foundation for the study. Interviews were employed to collect data from the participants about their formal and informal experiences with science. In addition, the participants contributed their perspectives on four aspects of the nature of science: what is science; who is a scientist; what are the methods of science; and how is scientific knowledge constructed. Data analysis not only revealed these teachers' views of science, but also provided insights into how they viewed science teaching. Four themes emerged from the data. The first theme developed around the participants' portrayals of the content of science, with participant views falling on a continuum of limited to universal application of science as procedure. The second theme dealt with the participants' views of the absolute nature of scientific knowledge. Participants' perceptions of the tentative nature of science teaching provided the basis for the third theme concerning the need for absolutes in practice. The fourth theme drew parallels between participants' views of science and science teaching, with two participants demonstrating a consistency in beliefs about knowledge construction across contexts. This study revealed both personal and contextual factors which impacted how the participants saw science and science teaching. Many of the participants' memories of formal science revolved around the memorization of content and were viewed negatively. All the participants had limited formal training in science. Of the seven participants, only two had chosen to be science teachers at the beginning of their careers. The participants' limited formal experiences with science provided little time for exploration into historical, philosophical, and sociological studies of science, a necessary

  5. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics. T Krishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 32-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/09/0032-0037. Author Affiliations.

  6. Newton's Contributions to Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Newton's Contributions to Optics. Arvind Kumar. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 10-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0010-0020. Keywords.

  7. Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of margin approach. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... and systematized to the management of production costs of agricultural products, the proposed definition ...

  8. Big Data in Science and Healthcare: A Review of Recent Literature and Perspectives. Contribution of the IMIA Social Media Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M M; Miron-Shatz, T; Lau, A Y S; Paton, C

    2014-08-15

    As technology continues to evolve and rise in various industries, such as healthcare, science, education, and gaming, a sophisticated concept known as Big Data is surfacing. The concept of analytics aims to understand data. We set out to portray and discuss perspectives of the evolving use of Big Data in science and healthcare and, to examine some of the opportunities and challenges. A literature review was conducted to highlight the implications associated with the use of Big Data in scientific research and healthcare innovations, both on a large and small scale. Scientists and health-care providers may learn from one another when it comes to understanding the value of Big Data and analytics. Small data, derived by patients and consumers, also requires analytics to become actionable. Connectivism provides a framework for the use of Big Data and analytics in the areas of science and healthcare. This theory assists individuals to recognize and synthesize how human connections are driving the increase in data. Despite the volume and velocity of Big Data, it is truly about technology connecting humans and assisting them to construct knowledge in new ways. Concluding Thoughts: The concept of Big Data and associated analytics are to be taken seriously when approaching the use of vast volumes of both structured and unstructured data in science and health-care. Future exploration of issues surrounding data privacy, confidentiality, and education are needed. A greater focus on data from social media, the quantified self-movement, and the application of analytics to "small data" would also be useful.

  9. ITER technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties.

  10. ITER technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties

  11. 50 Years of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts 1967-2017 and 48 Years of Publishing the Journal Prilozi (Contributions) of MASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Gucev, Zoran

    2017-12-01

    Papers on medical subjects have been published since the first issue of the journal Prilozi in 1969, totalling a number of of 957 (nine hundred and fifty seven) papers have been published in Prilozi. Two hundred and twenty nine cover subjects on natural sciences and mathematics, and 728 (seven hundred and twenty eight) subjects on medical sciences. So far, 2017 No. XXXVIII-2, 622 (six hundred and twenty two) papers published in Prilozi are in Pubmed. Prilozi is published three times a year and it is covered by the following services: Baidu Scholar, Case, Celdes, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - SCOPUS, Google Scholar, J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Naviga (Softweco), Primo Central (ExLibris), Publons, PubMed, ReadCube, ResearchGate, SCImago (SJR), Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC).

  12. Using science soundly: The Yucca Mountain standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fri, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Using sound science to shape government regulation is one of the most hotly argued topics in the ongoing debate about regulatory reform. Even though no one advaocates using unsound science, the belief that even the best science will sweep away regulatory controversy is equally foolish. As chair of a National Research Council (NRC) committee that studied the scientific basis for regulating high-level nuclear waste disposal, the author learned that science alone could resolve few of the key regulatory questions. Developing a standard that specifies a socially acceptable limit on the human health effects of nuclear waste releases involves many decisions. As the NRC committee learned in evaluating the scientific basis for the Yucca Mountain standard, a scientifically best decision rarely exists. More often, science can only offer a useful framework and starting point for policy debates. And sometimes, science's most helpful contribution is to admit that it has nothing to say. The Yucca mountain study clearly illustrates that excessive faith in the power of science is more likely to produce messy frustration than crisp decisions. A better goal for regulatory reform is the sound use of science to clarify and contain the inevitable policy controversy

  13. An exploratory examination of the predictors of success for a science education program enhanced by communication technologies: Contributions from qualitative and quantitative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Curtis Clinton

    New hybrid educational programs are evolving to challenge traditional definitions of distance education. One such program is the Integrated Science (IS) program of The University of Alabama's Center for Communication and Educational Technology (CCET), which was developed to address concerns about scientific illiteracy in middle school education. IS relies on a multilayered use of communication technologies (primarily videotape and e-mail) for delivery of student instruction, as a delivery vehicle for curriculum materials, and as a feedback mechanism. The IS program serves to enhance classroom science instruction by providing professionally developed videotaped educational lectures and curriculum materials used by classroom science teachers. To date, such hybrid forms of distance education have seldom been examined. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, this study examines 64 IS classrooms visited from October 1992 to April 1995 by researchers at the Institute for Communication Research at The University of Alabama. Detailed qualitative information was gathered from each classroom by student, teacher, and administrator interviews; focus groups; questionnaires; and recording observations of classroom activity. From the reports of the site visits, key components of the IS classroom experience thought to be predictors of the success of the program for individual classrooms are identified. Exemplars of both positive and negative components are provided in narrative form. A model is posited to describe the potential relationships between the various components and their impact on the overall success of the IS program in an individual classroom. Quantitative assessments were made of the 21 key variables identified in the qualitative data that appeared to enhance the likelihood of success for the IS program in an individual classroom. Accounting for 90% of the variance in the regression model, the factor with the greatest predictive potential for success

  14. Coulomb interaction in the supermultiplet basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzha, Ya.Kh.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.; Vanagas, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    An approximate expression for the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction operator in the supermultiplet basis has been derived with the account for the orbitally-nonsymmetric terms. From the general expression a simplified formula for the Coulomb interaction energy has been proposed. On the basis of the expression obtained the contribution of the Coulomb interaction to the framework of a strongly restricted dynamic model in the light (4≤A≤40) and heavy (158≤A≤196) nuclei region has been studied. 19 refs.; 4 tabs

  15. The effects of social capital and organizational commitment on the staff’s intellectual contribution in the central building of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Malek Makan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays human capital is the main asset in organizations. Thus, the employees’ intellectual involvement is a key factor in the success of organizations. Hence organizations should seek for factors that affect and boost the employees’ intellectual involvement. Therefore, the present research aimed at discovering the relationship between organizational commitment and social capital with intellectual involvement among employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method: The study population consisted of staff employees at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A sample of 224 employees was selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using three questionnaires including social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: It was found that the level of social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement was at an average level. There was a significant relationship between intellectual involvement and degree (p<0.01 and marital status (p<0.05. Other demographic variables had no significant relationship with research variables. Moreover, all research variables and their dimensions had a significant relationship with each other (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that with improvement in each of the research variables, other variables will improve. For example, as a result of improvement in social capital or organization commitment, intellectual involvement will increase and the organization could use its competitive advantage

  16. A epistemologia de Mario Bunge e sua contribuição para o ensino de ciências Mario Bunge's epistemology and its contribution to science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Westphal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se parte da epistemologia de Mario Bunge, sua preocupação com a crise que se instaurou sobre a ciência e com o avanço de visões relativistas como as de Kuhn e Feyerabend. Destacam-se as divergências de opiniões e as muitas críticas que desenvolve no anseio de retorno ao realismo ontológico - seu maior interesse - razão de um progresso científico coeso e de uma aproximação consistente com a verdade. Faz-se referência, ainda, ao uso de tal epistemologia no ensino de ciências, mostrando-se o seu benefício, em contraste àquelas anti-realistas, quando se pensa nos estudantes, em seus interesses e nas possíveis mudanças conceituais que são o objetivo de qualquer forma de ensino.This paper aims to show part of Mario Bunge's epistemology, his attention to the crisis of science and with the advancement of relativist views like those of Kuhn and Feyerabend. It emphasizes the disagreement with their opinions and critique that Bunge develops to return to his main interest that of ontologic realismThis paper also shows that the use of this kind of epistemology in the science education is better than relativistic ones because of the students interests and the possiblity of change of their conceptions which is the principal aim of any form of education.

  17. The biological basis of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.; Adams, G.E.; Horwich, A.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this book is the biological basis of radiotherapy. The papers presented include: Temporal stages of radiation action:free radical processes; The molecular basis of radiosensitivity; and Radiation damage to early-reacting normal tissue

  18. Neurobiological basis of PTSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2006-01-01

    This review describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the aspect that it is one of precious neurobiological models where the stress caused by an outer environmental factor affects the livings afterwards. Also described are the actual imaging investigations of PTSD in people encountered the sarin subway terrorism in Tokyo (1995). High resolution MRI has revealed the decreased volume of hippocampus in PTSD patients in recent years. In victims of the terrorism above, authors have found that the volume of anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) gray matter is reduced in voxel-based MRI morphometry and the reduction is well correlated with PTSD severity and lower P300 amplitude. PET and fMRI have shown the hyperactivity of amygdala and hypoactivity of medial prefrontal region around ACC in PTSD. Findings in conditioned animal studies have indicated the importance of ACC neuronal cell activation for fear extinction, where, in humans, fMRI has revealed the cooperation between amygdala and ACC. At present, genetic factors like serotonin transporter polymorphism, environmental ones at infantile stage and their interactive activity are subject to investigation and discussion. Imaging studies will contribute to the clinical diagnosis, treatment and intervention of PTSD. (T.I)

  19. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  20. Space life sciences strategic plan, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades the life sciences program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the option to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy.

  1. 60th Anniversary of electricity production from light water reactors: Historical review of the contribution of materials science to the safety of the pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duysen, J.C. van; Meric de Bellefon, G.

    2017-01-01

    The first light water nuclear reactor dedicated to electricity production was commissioned in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in the United States in 1957. Sixty years after the event, it is clear that this type of reactor will be a major source of electricity and one of the key solutions to limit climate change in the 21st century. This article pays homage to the teams that contributed to this achievement by their involvement in research and development and their determination to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Via a few examples of scientific or technological milestones, it describes the evolution of ideas, models, and techniques during the last 60 years, and gives the current state-of-the-art in areas related to the safety of the reactor pressure vessel. Among other topics, it focuses on vessel manufacturing, steel fracture mechanics analysis, and understanding of irradiation-induced damage.

  2. 60th Anniversary of electricity production from light water reactors: Historical review of the contribution of materials science to the safety of the pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duysen, J.C. van, E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@ensc-lille.fr [Department of Nuclear Engineering University of Tennessee Knoxville (United States); Unité Matériaux et Transformation (UMET) CNRS, Université de Lille 1 (France); Meric de Bellefon, G., E-mail: mericdebelle@wisc.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The first light water nuclear reactor dedicated to electricity production was commissioned in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in the United States in 1957. Sixty years after the event, it is clear that this type of reactor will be a major source of electricity and one of the key solutions to limit climate change in the 21st century. This article pays homage to the teams that contributed to this achievement by their involvement in research and development and their determination to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Via a few examples of scientific or technological milestones, it describes the evolution of ideas, models, and techniques during the last 60 years, and gives the current state-of-the-art in areas related to the safety of the reactor pressure vessel. Among other topics, it focuses on vessel manufacturing, steel fracture mechanics analysis, and understanding of irradiation-induced damage.

  3. Ciência e Sustentabilidade: a contribuição da educação ambiental Science and Sustainability: the contribution of environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio do Santos Reigota

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No contexto político, científico e cultural da problemática ambiental, a educação ambiental tem uma história nos debates científicos e epistemológicos. A educação ambiental brasileira oferece sólidos elementos para mostrar que, apesar de todas as barreiras, outro tipo de ciência foi, está sendo feita e tende a consolidar-se. Com visões alternativas e paradigmas conseqüentes com a construção da sociedade sustentável orientada à democracia, justiça e ecologia. Sugere a análise da trajetória e a recepção dos pesquisadores para revelar o processo de constituição de conceitos (sustentabilidade e uma área de conhecimento (educação ambiental. Constata que a construção de uma sociedade sustentável é uma constante dúvida e utopia.In the political, scientific and cultural context of the environmental issue, environmental education has a history in the scientific and epistemological debates. Brazilian environmental education offers solid elements to prove that, in spite of all the difficulties, another type of science is being produced and tends to consolidate itself, with alternative views and consequent paradigms with the construction of a sustainable society oriented towards democracy, justice and ecology. The article suggests the analysis of the trajectory and the reception of the researchers to reveal the construction process of concepts (sustainability and a field of knowledge (environmental education. It concludes that the construction of a sustainable society is a constant doubt and utopia.

  4. [The contribution of jurisprudential comparative law to the drawing up of an international custom in life sciences: the example of the status of the embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprumont, Dominique; Roduit, Guillaume; Hertig Pea, Agnès

    2006-01-01

    While medicine has made remarkable progress over the last decades, its development has also raised numerous ethical and legal issues. In this context, the question arises as to what framework is needed for research, organ transplants, and medically assisted reproduction. A balance has to be found between scientific freedom, the imperatives of public health and the protection of people ' welfare, rights and human dignity. Those questions have led to the adoption of multiple national laws as well as ethical and legal norms at the international level. The judiciary is also often involved in settling legal issues raised in this context, long before the legislature manages to provide a legislative or regulatory framework. In this analysis of the role of the judges in bioethics, the present paper aims at offering a comparative view of case law in different countries (France, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) concerning the status of the embryo. In life sciences, the status of the embryo is at the heart of the debate as it determines the very notion of human life. The hypothesis suggested by the organisers of the workshop fbr which this paper has been prepared was that a custom was emerging from national cases related to this question. Our analysis concerning the status of the embryo does not confirm this hypothesis. On the contrary, courts are reluctant to take the place of the legislature in dealing with this delicate issue. Even when judges take novel positions on the protection of the embryo, we can notice a wide range of judicial solutions that raise a serious doubt about the actual existence of an international custom that could be binding in the various legal orders.

  5. Contributions: SAGE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Contributions: SAGE. Space Alternating Generalized Expectation (SAGE) Maximization algorithm provides an iterative approach to parameter estimation when direct maximization of the likelihood function may be infeasible. Complexity is less in those applications ...

  6. Various Contributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Various Contributions. Developed an Off –Diagonal MIMO Canceller to mitigate Upstream Crosstalk in VDSL. Developed a low complexity, Expectation Maximization based iterative Crosstalk cancellation. Developed an optimal way of computational complexity ...

  7. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  8. [Applications of synthetic biology in materials science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxin; Zhong, Chao

    2017-03-25

    Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design. In this paper, we review recent advances in applications of synthetic biology in material sciences, with the focus on how synthetic biology could enable synthesis of new polymeric biomaterials and inorganic materials, phage display and directed evolution of proteins relevant to materials development, living functional materials, engineered bacteria-regulated artificial photosynthesis system as well as applications of gene circuits for material sciences.

  9. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  10. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.; Benbow, Camilla P.; Geary, David C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability—including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school

  11. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  12. NWWA Science Award given

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Bill

    John G. Ferris, a U.S. Geological Survey retiree, received the National Water Well Association (NWWA) Science Award for 1985 on September 10, 1985, in Baltimore, Md. The award recognizes Ferris's renowned contributions to the science of groundwater.

  13. La contribución del Nuevo Mundo al nacimiento de las ciencias paleontológicas (The contribution of the New World to the birth of the paleontological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel León Garrido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo presenta una aproximación a la contribución del Nuevo Mundo al nacimiento y consolidación de las ciencias paleontológicas, haciendo especial énfasis en la relación científica entre España y las colonias americanas. Los hallazgos de fósiles americanos influyeron poderosamente en los cambios de paradigma que tuvieron lugar en las ciencias naturales entre la Edad Moderna y los inicios de la Edad Contemporánea. Los estudiosos americanos no se limitaron al descubrimiento y envío de muestras a las instituciones europeas para su estudio, sino que formularon sus propias teorías interpretativas y llevaron a cabo aportaciones novedosas y pioneras en el campo de la geología americana. El diálogo científico entre la España y sus colonias se vio interrumpido tras las Guerras de Emancipación.Abstract: This paper presents an approach to the contribution of the New World to the birth and consolidation of paleontological sciences, with special emphasis on the scientific relationship between Spain and its American colonies. American fossil findings powerfully influenced the paradigm changes that took place in the natural sciences among the Modern Age and the beginnings of the Contemporary Age. American Scientifics were not only dedicated to the discovery and sending of samples to the European institutions for their study, but also made their own interpretative theories and carried out innovative and pioneering contributions in the knowledge about the Geology of America.The scientific dialogue between Spain and its colonies was interrupted after the Wars of Emancipation.

  14. REFORMASI SISTEM AKUNTANSI CASH BASIS MENUJU SISTEM AKUNTANSI ACCRUAL BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract –  Accounting reform movement was born with the aim of structuring the direction of improvement . This movement is characterized by the enactment of the Act of 2003 and Act 1 of 2004, which became the basis of the birth of Government Regulation No.24 of 2005 on Government Accounting Standards ( SAP . The general,  accounting is based on two systems,  the cash basis  and the accrual basis. The facts speak far students still at problem with differences to the two methods that result in a lack of understanding on the treatment system for recording. The purpose method of research is particularly relevant to student references who are learning basic accounting so that it can provide information and more meaningful understanding of the accounting method cash basis and Accrual basis. This research was conducted through a normative approach, by tracing the document that references a study/library that combines source of reference that can be believed either from books and the internet are processed with a foundation of knowledge and experience of the author. The conclusion can be drawn that basically to be able to understand the difference of the system and the Cash Basis accrual student base treatment requires an understanding of both methods. To be able to have the ability and understanding of both systems required reading exercises and reference sources.   Keywords : Reform, cash basis, accrual basis   Abstrak - Gerakan reformasi akuntansi dilahirkan dengan tujuan penataan ke arah perbaikan. Gerakan ini  ditandai dengan dikeluarkannya  Undang-Undang tahun 2003 dan Undang-Undang No.1 Tahun 2004  yang menjadi dasar lahirnya Peraturan Pemerintah No.24 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Akuntansi Pemerintah (SAP . Pada umumnya pencatatan akuntansi di dasarkan pada dua sistem yaitu basis kas (Cash Basis dan basis akrual  (Accrual Basis. Fakta berbicara Selama ini mahasiswa masih dibinggungkan dengan perbedaan ke dua metode itu sehingga

  15. Science as a Common Language in a Globalised World - Scientific Collaboration Promoting Progress, Building Bridges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2003-01-01

    International scientific collaboration and co-operation can accelerate the progress of science, help build bridges between diverse societies, and foster the development of science and technology in non-industrialised countries. This is possible because science is a common language (although the progress of science is often influenced by non-scientific factors). I shall describe examples of the role that scientific collaboration can play in bridge building and in conflict resolution. I shall then present a proposal for "Bridge Building Fellowships" which would contribute to strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries by helping to stem the brain drain and providing a basis for collaborations with scientists in industrialised countries.

  16. Space life sciences strategic plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the options to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy. The strategies detailed in this document are fully supportive of the Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee's 'A Rationale for the Life Sciences,' and the recent Aerospace Medicine Advisory Committee report entitled 'Strategic Considerations for Support of Humans in Space and Moon/Mars Exploration Missions.' Information contained within this document is intended for internal NASA planning and is subject to policy decisions and direction, and to budgets allocated to NASA's Life Sciences Program.

  17. On the biological basis of musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan

    2018-03-15

    In recent years, music and musicality have been the focus of an increasing amount of research effort. This has led to a growing role and visibility of the contribution of (bio)musicology to the field of neuroscience and cognitive sciences at large. While it has been widely acknowledged that there are commonalities between speech, language, and musicality, several researchers explain this by considering musicality as an epiphenomenon of language. However, an alternative hypothesis is that musicality is an innate and widely shared capacity for music that can be seen as a natural, spontaneously developing set of traits based on and constrained by our cognitive abilities and their underlying biology. A comparative study of musicality in humans and well-known animal models (monkeys, birds, pinnipeds) will further our insights on which features of musicality are exclusive to humans and which are shared between humans and nonhuman animals, contribute to an understanding of the musical phenotype, and further constrain existing evolutionary theories of music and musicality. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  19. Contribution of radiation chemistry to cluster science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoclusters are small objects made of a few atoms, with a size of a few nanometers at most, which constitute a state of matter, named mesoscopic, intermediary between the atom and the bulk metal. In the 70's, radiation chemistry experiments have demonstrated that metal clusters exhibited indeed, due to their very small size, specific properties distinct from the bulk metal. The properties, physical and chemical, change with the number of atoms they contain. Their optical absorption spectrum, for example, as well as their redox potential, depends on the nuclearity, and also on the environment. Radiation chemistry methods have been proven to be of high potentiality to induce small and size-monodispersed metal clusters, as nanocolloids or supported on various materials. Pulse radiolysis provides the means to study the dynamics of nucleation and growth of clusters, monoand bi-metallic, from the monomers to the stable nanoparticle and to observe directly their reactivity, especially to determine during the growth their nuclearity-dependent properties, such as the redox potential. These are of crucial importance for the understanding of the mechanism of the cluster growth itself, in the radiation-induced as well as in the chemical or photochemical reduction processes, and also of the mechanism of certain catalytic reactions. (authors)

  20. Contribution of Nuclear Science in Agriculture Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural systems employ natural processes to achieve acceptable levels of productivity and food quality while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Sustainable agriculture must, by definition, be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Sustainable agriculture must nurture healthy co systems and support the sustainable management of land, water and natural resources, while ensuring world food security. To be sustainable, agriculture must meet the needs of present and future generations for its products and services, while ensuring profitability, environmental health and social and economic equity. The global transition to sustainable food and agriculture will require major improvements in the efficiency of resource use, in environmental protection and in systems resilience. In Mediterrane an environments, crops are grown mainly in the semiarid and sub-humid are as. In arid and semiarid are as dry land farming, techniques are of renewed interest in the view of sustain ability. They are aimed to increase water accumulation in the soil, reduce runoff and soil evaporation losses, choose species and varieties able to make better use of rainwater, and rationalize fertilization plans, sowing dates, and weed and pest control. Fertilization plans should be based on well-defined principles of plant nutrition, soil chemistry, and chemistry of the fertilizer elements. Starting from the calculation of nutrient crop uptake (based on the actually obtainable yield), dose calculation must be corrected by considering the relation ship between the availability of the trace elements in soil and the main physical and chemical parameters of the soil (ph, organic matter content, mineralization rate, C/N, ratio of solubilization of phosphorus, active lime content, presence of antagonist ions, etc.). In the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Soil and Water Research Department, nuclear techniques including radio and stable isotopes in addition to radiation gave the scientific staff the chance to manage and plan suitable and accurate programs for achieving the sustainable concept of agricultural sector. The recognition of profitable and proper management practices makes the integration between different agricultural issues easier and more effective

  1. Rediscovery of Otto Frank's contribution to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; Drake-Holland, Angela; Noble, Mark I M; Lohff, Brigitte; Schaefer, Jochen

    2018-06-01

    In the late 19th century, German physiologist Otto Frank (1865-1944) embarked on a near life-long research program of laying down the mathematical, methodological, and theoretical foundations in order to understand and define the performance of the heart and circulatory system in all their complexity. The existence of the "Frank-Starling law" testifies to this. Two of his seminal publications have been translated into English previously, introducing Frank's research on the dynamics of the heart and the arterial pulse to a wider audience. It is likely that there are a host of other comparable achievements and publications of Frank that are still unknown to the international scientific (cardiological and physiological) community. However, their influence can still be felt and seen in modern cardiology and cardio-physiology, such as in the development of modern interactive simulating and teaching programs. We have translated and commented on ten of these papers, which can be read in parallel with the German originals. These publications show a wealth of theoretical assumptions and projections regarding the importance of the sarcomere, the development of models of contraction, thermo-dynamical considerations for muscular activity, differences between cardiac and skeletal muscles, problems related to methodology and measurement, and the first pressure-volume diagram (published 120 years ago). These topics were envisioned by Frank long before they became a focus of subsequent modern research. Nowadays, frequent measurements of pressure-volume relationships are made in research using the pressure-volume conductance catheter technique. In commenting Frank's scientific topics, we try to show how interconnected his thinking was, and thus how it enabled him to cover such a wide range of subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  3. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  4. Tensor Basis Neural Network v. 1.0 (beta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-28

    This software package can be used to build, train, and test a neural network machine learning model. The neural network architecture is specifically designed to embed tensor invariance properties by enforcing that the model predictions sit on an invariant tensor basis. This neural network architecture can be used in developing constitutive models for applications such as turbulence modeling, materials science, and electromagnetism.

  5. THE HUMAN-NATURE RELATIONSHIP FROM THE INDIGENOUS BIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: A PARTICULARIZED AND DIVERSE MODEL OF CONTRIBUTION TO TEACHING NATURAL SCIENCES AND BIOLOGY IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY SCHOOLS IN THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferney Noè Iyokina Gittoma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article come from to reflection about the practice, the action and the profesional dialogue, that from formative`s process and the academic activities like Graduates in Biology of the National Pedagogical University of the central place and CERES (Regional Centre for Higher Education the Chorrera- Amazonas, like a experience with indigenous Amazonian in a cultural context, particulary Etnia Okaina, in the community Divina Pastora school from shelter Predio Putumayo district Chorrera- Amazonas. Colombiam (2013 and Etnia Piapoco from Guadalupe Morichal school from big shelter unified of the jungle from Matavén from colombian Guaviare. Where de reflection aim try to give evidences and re- meaning the Amazon biocultural context in their symbolics expresions: Natural- Human- Spiritual, as potencials links in the motivation process from cultural reassert and care the life, with the aim to share referents and methodological strategies and didactics that contribute in formative process in the area of natural sciences and biology in indigenous schools of this country since inter- relational and socio- educative look.

  6. Psychopathy: clinical features, developmental basis and therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D F; Ramos, C L; Willett, J K

    2014-10-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by deficits in personality and behaviour. Personality deficits are marked by interpersonal and affective facets, including pathological lying, grandiose sense of self-worth, lack of remorse and callousness. Behavioural deficits are defined by lifestyle and antisocial deficits, including impulsivity, parasitic lifestyle and poor behavioural controls. The objective of this review is to provide clinicians with (i) an appreciation of the clinical features of psychopathy, (ii) an understanding of the structural and functional derangements and the genetic and environmental factors which serve as the basis for the development of psychopathy and (iii) a summary of published reports of pharmacological approaches to the management of this disorder. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-present) was conducted using the MeSH search terms psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder alone and in combination with the subheading drug therapy. Additional databases included Web of Science (1945-present) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-present) using the text words psychopath and antisocial personality were searched. A search of Amazon books using the search terms psychopathy and sociopathy was also performed. Bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for additional citations. All data sources in English were considered for inclusion. For background information, broad subject headings were searched for review articles first. Human and animal drug therapy articles were evaluated giving preference to those papers using a controlled trial methodology. Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of conscience, pathologic lying, manipulative behaviour and often superficial charm. The incidence of psychopathy in the general population is generally considered to be 0·6-4% with a higher proportion of males to females. Brain imaging studies of psychopaths suggest a smaller and less active

  7. BWR NSSS design basis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vij, R.S.; Bates, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In 1985 an incident at Toledo Edison's Davis Besse plant caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to re-evaluate the technical information that the utilities had readily available to support the design of their plants. The Design Basis programs, currently on going in most U.S. utilities, have been the nuclear industry's response to the needs identified by this re-evaluation. In order to understand the Design Basis programs which have been implemented by the U.S. nuclear utilities, it is necessary to understand the problem as it was perceived by the nuclear industry (the utilities, the original NSSS designers and the regulators) after the Davis-Besse incident, the subsequent programs undertaken by the industry under the leadership of INPO and NUMARC, the NRC's actions, and the overall evolution of the industry's vision in relation to this problem. This paper presents the history of the design basis efforts from the first recognition of the problem by the NRC after the Davis-Besse incident, describes the actions taken by the NRC, INPO, NUMARC, the U.S. utilities and the NSSS designers, and brings the problem statement up-to-date in relation to the vision presently held by the U.S. nuclear industry. It then presents a technical discussion to develop a detailed definition of design basis information to support the problem statement. The information originally supplied by the NSSS designers during the plant design and construction is discussed as well as its relationship to the previously defined design basis information. This section of the paper concludes by defining the additional information needed by nuclear utilities to satisfy the requirements developed from the problem statement. Having developed a definition of the additional information (i.e., information not originally supplied during design and construction) required to solve the design basis problem as it is presently perceived by the U.S. nuclear industry, the paper then discusses design basis

  8. Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0454 TITLE: Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joe V...AND SUBTITLE Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0454 5c. PROGRAM...cell function and thereby regenerative capability contribute to the acceleration of sarcopenia observed in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT

  9. Corporate Finance: its organization and epistemological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Herling

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to show how they are organized studies in financial management and what is the paradigm that support the theories presented until today, contextualizing how financial management is organized within the science of Directors in historical and evolutionary terms . Based on the decisions of the financial manager of investment , financing and operations , the study seeks to show that the philosophical basis that supports the theories developed . Yet for better understanding separates financial management in personal finance , financial markets and corporate finance , the latter being the main focus of the study . In the literature we can divide and stratify studies in corporate finance for a better understanding . By analyzing under an evolutionary approach notes a growing chains in other studies in finance , such as public finance, behavioral finance and here called green finance.

  10. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was

  11. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  12. Molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruikman, Caroline S.; Hovingh, Gerard K.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview about the molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common hereditary cause of premature coronary heart disease. It has been estimated that 1 in every 250 individuals has heterozygous familial

  13. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  14. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar t...

  15. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  16. The fruits of a functional approach for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The current paper introduces relational frame theory (RFT) as a functional contextual approach to complex human behaviour and examines how this theory has contributed to our understanding of several key phenomena in psychological science. I will first briefly outline the philosophical foundation of RFT and then examine its conceptual basis and core concepts. Thereafter, I provide an overview of the empirical findings and applications that RFT has stimulated in a number of key domains such as language development, linguistic generativity, rule-following, analogical reasoning, intelligence, theory of mind, psychopathology and implicit cognition. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  18. Inequalities in Science

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative ...

  19. Inequalities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  20. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  1. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  2. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  3. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  4. Intracellular recovery - basis of hyperfractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, U.; Guttenberger, R.; Kummermehr, J.

    1988-01-01

    The radiobiological basis fo a hyperfractionated radiation therapy versus conventional fractionation with respect to therapeutic gain, i.e., improved normal tissue sparing for the same level of tumour cell inactivation, will be presented. Data on the recovery potential of various tissues as well as the kinetics of repair will be given. The problem of incomplete repair with short irradiation intervals will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Genetic basis of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and remains as one of main challenges in current clinical practice. The disease may be induced secondary to other diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure, conferring an increased risk of stroke and sudden death. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that genetic factors play an important role and up to 30% of clinically diagnosed patients may have a family history of atrial fibrillation. To date, several rare variants have been identified in a wide range of genes associated with ionic channels, calcium handling protein, fibrosis, conduction and inflammation. Important advances in clinical, genetic and molecular basis have been performed over the last decade, improving diagnosis and treatment. However, the genetics of atrial fibrillation is complex and pathophysiological data remains still unraveling. A better understanding of the genetic basis will induce accurate risk stratification and personalized clinical treatment. In this review, we have focused on current genetics basis of atrial fibrillation.

  6. Life Science Start-up Activities at the Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Gerda

    2014-12-01

    The universities of applied sciences (UAS) provide several values for the society and economy of a country. Besides education of high level professionals, transfer of knowledge from research to applications in industry or as new start-up companies is an important task. This is done in different ways in the various disciplines. In Life Sciences, a key industry branch in Switzerland, innovation is a competitive success factor and research findings from UAS/Life Sciences contribute to the valorization of new technologies to products, services and to business performance. In order to foster awareness for the innovation need of industry, UAS install processes and support for transfer of research and technology results to marketable applications. Furthermore they may facilitate contacts of researchers and students with entrepreneurs in order to animate start-up founding as a true alternative to being employed. Access to coaching and entrepreneurial training completes the essential basis.

  7. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  8. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  9. Science Shaping Sustainable Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Osuna, V.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Koehler, D.; Klop, P.; Spengler, J.; Buonocore, J.; Cak, A. D.; Tessler, Z. D.; Corsi, F.; Green, P. A.; Sánchez, R.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable investment is confronting a period of rapid growth and fundamental change. However, the methods used to evaluate corporate sustainability are failing to keep pace with this new reality. In contrast to the 1990s when corporate data on pollution or occupational health were not available in the public domain, today's investors can take advantage of rich data streams, owing to voluntary corporate disclosures of their business practices. Yet, the data companies declare are hardly standardized, difficult to verify, and thus run the risk of creating unreliable assertions, a form of "green-washing". A partnership comprising a pension fund, an asset manager and two research universities has created a science-based approach to quantify context and place it into a decision-making framework for investors. We have tested this framework on US$2.5 billion of assets held by a large European pension fund with an initial focus on four domains—water, climate change, human health and food security. Our standardized metrics enable coherent comparison of individual company and portfolios over time. To place a company's impact on water systems or climate change into context requires geographically co-locating company operations, combining these with estimates of industrial emissions or mitigation potential, baseline Earth system science data and geopolitical and demographic statistics. Recent developments regarding the Paris Accord are a warning that progress toward a sustainable future requires rethinking the roles that the public and private sectors can play in effecting meaningful change. The finance sector, if given the proper guideposts, could rapidly transform fraught public policy challenges like climate adaptation or the global loss of biodiversity into business opportunities. By utilizing a science-based yardstick to evaluate and compare companies on the basis of their impacts, attention could be drawn to companies that are verifiably contributing to sustainability.

  10. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...... of locally ordered structure in the MMG liquids is discussed in terms of the two-order-parameter model. It is found that the Arrhenius activation energy of clusters, h, is proportional to the chemical mixing enthalpy of alloys, Hchem. Fragility of the MMG forming liquids can be described by the ratio...

  11. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  12. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  13. Quadratic Hedging of Basis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hulley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a simple basis risk model based on correlated geometric Brownian motions. We apply quadratic criteria to minimize basis risk and hedge in an optimal manner. Initially, we derive the Föllmer–Schweizer decomposition for a European claim. This allows pricing and hedging under the minimal martingale measure, corresponding to the local risk-minimizing strategy. Furthermore, since the mean-variance tradeoff process is deterministic in our setup, the minimal martingale- and variance-optimal martingale measures coincide. Consequently, the mean-variance optimal strategy is easily constructed. Simple pricing and hedging formulae for put and call options are derived in terms of the Black–Scholes formula. Due to market incompleteness, these formulae depend on the drift parameters of the processes. By making a further equilibrium assumption, we derive an approximate hedging formula, which does not require knowledge of these parameters. The hedging strategies are tested using Monte Carlo experiments, and are compared with results achieved using a utility maximization approach.

  14. S.210: A Bill to establish the United States Enrichment Corporation to operate the Federal uranium enrichment program on a profitable and efficient basis in order to maximize the long term economic value to the United States, to provide assistance to the domestic uranium industry and to provide a Federal contribution for the reclamation of mill tailings generated pursuant to Federal defense contracts at active uranium and thorium processing sites, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, January 15, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The bill would amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 to establish the US Enrichment Corporation to operate the Federal uranium enrichment program on a profitable and efficient basis in order to maximize the long term economic value to the US, would provide a Federal contribution for the reclamation of mill tailings generated as a result of Federal defense contracts at active uranium and thorium processing sites, and would provide assistance to the domestic uranium industry

  15. Molecular basis of angiosperm tree architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Dardick, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The architecture of trees greatly impacts the productivity of orchards and forestry plantations. Amassing greater knowledge on the molecular genetics that underlie tree form can benefit these industries, as well as contribute to basic knowledge of plant developmental biology. This review describes the fundamental components of branch architecture, a prominent aspect of tree structure, as well as genetic and hormonal influences inferred from studies in model plant systems and from trees with non-standard architectures. The bulk of the molecular and genetic data described here is from studies of fruit trees and poplar, as these species have been the primary subjects of investigation in this field of science. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. University rankings in computer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehret, Philip; Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Gipp, Bela

    2017-01-01

    This is a research-in-progress paper concerning two types of institutional rankings, the Leiden and QS World ranking, and their relationship to a list of universities’ ‘geo-based’ impact scores, and Computing Research and Education Conference (CORE) participation scores in the field of computer...... science. A ‘geo-based’ impact measure examines the geographical distribution of incoming citations to a particular university’s journal articles for a specific period of time. It takes into account both the number of citations and the geographical variability in these citations. The CORE participation...... score is calculated on the basis of the number of weighted proceedings papers that a university has contributed to either an A*, A, B, or C conference as ranked by the Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia. In addition to calculating the correlations between the distinct university...

  17. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis...

  18. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  19. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for double shell tank (DST) and single shell tank (SST) representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant SSCs and/or TSRS were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support of the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  20. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-03-03

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant structures, systems and components (SSCs) and/or technical safety requirements (TSRs) were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support WP-13033, Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  1. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  2. The neurological basis of occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline.

  3. Infective basis in childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, Leo

    1995-01-01

    Leukaemia in children has often been suspected of having an infective basis (as specifically identified in certain animal species) but, until recently, formal studies had gone no further than to show that it does not markedly cluster in time and space. Many infective illnesses, however, are uncommon responses to infections that are mainly spread by the majority of infected individuals who are not ill. These include, for example, glandular fever and certain types of meningitis. Such illnesses are not contagious and do not normally cluster. The possibilities that childhood leukamia might belong to this class of infective illnesses and be subject to increases in incidence as a result of epidemics of an underlying infection were suggested by the well-known excesses near Sellafield and Dounreay. (author)

  4. Molecular basis for mitochondrial signaling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in the study of structure, function, and regulation of metabolite, protein and ion translocating channels, and transporters in mitochondria. A wide array of cutting-edge methods are covered, ranging from electrophysiology and cell biology to bioinformatics, as well as structural, systems, and computational biology. At last, the molecular identity of two important channels in the mitochondrial inner membrane, the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore have been established. After years of work on the physiology and structure of VDAC channels in the mitochondrial outer membrane, there have been multiple discoveries on VDAC permeation and regulation by cytosolic proteins. Recent breakthroughs in structural studies of the mitochondrial cholesterol translocator reveal a set of novel unexpected features and provide essential clues for defining therapeutic strategies. Molecular Basis for Mitochondrial Signaling covers these and many more re...

  5. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Titanium. Properties, raw datum surface, physicochemical basis and fabrication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmata, V.A.; Petrun'ko, A.N.; Galitskij, N.V.; Olesov, Yu.G.; Sandler, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    On the nowadays science and technology achievements the complex of titanium metallurgy problems comprising raw material base, physico-chemical basis and fabrication technique, properties and titanium usage fields is considered for the first time. A particular attention is given to raw material base, manufacturing titanium concentrates and titanium tetrachloride, metallothermal reduction, improvement of metal quality. Data on titanium properties are given, processes of titanium powder metallurgy, scrap and waste processing, problems of economics and complex raw material use are considered

  7. Complexity of Gaussian-Radial-Basis Networks Approximating Smooth Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kainen, P.C.; Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2009), s. 63-74 ISSN 0885-064X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/1744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Gaussian-radial-basis-function networks * rates of approximation * model complexity * variation norms * Bessel and Sobolev norms * tractability of approximation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2009

  8. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  9. Student Scientific Conference PriF UK 2017. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Dzugasova, V.; Bobovska, A.

    2017-01-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (132 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (52 contributions); (iii) Geology (33 contributions); (iv) Geography (15 contributions); (v) Didactics (4 contributions); (vi) Environmental Science (9 contributions);) Contributions relevant of INIS interest (42 contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  10. Student Scientific Conference PriF UK 2016. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Dzugasova, V.; Sevcovicova, A.; Bobovska, A.

    2016-01-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (122 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (62 contributions); (iii) Geology (25 contributions); (iv) Geography (14 contributions); (v) Didactics (5 contributions); (vi) Environmental Science (12 contributions);) Contributions relevant of INIS interest (53 contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  11. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  12. Workshops on Writing Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-30

    Sep 30, 2017 ... Eligibility: Post graduates in any branch of science, as well as to post graduates in Mass. Communication/Journalism, aspiring to contribute scientific content to print media in India. Minimum requirements for participation: ...

  13. Science Olympiad students' nature of science understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Cindy J.

    2007-12-01

    Science Olympiad did not translate into informed understandings of NOS. There were implications that labs with a set procedure and given data tables did not contribute to informed NOS understandings, while explicit instruction may have contributed to more informed understandings. Exploring these high achieving, Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS was a crucial step to understanding what experiences formed these students' understandings so that teachers may better their practices and help more students succeed in becoming scientifically literate citizens.

  14. Medical basis for radiation accident preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.F.; Fry, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The International Conference on The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness was organized by the staff of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) of the Medical and Health Sciences Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The philosophical importance of relating, through investigation and education, the intellectual resources of higher education to the important social problems associated with energy, health, and the environment was the foundation of the meeting. The symposium, held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, was the ninth since 1960 of a series of international conferences addressing the various aspects of radiation accidents. The approach of this most recent conference differed somewhat from that of those preceding it, in that it sought an international review of the gamut of the medical aspects of radiation injury, not only for the experts in the field, but also for other physicians and scientists who, in view of current events, have had the need to know thrust upon them. Individual entries were made for the separate papers

  15. A methodological proposal to contribute to the development of research skills in science education to start the design of a didactic unit built on foundations of scientific and technological literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Velásquez Mosquera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to promote a discussion of the need to promote the training of investigative skills in students of natural sciences from a methodology structured from the design of the plan of course, including a didactic unit, based on scientific and technological literacy to. It is the result of several years of experience in teaching and research of the author in the field of the didactics of the sciences

  16. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  18. Conceptual basis of outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, R A

    1995-01-01

    Because of its treatment configuration and the assumption of long-term benefit, rehabilitation has had a continuing interest in the measurement of outcomes. The utility of outcome indicators rests on their conceptual foundations, the technical development of measures and validation research. Some measures, particularly of functional status, have become increasingly sophisticated with the application of psychometric and statistical analysis techniques. Less effort has been devoted to an elaboration of their theoretical basis. A first step is an examination of the assumptions underlying outcome measures, the purpose of this article. Central to an understanding is clarification of definitions of key terms such as outcomes, independence, impairment, disability and handicap. All outcome measures must be seen as part of a social context of norms and expectations. However, most norms in rehabilitation are implied rather than explicit. The assumptions behind several common outcomes are examined with suggestions for ways to increase their utility. The ability of rehabilitation to compete in the current climate, stressing cost-effectiveness, will depend heavily on the robustness of outcome measures.

  19. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Risenmay, H R

    2001-01-01

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the ac...

  20. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  1. Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree states of the scientific spirit and the psychological condition of the scientific progress and the indiciario paradigm it considers the intuição (empirical and rational as methodological base to make it scientific.

  2. Ignatius of Loyola on medical education. Or: Should today's Jesuits continue to run health sciences schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welie, Jos V M

    2003-01-01

    There are present 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States, which together offer more than 50 health sciences degree programs. But as the Society's membership is shrinking and the financial risks involved in sponsoring health sciences education are rising, the question arises whether the Society should continue to sponsor health sciences degree programs. In fact, at least eight Jesuit health sciences schools have already closed their doors. This paper attempts to contribute to the resolution of this urgent question by reexamining Ignatius own views on health sciences education and, more specifically, his prohibition of the Society's sponsoring medical education. It concludes on the basis of an historical analysis of Ignatius' views that there is insufficient support for today's Jesuits to maintain their engagement in medical and health care education.

  3. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Bartholomaeus, A.; Bregitzer, P.; Doerrer, N.G.; Gray, A.; Holzhauzer, T.; Jordan, M.; Keese, P.; Kok, E.J.; Macdonald, P.; Parrott, W.; Privalle, L.; Raybould, A.; Rhee, S.Y.; Rice, E.; Romeis, J.; Vaughn, J.; Wal, J.M.; Glenn, K.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75

  4. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011  and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism.  In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.

  5. Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B.; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E.; DeCarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M.; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J.; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K.; Bennett, David A.; Chui, Helena C.; Higashida, Randall T.; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M.; Roman, Gustavo C.; Sellke, Frank W.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Methods Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Results The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury—not solely stroke—ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed

  6. Genetic basis of endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was analysis of literature data relating to the molecular genetic basis and diagnosis of endocrine pathology. We searched for published and unpublished researches using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: ‘genes’, ‘endocrine diseases’, ‘molecular diagnostics’, ‘prohormones’, ‘nuclear receptors and transcription factors’, taking into consideration studies conducted over the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files, and contact with expert informants. The criterion for the selection of articles for the study was based on their close relevance to the topic, thus out of 144 analyzed articles, the findings of the researchers covered in 32 articles were crucial. The described nosologies presented various heredi­tary forms of hypopituitarism, disturbances of steroid hormone biosynthesis, abnormal gender formation, monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, endocrine tumors, etc. Pathology is identified that is associated with a mutation of genes encoding protein prohormones, receptors, steroid biosynthesis enzymes, intracellular signaling molecules, transport proteins, ion channels, and transcription factors. Among the endocrine diseases associated with defects in genes encoding protein prohormones, the defects of the GH1 gene are most common, the defects in the gene CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase are among diseases associated with defects in genes encoding enzymes. More often mutations of genes encoding proteins belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. Most of the mutations associated with MEN-2A are concentrated in the rich cysteine region of the Ret receptor. More than 70 monogenic syndromes are known, in which there is a marked tolerance to glucose and some form of diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, diabetes mellitus caused by mutation of the mitochondrial gene (mutation tRNALeu, UUR is also detected. Of all the monogenic forms of

  7. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  8. Strengthening the scientific basis of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The overarching objective of the radiological protection system is to contribute to an appropriate level of protection against the harmful effects of radiation exposure, without unjustifiably limiting the desired results from the human activity causing exposure. Such a balance is achieved by understanding as best as possible the scientific characteristics of radiation exposure and the related health effects, and by taking this knowledge into consideration when judging which protection decisions will ensure the best balance between social and economic aspects and risks. In general, the existing radiological protection system, on which national regulations are built in virtually every country in the world, works well and does not underestimate protection needs for either individuals or exposed populations as a whole. The latest International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations, which define this protection system, were formed after a long and open dialogue with the public, where expert views were actively collected and discussed at national, regional and international levels. Although the radiological protection system is very effective, and there is no current need for a prompt revision, it is important nonetheless to keep a watchful eye on the latest scientific results, and to work to ensure that the entire radiological protection community is kept up to date on evolving and emerging scientific issues. In this way, potential or actual scientific changes can be appropriately identified and in turn can stimulate reflection on changes that might be needed in the protection system, in policy, in regulation and in practice. Such reflection should benefit from the input of other scientific disciplines and interested stakeholders. To contribute to this process, the NEA Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has periodically reviewed and released reports on the state of the art in radiological protection science (see NEA

  9. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khang Jie Liew

    Full Text Available This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  10. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  11. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomberg, Rene von [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    particular sequence in an ideal world (e.g. from the political level downwards), practically the 'entry' stage can be at any level and those levels do not represent a hierarchy in any sense. Practices which were formerly not based on the precautionary principle may become based on the precautionary principle by discussions which arise at the science/policy interface. I conclude with an overall definition of the precautionary principle (rather than a specified definition of the precautionary principle for a particular area, such as the environment, human health or food safety) while remaining within the wide scope and limits of the recent rulings of the European Court of Justice, the broad EU endorsement of the European Guidelines on the precautionary principle, and international obligations under international Treaties such as those under the WTO and the UN. The definition contains all the normative dimensions discussed in this contribution: Where, following an assessment of available scientific information, there are reasonable grounds for concern for the possibility of adverse effects but scientific uncertainty persists, provisional risk management measures based on a broad cost/benefit analysis whereby priority will be given to human health and the environment, necessary to ensure the chosen high level of protection in the Community and proportionate to this level of protection, may be adopted, pending further scientific information for a more comprehensive risk assessment, without having to wait until the reality and seriousness of those adverse effects become fully apparent.

  12. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomberg, Rene von

    2006-01-01

    sequence in an ideal world (e.g. from the political level downwards), practically the 'entry' stage can be at any level and those levels do not represent a hierarchy in any sense. Practices which were formerly not based on the precautionary principle may become based on the precautionary principle by discussions which arise at the science/policy interface. I conclude with an overall definition of the precautionary principle (rather than a specified definition of the precautionary principle for a particular area, such as the environment, human health or food safety) while remaining within the wide scope and limits of the recent rulings of the European Court of Justice, the broad EU endorsement of the European Guidelines on the precautionary principle, and international obligations under international Treaties such as those under the WTO and the UN. The definition contains all the normative dimensions discussed in this contribution: Where, following an assessment of available scientific information, there are reasonable grounds for concern for the possibility of adverse effects but scientific uncertainty persists, provisional risk management measures based on a broad cost/benefit analysis whereby priority will be given to human health and the environment, necessary to ensure the chosen high level of protection in the Community and proportionate to this level of protection, may be adopted, pending further scientific information for a more comprehensive risk assessment, without having to wait until the reality and seriousness of those adverse effects become fully apparent

  13. Information Science: Science or Social Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.

    2017-01-01

    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  14. Student Scientific Conference PriF UK 2011. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Dzugasova, V.

    2011-01-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (336 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (56 contributions); (iii) Didactics (6 contributions); (iv) Environmental Science (30 contributions); (v) Geography (38 contributions); (vi) Geology (50 contributions); Contributions relevant of INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  15. Student Scientific Conference PriF UK 2014. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Dzugasova, V.

    2014-01-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (159 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (54 contributions); (iii) Geology (25 contributions); (iv) Geography (35 contributions); (v) Didactics (7 contributions); (vi) Environmental Science (28 contributions);) Contributions relevant of INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  16. Student Scientific Conference PriF UK 2013. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Dzugasova, V.

    2013-01-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (154 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (60 contributions); (iii) Geology (15 contributions); (iv) Geography (32 contributions); (v) Didactics (11 contributions); (vi) Environmental Science (25 contributions);) Contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  17. Student Scientific Conference PriF UK 2015. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Dzugasova, V.; Sevcovicova, A.

    2015-01-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (154 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (52 contributions); (iii) Geology (27 contributions); (iv) Geography (29 contributions); (v) Didactics (6 contributions); (vi) Environmental Science (27 contributions);) Contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  18. Student Scientific Conference PriF UK 2012. Proceedings of reviewed contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Dzugasova, V.

    2012-01-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (139 contributions); (ii) Chemistry (48 contributions); (iii) Geology (31 contributions); (iv) Geography (38 contributions); (v) Didactics (11 contributions); (vi) Environmental Science (25 contributions);) Contributions relevant of INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 10 ... using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set reveal a qualitative trend in the relative affinity of ... Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, ...

  20. Capable and credible? Challenging nutrition science : Challenging nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Wolters, Anna; Feskens, Edith F; Brouns, Fred; Huber, Machteld; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Navis, Gerjan; Ockhuizen, Theo; Plat, Jogchum; Sikkema, Jan; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne; van 't Veer, Pieter; Verweij, Marcel; de Vries, Jan

    Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis

  1. Thomas Young's contributions to geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Charman, W Neil

    2011-07-01

    In addition to his work on physical optics, Thomas Young (1773-1829) made several contributions to geometrical optics, most of which received little recognition in his time or since. We describe and assess some of these contributions: Young's construction (the basis for much of his geometric work), paraxial refraction equations, oblique astigmatism and field curvature, and gradient-index optics. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia.

  2. Subsurface Science Program Bibliography, 1985--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Subsurface Science Program sponsors long-term basic research on (1) the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that control the reactivity, mobilization, stability, and transport of chemical mixtures in subsoils and ground water; (2) hydrogeology, including the hydraulic, microbiological, and geochemical properties of the vadose and saturated zones that control contaminant mobility and stability, including predictive modeling of coupled hydraulic-geochemical-microbial processes; and (3) the microbiology of deep sediments and ground water. TWs research, focused as it is on the natural subsurface environments that are most significantly affected by the more than 40 years of waste generation and disposal at DOE sites, is making important contributions to cleanup of DOE sites. Past DOE waste-disposal practices have resulted in subsurface contamination at DOE sites by unique combinations of radioactive materials and organic and inorganic chemicals (including heavy metals), which make site cleanup particularly difficult. The long- term (10- to 30-year) goal of the Subsurface Science Program is to provide a foundation of fundamental knowledge that can be used to reduce environmental risks and to provide a sound scientific basis for cost-effective cleanup strategies. The Subsurface Science Program is organized into nine interdisciplinary subprograms, or areas of basic research emphasis. The subprograms currently cover the areas of Co-Contaminant Chemistry, Colloids/Biocolloids, Multiphase Fluid Flow, Biodegradation/ Microbial Physiology, Deep Microbiology, Coupled Processes, Field-Scale (Natural Heterogeneity and Scale), and Environmental Science Research Center

  3. Science, Technology, and YA Lit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Karina; Sheehy, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Science teachers today need engaging projects to help students build 21st-century skills (NSTA 2011). Contemporary young adult literature (YA lit) can form the basis of one such project. YA lit--a genre of fiction geared toward 2 to 20-year-olds--opens a powerful avenue to connect with students and cover science topics in greater depth. YA lit is…

  4. Complete CRM documentation as a basis for successfull Churn Management; Wie aus Rueckholung Vorbeugung wird. Vollstaendige Kundenkontakthistorie als Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannssen, T. [ConTakt GmbH, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2002-09-09

    The contribution explains modern customer relationship management strategies for electric utilities. The role of a complete and detailed documentation of the CRM history is explained as a basis for establishing reliable customer loyalty, winning back lost customers, or preventing customers from changing their power service. (orig./CB) [German] Erkenntnisse aus der Kundenrueckgewinnung sind eine wertvolle Grundlage fuer Kuendigungspraevention. Bei durchdachtem Vorgehen koennen sie mit den gesammelten Erfahrungen sogar schon im Vorfeld Kuendigungen verhindern. (orig./CB)

  5. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Mavericks versus team players: the trade-off between shared glory and making a personal contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-08-01

    The modern world is characterized by progressive specialization of function and ever-larger-scale coordination of these ever-more-specialized functions. More and more of science is done by increasing-sized teams of specialists, and the ability to engage in 'teamwork' is regarded as an almost essential attribute for most scientists. But teamwork does not suit all personality types. Some 'maverick' individuals would rather have personal credit for a relatively modest scientific contribution which they achieved (mostly) by themselves, than a share of credit in a much larger scientific contribution generated by a large team. The present system of medical science is organized to discourage mavericks and, on the whole, this is probably justifiable on the basis that scientists are not natural team players. Extra inducements are necessary to get people to adopt the relatively self-effacing behaviours necessary for building the large organizations of complementary specialists that are necessary for tackling many of the most intractable modern scientific problems. However, an ethos of teamwork does carry substantial disadvantages. Although most scientists are dispensable, and do not make a significant personal contribution, the very best scientists do make a difference to the rate of progress of science. And top notch scientists are wasted as team players. The very best scientists can function only as mavericks because they are doing science for vocational reasons. The highest intensity of personal commitment requires individual rewards from distinctive contributions. In conclusion, the current incentive system that encourages teamwork involves a trade-off. The majority of modestly talented scientists can probably achieve more when working as members of a team. But the very best scientists probably need to work as mavericks.

  7. What Contribution Can the Humanities and Social Sciences Make to Career Guidance in General and Technological Lycées? The Case of Economics in Year One of Lycée in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Richit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the 2008 Resolution of the Council of the European Union on “Better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies”, the reform of French lycées has included career guidance among its priorities. This reform, which was implemented in 2010, includes lessons on exploring economics for all students in year one (seconde of the French three-year lycée. Will this new feature help to promote career guidance?This research aims to show that academic and vocational guidance is socially controversial, and that the two programmes on economics, “Sciences économiques et sociales - SES” (social and economic sciences and “Principes fondamentaux de l’économie et de la gestion - PFEG” (basic principles of economics and management, provide knowledge and skills from the humanities and social sciences that are useful for the guidance of year one students, even if the teachers involved do not feel directly involved in assisting with careerguidance.As career guidance is not a discipline, will efficient teachers be those who are able to distinguish between “knowledge that” and “knowledge for”?

  8. The science writing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhart, Arthur L.

    This is a two-part dissertation. The primary part is the text of a science-based composition rhetoric and reader called The Science Writing Tool. This textbook has seven chapters dealing with topics in Science Rhetoric. Each chapter includes a variety of examples of science writing, discussion questions, writing assignments, and instructional resources. The purpose of this text is to introduce lower-division college science majors to the role that rhetoric and communication plays in the conduct of Science, and how these skills contribute to a successful career in Science. The text is designed as a "tool kit," for use by an instructor constructing a science-based composition course or a writing-intensive Science course. The second part of this part of this dissertation reports on student reactions to draft portions of The Science Writing Tool text. In this report, students of English Composition II at Northern Virginia Community College-Annandale were surveyed about their attitudes toward course materials and topics included. The findings were used to revise and expand The Science Writing Tool.

  9. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Science Smiles. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4 Science Smiles. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles · R K Laxman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 3-3 Science Smiles.

  10. The genetic basis of music ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  11. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  12. 21st-Century Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Jill; Smith, Walter; Cook, Linda; Bell, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    With rapidly evolving technology, the world is more connected than ever, and citizens around the globe can contribute to science like never before (Dickinson and Bonney 2012). Reflecting the growing capacity of citizen science, this article presents a science education continuum that moves from global awareness to global contribution. At each…

  13. Nuclear science teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    A Panel of Experts on Nuclear Science Teaching met in Bangkok from 15 to 23 July 1968 to review the present status of an need for teaching of topics related to nuclear science at the secondary and early university level including teacher training, and to suggest appropriate ways of introducing these topics into the science curricula. This report contains the contributions of the members of the Panel, together with the general conclusions and recommendations for the development of school and early university curricula and training programs, for the improvement of teaching materials and for the safest possible handing of radioactive materials in school and university laboratories. It is hoped that the report will be of use to all nuclear scientists and science educators concerned with modernizing their science courses by introducing suitable topics and experiments in nuclear science

  14. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  15. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  16. Towards an epistemological basis for andragogy in midwifery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E

    1991-04-01

    In designing the curriculum for pre and post registration midwifery courses, the author has utilised an andragogical model. This term refers to the art and science of teaching adults (Knowles 1978). The ideas that Knowles (1978) put forward about andragogy while not new, have been implemented in adult education and are certainly relevant to the modern practice of midwifery education. The aim of this paper is to examine the two extreme philosophical views about the nature of man and to provide an epistemological basis for andragogy in midwifery education.

  17. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...... tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined....

  18. Experimental basis for parameters contributing to energy dissipation in piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, P.; Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews several pipe testing programs to suggest the phenomena causing energy dissipation in piping systems. Such phenomena include material damping, plasticity, collision in gaps and between pipes, water dynamics, insulation straining, coupling slippage, restraints (snubbers, struts, etc.), and pipe/structure interaction. These observations are supported by a large experimental data base. Data are available from in-situ and laboratory tests (pipe diameters up to about 20 inches, response levels from milli-g's to responses causing yielding, and from excitation wave forms including sinusoid, snapback, random, and seismic). A variety of pipe configurations have been tested, including simple, bare, straight sections and complex lines with bends, snubbers, struts, and insulation. Tests have been performed with and without water and at zero to operating pressure. Both light water reactor and LMFBR piping have been tested

  19. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  20. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Muneaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  1. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  2. Parallel Algorithms for Groebner-Basis Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-25

    22209 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) * PARALLEL ALGORITHMS FOR GROEBNER -BASIS REDUCTION 12. PERSONAL...All other editions are obsolete. Productivity Engineering in the UNIXt Environment p Parallel Algorithms for Groebner -Basis Reduction Technical Report

  3. Understanding and capturing NSSS design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palo, W.J.; Miller, B.

    1993-01-01

    Changes to, and technical evaluations of nuclear generating station designs are often warranted. Comprehensive documentation and understanding of the NSSS Design Basis are essential to support these activities. Effective configuration management tools are also needed to maintain the plant within design basis limits. Efficient design basis reconstitution can be realized via: In-depth understanding of the design process; Utilization of effective data collection methodology; State of the art data basing tools. A database can be created to generate a Design Basis Manual (DBM). This database can communicate electronically with other plant databases. A living document vice a static snapshot of the plant design is the goal. A design basis database can serve as the cornerstone for a global electronic information control system

  4. Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety

  5. Connecting university science experiences to middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon; Laughran, Laura; Tamppari, Ray; Thomas, Perry

    1991-06-01

    Science teachers naturally rely on their university science experiences as a foundation for teaching middle school science. This foundation consists of knowledge far too complex for the middle level students to comprehend. In order for middle school science teachers to utilize their university science training they must search for ways to adapt their college experiences into appropriate middle school learning experience. The criteria set forth above provide broad-based guidelines for translating university science laboratory experiences into middle school activities. These guidelines are used by preservice teachers in our project as they identify, test, and organize a resource file of hands-on inquiry activities for use in their first year classrooms. It is anticipated that this file will provide a basis for future curriculum development as the teacher becomes more comfortable and more experienced in teaching hands-on science. The presentation of these guidelines is not meant to preclude any other criteria or considerations which a teacher or science department deems important. This is merely one example of how teachers may proceed to utilize their advanced science training as a basis for teaching middle school science.

  6. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Geodesy is the science of the Earth's shape, size, gravity and rotation, including their evolution in time. Geodetic observations play a major role in the solid Earth sciences because they are fundamental for the understanding and modeling of Earth system processes. Changes in the Earth's shape, its gravitational field, and its rotation are caused by external forces acting on the Earth system and internal processes involving mass transfer and exchange of angular and linear momentum. Thus, variations in these geodetic quantities of the Earth reflect and constrain mechanical and thermo-dynamic processes in the Earth system. Mitigating the impact on human life and property of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, debris flows, landslides, land subsidence, sea level change, tsunamis, floods, storm surges, hurricanes and extreme weather is an important scientific task to which geodetic observations make fundamental contributions. Geodetic observations can be used to monitor the pre-eruptive deformation of volcanoes and the pre-seismic deformation of earthquake fault zones, aiding in the issuance of volcanic eruption and earthquake warnings. They can also be used to rapidly estimate earthquake fault motion, aiding in the modeling of tsunami genesis and the issuance of tsunami warnings. Geodetic observations are also used in other areas of the Earth sciences, not just the solid Earth sciences. For example, geodesy contributes to atmospheric science by supporting both observation and prediction of the weather by geo-referencing meteorological observing data and by globally tracking change in stratospheric mass and lower tropospheric water vapor fields. Geodetic measurements of refraction profiles derived from satellite occultation data are routinely assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Geodesy contributes to hydrologic studies by providing a unique global reference system for measurements of: sub-seasonal, seasonal and secular movements

  7. Epigenetic Basis of Morphological Variation and Phenotypic Plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooke, R.; Johannes, F.; Wardenaar, R.; Becker, F.F.M.; Etcheverry, M.; Colot, V.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics is receiving growing attention in the plant science community. Epigenetic modifications are thought to play a particularly important role in fluctuating environments. It is hypothesized that epigenetics contributes to plant phenotypic plasticity because epigenetic modifications, in

  8. Thinking about television science: How students understand the nature of science from different program genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2003-02-01

    Student views on the nature of science are shaped by a variety of out-of-school forces and television-mediated science is a significant force. To attempt to achieve a science for all, we need to recognize and understand the diverse messages about science that students access and think about on a regular basis. In this work I examine how high school students think about science that is mediated by four different program genres on television: documentary, magazine-format programming, network news, and dramatic or fictional programming. The following categories of findings are discussed: the ethics and validity of science, final form science, science as portrayed by its practitioners, and school science and television science. Student perceptions of the nature of science depicted on the program sample used in this study ranged from seeing science as comprising tentative knowledge claims to seeing science as a fixed body of facts.

  9. Pesquisas sobre a febre amarela (1881-1903: uma reflexão visando contribuir para o ensino de ciências Research on yellow fever (1881-1903: a reflexion aiming to contribute to Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bastos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo focaliza episódios históricos relacionados à pesquisa médica acerca da febre amarela (1881-1903, buscando discutir (a a influência que os fatores econômicos, sociais e políticos exercem sobre a pesquisa científica; (b o caráter coletivo, controvertido e não-linear do processo de produção de conhecimentos na ciência; (c a natureza arbitrária dos conhecimentos científicos, no sentido de que representam "formas de ver", e não são perenes ou elaborados apenas sobre bases racionais; (d o papel pouco cabal desempenhado pelas demonstrações experimentais, que não se mostram "irrefutáveis"; e (e o papel desempenhado pelos paradigmas, que conduzem não apenas a caminhos frutíferos, mas também a becos sem saída. O intuito é proporcionar subsídios que sejam úteis tanto aos pesquisadores como aos professores que atuam na área do Ensino de Ciências.This paper focuses on historical episodes related to medical research concerning yellow fever (1881-1903, and attempts to discuss (a the influence that economic, social and political factors exert on scientific research; (b the collective, polemical and nonlinear nature of the process of production of knowledge in science; (c the arbitrary characteristic of scientific knowledge, in that it represents "a certain point of view", and it"s not perennial or elaborated exclusively on objective grounds; (d the limited role played by experimental demonstrations, that are not "irrefutable"; and finally (e the role played by paradigms, that lead not only to fruitful ways, but also to dead-ends. The intention is to provide suggestionss that are useful both to the science education researchers and teachers.

  10. Reflective pedagogical practices in an era of standards based reform: What do teachers do? An examination of science teachers' communities and their contribution to the facilitation of professional growth through authentic reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Bhawna

    National and international science reform movements are sweeping through the educational landscape aimed at improving scientific literacy in students across the world. A myriad of professional development (PD) initiatives by governing bodies are continually initiated to help improve teacher knowledge in both science content and process. Change in not accomplished easily as visions and mission are often challenged by deeply engrained ways of being. In this study we explore the salient cultural and contextual factors that support teacher learning through the framework of Reflective Practice. The research questions aim to answer the following: (1) To what extent do teachers see PD activities connected to their daily teaching practices and (2) What are the salient cultural and contextual factors within the educational environments that encourage reflection which leads to growth in teachers? Although the geographical location, culture and PD approach of the two educational contexts vary and therefore incomparable, salient commonalities were found within the two contexts that explained a varied pattern of behavior among the participating teachers. It was found that the role of the leaders in schools, accountability structures, interaction with technology, fidelity towards the program and cultural values of the educational context deeply influenced the drive and direction of PD initiatives that led to teacher knowledge growth and change that was either fully or at the least partially realized. The knowledge gained in this study does not aim to compare one context to another, rather it points to the direction that one can go with knowledge that proves to nurture and sustain teacher knowledge growth and development through a cycle of continuous change.

  11. Teacher conceptions in the area of Nature Sciences about the construction of interdisciplinarity in Polytechnic Intermediate Education: the contribution of faculty expertise to reality in two schools in Northern Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carminatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High School education in Rio Grande do Sul underwent reformulations with the proposal for Polytechnic Intermediate Education suggested by the State Education Office. Overall, this proposal arose from the demand for improvements in elementary education, where High School education is concerned, and was implemented along the years of 2012, 2013 and 2014. Among the desired improvements was the need to overcome content education through interdisciplinarity and an integrated curriculum. Taking such changes into consideration – which implied the creation of knowledge areas, curricular restructuring, changes to the means of evaluation and the planning and teaching methodology presumptions – this article aims to report the path and results from research that proposed to investigate the manner in which interdisciplinarity began being constructed by educators in the area of Nature Sciences from faculty expertise. The methodology employed was of ethnographic research, that allowed to gather a wealth of data and opinions from the individuals investigated, namely nine teachers from the Nature Sciences area that encompasses the subjects of chemistry, physics and biology, from two intermediate education public schools in Northern Rio Grande do Sul. Data interpretation was carried out under the perspective of Discursive Textual Analysis and allowed for the identification of both the hurdles that made interdisciplinary construction and action unfeasible, such as lack of time for planning, and possible alternatives to overcome such hurdles, among which faculty expertise. From the discussion of those results, it can be observed that the proposal for Polytechnic High School provided space for the construction of the interdisciplinary praxis as well as for reflecting on and awareness building of its need, making it feasible from theoretic-methodological (reoptions on the part of the faculty in the bias of their expertise as such.

  12. CO2 capture and geological storage: The BRGM, sixteen years of involvement in major research projects. The contribution of technical abilities and expertise in Earth Sciences to the work of national and international authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This press document presents the abilities and the activities of the French BRGM (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Office for geological and mining researches) in developing knowledge on storage capacities and on the behaviour of deep aquifers, in contributing to the main national and European research programs, in actively participating to European and international networks, in being an expert for the MEEDDM (the French ministry of energy, ecology, sustainable development and sea) and the ADEME (the French agency for energy conservation), and as the French representative in several international authorities

  13. The structural science of functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow, C Richard A

    2018-01-01

    The growing complexity of functional materials and the major challenges this poses to structural science are discussed. The diversity of structural materials science and the contributions that computation is making to the field are highlighted.

  14. When technology, science and culture meet: insights from ancient Chinese technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2017-10-01

    This paper draws together two important agendas in science education. The first is making science education more inclusive such that students from non-Western or indigenous cultures can benefit from culturally relevant curricula. The second is integrating technology into the curriculum under the umbrella of Science-Technology-Society (STS) education to embrace the social aspects of science, with technology serving as a bridge. The advancement of the first agenda is hindered by the pursuance by both Western and non-Western societies of narrow cultural and practical goals without considering the development of science and technology from a cross-cultural perspective. The second agenda is limited by the misconception that technology is applied science, leading to the exclusion from STS discussions of pre-science or indigenous technologies developed by non-Western cultures. Through selected case studies of the evolution of Chinese traditional technologies and their interaction with science, this paper offers a perspective from the Far East, and argues for situating culturally responsive science education in broader historical and cross-cultural contexts to acknowledge the multi-cultural contributions to science and technology. A form of cross-cultural STS education is advanced, encompassing the cultural basis of technological developments, technology diffusion, interactions of traditional technology with science, and the potential development of traditional or indigenous technologies. This approach provides a bridge between the existing universal science education paradigm promoted in the West and the different forms of multi-cultural education advocated by indigenous science educators. To translate theory into practice, a conceptual framework is proposed in which the essential transdisciplinary knowledge base, curricular goals, and pedagogical approaches are embedded.

  15. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. December 2004 physics pp. 1407–1416. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos. YOSEF NIR1 and YAEL SHADMI2. 1Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. 2Physics Department, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.

  17. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas [and others

    2012-11-15

    Within this project strategies and methods to build a safety case for deep geological repositories are further developed. This includes also the scientific fundamentals as a basis of the safety case. In the international framework the methodology of the Safety Case is frequently applied and continuously improved. According to definitions from IAEA and NEA the Safety Case is a compilation of arguments and facts, which describe, quantify and support the safety and the degree of confidence in the safety of the geological repository. The safety of the geological repository should be demonstrated by the safety case. The safety case is the basis for essential decisions during a repository programme. It comprises the results of safety assessments in combination with additional information like multiple lines of evidence and a discussion of robustness and quality of the repository, its design and the quality of all safety assessments including the basic assumptions. A crucial element of the Safety Case is the long-term safety analysis, i.e. the systematic analysis of the hazards connected with the facility and the capability of site and repository design to ensure the required safety functions and to fulfill the technical claims. Long-term safety analysis requires a powerful and qualified programme package, which contains appropriate hardware and software as well as well trained and experienced modellers performing the model calculations. The calculation tools used within safety cases need to be checked and verified and continuously adapted to the state-of-the-art science and technology. Especially it needs to be applicable to a real repository system. For the assessment of safety a deep process understanding is necessary. The R and D work performed within this project will contribute to the improvement of process and system understanding as well as to the further development of methods and strategies applied in the safety case. Emphasis was put on the following aspects

  18. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Within this project strategies and methods to build a safety case for deep geological repositories are further developed. This includes also the scientific fundamentals as a basis of the safety case. In the international framework the methodology of the Safety Case is frequently applied and continuously improved. According to definitions from IAEA and NEA the Safety Case is a compilation of arguments and facts, which describe, quantify and support the safety and the degree of confidence in the safety of the geological repository. The safety of the geological repository should be demonstrated by the safety case. The safety case is the basis for essential decisions during a repository programme. It comprises the results of safety assessments in combination with additional information like multiple lines of evidence and a discussion of robustness and quality of the repository, its design and the quality of all safety assessments including the basic assumptions. A crucial element of the Safety Case is the long-term safety analysis, i.e. the systematic analysis of the hazards connected with the facility and the capability of site and repository design to ensure the required safety functions and to fulfill the technical claims. Long-term safety analysis requires a powerful and qualified programme package, which contains appropriate hardware and software as well as well trained and experienced modellers performing the model calculations. The calculation tools used within safety cases need to be checked and verified and continuously adapted to the state-of-the-art science and technology. Especially it needs to be applicable to a real repository system. For the assessment of safety a deep process understanding is necessary. The R and D work performed within this project will contribute to the improvement of process and system understanding as well as to the further development of methods and strategies applied in the safety case. Emphasis was put on the following aspects

  19. Infinite occupation number basis of bosons: Solving a numerical challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Andreas; Hofstetter, Walter

    2017-06-01

    In any bosonic lattice system, which is not dominated by local interactions and thus "frozen" in a Mott-type state, numerical methods have to cope with the infinite size of the corresponding Hilbert space even for finite lattice sizes. While it is common practice to restrict the local occupation number basis to Nc lowest occupied states, the presence of a finite condensate fraction requires the complete number basis for an exact representation of the many-body ground state. In this work we present a truncation scheme to account for contributions from higher number states. By simply adding a single coherent-tail state to this common truncation, we demonstrate increased numerical accuracy and the possible increase in numerical efficiency of this method for the Gutzwiller variational wave function and within dynamical mean-field theory.

  20. Epidemiologic measures of risk as a basis for legal compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeighami, E.A.; Walsh, P.J.; Morris, M.D.; Jones, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific basis for compensation of persons developing cancer who have a documented history of exposure to radiation or other carcinogens is an important legal issue. The measure Relative Attributable Risk (RAR) has been proposed as a basis for determining eligibility for compensation. The purpose of this report is to present results of an analysis of the magnitude and sources of uncertainty in the RAR measure. The range of 1/10 6 /rad-year to 6/10 6 /rad-year was chosen as a reasonable range of excess-risk estimates for thyroid cancer based on published estimates. The use of such a range in risk estimates produces very wide variability in RAR estimates. Uncertainty in underlying incidence levels and in dosimetry are other major factors contributing to large variability in estimated RAR levels

  1. Social Dynamics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.

  2. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  3. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  4. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  5. Newton's Contributions to Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    creativity is apparent, even in ideas and models in optics that were ... Around Newton's time, a number of leading figures in science ..... successive circles increased as integers, i.e. d increases by inte- ... of easy reflections and transmission".

  6. Life of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Robin; Margot Ricard, Lykke

    Learning Lab Denmark, København. 2003 Short description: In connection to the conference Changes and Challenges the White Book "Life of Science" was published. Member states of the European Union as well as applying countries were invited to contribute to the book with texts in order to present...... inspiring cases of concrete educational strategies for improving learning, teaching and recruitment in the fields of science and technology. Abstract: The aim of this white book is to present some of the most inspiring examples of Science and Technology Education in Europe. In creating the white book, we...

  7. PubSCIENCE

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    PubSCIENCE, a component of EnergyFiles, indexes 1,000 scientific and technical journals. It contains over one million multi-source journal citations dating back over 25 years from DOE's Energy Science and Technology Database. The focus of PubSCIENCE is on those journals where DOE researchers report their scientific discoveries. Frequency of contributions by DOE-sponsored researchers to scientific journals has been analyzed to prioritize data collection efforts. OSTI partners with participating publishers to provide information that is both relevant and useful to the DOE scientific community as well as information that was developed as the result of government sponsored R&D.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1014-4 - Uniformity of basis; adjustment to basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1014-4 Uniformity of basis... to property acquired by bequest, devise, or inheritance relate back to the death of the decedent... prescribing a general uniform basis rule for property acquired from a decedent is, on the one hand, to tax the...

  9. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...

  10. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.

  11. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system. ...

  12. 29 CFR 541.605 - Fee basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.605 Fee basis. (a) Administrative and professional employees may be paid on a...

  13. Theodor von Grotthuss’ Contribution to Electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauliukaite, Rasa; Juodkazytė, Jurga; Ramanauskas, Rimantas

    2017-01-01

    Freiherr Christian Johann Dietrich Theodor von Grotthuss (1785-1822) lived and worked in Lithuania. Inspired by Volta's pile he proposed the first theory of water electrolysis, which was published in 1805 in Rome. Michael Faraday acknowledged T. Grotthuss for this theory in his further investigations of electrolysis processes. Having studied in Germany and France Grotthuss brought science to province by establishing his laboratory in Gedučiai village in his mother's real estate. Lithuanian scientists are proud that life of Theodor von Grotthuss was related to this country. Many events to remember this prominent scientist are organised in Vilnius and other places. His works and example provided a good basis for further development of electrochemical science in Lithuania. Grotthuss insights into the mechanism of proton transport still are of great relevance to such areas of modern science as membrane biochemistry, energy conversion and storage.

  14. Selection of design basis event for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2016-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been investigating safety requirements and basic approach of safety guidelines for modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) aiming to increase internarial contribution for nuclear safety by developing an international HTGR safety standard under International Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, we investigate a deterministic approach to select design basis events utilizing information obtained from probabilistic approach. In addition, selections of design basis events are conducted for commercial HTGR designed by JAEA. As a result, an approach for selecting design basis event considering multiple failures of safety systems is established which has not been considered as design basis in the safety guideline for existing nuclear facility. Furthermore, selection of design basis events for commercial HTGR has completed. This report provides an approach and procedure for selecting design basis events of modular HTGR as well as selected events for the commercial HTGR, GTHTR300. (author)

  15. Online citizen science games: Opportunities for the biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Vickie

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in digital technologies and the rise of the Internet have created new opportunities for citizen science. One of these has been the development of online citizen science games where complex research problems have been re-imagined as online multiplayer computer games. Some of the most successful examples of these can be found within the biological sciences, for example, Foldit, Phylo and EteRNA. These games offer scientists the opportunity to crowdsource research problems, and to engage with those outside the research community. Games also enable those without a background in science to make a valid contribution to research, and may also offer opportunities for informal science learning.

  16. Myelography conducted on an outpatient basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausch, W

    1981-03-01

    The introduction of the non-ionogenic product metrizamide made lumbosacral myelography a low-risk, invasive diagnostic procedure. Examination carried out on an outpatient basis does not involve greater risks or side effects than examination on a inpatient basis. However, it is essential that - apart from informing the patient properly - the patient shows discipline and remains available for the examining physician during a period of 36 hours.

  17. Livro didático de Física e de Ciências: contribuições das pesquisas para a transformação do ensino Physics and Science textbooks: research contributions to modification of teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Marcos Dias Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo sistematiza resultados de pesquisas sobre o livro didático de Física e de Ciências desenvolvidas no âmbito do Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Ensino de Física da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR e do Núcleo de Pesquisas em Publicações Didáticas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR. Evidencia a ausência de estudos didáticos e epistemológicos e avalia os resultados obtidos no âmbito de diferentes projetos, tanto no que se refere aos livros para alunos como no que diz respeito aos manuais para professores. Apresenta resultados indicativos para a ampliação da pesquisa nessa temática.This paper systematizes the results of research on Physics and Science textbooks developed by the Group of Studies and Research on Physics Teaching (UTFPR and the Research Group on Didactical Publications (UFPR. It highlights the absence of didactic and epistemological studies on this subject and evaluates the results obtained in different projects, in regard to both students' books and teachers' manuals. The work presents results which indicate the need to expand research on this matter.

  18. Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Chen, Meili; Cobb, John W.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Speirs, David A.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.

    2010-01-01

    The unique contributions of the Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway (NSTG) are the connection of national user facility instrument data sources to the integrated cyberinfrastructure of the National Science FoundationTeraGrid and the development of a neutron science gateway that allows neutron scientists to use TeraGrid resources to analyze their data, including comparison of experiment with simulation. The NSTG is working in close collaboration with the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge as their principal facility partner. The SNS is a next-generation neutron source. It has completed construction at a cost of $1.4 billion and is ramping up operations. The SNS will provide an order of magnitude greater flux than any previous facility in the world and will be available to all of the nation's scientists, independent of funding source, on a peer-reviewed merit basis. With this new capability, the neutron science community is facing orders of magnitude larger data sets and is at a critical point for data analysis and simulation. There is a recognized need for new ways to manage and analyze data to optimize both beam time and scientific output. The TeraGrid is providing new capabilities in the gateway for simulations using McStas and a fitting service on distributed TeraGrid resources to improved turnaround. NSTG staff are also exploring replicating experimental data in archival storage. As part of the SNS partnership, the NSTG provides access to gateway support, cyberinfrastructure outreach, community development, and user support for the neutron science community. This community includes not only SNS staff and users but extends to all the major worldwide neutron scattering centers.

  19. Physics The First Science

    CERN Document Server

    LINDENFELD, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Today's physics textbooks have become encyclopedic, offering students dry discussions, rote formulas, and exercises with little relation to the real world. Physics: The First Science offers uniquely accessible, student-friendly explanations, historical and philosophical perspectives and mathematics in easy-to-comprehend dialogue. It emphasizes the unity of physics and its place as the basis for all science. With their experience instructing both students and teachers of physics for decades, Peter Lindenfeld and Suzanne White Brahmia have developed an algebra-based physics book with fea

  20. It's the science stupid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriano, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the project director deals with many of the complaints directed toward the Superconducting Super Collider project from diverse fronts. The project has been able to meet major milestones on time, in most instances within budget, and management projections are that it will continue on this coarse. The project is contributing, and will continue to contribute to science, to technology spinoffs, to economic development in the area, to technology transfer in many areas including commercial superconductivity, etc

  1. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  2. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  3. The use of history of science in physics teaching: an application for electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Perea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present is a revision of different proposals that utilize History of Science in teaching. They have been grouped according to the purpose they pursue: to evoke discoveries, to highlight the human aspect of Science through the contributions of renamed scientists, to teach the processes of scientific construction, to detect students' preconceptions and teach concepts, and to highlight the socio-cultural basis of scientific ideas and research. We discuss why we consider that this last aspect includes the other ones, and elaborate general guidelines for the use of HC in a particular case dealing with electromagnetic field. Our proposal is focused on the controversy between "action-at-a-distance" and "field", and is elaborated on the basis of key experiments carried out by Heinrich Hertz.

  4. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; Bilgili, S F; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271-0.418; for DPM and WB h2white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  6. Nuclear reactions: Science and trans-science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a collection of essays written by Weinberg over the span of his scientific and administrative career. A sound theorist, he was introduced to nuclear physics as part of the Manhattan project, and assumed administrative responsibilities during that project. His career has allowed him to make valuable contributions in a broad range of fields. These essays touch on topics of interest to him, concern to the country, and of profound import for society as it exists today. They are grouped into five sections: science and trans-science; scientific administration; strategic defense and arms control; time, energy and resources; nuclear energy

  7. Cerebral localization in the nineteenth century--the birth of a science and its modern consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, David A

    2009-07-01

    Although many individuals contributed to the development of the science of cerebral localization, its conceptual framework is the work of a single man--John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911), a Victorian physician practicing in London. Hughlings Jackson's formulation of a neurological science consisted of an axiomatic basis, an experimental methodology, and a clinical neurophysiology. His axiom--that the brain is an exclusively sensorimotor machine--separated neurology from psychiatry and established a rigorous and sophisticated structure for the brain and mind. Hughlings Jackson's experimental method utilized the focal lesion as a probe of brain function and created an evolutionary structure of somatotopic representation to explain clinical neurophysiology. His scientific theory of cerebral localization can be described as a weighted ordinal representation. Hughlings Jackson's theory of weighted ordinal representation forms the scientific basis for modern neurology. Though this science is utilized daily by every neurologist and forms the basis of neuroscience, the consequences of Hughlings Jackson's ideas are still not generally appreciated. For example, they imply the intrinsic inconsistency of some modern fields of neuroscience and neurology. Thus, "cognitive imaging" and the "neurology of art"--two topics of modern interest--are fundamentally oxymoronic according to the science of cerebral localization. Neuroscientists, therefore, still have much to learn from John Hughlings Jackson.

  8. Science as theater, theater as science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2002-04-01

    Beginning with Bertold Brecht's "Galileo" in 1942 and Friedrich Dürrenmatt's "The Physicists" in 1962, physics and other sciences have served a number of dramatists as backdrops for the exposition of existential problems, as well as the provision of entertainment. Michael Frayn's 1998 play "Copenhagen" broke new ground by giving a central role to the presentation of scientific substance and ideas and to the examination of recent controversial and emotionally charged events in the history of science and of the "real world". A rash of "science plays" erupted. How should we physicists react to this development? Surely, it can be argued, any exposure of science to the public is better than none and will help break down the barriers between the "two cultures". But what if the science or the scientists are badly misrepresented or the play is a weapon to strip science of its legitimacy and its claims to reality and truth? After reviewing a half dozen of the new plays, I conclude that "Copenhagen", though flawed, is not only the best of show, but a positive, even admirable endeavor. The contributions of Bohr, Heisenberg, Born, Schrödinger, and other scientists and their interactions in the golden years of the creation of quantum mechanics are accurately and thrillingly rendered. There may be no better non-technical exposition of complementarity and the uncertainty principle than the one that Frayn puts into the mouths of Bohr and Heisenberg. The treatment of the history of the atomic bomb and Heisenberg's role in Germany's failure to achieve a bomb is another matter. Frayn can also be criticized for applying uncertainly and complementarity to the macroscopic world and, in particular, to human interactions, thereby giving some aid and comfort to the post-modernists. These reservations aside, Copenhagen is a beautiful contribution to the appreciation of science.

  9. Need of Department of General Practice / Family Medicine at AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences): Why the apex medical institute in India should also contribute towards training and education of general practitioners and family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ranabir; Kumar, Raman

    2017-01-01

    Family medicine or general practice is the practicing discipline of the majority doctors in India, however formal academic departments of general practice (or family medicine) do not exist in India, as it is not a mandatory requirement as prescribed by the Medical Council of India; the principal regulator of medical education. Currently India has capacity to produce more than 60,000 medical graduates per year, majority of whom are expected to become general practitoners or primary care doctors without under going any vocational training in general practice or family medicine. The 92 nd parliamentary standing committee report (on health and family welfare) of the Indian Parliament recommended that Government of India in coordination with State Governments should establish robust postgraduate programs in Family Medicine and facilitate introducing Family Medicine discipline in all medical colleges. This will not only minimize the need for frequent referrals to specialist and decrease the load on tertiary care but also provide continuous health care for the individuals and families. The authors concur with the parliament of India and strongly feel that "Family Medicine" (community-based comprehensive clinical practice) deserves dedicated and distinct department at all medical colleges in India in order to availability of qualified medical doctors in the community-based health system. AIIMS, New Delhi, along with other newly established AIIMS, should rise to their foundation mandate of supporting excellence in all disciplines of medical science and to this historic responsibility; and not just remain an ivory tower of tertiary care based fragmented (into sub specialties) hospital culture.

  10. The contribution of science to risk-based decision-making: lessons from the development of full-scale treatment measures for acidic mine waters at Wheal Jane, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L; Coulton, Richard H; Froggatt, Eric C

    2005-02-01

    The use of risk-based decision-making in environmental management is often assumed to rely primarily on the availability of robust scientific data and insights, while in practice socio-economic criteria are often of considerable importance. However, the relative contributions to decision-making made by scientific and socio-economic inputs are rarely assessed, and even less commonly reported. Such an assessment has been made for a major remediation project in southwest England, in which some 300 l/s of highly acidic, metalliferous mine waters are now being treated using oxidation and chemical neutralisation. In the process of reaching the decision to commission the treatment plant, a wide range of scientific studies were undertaken, including: biological impact assessments, hydrogeological investigations of the effect of pumping on the flooded mine system, and hydrological and geochemical characterisation, together with integrated catchment modelling, of pollutant sources and pathways. These investigations revealed that, despite the spectacular nature of the original mine water outburst in 1992, the ecology of the Fal estuary remains remarkably robust. No scientific evidence emerged of any grounds for concern over the estuarine ecology, even if mine water were left to flow untreated. However, a rare ecological resource known as "maerl" (a form of calcified seaweed) is harvested annually in the estuary, providing significant revenue to the local economy and underpinning the 'clean' image of local sea water. Social and environmental benefit surveys revealed strong public perceptions that any visible discoloration in the estuary must indicate a diminution in quality of the maerl, to the detriment of both the public image and economy of the area. This factor proved sufficient to justify the continued pump-and-treat operations at the mine site. Although the decisive factor in the end was socio-economic in nature, robust assessment of this factor could not have been made

  11. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  12. Review Essay: Mirror Neurons in the Discourse of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Pätzold

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, mirror neurons have been the subject of continuous discussions in neurosciences as well as in the social sciences. The interest of scientists outside the life sciences in mirror neurons is primarily based on the fact that mirror neurons not only have epistemological meaning, but also seem to play an important role in processes of social insights and emotions, like empathy. With her book, Nadia ZABOURA provides a new contribution from a social and cultural sciences point of view, which critically reflects the discussion on mirror neurons and its consequences on the social sciences and humanities. Starting off from philosophical approaches to the mind-matter-dualism and the question of intersubjectivity, she explores the meaning of mirror neurons for the debate on empathy and communication. By discussing concepts of philosophy and communication sciences as well as current knowledge on mirror neurons, she concludes that they do not provide a stable basis for any material reductionism, which would explain phenomena like intersubjectivity only by recordable neuronal processes. The book refers to a variety of related theories (ranging from DESCARTES through to MEAD and TOMASELLO; these references are inspiring, yet they stay cursory for the most part. All in all the book offers avenues for further inquiry on the issues in focus, and can rather be taken as "tour of suggestions" through the topical field of mirror neurons and the related research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003245

  13. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...

  14. Evaluation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2018-01-01

    Culturally and politically science is under attack. The core consequence of perceiving and asserting evaluation as science is that it enhances our credibility and effectiveness in supporting the importance of science in our world and brings us together with other scientists to make common cause in supporting and advocating for science. Other…

  15. Science/s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tricoire

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Un forum a été organisé en mars par la Commission européenne. Il s’appelait « Science in Society ». Depuis 2000 la Commission a mis en place un Plan d’Action élaboré pour que soit promue « la science » au sein du public, afin que les citoyens prennent de bonnes décisions, des décisions informées. Il s’agit donc de développer la réflexivité au sein de la société, pour que cette dernière agisse avec discernement dans un monde qu’elle travaille à rendre durable. ...

  16. Contributions of the National Institute of Nuclear Research to the advance of Science and Technology in Mexico. Commemorative edition 2010; Contribuciones del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares al avance de la ciencia y la tecnologia en Mexico. Edicion conmemorativa 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque M, G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Romero H, S.; Serment G, J. (ed.) [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    From the second decade of the X X century the applications of the nuclear energy have been important part of the scientific and technological patrimony in Mexico. Records exist with regard to the use of the radioisotopes and the radiations in our country in that time, and in a formal way until the year of 1950, in a process that culminates with the creation of the Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN. January 1, 1956). In January 12, 1972 were published the Organic Law that created to the Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, being responsible for the works that the CNEN developed. The current Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) was constituted starting from the Regulation Law of the constitutional Article 27 in nuclear matter of January 26, 1979, abrogated and substituted by the Law in force of February 4, 1985. In this lapse they were undertaken multitude of projects with results and diverse achievements. From their creation, the mission of the ININ and the previous institutions has been to realize research in science and nuclear technology, to promote their peaceful uses and to diffuse the achieved advances, always searching for to link them to the economic, social, scientific and technological development of the country. In this occasion with the purpose of participating in the commemoration of the bicentennial of the independence and centennial of the Mexican revolution in our country, the ININ decided to publish this work, directed to a wide public, with the intention of providing a vision the most complete and appropriate possible of the activities in research and technology that it is carries out at the moment. This work also seeks to be a diffusion instrument of the tasks that they are carried out in the institute, in diverse subjects as: the basic research, the nuclear applications in the health, the agriculture and the industry, the studies on the contamination and the environment; the dosimetry; the radiological protection; as

  17. Science under duress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, devotion to Marx's "one science" contributed to the deaths of millions of ordinary Russians. How this happened is the subject of Stalin and the Scientists: a History of Triumph and Tragedy by Simon Ings.

  18. Journal for Juridical Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal for Juridical Science is an accredited national professional journal which publishes original research articles in law in Afrikaans and English. Multi and interdisciplinary contributions which bridge the gap between legal scholarship and other pertinent academic disciplines, are welcomed. The Journal for Juridical ...

  19. Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of Lusu ... in terms of socio economic, health, education, employment, safe drinking water, ... The data were analyzed using Scientific Package for Social Science (SPSS).

  20. Measurement of basis weight by radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.

    1981-01-01

    For accurate measurement of the basis weight (mass per unit area) of a material such as paper between a radioactive source and an ionization chamber the apparatus is calibrated by using a plurality of standards of known basis weight to provide a relationship between basis weight and the output current of the chamber which includes at least terms of the second order and preferably terms of higher orders. The major portion of the radiation path is enclosed in airtight chambers which are sufficiently rigid that the density therein is independent of ambient temperature and pressure variations. The accuracy is increased by measuring ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations, and linearly compensating for resultant density variations in the air gap through which the paper web passes. A wheel holding the standards is induced by a motor and a perforated encoding disc. (author)

  1. A New Approach to Data Publication in Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy; Urban, Ed; Pissierssens, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Data are collected from ocean sciences activities that range from a single investigator working in a laboratory to large teams of scientists cooperating on big, multinational, global ocean research projects. What these activities have in common is that all result in data, some of which are used as the basis for publications in peer-reviewed journals. However, two major problems regarding data remain. First, many data valuable for understanding ocean physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and how the oceans operate in the Earth system are never archived or made accessible to other scientists. Data underlying traditional journal articles are often difficult to obtain. Second, when scientists do contribute data to databases, their data become freely available, with little acknowledgment and no contribution to their career advancement. To address these problems, stronger ties must be made between data repositories and academic journals, and a “digital backbone” needs to be created for data related to journal publications.

  2. Mapping "Social Responsibility" in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja; Glerup, Cecilie

    The paper investigates the discourse on social responsibility in science as it appears in academic journals. Through database searches a collection of more than 300 papers have been analysed in order to map their answers to the following three questions: - What is the central problem that threatens...... responsibility in science? - What are the central aspects of science or its relation to society that need to be regulated or changed? - What kinds of solutions are imagined and how are these solutions supposed to be put into place? On this basis the paper explores how different interpretations of the notion...... of social responsibility of science imply different forms of governance of and within science. The paper employs a Foucaldian discourse analysis to understand how a particular conceptualisation of responsibility implies a political rationality, i.e. a particular form of governance of science. The analysis...

  3. The Matlab Radial Basis Function Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Sarra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Radial Basis Function (RBF methods are important tools for scattered data interpolation and for the solution of Partial Differential Equations in complexly shaped domains. The most straight forward approach used to evaluate the methods involves solving a linear system which is typically poorly conditioned. The Matlab Radial Basis Function toolbox features a regularization method for the ill-conditioned system, extended precision floating point arithmetic, and symmetry exploitation for the purpose of reducing flop counts of the associated numerical linear algebra algorithms.

  4. Exploratory Shaft Facility design basis study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Design Basis Study is a scoping/sizing study that evaluated the items concerning the Exploratory Shaft Facility Design including design basis values for water and methane inflow; flexibility of the design to support potential changes in program direction; cost and schedule impacts that could result if the design were changed to comply with gassy mine regulations; and cost, schedule, advantages and disadvantages of a larger second shaft. Recommendations are proposed concerning water and methane inflow values, facility layout, second shaft size, ventilation, and gassy mine requirements. 75 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Heavy quarkonium in a holographic basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the heavy quarkonium within the basis light-front quantization approach. We implement the one-gluon exchange interaction and a confining potential inspired by light-front holography. We adopt the holographic light-front wavefunction (LFWF as our basis function and solve the non-perturbative dynamics by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. We obtain the mass spectrum for charmonium and bottomonium. With the obtained LFWFs, we also compute the decay constants and the charge form factors for selected eigenstates. The results are compared with the experimental measurements and with other established methods.

  6. LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE EDUCATION IN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Department of Information Studies Faculty of Natural and Information Science,. Jimma University .... The conference of Ethiopian Higher Learning in Institutions held in Ambo in 1978, made the ... On the basis of the profiles of the graduates, the ...

  7. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  8. A proud contribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-03

    Oct 3, 2004 ... Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Pretoria, Professor. Thanyani ... medicine — and about being a role model to South Africa's future doctors'. ... have been telling the patients who couldn't afford to pay, “Go home.

  9. Method in the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, G

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in 1963. Can one discern certain regularities in the manoeuvrings and techniques employed by scientists and can these be formulated into the methodological principles of science? What is the origin and basis of such principles? Are they imposed by objective realities, do they derive from conceptual necessities or are they rooted in our own deep seated predilections? This volume investigates these questions and sheds light on the growth mechanism of the evolving structure of science itself.

  10. Science Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Gael F.

    1984-10-01

    The operation teams for the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) included scientists from the IRAS International Science Team. The scientific decisions on an hour-to-hour basis, as well as the long-term strategic decisions, were made by science team members. The IRAS scientists were involved in the analysis of the instrument performance, the analysis of the quality of the data, the decision to reacquire data that was contaminated by radiation effects, the strategy for acquiring the survey data, and the process for using the telescope for additional observations, as well as the processing decisions required to ensure the publication of the final scientific products by end of flight operations plus one year. Early in the project, two science team members were selected to be responsible for the scientific operational decisions. One, located at the operations control center in England, was responsible for the scientific aspects of the satellite operations; the other, located at the scientific processing center in Pasadena, was responsible for the scientific aspects of the processing. These science team members were then responsible for approving the design and test of the tools to support their responsibilities and then, after launch, for using these tools in making their decisions. The ability of the project to generate the final science data products one year after the end of flight operations is due in a large measure to the active participation of the science team members in the operations. This paper presents a summary of the operational experiences gained from this scientific involvement.

  11. KEPLER SCIENCE OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Steve T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Smith, Marcie; Sobeck, Charles K.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Hall, Jennifer; Klaus, Todd C.; Middour, Chris; Thompson, Richard S.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Stober, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Kepler's mission design includes a comprehensive plan for commissioning and science operations. The commissioning phase completed all critical tasks and accomplished all mission objectives within a week of the pre-launch plan. Since the start of science data collection, the nominal timeline has been interrupted by two safe-mode events, several losses of fine point, and some small pointing adjustments. The most important anomalies are understood and mitigated, so Kepler's technical performance has improved significantly over this period, and the prognosis for mission success is excellent. The Kepler data archive is established and hosting data for the science team, guest observers, and the public. The first data to become publicly available include the monthly full-frame images and the light curves for targets that are dropped from the exoplanet program or released after publication. Data are placed in the archive on a quarterly basis; the Kepler Results Catalog will be released annually starting in 2011.

  12. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  13. A New Model of Master of Philosophy in Physiological Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H R; Arain, F M; Khan, N A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences.; 5) it has integrated microbiology, pathology and pharmacology in a unique way through CMG of microbes leading to associated pathology and mechanisms of prescribed drugs; 6) it has additional synopsis and thesis friendly course work leading to comprehensive examinations; 7) the year two deals with research work of 6 credit hours leading to defense of thesis; 8) The MPhil in Physiological Sciences is fundamentally different from what is being offered elsewhere. It prepares and offers a good spring board to dovetail PhD studies as well as faculty and institutional development. This is the first study that deals with innovative programmes in research, learning and education in the field of physiological sciences. This broad-based MPhil would make its recipients competent, critical, confident and productive learner. This is a completely unique design of a curriculum that has no comparable examples elsewhere. Our mission is to educate graduate students in the field of Physiological Sciences such that they have a complete grasp over the

  14. Reduced basis methods for partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Negri, Federico

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a basic introduction to reduced basis (RB) methods for problems involving the repeated solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from engineering and applied sciences, such as PDEs depending on several parameters and PDE-constrained optimization.  The book presents a general mathematical formulation of RB methods, analyzes their fundamental theoretical properties, discusses the related algorithmic and implementation aspects, and highlights their built-in algebraic and geometric structures.  More specifically, the authors discuss alternative strategies for constructing accurate RB spaces using greedy algorithms and proper orthogonal decomposition techniques, investigate their approximation properties and analyze offline-online decomposition strategies aimed at the reduction of computational complexity. Furthermore, they carry out both a priori and a posteriori error analysis.  The whole mathematical presentation is made more stimulating by the use of representative examp...

  15. TWRS authorization basis configuration control summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    This document was developed to define the Authorization Basis management functional requirements for configuration control, to evaluate the management control systems currently in place, and identify any additional controls that may be required until the TWRS [Tank Waste Remediation System] Configuration Management system is fully in place

  16. Fundamentals of futures, options, basis and derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. [TD Securities Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Characteristic features of futures and options contracts, basis differentials and derivatives were defined and explained. A futures contract refers to an exchange-traded supply contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer is obligated to take delivery and the seller is obligated to provide delivery of a fixed amount of a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified location. In contrast, an option contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. Basis differential refers to the discount between two distinct delivery points to reflect the relative value of a commodity, such as natural gas, at those points. Advantages and disadvantages of futures and options contacts, the factors affecting options pricing, and basis differentials, and the methods of calculating basis differentials were described. The nature and intricacies of derivatives, their benefits, in particular their use as a tool for the effective management of the volatilities associated with the oil and gas industry were explained. Their shortcomings such as the high liquidity risk, were also described. Examples of derivative transactions were provided to illustrate the interrelationships of futures/options/derivatives, and their role in financial risk management.

  17. Canonical three-body angular basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Three-body problems are basic for the quantum mechanics of molecular, atomic, or nuclear systems. We demonstrate that their variational solution for rotational states can be greatly simplified. A special choice of coordinates (hyperspherical) and of the kinematics (body-fixed coordinate frame) allows one to choose basis functions in a form that makes the angular coupling trivial. (author)

  18. M4GB : Efficient Groebner Basis algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Makarim (Rusydi); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce a new efficient algorithm for computing Groebner-bases named M4GB. Like Faugere's algorithm F4 it is an extension of Buchberger's algorithm that describes: how to store already computed (tail-)reduced multiples of basis polynomials to prevent redundant work in the reduction

  19. Technical basis document for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the FR-equencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident

  20. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M andO 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS)