Sample records for science based stockpile

  1. Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (United States)


    low level of radioactivity produced are comparable to those in TFTR presently operating routinely on the Forrestal Campus of Princeton University nu- merous astronomical objects and processes (e.g., primordial nucleosynthesis, stellar evoiution, and hydrodynamic instabilities in supernova ... radioactive decay heat, reactivity excursions beyond the subcriticality margin etc. A specific APS system based on the thorium fuel cycle has recently

  2. Science-based stockpile stewardship at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Let me tell you a little about the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and how some of the examples you heard about from Sig Hecker and John Immele fit together in this view of a different world in the future where defense, basic and industrial research overlap. I am going to talk about science-based stockpile stewardship at LANSCE; the accelerator production of tritium (APT), which I think has a real bearing on the neutron road map; the world-class neutron science user facility, for which I will provide some examples so you can see the connection with defense science; and lastly, testing concepts for a high-power spallation neutron target and waste transmutation.

  3. Science-based stockpile stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    I would like to start by working from Vic Reis`s total quality management diagram in which he began with the strategy and then worked through the customer requirements-what the Department of Defense (DoD) is hoping for from the science-based stockpile stewardship program. Maybe our customer`s requirements will help guide some of the issues that we should be working on. ONe quick answer to {open_quotes}why have we adopted a science-based strategy{close_quotes} is that nuclear weapons are a 50-year responsibility, not just a 5-year responsibility, and stewardship without testing is a grand challenge. While we can do engineering maintenance and turn over and remake a few things on the short time scale, without nuclear testing, without new weapons development, and without much of the manufacturing base that we had in the past, we need to learn better just how these weapons are actually working.

  4. Accelerator Based Tools of Stockpile Stewardship (United States)

    Seestrom, Susan


    The Manhattan Project had to solve difficult challenges in physics and materials science. During the cold war a large nuclear stockpile was developed. In both cases, the approach was largely empirical. Today that stockpile must be certified without nuclear testing, a task that becomes more difficult as the stockpile ages. I will discuss the role of modern accelerator based experiments, such as x-ray radiography, proton radiography, neutron and nuclear physics experiments, in stockpile stewardship. These new tools provide data of exceptional sensitivity and are answering questions about the stockpile, improving our scientific understanding, and providing validation for the computer simulations that are relied upon to certify todays' stockpile.

  5. Internet-based monitoring and prediction system of coal stockpile behaviors under atmospheric conditions. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nihat; Ozdeniz, A Hadi


    Spontaneous combustion on industrial-scale stockpiles causes environmental problems and economic losses for the companies consuming large amounts of coal. In this study, an effective monitoring and prediction system based on internet was developed and implemented to prevent losses and environmental problems. The system was performed in a coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 t of weight. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. The recorded values were analyzed with artificial neural network and Statistical modeling methods for prediction of spontaneous combustion. Real-time measurement values and model outputs were published with a web page on internet. The internet-based system can also provide real-time monitoring (combustion alarms, system status) and tele-controlling (Parameter adjusting, system control) through internet exclusively with a standard web browser without the need of any additional software.

  6. Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL

  7. Collaborative Decision Model on Stockpile Material of a Traditional Market Infrastructure using Value-Based HBU (United States)

    Utomo, C.; Rahmawati, Y.; Pararta, D. L.; Ariesta, A.


    Readiness of infrastructure establishment is needed in the early phase of real estate development. To meet the needs of retail property in the form of traditional markets, the Government prepares to build a new 1300 units. Traditional market development requires infrastructure development. One of it is the preparation of sand material embankment as much as ± 200,000 m3. With a distance of 30 km, sand material can be delivered to the project site by dump trucks that can only be operated by 2 trip per day. The material is managed by using stockpile method. Decision of stockpile location requires multi person and multi criteria in a collaborative environment. The highest and the best use (HBU) criteria was used to construct a value-based decision hierarchy. Decision makers from five stakeholders analyzed the best of three locations by giving their own preference of development cost and HBU function. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on satisfying options and cooperative game was applied for agreement options and coalition formation on collaborative decision. The result indicates that not all solutions become a possible location for the stockpile material. It shows the ‘best fit’ options process for all decision makers.

  8. 20 Years of Success: Science, Technology, and the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    On Oct. 22, 2015, NNSA celebrated the proven success of the Stockpile Stewardship Program at a half-day public event featuring remarks by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz, Secretary of State John Kerry, and Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and NNSA Administrator Lt. Gen. (retired) Frank G. Klotz. The event also featured remarks by Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall and NNSA Principal Deputy Administrator Madelyn Creedon.

  9. Management of coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.M. [IEA Coal Research, London (United Kingdom)


    Stockpile management is an important part of the coal handling process from mine to customer. Virtually all coal producers and consumers make use of stockpiles at their facilities, either to serve as a buffer between material delivery and processing or to enable coal blending to meet quality requirements. This report begins by examining why stockpiles are employed. The stacking and reclaiming of piles, and the reduction of noise arising from the handling equipment is then discussed, along with stockpile automation and management. Good sampling and analysis procedures are essential for coal quality management. Sampling systems, representative samples and on-line analysis are described. Stock auditing to reconcile the amount of coal in the stockpiles is also covered. Coals are susceptible to weathering and atmospheric oxidation during storage in open-air piles. Properties and processes affected by coal oxidation and weathering, including heating value losses, handleability, cleaning, combustion and coking are examined. Spontaneous combustion poses safety, environmental, economic and handling problems if it becomes established in stockpiles. Factors affecting spontaneous combustion are discussed with the emphasis on prevention, detection and control. Stockyard operators are under constant social and political pressures to improve the environmental acceptability of their operations. Thus the control, prevention, and monitoring of fugitive dust emissions, and the composition, collection and treatment of stockpile runoff are addressed. The prevention and control of flowslides is also covered. Experience has shown that with good stockpile design and management, most coals can be safely stored in an environmentally acceptable way. 187 refs., 41 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G


    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  11. Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future (United States)

    Adams, Marvin L.


    The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

  12. Temperature profiles of coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.; Gundogdu, I.B. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department


    Excess of produced coals should be kept in the stockyards of the collieries. The longer the duration time for these coals, the greater possibility for spontaneous combustion to take place. Spontaneously burnt coals result in economical and environmental problems. Therefore, taking the necessary precautions before an outburst of the spontaneous combustion phenomenon is too important in terms of its severe results. In this study, a stockpile having industrial dimensions was formed in coal stockyard. The effective parameters on the stockpiles of coal such as temperature and humidity of the weather, time, and atmospheric pressure values were measured. The interior temperature variations of these stockpiles caused by the atmospheric conditions were also measured. The interior temperature distribution maps of the stockpile together with maximum and minimum temperature values were expressed visually and numerically by the assistance of obtained data.

  13. FY 2017 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan - Biennial Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    This year’s summary report updates the Fiscal Year 2016 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (FY 2016 SSMP), the 25-year strategic program of record that captures the plans developed across numerous NNSA programs and organizations to maintain and modernize the scientific tools, capabilities, and infrastructure necessary to ensure the success of NNSA’s nuclear weapons mission. The SSMP is a companion to the Prevent, Counter, and Respond: A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2017-2021) report, the planning document for NNSA’s nuclear threat reduction mission. New versions of both reports are published each year in response to new requirements and challenges. Much was accomplished in FY 2015 as part of the program of record described in this year’s SSMP. The science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program allowed the Secretaries of Energy and Defense to certify for the twentieth time that the stockpile remains safe, secure, and effective without the need for underground nuclear explosive testing. The talented scientists, engineers, and technicians at the three national security laboratories, the four nuclear weapons production plants, and the national security site are primarily responsible for this continued success. Research, development, test, and evaluation programs have advanced NNSA’s understanding of weapons physics, component aging, and material properties through first-of-a-kind shock physics experiments, along with numerous other critical experiments conducted throughout the nuclear security enterprise. The multiple life extension programs (LEPs) that are under way made progress toward their first production unit dates. The W76-1 LEP is past the halfway point in total production, and the B61-12 completed three development flight tests. Critical to this success is the budget. The Administration’s budget request for NNSA’s Weapons Activities has increased for all but one of the past seven years, resulting in a total increase of

  14. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume II. Application Techniques, Stockpiling, Dispersant Selection, Strategies. (United States)



  15. Stockpile Dismantlement Database Training Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document, the Stockpile Dismantlement Database (SDDB) training materials is designed to familiarize the user with the SDDB windowing system and the data entry steps for Component Characterization for Disposition. The foundation of information required for every part is depicted by using numbered graphic and text steps. The individual entering data is lead step by step through generic and specific examples. These training materials are intended to be supplements to individual on-the-job training.

  16. Revaluation of stockpile amount of PFOS-containing aqueous film-forming foam in Japan: gaps and pitfalls in the stockpile survey. (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tsunemi, Kiyotaka; Masunaga, Shigeki


    Stockpiles of perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) containing aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) have the potential to be emitted by leaching, spills, and during use in fire response and other processes. Several studies have discussed the high levels of stockpiled PFOS-containing AFFF and the risk they pose to the environment; however, there are large gaps in the amounts in Japan compared with other countries. For example, 300 tons are stockpiled in Canada, 2200-2600 tons in Switzerland, 1400 tons in Norway, and 19,000 tons in Japan from their reports for publication. The gap is considered to be a result of lack of surveys of several important sources. In this study, we revaluated the stockpile of AFFF in Japan to verify the reported value and identify the source of this gap based on information available in peer-reviewed papers, governmental reports, and business reports. The major reason for the gap between Japan and other countries was considered to be the survey of stockpiles in car-parking facilities, which accounted for 46.7% of the total amounts in Japan, but were not considered in other countries. These stockpiles indicate a high potential for accidental leaching or spilling of the AFFF by careless storage. Therefore, it is recommended that continual surveys of the AFFF stockpile in car-parking facilities be conducted in the rest of the world.

  17. Project-Based Science (United States)

    Krajcik, Joe


    Project-based science is an exciting way to teach science that aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). By focusing on core ideas along with practices and crosscutting concepts, classrooms become learning environments where teachers and students engage in science by designing and carrying out…

  18. University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane


    The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

  19. Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others


    This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

  20. FY 2015 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  1. FY 2016 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  2. Modeling the national pediatric vaccine stockpile: supply shortages, health impacts and cost consequences. (United States)

    Shrestha, Sundar S; Wallace, Gregory S; Meltzer, Martin I


    Pediatric vaccine stockpiles have been in place in the U.S. since 1983 to address the potential disruption in supply of routine pediatric vaccines. Increases in the number of vaccines recommended for pediatric and adolescent patients have increased the cost of stocking and maintaining the stockpile. Based on a spreadsheet-based model (VacStockpile) we developed, we estimated potential supply shortages of 14 stockpiled vaccines as of August 1, 2008 and its health and financial impacts under various shortage and stockpile scenarios. To illustrate the implications of policy options, we compared "high" to "low" stockpile scenarios. The high stockpile scenario ensures a 6-month vaccine supply to vaccinate all children according to recommended schedules. The low scenario comprised of 50% of the high scenario or existing stocks, whichever is smaller. For each vaccine, we used a weighted average of five shortage scenarios ranging from 0% to 100%, in 25% increments. Demand for each vaccine was based on current distribution or birth cohort size. The probabilities of shortages were based on number of manufacturers, market stability, history of manufacturing problems, and production complexity. CDC contract prices were used to estimate costs. Expert opinion and literature provided estimates of health impacts due to shortages. Applying the probabilities of shortages to all vaccines in a single year, the "low" scenario could cost $600 million, with 376,000 vaccine-preventable cases occurring and 1774 deaths. The "high" scenario could cost $2 billion, with an additional $1.6 billion initial stocking, and result in 7100 vaccine-preventable cases occurring and 508 deaths. Based on the assumptions in the model, there is the potential for large differences in outcomes between the scenarios although some outcomes could potentially be averted with measures such as catch-up campaigns after shortages. Using the VacStockpile policy makers can readily evaluate the implications of

  3. DEM Simulation of Particle Stratification and Segregation in Stockpile Formation (United States)

    Zhang, Dizhe; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David


    Granular stockpiles are commonly observed in nature and industry, and their formation has been extensively investigated experimentally and mathematically in the literature. One of the striking features affecting properties of stockpiles are the internal patterns formed by the stratification and segregation processes. In this work, we conduct a numerical study based on DEM (discrete element method) model to study the influencing factors and triggering mechanisms of these two phenomena. With the use of a previously developed mixing index, the effects of parameters including size ratio, injection height and mass ratio are investigated. We found that it is a void-filling mechanism that differentiates the motions of particles with different sizes. This mechanism drives the large particles to flow over the pile surface and segregate at the pile bottom, while it also pushes small particles to fill the voids between large particles, giving rise to separate layers. Consequently, this difference in motion will result in the observed stratification and segregation phenomena.

  4. 2015 Stewardship Science Academic Programs Annual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Terri [NNSA Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Washington, DC (United States); Mischo, Millicent [NNSA Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Stockpile Stewardship Academic Programs (SSAP) are essential to maintaining a pipeline of professionals to support the technical capabilities that reside at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) national laboratories, sites, and plants. Since 1992, the United States has observed the moratorium on nuclear testing while significantly decreasing the nuclear arsenal. To accomplish this without nuclear testing, NNSA and its laboratories developed a science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain and enhance the experimental and computational tools required to ensure the continued safety, security, and reliability of the stockpile. NNSA launched its academic program portfolio more than a decade ago to engage students skilled in specific technical areas of relevance to stockpile stewardship. The success of this program is reflected by the large number of SSAP students choosing to begin their careers at NNSA national laboratories.

  5. National Defense Stockpile Modernization or Suicide? (United States)


    8217 REPOF AD-A280 652 Form Approved • fol this e0OMB No. 0704-.188 hk, reporting brden for this coile ng the time for reviewing Instructions. seching...vegetable tannin , asbestos, and talc, have become obsolete due to new technology. For others, such as aluminum, bauxite, copper, lead, mercury, nickel...these minerals must be a prime concern. Potential sales have been carefully reviewed by the stockpile manager and require approval by Congress

  6. The National Defense Stockpile: An Organizational Perspective. (United States)


    Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act of 1939. This Act required the Treasury Department to accumulate supplies of chromite , quartz crystals...materials, the principle minerals being copper and nickel. Because of rising prices due to war demands, copper was released to defense contractors both...metal producers from raising their prices (5:66). The supply of copper or nickel was not replenished, bringing allegations of misuse of the stockpile for

  7. Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, CH


    For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material

  8. Piling Pills? Forward-Looking Behavior and Stockpiling of Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    -rate to a non-linear insurance plan for prescription drugs that incentivizes stockpiling at the end of the coverage year. We extend the original framework of Keeler et al. (1977) and discuss how the institutional features of most health insurance contracts, at least theoretically, incentivize intertemporal......This paper provides evidence of forward-looking behavior in the demand for prescription drugs, while relying on registry-based, individual-level information about the universe of Danish prescription drug purchases from 1995–2014. We exploit a universal shift in policy in early 2000 from a flat...... of the response by individual-level characteristics, proxies for health status, and drug type. We find no evidence of any immediate adverse health utilization effects associated with the stockpiling. We round off the paper with an analysis of the importance of stockpiling for estimates of price sensitivity. We...

  9. Should remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed? (United States)

    Weinstein, Raymond S


    In 2011, the World Health Organization will recommend the fate of existing smallpox stockpiles, but circumstances have changed since the complete destruction of these cultures was first proposed. Recent studies suggest that variola and its experimental surrogate, vaccinia, have a remarkable ability to modify the human immune response through complex mechanisms that scientists are only just beginning to unravel. Further study that might require intact virus is essential. Moreover, modern science now has the capability to recreate smallpox or a smallpox-like organism in the laboratory in addition to the risk of nature re-creating it as it did once before. These factors strongly suggest that relegating smallpox to the autoclave of extinction would be ill advised.

  10. Modeling of coal stockpiles using a finite elements method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Sensogut, C. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey)


    In the case of coal stockpiles finding suitable environmental conditions, spontaneous combustion phenomenon will be unavoidable. In this study, an industrial-sized stockpile having a shape of triangle prism was constituted in a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC), Turkey. The parameters of time, humidity and temperature of air, atmospheric pressure, velocity and direction of wind values that are effective on coal stockpile were measured in a continuous manner. These experimental works were transferred into a computer media in order to obtain similar outcomes by carrying out 2-dimensional analysis of the stockpile with Finite Elements Method (FEM). The performed experimental studies and obtained results were then compared.

  11. Decisions Based on Science. (United States)

    Campbell, Vincent; Lofstrom, Jocelyn; Jerome, Brian

    This guide makes the case for a decision-making focus in the science curriculum as a response to concern over preparing scientifically literate students. The student activities are organized by guided activities and independent exercises. Themes of the guided activities include xenotransplants, immunizations, household cleaning products, ozone,…

  12. Evidence-based Science Communication (United States)

    Kahan, D.


    This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

  13. 78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential... (United States)


    ... Defense Stockpile Manager, maintains a stockpile of strategic and critical materials to supply the... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public... is to advise the public that the National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee, co-chaired by...

  14. FY 2014 - Stockpile and Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  15. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress


    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu


    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  16. Science-based neurorehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Christiansen, Lasse


    to new therapeutic approaches. These areas have constituted a basis for development of some basic principles for neurorehabilitation: Optimal rehabilitation should involve (a) active (patient) participation in the training, (b) training that does not only involve many repetitions, but also continues...... in this relation also be pointed out that albeit neurorehabilitation may be predicted to have the most optimal effect early in life and as soon after injury as possible, there is no reason to believe that beneficial effects of training may not be obtained late in life or several years after injury.......ABSTRACT Neuroscience has fundamentally changed the understanding of learning and memory within recent years. Here, the authors discuss a number of specific areas where they believe new understanding of the CNS from basic science is having a fundamental impact on neurorehabilitation and is leading...

  17. Inquiry-based science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Hagelskjær, Jens


    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret naturfagsundervisnings......Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret...

  18. Decrease of calorific value and particle size in coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department


    During storage of excess amount of coal, they lose both their economical value and cause environmental problems. In this work, two industrial-sized stockpiles were constituted at a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) in Tuncbilek, Turkey. The size of the stockpiles, formed as triangle prisms, was about 10 m x 5 m wide with a height of 3 m; each mass being approximately 120 tons of coal in total. Some of the parameters that were effective on the stockpiles were measured in a continuous manner during this experimental work. The calorific losses and the decreases that occurred in particle size due to atmospheric conditions were also examined and detailed as the result of this work.

  19. Without Testing: Stockpile Stewardship in the Second Nuclear Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Joseph C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Stockpile stewardship is a topic dear to my heart. I’ve been fascinated by it, and I’ve lived it—mostly on the technical side but also on the policy side from 2009 to 2010 at Stanford University as a visiting scholar and the inaugural William J. Perry Fellow. At Stanford I worked with Perry, former secretary of defense, and Sig Hecker, former Los Alamos Lab director (1986–1997), looking at nuclear deterrence, nuclear policy, and stockpile stewardship and at where all this was headed.

  20. Potential Radon-222 Emissions from the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.


    The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency, has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The thorium nitrate stockpile was produced from 1959 to 1964 for the Atomic Energy Commission and previously has been under the control of several federal agencies. The stockpile consists of approximately 7 million pounds of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States (75% by weight at Curtis Bay, Maryland, and 25% by weight at Hammond, Indiana). The material is stored in several configurations in over 21,000 drums. The U.S. Congress has declared the entire DNSC thorium nitrate stockpile to be in excess of the needs of the Department of Defense. Part of DNSC's mission is to safely manage the continued storage, future sales, and/or disposition of the thorium nitrate stockpile. Historically, DNSC has sold surplus thorium nitrate to domestic and foreign companies, but there is no demand currently for this material. Analyses conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2001 demonstrated that disposition of the thorium nitrate inventory as a containerized waste, without processing, is the least complex and lowest-cost option for disposition. A characterization study was conducted in 2002 by ORNL, and it was determined that the thorium nitrate stockpile may be disposed of as low-level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was used as a case study for the disposal alternative, and special radiological analyses and waste acceptance requirements were documented. Among the special radiological considerations is the emission of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn from buried material. NTS has a performance objective on the emissions of radon: 20 pCi m{sup -2} sec{sup -1} at the surface of the disposal facility. The radon emissions from the buried thorium nitrate stockpile have been modeled. This paper presents background information and

  1. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J


    As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

  2. Characterization of outbreak response strategies and potential vaccine stockpile needs for the polio endgame. (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Cochi, Stephen L; Thompson, Kimberly M


    Following successful eradication of wild polioviruses and planned globally-coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), national and global health leaders may need to respond to outbreaks from reintroduced live polioviruses, particularly vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Preparing outbreak response plans and assessing potential vaccine needs from an emergency stockpile require consideration of the different national risks and conditions as they change with time after OPV cessation. We used an integrated global model to consider several key issues related to managing poliovirus risks and outbreak response, including the time interval during which monovalent OPV (mOPV) can be safely used following homotypic OPV cessation; the timing, quality, and quantity of rounds required to stop transmission; vaccine stockpile needs; and the impacts of vaccine choices and surveillance quality. We compare the base case scenario that assumes aggressive outbreak response and sufficient mOPV available from the stockpile for all outbreaks that occur in the model, with various scenarios that change the outbreak response strategies. Outbreak response after OPV cessation will require careful management, with some circumstances expected to require more and/or higher quality rounds to stop transmission than others. For outbreaks involving serotype 2, using trivalent OPV instead of mOPV2 following cessation of OPV serotype 2 but before cessation of OPV serotypes 1 and 3 would represent a good option if logistically feasible. Using mOPV for outbreak response can start new outbreaks if exported outside the outbreak population into populations with decreasing population immunity to transmission after OPV cessation, but failure to contain outbreaks resulting in exportation of the outbreak poliovirus may represent a greater risk. The possibility of mOPV use generating new long-term poliovirus excretors represents a real concern. Using the base case outbreak response assumptions, we

  3. Science gateways for semantic-web-based life science applications. (United States)

    Ardizzone, Valeria; Bruno, Riccardo; Calanducci, Antonio; Carrubba, Carla; Fargetta, Marco; Ingrà, Elisa; Inserra, Giuseppina; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Monforte, Salvatore; Pistagna, Fabrizio; Ricceri, Rita; Rotondo, Riccardo; Scardaci, Diego; Barbera, Roberto


    In this paper we present the architecture of a framework for building Science Gateways supporting official standards both for user authentication and authorization and for middleware-independent job and data management. Two use cases of the customization of the Science Gateway framework for Semantic-Web-based life science applications are also described.

  4. Science teachers understanding of inquiry-based science teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at finding out Rwandan lower secondary school science teachers' understanding of inquiry-based science teaching (IBST). A two phases' sequential explanatory mixed methods was adopted. Data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire administered to a purposeful sample of 200 science ...

  5. 30 CFR 77.211 - Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.211 Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general. (a) Tunnels located below stockpiles, surge piles, and coal storage silos...

  6. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng


    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  7. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé, F.; Honders, T.; Derksen, G.B.; Gadella, M.


    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The

  8. LX-17-1 Stockpile Returned Material Lot Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pease, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Willey, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Many different lots of LX-17 have been produced over the years. Two varieties of LX-17, LX-17-0 and LX-17-1, have at one point or another been a part of the Livermore stockpile systems. LX-17-0 was made with dry-aminated TATB whereas LX-17-1 was made with wet-aminated TATB. Both versions have the same TATB to Kel-F 800 mass ratio of 92.5%/7.5%. Both kinds of LX-17 were formulated at Holston during the late 1970s or early to mid-1980s and were certified to have met the necessary specifications that cover the purity, particle size range, explosive to binder ratio, etc. In recent years, Trevor Willy and others have performed a detailed evaluation of solid parts made from each of the LX-17 lots manufactured at Holston. Using the Advanced Light Source at LBNL, Willey and his colleagues radiographed many samples from isostatic pressings using the same scanning conditions. In their investigation they identified that even though the bulk composition can be the same, there may exist a large spread in how smoothly the TATB and binder were distributed within the radiographed volume of different lots of material.1 Overall, the dry-aminated TATB-based material, LX-17-0, had a smooth TATB and binder distribution, whereas the wet-aminated TATB-based LX-17-1 showed a wide range of binder distributions. The results for five different LX-17-1 lots are shown in Figure 1. The wide variation in material distribution has raised the question about whether or not this sort variability will cause significant differences in mechanical behavior.

  9. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, T.M.


    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  10. Effects of alternative oil stockpiling programs on the U. S. economy, 1976--1979. Final results. [Effects of 730-/and 4380-million barrel stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Behling, D.J. Jr.


    Application of Brookhaven's Energy Input-Output Model is demonstrated by analyzing economy-wide effects of an Oil Stockpile Program. The model is used to estimate the 1976-79 inter-industry output, employment, capital, and energy substitution effects of 730- and 4380-barrel stockpiles. Two policy variables--the type of stockpile facility and the method of financing--and one assumption--balance of payments effects--are examined.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil, contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials and heavy metals, remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project, co-funded by the BNL Environmental Management Directorate and the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. Project objectives were to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles, ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}, were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpiles'' after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2 inch screen removed gravel and almost all non-conforming items, which were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a subpile. Eight samples plus QA duplicates were collected from each subpile for chemical analysis, and a 1-Liter jar of material for gamma spectroscopy. A field lab equipped for chemical analysis and gamma spectroscopy was set up in a trailer close by the stockpile site. Chemical analysis included X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to screen for high (>260 ppm) total mercury concentrations, and modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests to verify that the soils

  12. Pluvial percolation in pyrite-bearing coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielle Andrade Pimentel; Jose Aurelio Medeiros da Luz [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto (Brazil)


    Acid mine drainage is a main environmental problem linked to coal and sulfide ore mining. Its treatment usually involves alkalinization and subsequent precipitation and immobilization of the dissolved species. Rainfalls over stockpiles can cause a very similar phenomenon. This work aimed to study the effluents from such a leaching process in steam-coal stockpiles Brazilian coal with a high pyrite content was used. The effluents have been chemically characterized. Effluent clarification by aggregation and settling in an attempt to simultaneously deplete heavy metal content was studied. Settling experiments were carried out with coal suspensions, in order to evaluate the efficiency of inorganic and polymeric reagents in the process. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Science teachers understanding of inquiry-based science teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Methodology. The present paper investigates the lower secondary school science teachers' understanding of inquiry-based science teaching. In the attempt to answer the research question, a pragmatic research approach which led to using mixed methods was adopted and both quantitative and qualitative data collected.

  14. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Radiocesium Decorporation by a Prussian Blue Treatment and Stockpiling. (United States)

    Rump, Alexis; Stricklin, Daniela; Lamkowski, Andreas; Eder, Stefan; Port, Matthias


    In the case of an attack by a "dirty bomb" with cesium-137 there is a risk of internal contamination. The excretion of cesium-137 can be enhanced by Prussian Blue (PB), and thus the committed effective dose be reduced. We analyzed the benefit and costs of PB decorporation treatment. We simulated the reduction of the radiological dose by PB treatment after cesium-137 incorporation by inhalation. The saving of life time was quantified using the monetary "value of a statistical life" (VSL). Treatment costs were based on the market price of PB in Germany. Moreover we considered the holding costs of stockpiling. The benefit of PB treatment increases with its duration up to about 90 days. If treatment initiation is delayed, the maximum achievable benefit is decreased. For a VSL of 1.646 million €, the net benefit of a 90-days treatment started 1 day after the incorporation remains positive up to a stockpiling duration of 10 years. If starting PB treatment as late as the 180th day after incorporation, the costs will surpass the benefit. We conclude that a prompt decision making and early treatment initiation greatly impacts on the medical but also economic efficiency of a PB treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Optimal lay-out design for coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberrisser, H. [Voest-Alpine Materials Handling GmbH and Co KG, Zeltweg (Austria)


    This article reviews current 'state of the art' concepts regarding lay-out and equipment for coal terminals. It groups these ideas into a workable set of guidelines for the coal mine or stockyard operator. The article concludes with four appropriate cases. The selection of the best suitable layout of the stockpile and equipment for coal storage and coal terminals is determined by a number of important criteria. A detailed analysis of process relevant requirements as well as an economic and ecological evaluation will result either in a conventional longitudinal or in a circular coal pile layout. (orig.)

  16. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.


    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  17. Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program focus groups: A manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Garkovich, C.A.; Shriver, T.E. Jr.


    While completing a congressionally mandated destruction of the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons, the US Army decided that enhanced emergency planning was needed to reduce the consequences of an accidental release of agent. This decision is being implemented cooperatively by the US Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the form of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), with additional cooperation from other federal agencies and affected state and local governments. This manual supports that effort by providing information about a commonly used qualitative data and information gathering technique, focus group interviewing, that may be used to design public education materials and other wide enhance communication among CSEPP providers and users. The focus group technique is characterized by structured discussions on a specific topic among a carefully selected group of participants. This manual provides background information on the CSEPP and the current management plan for the CSEPP. It describes the focus group technique and how it may be applied, either by itself or in conjunction with other appropriate research techniques, by state and local government officials to investigate many of the behavioral and organizational impacts of the CSEPP. Sample questions and probes that may be useful in designing and conducting specific CSEPP focus groups are also provided. The manual also includes a list of suggested readings and other reference material that may be useful in designing focus groups. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Game based learning for computer science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Czauderna, André; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus


    Schmitz, B., Czauderna, A., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2011). Game based learning for computer science education. In G. van der Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 81-86). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit.

  19. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from pigs housed on litter and from stockpiling of spent litter

    KAUST Repository

    Phillips, F. A.


    Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is a target area for the Australian Government and the pork industry. The present study measured methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) from a deep-litter piggery and litter stockpile over two trials in southern New South Wales, to compare emissions from housing pigs on deep litter with those of pigs from conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. Emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, in conjunction with a backward Lagrangian stochastic model. Manure excretion was determined by mass balance and emission factors (EFs) were developed to report emissions relative to volatile solids and nitrogen (N) input. Nitrous oxide emissions per animal unit (1 AU ≤ 500 kg liveweight) from deep-litter sheds were negligible in winter, and 8.4 g/ in summer. Ammonia emissions were 39.1 in winter and 52.2 g/ in summer, while CH4 emissions were 16.1 and 21.6 g/ in winter and summer respectively. Emission factors averaged from summer and winter emissions showed a CH4 conversion factor of 3.6%, an NH3-N EF of 10% and a N2O-N EF of 0.01 kg N2O-N/kg N excreted. For the litter stockpile, the simple average of summer and winter showed an EF for NH3-N of 14%, and a N2O-N EF of 0.02 kg N2O-N/kg-N of spent litter added to the stockpile. We observed a 66% and 80% decrease in emissions from the manure excreted in litter-based housing with litter stockpiling or without litter stockpiling, compared with conventional housing with an uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment pond. This provides a sound basis for mitigation strategies that utilise litter-based housing as an alternative to conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. © CSIRO 2016.

  20. Is dental practice science based? (United States)

    Douglass, C W


    This paper explores the thesis that the changing medical needs of dental patients, advances in biomedical research, and the confluence of the financing of medical and dental care will result in closer linkages between the medical and dental care delivery systems during the next century. Five trends have been documented in support of this thesis: the increasing number of elderly and their retention of teeth means there is a greater need for restorative dental care than in previous generations; the elderly have chronic diseases and are taking more medications; younger patients are presenting more frequently with infectious, systemic diseases such as HIV/AIDS. New scientific discoveries are opening new possibilities for patient care, which generate even higher expectations on the part of future consumers of medical and dental services. The health and fitness trend is not a fad; new knowledge regarding diet, nutrition, and exercise is identifying systemic risk factors related to common oral pathologies. Medical and dental educators are paying increased attention to the application of basic sciences to patient care. HMOs are increasing their market share of medical care delivery and expanding their services with preventive care and total patient care, including dental services. Data are provided documenting that dentists see these trends occurring in their private practices. The paper concludes that the application of advances in science and technology to oral health will improve the quality of dentistry. However, only new, effective preventive agents will decrease the cost of care, while improved diagnostics and restorative technologies could increase dental care costs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Simulation of bulk solids blending in longitudinal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis F. Pavloudakis; Z. Agioutantis


    A bulk solid blending simulator for longitudinal stockpiles has been developed using the Visual Basic development platform for Windows{reg_sign}. The program can be applied to optimizing blending in stockyards of mines, coal-fired power plants or cement industries. Input to the simulator consists of the average value, the standard deviation and the autocorrelation of the property for which blending is attempted. The program initially creates a time series of property values for the material delivered to the stockyard. Then, this input sequence is rearranged by simulating the operation of the stacking and reclaiming equipment. The output sequence of property values reflects the quality fluctuation of the material as it is delivered to the customer.

  2. Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science. (United States)

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

    This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

  3. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs (United States)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary

  4. Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio. (United States)

    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M


    Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmentally-based insights for science teaching (United States)

    Rowell, J. A.


    From where should science teaching derive its inspiration? It is suggested here that if we are to have sustainable, rational progress in science teaching then practice must be theoretically based. Working from this position, Piaget's theory is examined for its teaching implications. Ten implications are derived and, in a second section of the paper, are used to generate a coherent program of classroom practice and research.

  6. CFD simulation of thermodynamic and temperature effects on spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles and dumps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, J


    Full Text Available numerical integration of stiff partial differential equations (PDE’s).The simulation results obtained from the twodimensional model provided useful information in characterising the thermal-flow and combustion properties of coal stockpiles and carbonaceous...

  7. The impact of the quality of coal mine stockpile soils on sustainable vegetation growth and productivity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushia, NM


    Full Text Available , chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected...

  8. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki


    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Project-based learning in consumer sciences: enhancing students' responsibility in learning. INTRODUCTION. First-year university students ... This is followed by a report on the empirical research, the results obtained as well ..... project development. After the project had been completed, students were required to write an.

  10. Hedge math: Theoretical limits on minimum stockpile size across nuclear hedging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, Jarret Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Roesler, Alexander W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In June 2013, the Department of Defense published a congressionally mandated, unclassified update on the U.S. Nuclear Employment Strategy. Among the many updates in this document are three key ground rules for guiding the sizing of the non-deployed U.S. nuclear stockpile. Furthermore, these ground rules form an important and objective set of criteria against which potential future stockpile hedging strategies can be evaluated.

  11. The Impact of the Quality of Coal Mine Stockpile Soils on Sustainable Vegetation Growth and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky M Mushia


    Full Text Available Stockpiled soils are excavated from the ground during mining activities, and piled on the surface of the soil for rehabilitation purposes. These soils are often characterized by low organic matter (SOM content, low fertility, and poor physical, chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected at three different depths (surface, mid, and deep as well as mixed (equal proportion of surface, mid and deep from two stockpiles (named Stockpile 1: aged 10 and Stockpile 2: 20 years at the coal mine near Witbank in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Soils were amended with different organic and inorganic fertilizer. A 2 × 4 × 5 factorial experiment in a completely randomized blocked design with four replications was established under greenhouse conditions. A grass species (Digiteria eriantha was planted in the pots with unamended and amended soils under greenhouse conditions at 26–28 °C during the day and 16.5–18.5 °C at night. Mean values of plant height, plant cover, total fresh biomass (roots, stems and leaves, and total dry biomass were found to be higher in Stockpile 1 than in Stockpile 2 soils. Plants grown on soils with no amendments had lower mean values for major plant parameters studied. Soil amended with poultry manure and lime was found to have higher growth rate compared with soils with other soil amendments. Mixed soils had better vegetation growth than soil from other depths. Stockpiled soils in the study area cannot support vegetation growth without being amended, as evidenced by low grass growth and productivity in this study.

  12. The Role of the National Defense Stockpile in the Supply of Strategic and Critical Materials (United States)


    Department to stockpile chromite , quartz, tin, crystals, and rubber, and directed the Army and Navy Munitions Boards to set policy for the use of these...authorized release of materials, primarily aluminum and copper .15 Also during this time management of the stockpile function transferred from the Treasury...from domestic and foreign interests affected by these disposals.17 During the Vietnam era, the government released cadmium and copper from the

  13. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    One of the greater challenges the Army faces is effectively dealing with the concerns of the public, local officials and the news media on the disposal of aging chemical agents. This paper describes the method developed for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). The purpose was to provide a fairly comprehensive document on risk communication research and recommended practices as they related to the CSEPP. Using the communications perspective suggested by Covello and colleagues, the existing practices of communicating risk information about chemical weapons and the associated efforts in emergency planning, storage and eventual disposal are described. Risk communication problems specific to the CSEPP are then examined and described via scenarios. A framework is developed that distinguishes between the major components of risk communication, flow and intent. Within this framework, the research and recommendations are summarized as to direction of flow -- dialogue, or two-way interaction, versus monologue, or one-way communication -- and that of intent -- exchange versus persuasion. The findings and recommendations are synthesized and related to risk events for the CSEPP as posited in the scenarios.

  14. Science-based natural resource management decisions: what are they? (United States)

    T.J. Mills; T.M. Quigley; F.J. Everest


    While many people interested in natural resources management propose science-based decisions, it is not clear what “science-based” means. Science-based decisions are those that result from the full and complete consideration of the relevant science information. We offer five guidelines to focus the scientist’s contributions to science-based decisionmaking and use the...

  15. The PRISM reactor as a possible option to deal with the british civilian plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtlscherer, Christopher [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); ISR, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Boku) (Austria)


    Dealing with stocks of separated weapon-usable plutonium is a big challenge for our modern society. This work focuses on the British civil plutonium stockpiles, which amount to 103.3 tons. One option is seen in irradiating the plutonium in a fast reactor under development, namely the GE PRISM reactor. The PRISM reactor is a small modular, fast reactor which has a thermal power of 840 MW and an electrical output of 311 MW. It is intended to use MOX fuel and proponents claim, that it thus would be possible to produce clean energy, while making the plutonium proliferation resistant. A MCNP model of the reactor is built and depletion calculations with different target burnups of the fuel were conducted to check whether the burned material would fulfil the Spent-Fuel Standard. Particularly it was checked whether the spent fuel is self protecting, meaning that the dose rate does not fall below a limit of 1 Sv/h in 1 meter distance after a cooling period of 30 years. Based on the reactor model calculations the irradiation time to fulfill this limit for the spent fuel is calculated. Based on the needed target burnup, it can be verified, whether it is possible for the PRISM reactor to render the civil plutonium proliferation resistant in only 20 years as is is claimed by its proponents.

  16. Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S.; Alonso, C.T.


    This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.

  17. Numerical modeling of flow structures over various flat-topped stockpiles height: Implications on dust emissions (United States)

    Turpin, C.; Harion, J.-L.

    Fugitive dust emissions from open stock yards for bulk materials, such as coal or ores, can represent a significant part of overall estimated atmospheric emission on industrial site, as example on steel plant sites. Stockpile topography is known to modify the near field uptake force of the wind through changes of the mean flow. Various studies have shown that aeolian erosion strongly occurs on the stockpile crest, so it appears relevant to carry out a study to analyze the effect on the dust emissions of the stockpile clipping. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were done with the aim of simulating wind flow over different flat-topped pile scenarios, corresponding to a constant material volume. Various wind flow directions were tested to determine its impact on particle emissions. Data obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations were then integrated in order to estimate the effect of the clipping on the stockpiles dust emission rates by using the EPA's emission factors method. Results provide evidence to suggest that clipping stockpiles does not reduce dust emissions. This study provides to industrial operators some informations on the best geometrical pile characteristics in order to limit particles emissions.

  18. Promoting science-based prevention in communities. (United States)

    Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Arthur, Michael W


    In the past decade, prevention science has emerged as a discipline built on the integration of life course development research, community epidemiology, and preventive intervention trials [Am. Psychol. 48 (1993) 1013; Am. J. Community Psychol. 27 (1999) 463; Kellam, S. G., & Rebok, G. W. (1992). Building developmental and etiological theory through epidemiologically based preventive intervention trials. In J. McCord & R. E. Tremblay (Eds.), Preventing antisocial behavior: interventions from birth through adolescence (pp. 162-195). New York: Guilford Press.]. Prevention science is based on the premise that empirically verifiable precursors (risk and protective factors) predict the likelihood of undesired health outcomes including substance abuse and dependence. Prevention science postulates that negative health outcomes like alcohol abuse and dependence can be prevented by reducing or eliminating risk factors and enhancing protective factors in individuals and their environments during the course of development. A growing number of interventions have been found to be effective in preventing adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse, delinquency, violence, and related health risk behaviors by reducing risk and enhancing protection. During the same decade, comprehensive community-based interventions to prevent adolescent health and behavior problems have been widely implemented in the U.S. with federal and foundation support. Despite the advances in the science base for effective preventive interventions and the investments in community-wide preventive interventions, many communities continue to invest in prevention strategies with limited evidence of effectiveness [Am. J. Public Health 84 (1994) 1394; J. Res. Crime Delinq. 39 (2002) 3; J. Community Psychol. 28 (2000) 237; J. Community Psychol. 28 (2000) 237; J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 67 (1999) 590; Eval. Program Plann. 20 (1997) 367.]. Translating prevention science into community prevention systems has

  19. Cellphone-based devices for bioanalytical sciences. (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Mudanyali, Onur; Schneider, E Marion; Zengerle, Roland; Ozcan, Aydogan


    During the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing trend toward the use of cellphone-based devices (CBDs) in bioanalytical sciences. For example, they have been used for digital microscopy, cytometry, read-out of immunoassays and lateral flow tests, electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance based bio-sensing, colorimetric detection and healthcare monitoring, among others. Cellphone can be considered as one of the most prospective devices for the development of next-generation point-of-care (POC) diagnostics platforms, enabling mobile healthcare delivery and personalized medicine. With more than 6.5 billion cellphone subscribers worldwide and approximately 1.6 billion new devices being sold each year, cellphone technology is also creating new business and research opportunities. Many cellphone-based devices, such as those targeted for diabetic management, weight management, monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, have already become commercially-available in recent years. In addition to such monitoring platforms, several other CBDs are also being introduced, targeting e.g., microscopic imaging and sensing applications for medical diagnostics using novel computational algorithms and components already embedded on cellphones. This report aims to review these recent developments in CBDs for bioanalytical sciences along with some of the challenges involved and the future opportunities.

  20. ACAM2000™: The new smallpox vaccine for United States Strategic National Stockpile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Nalca


    Full Text Available Aysegul Nalca, Elizabeth E ZumbrunCenter for Aerobiological Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, MD, USAAbstract: Smallpox was eradicated more than 30 years ago, but heightened concerns over bioterrorism have brought smallpox and smallpox vaccination back to the forefront. The previously licensed smallpox vaccine in the United States, Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., was highly effective, but the supply was insufficient to vaccinate the entire current US population. Additionally, Dryvax® had a questionable safety profile since it consisted of a pool of vaccinia virus strains with varying degrees of virulence, and was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination. The US government has therefore recently supported development of an improved live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. This initiative has resulted in the development of ACAM2000™ (Acambis, Inc.™, a single plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax®, aseptically propagated in cell culture. Preclinical and clinical trials reported in 2008 demonstrated that ACAM2000™ has comparable immunogenicity to that of Dryvax®, and causes a similar frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, like Dryvax®, ACAM2000™ vaccination has been shown by careful cardiac screening to result in an unexpectedly high rate of myocarditis and pericarditis. ACAM2000™ received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in August 2007, and replaced Dryvax® for all smallpox vaccinations in February 2008. Currently, over 200 million doses of ACAM2000™ have been produced for the US Strategic National Stockpile. This review of ACAM2000™ addresses the production, characterization, clinical trials, and adverse events associated with this new smallpox vaccine.Keywords: smallpox, vaccinia, variola, vaccine, efficacy, safety

  1. Facilitating Elementary Science Teachers' Implementation of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Qablan, Ahmad M.; DeBaz, Theodora


    Preservice science teachers generally feel that the implementation of inquiry-based science teaching is very difficult to manage. This research project aimed at facilitating the implementation of inquiry-based science teaching through the use of several classroom strategies. The evaluation of 15 classroom strategies from 80 preservice elementary…

  2. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program (United States)

    Cook, Donald


    Underground nuclear testing of U.S. nuclear weapons was halted by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 when he announced a moratorium. In 1993, the moratorium was extended by President Bill Clinton and, in 1995, a program of Stockpile Stewardship was put in its place. In 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Twenty years have passed since then. Over the same time, the average age of a nuclear weapon in the stockpile has increased from 6 years (1992) to nearly 29 years (2015). At its inception, achievement of the objectives of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) appeared possible but very difficult. The cost to design and construct several large facilities for precision experimentation in hydrodynamics and high energy density physics was large. The practical steps needed to move from computational platforms of less than 100 Mflops/sec to 10 Teraflops/sec and beyond were unknown. Today, most of the required facilities for SSP are in place and computational speed has been increased by more than six orders of magnitude. These, and the physicists and engineers in the complex of labs and plants within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) who put them in place, have been the basis for underpinning an annual decision, made by the weapons lab directors for each of the past 20 years, that resort to underground nuclear testing is not needed for maintaining confidence in the safety and reliability of the U.S stockpile. A key part of that decision has been annual assessment of the physical changes in stockpiled weapons. These weapons, quite simply, are systems that invariably and unstoppably age in the internal weapon environment of radioactive materials and complex interfaces of highly dissimilar organic and inorganic materials. Without an ongoing program to rebuild some components and replace other components to increase safety or security, i.e., life extending these weapons, either underground testing would again be

  3. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.


    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  4. Achieving science, math and reading literacy for all: The role of inquiry-based science instruction (United States)

    Hung, Man

    With the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, educators and policy makers have been seeking effective strategies to improve students' science, mathematics and reading achievement. One of the primary teaching strategies recommended by reform-oriented organizations, such as the National Research Council (1996), is to utilize inquiry-based science instruction. In this study, I examined the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement across science, mathematics and reading. I also compared the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999---a large, national data sample---a series of structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicated that inquiry-based science instruction was associated with significant, positive gains not only in science achievement, but also in mathematics and reading achievement. The positive relationship between inquiry instruction and student achievement was found above and beyond the contributions of traditional science instruction, which generally showed no significant relationship to student achievement. Findings support the theoretical position that inquiry-based science instruction can have robust benefits across the curriculum. This study contributes to the dialogue on effective instructional methods to achieve science, mathematics and reading literacy for all. Overall, this study provides cautious support for the idea that student achievement can be promoted by supporting and encouraging teachers to implement inquiry-based science instruction.

  5. Springer handbook of model-based science

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Tommaso


    The handbook offers the first comprehensive reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning. It highlights the role of models as mediators between theory and experimentation, and as educational devices, as well as their relevance in testing hypotheses and explanatory functions. The Springer Handbook merges philosophical, cognitive and epistemological perspectives on models with the more practical needs related to the application of this tool across various disciplines and practices. The result is a unique, reliable source of information that guides readers toward an understanding of different aspects of model-based science, such as the theoretical and cognitive nature of models, as well as their practical and logical aspects. The inferential role of models in hypothetical reasoning, abduction and creativity once they are constructed, adopted, and manipulated for different scientific and technological purposes is also discussed. Written by a group of internationally renowned experts in ...

  6. Evidence Based Practice: Science? Or Art? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available Evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP is a strategy to bridge research and practice. Generally EBLIP is seen as a movement to encourage and give practitioners the means to incorporate research into their practice, where it previously may have been lacking. The widely accepted definition of EBLIP (Booth, 2000 stresses three aspects that contribute to a practice that is evidence based: 1 "the best available evidence;" 2 "moderated by user needs and preferences;" 3 "applied to improve the quality of professional judgements." The area that the EBLIP movement has focused on is how to create and understand the best available research evidence. CE courses, critical appraisal checklists, and many articles have been written to address a need for librarian education in this area, and it seems that strides have been made.But very little in the EBLIP literature talks about how we make professional judgements, or moderate evidence based on our user needs and preferences. Likewise, how do we make good evidence based decisions when our evidence base is weak. These things seem to be elements we just take for granted or can’t translate into words. It is in keeping with tacit knowledge that librarians just seem to have or acquire skills with education and on the job experience. Tacit knowledge is "knowledge that is not easily articulated, and frequently involves knowledge of how to do things. We can infer its existence only by observing behaviour and determining that this sort of knowledge is a precondition for effective performance" (Patel, Arocha, & Kaufman, 1999, p.78. It is something that is difficult to translate into an article or guideline for how we work. I think of this area as the "art" of evidence based practice. And the art is crucial to being an evidence based practitioner.Science = systematized knowledge, explicit research, methodological examination, investigation, dataArt = professional knowledge of your craft, intuition

  7. DOE R and D data tracking base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horpedahl, L.; Brooks, M.


    This document consists of DOE R and D tracking information for the following topics: Stockpile Readiness Program; Stockpile Reduction Program; Enduring Stockpile Program; Future Stockpile Program; Archiving; Nuclear Component Assessment; Advanced Application; Validation and Verification; Distance and Distributed Computing; DOD Munitions; Performance Assessment; Physics; Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility/Los Alamos Neutron Science Center; Advanced Hydrodynamic Radiography; Systems Engineering; Advanced Manufacturing; Chemistry and Materials; High Explosives; Special Nuclear Mateirals; Tritium; Collaboration with ASCI; Numeric Environment for Weapons Simulation; Target Physics; Theory and Modeling; Target Development; Fabrication and Handling; Other ICF Activities; Development of Predictive Capabilities--Nuclear; Development of Diagnostic Tools--Nuclear; Process Development; and IPPD/Agile Manufacturing.

  8. Constructing a Community System-Based Social Science Curriculum. (United States)

    Muth, John W.; Senesh, Lawrence

    This guide is designed to aid social studies classroom teachers develop and implement programs using the community as a social sciences laboratory. The document describes how to prepare a social profile of the community. Based upon the Colorado System-Based Social Science Project which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the study…

  9. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities (United States)

    Alberts, Rebecca


    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  10. Reducing drying energy and costs by process alterations at aggregate stockpiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, G.J.; Schott, D.L.; Demmink, E.W.; Lodewijks, G.


    In the field of bulk solids, handling knowledge on moisture behaviour in aggregate stockpiles can be useful for process optimisation in terms of energy consumption. In the asphalt industry, an increase in moisture content leads to a significant increase in energy consumption. To determine the

  11. Prevention of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles : Experimental results in coal storage yard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.; Visser, G.H.


    The spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This paper deals with oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal piles laid in coal storage yard and the measures to avoid the heat losses produced. Investigations on self heating were carried out with five test

  12. 77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential... (United States)


    ... interest to the National Defense Stockpile Manager. In Attachment 1, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) lists the quantities of materials associated with three proposed material research and development... quantities listed in Attachment 1 are not acquisition target quantities, but rather a statement of the...

  13. 77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential... (United States)


    ... interest to the National Defense Stockpile Manager. In Attachment 1, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) lists the quantities of materials associated with the two material research and development projects to... material research and development projects. The quantities listed in Attachment 1 are not acquisition...

  14. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Elementary Science (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.


    Curriculum materials are important resources with which teachers make pedagogical decisions about the design of science learning environments. To become well-started beginning elementary teachers capable of engaging their students in inquiry-based science, preservice elementary teachers need to learn to use science curriculum materials…

  15. Food-Based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.


    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a…

  16. Antiviral resistance during pandemic influenza: implications for stockpiling and drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Christopher S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anticipated extent of antiviral use during an influenza pandemic can have adverse consequences for the development of drug resistance and rationing of limited stockpiles. The strategic use of drugs is therefore a major public health concern in planning for effective pandemic responses. Methods We employed a mathematical model that includes both sensitive and resistant strains of a virus with pandemic potential, and applies antiviral drugs for treatment of clinical infections. Using estimated parameters in the published literature, the model was simulated for various sizes of stockpiles to evaluate the outcome of different antiviral strategies. Results We demonstrated that the emergence of highly transmissible resistant strains has no significant impact on the use of available stockpiles if treatment is maintained at low levels or the reproduction number of the sensitive strain is sufficiently high. However, moderate to high treatment levels can result in a more rapid depletion of stockpiles, leading to run-out, by promoting wide-spread drug resistance. We applied an antiviral strategy that delays the onset of aggressive treatment for a certain amount of time after the onset of the outbreak. Our results show that if high treatment levels are enforced too early during the outbreak, a second wave of infections can potentially occur with a substantially larger magnitude. However, a timely implementation of wide-scale treatment can prevent resistance spread in the population, and minimize the final size of the pandemic. Conclusion Our results reveal that conservative treatment levels during the early stages of the outbreak, followed by a timely increase in the scale of drug-use, will offer an effective strategy to manage drug resistance in the population and avoid run-out. For a 1918-like strain, the findings suggest that pandemic plans should consider stockpiling antiviral drugs to cover at least 20% of the population.

  17. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn


    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  18. Transformative Professional Development: Inquiry-Based College Science Teaching Institutes (United States)

    Zhao, Ningfeng; Witzig, Stephen B.; Weaver, Jan C.; Adams, John E.; Schmidt, Frank


    Two Summer Institutes funded by the National Science Foundation were held for current and future college science faculty. The overall goal was to promote learning and practice of inquiry-based college science teaching. We developed a collaborative and active learning format for participants that involved all phases of the 5E learning cycle of…

  19. Unmaking the bomb: Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander


    Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons may require the ability for international in-spectors to account for individual warheads, even when non-deployed, and to confirm the authenticity of nuclear warheads prior to dismantlement. These are fundamentally new challenges for nuclear verification, and they have been known for some time; unfortunately, due to a lack of sense of urgency, research in this area has not made substantial progress over the past 20 years. This chapter explores the central outstanding issues and offers a number of possible paths forward. In the case of confirming numerical limits, these in-clude innovative tagging techniques and approaches solely based on declarations using modern crypto-graphic escrow schemes; with regard to warhead confirmation, there has recently been increasing interest in developing fundamentally new measurement approaches where, in one form or another, sensitive infor-mation is not acquired in the first place. Overall, new international R&D efforts could more usefully focus on non-intrusive technologies and approaches, which may show more promise for early demonstration and adoption. In the meantime, while warhead dismantlements remain unverified, nuclear weapon states ought to begin to document warhead assembly, refurbishment, and dismantlement activities and movements of warheads and warhead components through the weapons complex in ways that international inspectors will find credible at a later time. Again, such a process could be enabled by modern cryptographic techniques such as blockchaining. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it is important to recognize that the main reason for the complexity of technologies and approaches needed for nuclear disarmament verification is the requirement to protect information that nuclear weapon states consider sensitive. Ultimately, if information security concerns cannot be resolved to the satisfaction of all stakeholders, an alternative would be to "reveal the

  20. Teaching, learning, and assessing inquiry-based science education (United States)

    McLoughlin, Eilish; Finlayson, Odilla; van Kampen, Paul; McCabe, Deirdre; Brady, Sarah


    During the period 2008-2014, the European Commission funded several large-scale projects in science education that promoted the use of inquiry-based learning for engaging young people in science. All these projects were aimed at the introduction and broader use of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) through enriching the skills of teachers by delivering appropriate teacher education programs at both pre-service and in-service levels. This paper will present on the approach adopted by the SAILS project to support science teachers in the use and dissemination of Inquiry based approaches in their own classrooms with students aged 12-18 years.

  1. Enquiry-Based Science in the Infant Classroom: "Letting Go" (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny; Rietdijk, Willeke; Cheek, Sue


    Enquiry-based science in primary classrooms is key to encouraging children's interest and curiosity about the world around them and as a result helps to stimulate their understanding and enjoyment of science. Yet many primary teachers lack the confidence to implement enquiry-based approaches effectively. The reasons are myriad and often result in…

  2. Internet-based Science Learning: A review of journal publications (United States)

    Wen-Yu Lee, Silvia; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen


    Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science learning, such as demographic background, prior knowledge, and self-efficacy; and (2) the learning outcomes derived from Internet-based science learning, such as attitude, motivation, conceptual understanding, and conceptual change. Some important conclusions are drawn from the review. For example, Internet-based science learning is equally favorable, or in some cases more so, to learning for female students compared to male students. The learner's control is essential for enhancing students' attitudes and motivation toward learning in Internet-based science learning environments. Nevertheless, appropriate guidance from teachers, moderators, or the Internet-based learning environment itself is still quite crucial in Internet-based science learning. Recommendations for future research related to the effects of Internet-based science learning on students' metacognitive reflections, epistemological development, and worldviews are suggested.

  3. Scaffolding in Mobile Science Enquiry-based Learning Using Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Ahmed


    Full Text Available The use of ontologies has become increasingly widespread in many areas, particularly in technology enhanced learning. They appear promising in supporting knowledge representation and learning content creation for domains of interest. In this paper, we show how ontology-based scaffolding has helped mobile learners to perform scientific enquiry investigations. Enquiry-based learning aims to provide educational activities and tools to assists students to learn science by doing science. In this study, a design science research approach was taken to creating an ontology-driven application for a science content domain, which has been evaluated with high school science students. The results showed the significant value of ontologies in scaffolding learning content in such enquiry-based learning environments. With this application, students were found to learn science in more meaningful and engaged ways as well as developing positive attitudes towards mobile learning.

  4. Achievements and challenges for the use of killed oral cholera vaccines in the global stockpile era. (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Alberti, Kathryn P; Martin, Stephen; Costa, Alejandro; Perea, William; Legros, Dominique


    Cholera remains an important but neglected public health threat, affecting the health of the poorest populations and imposing substantial costs on public health systems. Cholera can be eliminated where access to clean water, sanitation, and satisfactory hygiene practices are sustained, but major improvements in infrastructure continue to be a distant goal. New developments and trends of cholera disease burden, the creation of affordable oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) for use in developing countries, as well as recent evidence of vaccination impact has created an increased demand for cholera vaccines. The global OCV stockpile was established in 2013 and with support from Gavi, has assisted in achieving rapid access to vaccine in emergencies. Recent WHO prequalification of a second affordable OCV supports the stockpile goals of increased availability and distribution to affected populations. It serves as an essential step toward an integrated cholera control and prevention strategy in emergency and endemic settings.

  5. Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. Final rule. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is adopting as a final rule, without change, the interim final rule that issued regulations permitting FDA Center Directors to grant exceptions or alternatives to certain regulatory labeling requirements applicable to human drugs, biological products, or medical devices that are or will be included in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). FDA is taking this action to complete the rulemaking initiated with the interim final rule.

  6. Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.


    As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

  7. Effects of Web Based Inquiry Science Environment on Cognitive Outcomes in Biological Science in Correlation to Emotional Intelligence (United States)

    Manoj, T. I.; Devanathan, S.


    This research study is the report of an experiment conducted to find out the effects of web based inquiry science environment on cognitive outcomes in Biological science in correlation to Emotional intelligence. Web based inquiry science environment (WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry-based science projects for students to work…

  8. Evolving approaches toward science based forest management. (United States)

    Robert C. Szaro; Charles E. Peterson


    The sale, scope, and complexity of natural resource and environmental issues have dramatically increased, yet the urgency to solve these issues often requires immediate information that spans disciplinary boundaries, synthesizes material from a variety of sources, draws inferences, and identifies levels of confidence. Although science information and knowledge are only...

  9. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K. [comps.


    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Professions as Science-Based Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brante


    Full Text Available How professions should be defined and separated from other occupations has constituted an enduring theoretical and empirical problem in studies of the professions. In this article, the definitions of the so-called list approaches, involving enumerations of social attributes, are scrutinized. Weak-nesses are highlighted and analysed. It is argued that an alternative approach to the issue of definition, commencing from the epistemic or cognitive dimensions of professions, may be more fruitful. One such possibility is presented by setting out from realist philosophy of science. The links between science and profession are explored by addressing, primarily, the relation between the concepts of mechanism and intervention. A new, ‘invariant’ definition is proposed. In conclusion, a few consequences for future empirical studies of the professions are outlined.

  11. A dual justification for science-based policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz


    Science-based policy-making has grown ever more important in recent years, in parallel with the dramatic increase in the complexity and uncertainty of the ways in which science and technology interact with society and economy at the national, regional and global level. Installing a proper framework...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. The soils were originally contaminated with radioactive materials and heavy metals, depending on what materials had been interred in the pits, and how the pits were excavated. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project directed at the remaining soil stockpiles. The project was co-funded by the Department of Energy Environmental Management Office (DOE EM) through the BNL Environmental Restoration program and through the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. The focus was to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Soils with mercury concentrations above allowable levels would be separated for disposal as mixed waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles (ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}) were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} units after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2-inch screen removed almost all non-conforming items (plus some gravel). Non-conforming items were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpile.'' Eight samples from each subpile were collected after establishing a grid of four quadrants: north, east

  13. Simulation Applied to the Storage Capacity and Stockpiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alejandra Giubergia


    Full Text Available This investigation is focused on process based simulations. The simulation is carried out (using the FlexSim 7.3.0 software to a mining process including storage hoppers and haulage equipment in order to estimate the desirable truck fleet size and the capacity of the trucks and the hoppers as well as assessing whether the design of the access roads is acceptable for the success of the operations. It is concluded that the dimensions of the loading system has been overestimated compared to the existing equipment fleet size. Therefore, it is required to increase the number of trucks or the truck haulage capacity to improve the mine productivity.

  14. Science-based Framework for Environmental Benefits Assessment (United States)


    studied and may be coarsely divided into four major categories: 1) narrative description, 2) arithmetic combination, 3) multicriteria decision analysis ...ER D C/ EL T R -1 3 -4 Environmental Benefits Analysis Program Science-based Framework for Environmental Benefits Assessment E nv Environmental Benefits Analysis Program ERDC/EL TR-13-4 March 2013 Science-based Framework for Environmental Benefits

  15. Scaffolding in Mobile Science Enquiry-based Learning Using Ontologies


    Sohaib Ahmed; David Parsons; Mandia Mentis


    The use of ontologies has become increasingly widespread in many areas, particularly in technology enhanced learning. They appear promising in supporting knowledge representation and learning content creation for domains of interest. In this paper, we show how ontology-based scaffolding has helped mobile learners to perform scientific enquiry investigations. Enquiry-based learning aims to provide educational activities and tools to assists students to learn science by doing science. In this s...

  16. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity. (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel


    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  17. Investigation of Inquiry-based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Weiland, Sunny Minelli

    This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science teachers conceptualize "inquiry-based instruction?" 2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? And 3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the connection between science instruction and student learning? The participants within this research study represent 33 percent of teachers in grades 5 through 9 within six school districts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Of the 12 consent forms originally obtained, 10 teachers completed all three phases of the data collection, including the online survey, participation in focus groups, and teacher self-reflection. 60 percent of the participants taught only science, and 40 percent taught all content areas. Of the ten participants, 50 percent were certified teachers of science and 50 percent were certified as teachers of elementary education. 70 percent of the research participants reflected having obtained a master's, with 60 percent of these degrees being received in areas of education, and 10 percent in the area of science. The research participants have a total of 85 collective years of experience as professional educators, with the average years of experience being 8.5 years. Analysis of data revealed three themes related to research question #1) How do middle-level science teachers conceptualize inquiry-based instruction? and sub-question #1) How do middle-level science teachers characterize effective instruction? The themes that capture the essence of teachers' formulation of inquiry-based instruction that emerged in this study were student centered, problem solving, and hands-on . Analysis of data revealed one theme

  18. Turkish preservice science teachers' socioscientific issues-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (United States)

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Sami Topçu, Mustafa


    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle school science classrooms, and the research question that guided the present study is: How can we characterize Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (ages 11-14)? Sample: In order to address the research question of this study, we explored 10 Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms. A purposeful sampling strategy was used, thus, PSTs were specifically chosen because they were ideal candidates to teach SSI and to integrate SSI into the science curricula since they were seniors in the science education program who had to take the field experience courses. Design and method: The participants' SSI teaching practices were characterized in light of qualitative research approach. SSI-based teaching practices were analyzed, and the transcripts of all videotape recordings were coded by two researchers. Results: The current data analysis describes Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices under five main categories: media, argumentation, SSI selection and presentation, risk analysis, and moral perspective. Most of PSTs did not use media resources in their lesson and none of them considered moral perspective in their teaching. While the risk analyses were very simple and superficial, the arguments developed in the classrooms generally remained at a simple level. PSTs did not think SSI as a central topic and discussed these issues in a very limited time and at the end of the class period. Conclusions: The findings of this study manifest the need of the reforms in science education programs. The present study provides evidence that moral, media

  19. Transport of Residual Nitrogen and Carbon through Intact Soil Cores Amended with Stockpiled Feedlot Manure with Wood-Chip or Straw Bedding. (United States)

    Miller, J J; Beasley, B W; Drury, C F; Hao, X; Larney, F J


    The environmental impact of using wood chips instead of straw bedding with feedlot manure on transport and leaching potential from feedlot manure is unknown. Our main objective was to determine if transport of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and nonpurgeable organic C (NPOC) to subsurface soil was lower for soils amended with feedlot manure if combined with wood chips compared with straw. A secondary objective was to compare transport of N and NPOC with organic amendments versus inorganic fertilizer. Stockpiled feedlot manure (SM) with wood chip (SM-WD) or barley straw (SM-ST) bedding at 39 Mg (dry wt.) ha, and inorganic fertilizer (IN) at 100 kg N ha, was applied annually for 13 yr to a clay loam soil in a replicated field experiment in southern Alberta, Canada. Intact soil cores were taken in fall 2011 (0-30 cm depth) from the three treatments, and the residual N and NPOC were eluted from the soil cores. Total N, total organic N, and NPOC were determined on filtered (1.0 μm) effluent samples that are primarily dissolved fraction but may contain some small particulate N and C. Peak concentrations, flow-weighted mean concentrations, and mass loss of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and NPOC were significantly ( ≤ 0.05) lower by 35 to 86% for SM-WD compared with SM-ST. Mean recoveries were also significantly lower for SM-WD than SM-ST by 0.07 to 8% (absolute difference). The transport behavior was similar for SM-WD and IN treatment, but solute transport was greater for SM-ST than for IN. Application of stockpiled feedlot manure with wood chips instead of straw bedding may be a beneficial management practice to reduce transport and leaching potential of N fractions and NPOC. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Science and Technology Innovation for the Base of the Pyramid ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science and Technology Innovation for the Base of the Pyramid (Southeast Asia). Approximately four billion of the world's people subsist at the base of the social and economic pyramid, while a mere 75-100 million make up the top. Despite the many challenges facing those at the base, it is the affluent minority at the top ...

  1. Hedging against antiviral resistance during the next influenza pandemic using small stockpiles of an alternative chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Wu


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains.We used a multistrain stochastic transmission model of influenza to show that the spread of antiviral resistance can be significantly reduced by deploying a small stockpile (1% population coverage of a secondary drug during the early phase of local epidemics. We considered two strategies for the use of the secondary stockpile: early combination chemotherapy (ECC; individuals are treated with both drugs in combination while both are available; and sequential multidrug chemotherapy (SMC; individuals are treated only with the secondary drug until it is exhausted, then treated with the primary drug. We investigated all potentially important regions of unknown parameter space and found that both ECC and SMC reduced the cumulative attack rate (AR and the resistant attack rate (RAR unless the probability of emergence of resistance to the primary drug p(A was so low (less than 1 in 10,000 that resistance was unlikely to be a problem or so high (more than 1 in 20 that resistance emerged as soon as primary drug monotherapy began. For example, when the basic reproductive number was 1.8 and 40% of symptomatic individuals were treated with antivirals, AR and RAR were 67% and 38% under monotherapy if p(A = 0.01. If the probability of resistance emergence for the secondary drug was also 0.01, then SMC reduced AR and RAR to 57% and 2%. The effectiveness of ECC was similar if combination chemotherapy reduced the probabilities of resistance emergence by at least ten times. We extended our model using travel data between 105

  2. Problem-based learning in a health sciences librarianship course. (United States)

    Dimitroff, A; Ancona, A M; Beman, S B; Dodge, A M; Hutchinson, K L; LaBonte, M J; Mays, T L; Simon, D T


    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools in North America. Because problem solving, information seeking, and lifelong learning skills are central to the PBL curriculum, health sciences librarians have been actively involved in the PBL process at these medical schools. The introduction of PBL in a library and information science curriculum may be appropriate to consider at this time. PBL techniques have been incorporated into a health sciences librarianship course at the School of Library and Information Science (LIS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to explore the use of this method in an advanced Library and Information Science course. After completion of the course, the use of PBL has been evaluated by the students and the instructor. The modified PBL course design is presented and the perceptions of the students and the instructor are discussed. PMID:9681169

  3. Municipal solid waste combustor bottom ash stockpile runoff and dust emissions evaluation: Volume I, Part I & Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes a phase of the stockpile demonstration program concerned with the storage of ash from municipal waste combustion. To implement this program, bottom ash (BA) collected from the 400 ton per day Warren County Resource Recovery Facility (WCRRF), located in Oxford Township Warren County, New Jersey, was in processed to produce a sand-like aggregate product; stored on a specially constructed pad at the Warren County Landfill site; and monitored for approximately 12 months. During this time, the air, stormwater runoff and soil quality in the vicinity of the stockpile were monitored. An electronic weather station was also installed on site to monitor and record meteorological conditions. The data obtained during the monitoring period were then used to develop a bottom ash stockpile source model to project potential air emissions and runoff loadings from the stockpile. Model generated emissions and loadings figures were used to estimate potential acts on air, groundwater, surface water and soil quality in the vicinity of the stockpile.

  4. VirtualGalathea3: Education Based on Galathea 3 Science!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    in close collaboration between skilled teachers and the scientists while the scientists were at the same time analysing results. It gives certain challenges, yet the advantage is that the brand new educational material is state-ofthe- art in regard to the specific science topics, several on climate change......Galathea 3 was a worldwide ship expedition hosting 50 science teams during a period of 10 months from August 2006 to April 2007. Educational material based on the science on-board and on land-sites is formulated and presented in VirtuelGalathea3 The general path for science......-based education is through peer-reviewed journals, then in popular form and finally to educational material, a process often taking months to years. In contrast, Galathea3 aimed to provide educational material much faster having teachers onboard and several journalists. VirtuelGalathea3 education is formulated...

  5. Economic development evaluation based on science and patents (United States)

    Jokanović, Bojana; Lalic, Bojan; Milovančević, Miloš; Simeunović, Nenad; Marković, Dusan


    Economic development could be achieved through many factors. Science and technology factors could influence economic development drastically. Therefore the main aim in this study was to apply computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, for economic development estimation based on different science and technology factors. Since economic analyzing could be very challenging task because of high nonlinearity, in this study was applied computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, to estimate the economic development based on different science and technology factors. As economic development measure, gross domestic product (GDP) was used. As the science and technology factors, patents in different field were used. It was found that the patents in electrical engineering field have the highest influence on the economic development or the GDP.

  6. Assessing Gains in Science Teaching Self-Efficacy after Completing an Inquiry-Based Earth Science Course (United States)

    Gray, Kyle


    Preservice elementary teachers are often required to take an Earth Science content course as part of their teacher education program but typically enter the course with little knowledge of key Earth Science concepts and are uncertain in their ability to teach science. This study investigated whether completing an inquiry-based Earth Science course…

  7. Mind the Gap: Looking for Evidence-Based Practice of "Science Literacy for All" in Science Teaching Journals (United States)

    Jagger, Susan L.; Yore, Larry D.


    "Science literacy for all" is the central goal of science education reforms, and there is a growing importance of the language arts in science. Furthermore, there are strong calls for teacher professionalism and self-directed professional learning that involve evidence-based best practices. This raises questions about whether science teaching…

  8. Inquiry-based learning, the nature of science, and computer technology: New possibilities in science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Kubieck


    Full Text Available The teaching of science in the K-12 classroom has been less than successful. Students typically do not develop science literacy and do not understand the role and relevance of science in society. Inquiry-based learning is an approach which promises to improve science teaching by engaging students in authentic investigations, thereby achieving a more realistic conception of scientific endeavour as well as providing a more learner-centred and motivating environment. It can also be used to support teaching the nature of science. The inquiry approach, while lauded by educators, is still not prevalent in the classroom, and is often misused. This may be the result of multiple factors, such as amount of classroom time, lack of effective means for students to conduct independent investigations, the difficulty of incorporating abstract concepts with inquiry, and lack of teacher expertise and experience. Computer technology has evolved now to the point where it can greatly facilitate the use of inquiry learning on many levels, and provide new tools for representing the nature of science in the classroom. This use of technology to support new teaching approaches and objectives holds great promise for improving science education in the classroom, as long as the inherent limitations are recognized and technology is used as a tool rather than as a foundation.

  9. Threats posed by stockpiles of expired pharmaceuticals in low- and middle-income countries: a Ugandan perspective. (United States)

    Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru; Ireeta, Munanura Edson; Balikuna, Sulah; Kaggwa, Bruhan


    In some low- and middle-income countries, the national stores and public-sector health facilities contain large stocks of pharmaceuticals that are past their expiry dates. In low-income countries like Uganda, many such stockpiles are the result of donations. If not adequately monitored or regulated, expired pharmaceuticals may be repackaged and sold as counterfeits or be dumped without any thought of the potential environmental damage. The rates of pharmaceutical expiry in the supply chain need to be reduced and the disposal of expired pharmaceuticals needs to be made both timely and safe. Many low- and middle-income countries need to: (i) strengthen public systems for medicines' management, to improve inventory control and the reliability of procurement forecasts; (ii) reduce stress on central medical stores, through liberalization and reimbursement schemes; (iii) strengthen the regulation of drug donations; (iv) explore the salvage of officially expired pharmaceuticals, through re-analysis and possible shelf-life extension; (v) strengthen the enforcement of regulations on safe drug disposal; (vi) invest in an infrastructure for such disposal, perhaps based on ultra-high-temperature incinerators; and (vii) include user accountability for expired pharmaceuticals within the routine accountability regimes followed by the public health sector.

  10. Evidence synthesis and decision modelling to support complex decisions: stockpiling neuraminidase inhibitors for pandemic influenza usage [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Watson


    Full Text Available Objectives: The stockpiling of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI antivirals as a defence against pandemic influenza is a significant public health policy decision that must be made despite a lack of conclusive evidence from randomised controlled trials regarding the effectiveness of NAIs on important clinical end points such as mortality. The objective of this study was to determine whether NAIs should be stockpiled for treatment of pandemic influenza on the basis of current evidence. Methods: A decision model for stockpiling was designed. Data on previous pandemic influenza epidemiology was combined with data on the effectiveness of NAIs in reducing mortality obtained from a recent individual participant meta-analysis using observational data. Evidence synthesis techniques and a bias modelling method for observational data were used to incorporate the evidence into the model. The stockpiling decision was modelled for adults (≥16 years old and the United Kingdom was used as an example. The main outcome was the expected net benefits of stockpiling in monetary terms. Health benefits were estimated from deaths averted through stockpiling. Results: After adjusting for biases in the estimated effectiveness of NAIs, the expected net benefit of stockpiling in the baseline analysis was £444 million, assuming a willingness to pay of £20,000/QALY ($31,000/QALY. The decision would therefore be to stockpile NAIs. There was a greater probability that the stockpile would not be utilised than utilised. However, the rare but catastrophic losses from a severe pandemic justified the decision to stockpile. Conclusions: Taking into account the available epidemiological data and evidence of effectiveness of NAIs in reducing mortality, including potential biases, a decision maker should stockpile anti-influenza medication in keeping with the postulated decision rule.

  11. Towards a Science Base for Cybersecurity (United States)


    can incorporate references to dynamic system state, in- cluding the current time, current resource availability, and even history . Labels used in proofs...demonstrate the practicality and utility of automata-based RIF la- bels, JRIF, a new dialect of Java was developed. JRIF derives from Myer’s Jif compiler and...October 2015), 2849–2862. With Age Kvalnes, Dag Johansen, Robbert van Renesse, and Steffen Valvag. 18. JRIF: Reactive Information Flow Control for Java

  12. Pharmaceutical lobbying and pandemic stockpiling of Tamiflu: a qualitative study of arguments and tactics. (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Mulinari, Shai


    Little is known about how pharmaceutical companies lobby authorities or experts regarding procurement or the use of vaccines and antivirals. This paper investigates how members of Denmark's pandemic planning committee experienced lobbying efforts by Roche, manufacturer of Tamiflu, the antiviral that was stockpiled before the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Analysis of interviews with six of seven members of the Danish core pandemic committee, supplemented with documentary analysis. We sought to identify (1) arguments and (2) tactics used in lobbying, and to characterize interviewees' views on the impact of (3) lobbying and (4) scientific evidence on the decision to stockpile Tamiflu. Roche lobbied directly (in its own name) and through a seemingly independent third party. Roche used two arguments: (1) the procurement agreement had to be signed quickly because the drug would be delivered on a first-come, first-served basis and (2) Denmark was especially vulnerable to an influenza crisis because it had smaller Tamiflu stocks than other countries. Most interviewees suspected that lobbying had an impact on Tamiflu procurement. Our study highlights risks posed by pharmaceutical lobbying. Arguments and tactics deployed by Roche are likely to be repeated whenever many countries are negotiating drug procurements in a monopolistic market.

  13. Model predictions and experimental results on self-heating prevention of stockpiled coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andres, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)


    The spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This phenomenon is analysed using a TNO-model modified to predict the spontaneous heating behaviour of coal piles built with 'Mezcla', a mixture of low rank coals from Teruel (Spain). The simulation carried out with the mathematical model for this coal showed that the pile porosity or voidage and wind speed play an important role, although voidage is decisive and controls the effect of the wind velocity. To reduce the negative effects of both factors, five test coal piles (2000-3000 t) were built and several measures were applied to four of them: periodic compaction, use of a low angle slope, protection of the stockpiled coal with an artificial wind barrier and covering it with an ash-water slurry. The heat losses were experimentally determined and it was found that the mathematical model gave predictions of the right order of magnitude of time, site of spontaneous combustion and magnitude of calorific losses. All the methods of protection applied to decrease the self-heating of coal were effective, but the experimental results indicate that the most economical way to avoid the heat losses is the use of an ash-water slurry to cover the coal pile. 28 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil TURGUT


    Full Text Available Project-based learning (PBL consisting projects that integrate science, technology, society, history, mathematics, politics and even arts serves a productive discussion opportunity for students, fosters a student-directed inquiry of real world problems, gives them the excitement of learning and seen to be an effective teaching strategy. Therefore, examination of PBL from the practitioners’ point of view, interpretation of the conceptualizations and experiences of them would yield valuable indicators for future PBL processes in classes both for instructors and students. This study focused on the prospective science teachers’ conceptualizations about project-based learning as practitioners in this research but also as instructors of future. A group of 75 prospective science teachers took place in research for a period of ten weeks and conduct projects in groups of four to five based on science-technology-society issues. Multiple data sources were used consisted a questionnaire with open ended questions, project portfolios and presentation notes. Data collected analyzed qualitatively and some assertions generated with the help of conceptual constructs derived. Assertions generated indicated that prospective science teachers developed some varying understandings based on their experiences about conducting projects in the context of PBL.

  15. Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.M.


    The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

  16. Professional development model for science teachers based on scientific literacy (United States)

    Rubini, B.; Ardianto, D.; Pursitasari, I. D.; Permana, I.


    Scientific literacy is considered as a benchmark of high and low quality of science education in a country. Teachers as a major component of learning at the forefront of building science literacy skills of students in the class. The primary purpose this study is development science teacher coaching model based on scientific literacy. In this article we describe about teacher science literacy and profile coaching model for science’ teachers based on scientific literacy which a part of study conducted in first year. The instrument used in this study consisted of tests, observation sheet, interview guides. The finding showed that problem of low scientific literacy is not only happen the students, but science’ teachers which is a major component in the learning process is still not satisfactory. Understanding science teacher is strongly associated with the background disciplinary. Science teacher was still weak when explaining scientific phenomena, mainly related to the material that relates to the concept of environmental. Coaching model generated from this study consisted of 8 stages by assuming the teacher is an independent learner, so the coaching is done with methods on and off, with time off for activities designed more.

  17. Collaborative CPD and inquiry-based science in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    between seminars, individual trials in own classroom, and collaborative activities in the science-team at local schools. The QUEST research is aimed at understanding the relation between individual and social changes. In this study, quantitative data are used to compare the perceived effect from QUEST......Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is crucial for reforming science teaching, but more knowledge is needed about how to embed CPD in teachers’ daily work. The Danish QUEST-project is a long-term collaborative CPD-project designed informed by research and with activities changing rhythmically...... on the teaching of science and on collaboration. Qualitative data obtained by following the same teacher teaching Science & Technology from 4th to 6th grade are used to discuss changes in her classroom practice; in particular concerning inquiry-based methods shown in earlier QUEST-research to be understood...

  18. The effect of inquiry based science instruction on student understanding (United States)

    Nail, Jessica Lynette

    According to the TIMSS Study (2007), the United States is falling behind in the subjects of math and science. In order for the students in the United States to develop scientific literacy and remain competitive globally, inquiry must be the priority when teaching science (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1990). The main purpose of this research was to see if inquiry-based instruction in the science classroom had a significant effect on student understanding and retention of information in a rural school in Virginia. The effect of inquiry-based science instruction on gender was also examined. The researcher implemented a four-week, inquiry-based unit on Virginia Sol 6.7, written in the 5 E learning style to 358 sixth-grade students and compared their posttest gains and delayed posttest scores to a control group consisting of 268 students. The control group received traditional teaching methods. The results for the posttest gains produced a p = 0.01. Therefore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group, which received the treatment, when compared to the control group, which did not receive treatment. A t test was also used to compare the delayed test scores of the experimental group to the control group. The results showed a p < 0.0001 when comparing the experimental group, which received the four-week inquiry-based science instruction treatment, to the control, which did not receive the treatment. This t test showed a very highly significant difference between the experimental group and the control group. Based on these results, it is imperative that Virginia begin implementing inquiry-based instruction in the science classroom.

  19. Developing the Learning Physical Science Curriculum: Adapting a Small Enrollment, Laboratory and Discussion Based Physical Science Course for Large Enrollments (United States)

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael


    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, "Physical Science and Everyday Thinking" (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new "Learning Physical Science" (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the…

  20. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.


    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling... (United States)


    ... the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their... the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction List of... Timor) Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling... (United States)


    ... the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their... Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of... The United Arab Emirates Timor Leste (East Timor) Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey...

  3. The book of science mysteries classroom science activities to support student enquiry-based learning

    CERN Document Server

    McOwan, Peter; Olivotto, Cristina


    In this booklet, you will be introduced to an exciting new way to teach science in your classroom. The TEMI project (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated) is an EU-funded project that brings together experts in teacher training from across Europe to help you introduce enquiry-based learning successfully in the classroom and improve student engagement and skills.

  4. Games for Participatory Science: A Paradigm for Game-Based Learning for Promoting Science Literacy (United States)

    Shapiro, R. Benjamin; Squire, Kurt D.


    Debates in forums such as "Educational Technology" and the National Academies of Science (National Research Council, 2011) emphasize the promise (and indeed recent successes) of digital game-based learning programs, but also the need for research-driven approaches that carefully delineate learning goals. This article introduces one such…

  5. The Effects of Jigsaw Technique Based on Cooperative Learning on Prospective Science Teachers' Science Process Skill (United States)

    Karacop, Ataman; Diken, Emine Hatun


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of laboratory approach based on jigsaw method with cooperative learning and confirmatory laboratory approach on university students' cognitive process development in Science teaching laboratory applications, and to determine the opinions of the students on applied laboratory methods. The…

  6. Science Education Research Using Web-based Video (United States)

    Tarman, Lisa; Ferris, Pamella; Bruder, Dan; Gilligan, Nick; Morgan, James; Delooper, John


    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in collaboration with teachers and students has developed a variety of educational outreach activities to demonstrate basic physical science principles using a variety of instructive and entertaining science demonstrations at elementary, middle and high school levels. A new effort has been initiated to demonstrate this material using web based videos. This can be a resource for the teacher, parent or student. In addition, the video is coupled to web-based lesson plans for the educator. The goal of these videos and lesson plans is to create enthusiasm and stimulate curiosity among students and teachers, showing them that science is interesting, fun, and within their grasp. The first video demonstrates a number of activities one can accomplish using a half-coated fluorescent tube. Additional demonstrations will be added over time.

  7. How Is Science Being Taught? Measuring Evidence-Based Teaching Practices across Undergraduate Science Departments (United States)

    Drinkwater, Michael J.; Matthews, Kelly E.; Seiler, Jacob


    While there is a wealth of research evidencing the benefits of active-learning approaches, the extent to which these teaching practices are adopted in the sciences is not well known. The aim of this study is to establish an evidential baseline of teaching practices across a bachelor of science degree program at a large research-intensive Australian university. Our purpose is to contribute to knowledge on the adoption levels of evidence-based teaching practices by faculty within a science degree program and inform our science curriculum review in practical terms. We used the Teaching Practices Inventory (TPI) to measure the use of evidence-based teaching approaches in 129 courses (units of study) across 13 departments. We compared the results with those from a Canadian institution to identify areas in need of improvement at our institution. We applied a regression analysis to the data and found that the adoption of evidence-based teaching practices differs by discipline and is higher in first-year classes at our institution. The study demonstrates that the TPI can be used in different institutional contexts and provides data that can inform practice and policy. PMID:28232589

  8. Developing Exhibit-based, Interactive Web Sites to Communicate Science (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J.


    New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. ASTC, the trade association of science museums, gave its 2000 innovation award to the Exploratorium's Web page rather than a physical exhibit. The increased power of the Web as an informal learning tool is partly the result of technologies (such as Java, Flash and Shockwave) that allow the development of inquiry-based, interactive experiences. Web site visitors can now "learn science by doing science." This report features two online projects funded by NSF and NASA: MarsQuest Online and the Space Weather Center. TERC, the Space Science Institute, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing MarsQuest Online, an interactive, exploration-based Web site that extends the reach and scope of the MarsQuest exhibit. The Space Weather Center Web site is based on the Space Weather Center exhibit that was developed in partnership with scientists and educators at NASA/GSFC. Both exhibits represent a tremendous, collaborative effort by scientists, educators, and designers to communicate the essentials of Mars science and space weather to the public. As such, the graphics, text, and story developed for the exhibits represent a valuable resource that will provide the framework and base content for the public site. Given that framework, the Web sites can then expand both the content and audience of the exhibits in key ways. In particular, the sites will 1) extend the reach of the exhibit by making it available online, 2) extend the scope of the exhibit, linking to the latest imagery and results from ground and space-based missions, and 3) provide support and follow-up for the exhibit education programs, while making materials available to more teachers, parents, and museum educators and docents.

  9. Classroom questioning strategies as indicators of inquiry based science instruction (United States)

    Goossen, Linda Hale

    Inquiry teaching often rests upon the assumption that through the use of questioning and response strategies, teachers can stimulate students to actively construct knowledge. Based on this hypothesis, middle-school science lessons were observed and questioning and response strategies were identified that are related to inquiry-based instruction. Twenty-four science lessons were observed, videotaped, and ranked by inquiry characteristics other than questioning strategy. The video and audio portions of the recordings were analyzed to determine the student and teacher's questioning and response strategies in each classroom. These strategies were then compared to teaching style, along a continuum from traditional to inquiry, to identify questioning and response strategies that stimulate students to ask questions, solve problems, analyze evidence, consider alternative explanations, and other similar inquiry behaviors. The analyses indicated several questioning strategies of teachers that are related to inquiry teaching and learning and might be used as indicators of inquiry teaching in middle school science lessons. These include the number of content-related questions asked by teachers, the number of divergent questions asked by teachers, the number of times teachers probe for the intended response, the number of times teachers answer students' questions, and the number questions per concept asked by teachers. Perhaps more important was the observation that even after several decades of emphasizing the importance of inquiry methods in science education, neither students nor teachers participating in this study are asking higher-level cognitive questions deemed to be an important facet in the effective teaching and learning of science.

  10. The Evolution of Instructional Science: Toward a Common Knowledge Base. (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.


    Defines the discipline of instructional science, discusses its applications, and reviews three instructional models--the component theory display, elaboration theory of instruction, and motivational design of instruction--to illustrate the kind of integrative, multi-perspectived common knowledge base needed at this point in the development of…

  11. Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.


    Anna Szajkowska and Bernd van der Meulen analyse in their contribution, Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis, the scope of application of risk analysis and the precautionary principle in EU food safety regulation. To what extent does this technocratic,

  12. UK provides "step increase" in funding for its science base

    CERN Multimedia


    The British government has come good on pre-election promises when this week, it agreed to inject an extra 700 million into the country's science base over the next three years. This extra funding is boosted by a further 400 million pounds from the Welcome Trust over the same period (1 page).

  13. Investigating Science Interest in a Game-Based Learning Project (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard; Vallett, David; Fusarelli, Bonnie; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn; Folta, Elizabeth; Thurmond, Brandi


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect Serious Educational Games (SEGs) had on student interest in science in a federally funded game-based learning project. It can be argued that today's students are more likely to engage in video games than they are to interact in live, face-to-face learning environments. With a keen eye on…

  14. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic Transition. For decades, it was very difficult to complete, share or access development research in Burma. However, in the past two years, the Burmese political landscape has seen far-reaching changes. The military junta has ...

  15. The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesshöver, Carsten; Assmuth, Timo; Irvine, Katherine N.; Rusch, Graciela M.; Waylen, Kerry A.; Delbaere, Ben; Haase, Dagmar; Jones-Walters, Lawrence; Keune, Hans; Kovacs, Eszter; Krauze, Kinga; Külvik, Mart; Rey, Freddy; Dijk, van Jiska; Vistad, Odd Inge; Wilkinson, Mark E.; Wittmer, Heidi


    In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an

  16. Context Based Learning: A Role for Cinema in Science Education (United States)

    Arroio, Agnaldo


    This paper discusses the role of cinema as a tool for science education. Based on the socio-cultural approach put forward by Vygotsky, it draws attention to the fact that an audience can interact with the characters and share their emotions and actions showed in an audiovisual setting. Experiences come from an interaction with a learning…

  17. Mind the Gap: Looking for Evidence-Based Practice of Science Literacy for All in Science Teaching Journals (United States)

    Jagger, Susan L.; Yore, Larry D.


    Science literacy for all is the central goal of science education reforms, and there is a growing importance of the language arts in science. Furthermore, there are strong calls for teacher professionalism and self-directed professional learning that involve evidence-based best practices. This raises questions about whether science teaching journals' recommendations are anchored to high-quality evidence. We found that (a) most National Science Teacher Association journals' science literacy recommendations have weak or no evidence base and (b) those with evidence reference teaching journals, teacher resource books, and literacy education more often than science education research. We concluded that all participants in the knowledge production cycle and transfer process—authors, editors, and reviewers—need to encourage evidence-based practices anchored to ongoing reforms and to literacy and science education research.

  18. Science learning based on local potential: Overview of the nature of science (NoS) achieved (United States)

    Wilujeng, Insih; Zuhdan Kun, P.; Suryadarma, IGP.


    The research concerned here examined the effectiveness of science learning conducted with local potential as basis from the point of a review of the NoS (nature of science) achieved. It used the non equivalent control group design and took place in the regions of Magelang and Pati, Province of Central Java, and the regions of Bantul and Sleman, Province of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The research population consisted of students of the first and second grades at each junior high school chosen with research subjects sampled by means of cluster sampling. The instruments used included: a) an observation sheet, b) a written test, and c) a questionnaire. The learning and research instruments had been declared valid and reliable according to previous developmental research. In conclusion, the science learning based on local potential was effective in terms of all the NoS aspects.

  19. Global Maps of Science based on the new Web-of-Science Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael


    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of 74 Subject Categories (SCs) was added, but at a higher level of aggregation. Since we previously used the ISI SCs as the baseline for a global map in Pajek (Rafols et al., 2010) and brought this facility online (at, we recalibrated this map for the new WC categories using the Journal Citation Reports 2010. In the new installation, the base maps can also be made using VOSviewer (Van Eck & Waltman, 2010).

  20. Making USGS Science Data more Open, Accessible, and Usable: Leveraging ScienceBase for Success (United States)

    Chang, M.; Ignizio, D.; Langseth, M. L.; Norkin, T.


    In 2013, the White House released initiatives requiring federally funded research to be made publicly available and machine readable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing a unified approach to make USGS data available and open. This effort has involved the establishment of internal policies and the release of a Public Access Plan, which outlines a strategy for the USGS to move forward into the modern era in scientific data management. Originally designed as a catalog and collaborative data management platform, ScienceBase ( is being leveraged to serve as a robust data hosting solution for USGS researchers to make scientific data accessible. With the goal of maintaining persistent access to formal data products and developing a management approach to facilitate stable data citation, the ScienceBase Data Release Team was established to ensure the quality, consistency, and meaningful organization of USGS data through standardized workflows and best practices. These practices include the creation and maintenance of persistent identifiers for data, improving the use of open data formats, establishing permissions for read/write access, validating the quality of standards compliant metadata, verifying that data have been reviewed and approved prior to release, and connecting to external search catalogs such as the USGS Science Data Catalog ( and The ScienceBase team is actively building features to support this effort by automating steps to streamline the process, building metrics to track site visits and downloads, and connecting published digital resources in line with USGS and Federal policy. By utilizing ScienceBase to achieve stewardship quality and employing a dedicated team to help USGS scientists improve the quality of their data, the USGS is helping to meet today's data quality management challenges and ensure that reliable USGS data are available to and reusable for the public.

  1. The effectivenes of science domain-based science learning integrated with local potency (United States)

    Kurniawati, Arifah Putri; Prasetyo, Zuhdan Kun; Wilujeng, Insih; Suryadarma, I. Gusti Putu


    This research aimed to determine the significant effect of science domain-based science learning integrated with local potency toward science process skills. The research method used was a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group design. The population of this research was all students of class VII SMP Negeri 1 Muntilan. The sample of this research was selected through cluster random sampling, namely class VII B as an experiment class (24 students) and class VII C as a control class (24 students). This research used a test instrument that was adapted from Agus Dwianto's research. The aspect of science process skills in this research was observation, classification, interpretation and communication. The analysis of data used the one factor anova at 0,05 significance level and normalized gain score. The significance level result of science process skills with one factor anova is 0,000. It shows that the significance level skills. The results of analysis show that the normalized gain score are 0,29 (low category) in control class and 0,67 (medium category) in experiment class.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arango


    Full Text Available Currently the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle have become an alternative for different engineering applications, especially in surveying, one of these applications is the calculation of volumes of stockpiled material, but there are questions about its accuracy and efficiency, the purpose of this article is to compare traditional surveying methods for estimating total volumes through data obtained by total stations and data obtained by a multicopter UAV. In order to answer these questions we obtain data from the same location and the results were compared. After comparing the results it was found that there was a 2,88% difference between the volume calculated with the total station data and the actual volume, and −0,67% difference between the volume calculated with the UAV data and the actual volume, concluding that the estimated volume with UAV data is more accurate.

  3. Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R.


    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  4. Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.


    The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about…

  5. Original science-based music and student learning (United States)

    Smolinski, Keith

    American middle school student science scores have been stagnating for several years, demonstrating a need for better learning strategies to aid teachers in instruction and students in content learning. It has also been suggested by researchers that music can be used to aid students in their learning and memory. Employing the theoretical framework of brain-based learning, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of original, science-based music on student content learning and student perceptions of the music and its impact on learning. Students in the treatment group at a public middle school learned songs with lyrics related to the content of a 4-week cells unit in science; whereas an equally sized control group was taught the same material using existing methods. The content retention and learning experiences of the students in this study were examined using a concurrent triangulation, mixed-methods study. Independent sample t test and ANOVA analyses were employed to determine that the science posttest scores of students in the treatment group (N = 93) were significantly higher than the posttest scores of students in the control group (N = 93), and that the relative gains of the boys in the treatment group exceeded those of the girls. The qualitative analysis of 10 individual interviews and 3 focus group interviews followed Patton's method of a priori coding, cross checking, and thematic analysis to examine the perceptions of the treatment group. These results confirmed that the majority of the students thought the music served as an effective learning tool and enhanced recall. This study promoted social change because students and teachers gained insight into how music can be used in science classrooms to aid in the learning of science content. Researchers could also utilize the findings for continued investigation of the interdisciplinary use of music in educational settings.

  6. Can remote sensing help citizen-science based phenological studies? (United States)

    Delbart, Nicolas; Elisabeth, Beaubien; Laurent, Kergoat; Thuy, Le Toan


    Citizen science networks and remote sensing are both efficient to collect massive data related to phenology. However both differ in their advantages and drawbacks for this purpose. Contrarily to remote sensing, citizen science allows distinguishing species-specific phenological responses to climate variability. On the other hand, large portions of territory of a country like Canada are not covered by citizen science networks, and the time series are often incomplete. The main mode of interaction between both types of data consists in validating the maps showing the ecosystem foliage transition times, such as the green-up date, obtained from remote sensing data with field observations, and in particular those collected by citizen scientists. Thus the citizen science phenology data bring confidence to remote sensing based studies. However, one can merely find studies in which remote sensing is used to improve in any way citizen science based study. Here we present bi-directional interactions between both types of data. We first use phenological data from the PlantWatch citizen science network to show that one remote sensing method green-up date relates to the leaf-out date of woody species but also to the whole plant community phenology at the regional level, including flowering phenology. Second we use a remote sensing time series to constrain the analysis of citizen data to overcome the main drawbacks that is the incompleteness of time series. In particular we analyze the interspecies differences in phenology at the scale of so-called "pheno-regions" delineated using remote sensing green-up maps.

  7. Mapping Science in Discourse-based Inquiry Classrooms (United States)

    Yeneayhu, Demeke Gesesse

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate how discourse-based inquiry science lessons provided opportunities for students to develop a network of semantic relations among core ideas and concepts in science. It was a naturalistic inquiry classroom lessons observation study on three science teachers--- a middle school science teacher and two high school physics teachers in an urban school district located in the Western New York region. Discourse and thematic analysis drawn from the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics were utilized as guiding framework and analysis tools. Analysis of the pre-observation and post-observation interviews of the participant teachers revealed that all of the three teachers participated in at least one inquiry-based science teaching teacher professional development program and they all thought their classroom teaching practice was inquiry-based. Analysis of their classroom lesson videos that each participant teacher taught on a specific science topic revealed that the middle school teacher was found to be a traditional teacher-dominated classroom whereas the two high school physics teachers' classroom teaching approach was found to be discourse-based inquiry. One of the physics teachers who taught on a topic of Magnetic Interaction used relatively structured and guided-inquiry classroom investigations. The other physics teacher who taught on a topic of Color Mixing utilized open-ended classroom investigations where the students planned and executed the series of classroom science investigations with minimal guidance from the teacher. The traditional teacher-based classroom communicative pattern was found to be dominated by Triadic Dialogue and most of the science thematics were jointly developed by the teacher and the students, but the students' role was limited to providing responses to the teacher's series questions. In the guided-inquiry classroom, the common communicative pattern was found to be True Dialogue and most

  8. Science-based bioprocess design for filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver


    Industrial bioprocesses are commonly based on empiricism rather than scientific process understanding. In this review, we summarize current strategies for science-based bioprocess design and control for filamentous fungi aiming at reducing development times and increasing process economics. We discuss recent developments and trends regarding three crucial aspects throughout the bioprocess life cycle of filamentous fungi, namely (i) strain and inoculum characterization, (ii) morphology, and (iii) rheology, as well as their effects on process performance. Complex interconnections between strain, inoculum, morphology, rheology, and process design are outlined and discussed. Only combining different hard type sensors with soft sensor technology and the development of simplified mechanistic models can enable science-based bioprocess design for filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  10. Perspectives of women of color in science-based education and careers. Summary of the conference on diversity in science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that women of color take in science-based education and employment or about the course that steers them out of science-based careers. Questions abound: What are the environmental factors that affect the choices in education and science-based careers of women of color? What has influenced women of color who currently are in science-based careers? Is critical mass important and, if so, what are the keys to increasing it? What recommendations can be made to colleges and universities, faculty members, employers, the federal government, women of color themselves, and to improve the conditions and numbers of women of color in science-based careers? These questions prompted the National Research Council`s Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) to convene a conference on Diversity in Science: Perspectives on the Retention of Minority Women in Science, Engineering, and Health-Care Professions, held on October 21--23, 1995. Confronting the problem of the lack of knowledge about the journey of women of color in science-based education and career, the conference offered opportunities for these women to describe the paths that they have taken and to identify strategies for success. Their perspectives ground this report. For purposes of this document, women of color include women in the following racial or ethnic groups: Hispanics, African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Science-based careers include those in the physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering.

  11. Design-Based Research and Video Game Based Learning: Developing the Educational Video Game "Citizen Science" (United States)

    Gaydos, Matthew J.


    This paper presents a series of studies detailing the research and development of the educational science video game "Citizen Science." It documents the design process, beginning with the initial grant and ending with a case study of two teachers who used the game in their classrooms. Following a design-based research approach, this…

  12. Science and computer-based technologies: attitudes of secondary science teachers (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard


    As is the case with most developed countries, pressures from various sectors of society have seen computers make a big presence in Australian education systems in the last decade. In the state of Victoria, integrating learning technology (LT) into all key learning areas of every school's curriculum has been a priority policy of governments. Over the last 8-10 years, large amounts of money have been provided to set schools up with computers and associated technologies. In the area of science, a range of LT resources is available for use in the teaching and learning processes in the classroom. However, there has been limited evaluation into teachers' attitudes towards, and types of, methodology and effectiveness of usage of computer-based technologies in knowledge construction. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, a study aimed at identifying science teachers' opinions and practices with the use of computer-based technologies in their teaching has been carried out in Victorian government schools. The focus of this paper is on the attitudes of these science teachers towards the use of computer-based technologies in their teaching. The study showed that most teachers have embraced the introduction of these technologies into the school structure well and are generally positive about their potential in the classroom. However, their use in the classrooms is infrequent and often on an ad hoc basis. A range of obstacles preventing the use of these technologies are identified and discussed in this paper.

  13. Mars Science Laboratory; A Model for Event-Based EPO (United States)

    Mayo, Louis; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.; Stephenson, B.; Erickson, K.; Ng, C.


    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and its Curiosity Rover, a part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, represent the most ambitious undertaking to date to explore the red planet. MSL/Curiosity was designed primarily to determine whether Mars ever had an environment capable of supporting microbial life. NASA's MSL education program was designed to take advantage of existing, highly successful event based education programs to communicate Mars science and education themes to worldwide audiences through live webcasts, video interviews with scientists, TV broadcasts, professional development for teachers, and the latest social media frameworks. We report here on the success of the MSL education program and discuss how this methodological framework can be used to enhance other event based education programs.

  14. Game-based Research Collaboration adapted to Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Damgaard Hansen, Sidse; Grønbæk, Kaj


    This paper presents prospects for adapting scientific discovery games to science education. In the paper a prototype of The Quantum Computing Game is presented as a working example of adapting game-based research collaboration to physics education. The game concept is the initial result of a three......-year, inter-disciplinary project “Pilot Center for Community-driven Research” at Aarhus and Aalborg University in Denmark. The paper discusses how scientific discovery games can contribute to educating students in how to work with unsolved scientific problems and creation of new scientific knowledge. Based...... on a discussion of the concrete development of the Quantum Computing Game, the aim of this paper is to open a broader discussion of the potentials and implications of developing this class of games for new types of innovative science education....

  15. Knowledge-Based Systems in Biomedicine and Computational Life Science

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi


    This book presents a sample of research on knowledge-based systems in biomedicine and computational life science. The contributions include: ·         personalized stress diagnosis system ·         image analysis system for breast cancer diagnosis ·         analysis of neuronal cell images ·         structure prediction of protein ·         relationship between two mental disorders ·         detection of cardiac abnormalities ·         holistic medicine based treatment ·         analysis of life-science data  

  16. Indian Science & Technology Research: A scientometric Mapping Based on Science Citation Index


    Kademani, B. S.; Anil, Sagar; Vijai, Kumar


    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Science and Technology research in India in terms of publication output as reflected in Science Citation Index (SCI) (1990-2004). Total of 182111 papers were published by the Indian scientists and engineers to various domains: Chemical Sciences (62856) (34.52%), Physical Sciences (53844) (29.57%), Medical Sciences (30143) (16.55%), Biological Sciences (18239) (10.02%), Multidisciplinary Sciences (8616) (4.73%), ...

  17. Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments (United States)

    Haug, Berit S.


    This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their classrooms. In this curriculum, science inquiry implies that students search for evidence in order to make and revise explanations based on the evidence found and through critical and logical thinking. Furthermore, the curriculum material is designed to address science key concepts multiple times through multiple modalities (do it, say it, read it, write it). Two types of teachable moments were identified: planned and spontaneous. Results suggest that the consolidation phases of inquiry, when students reinforce new knowledge and connect their empirical findings to theory, can be considered as planned teachable moments. These are phases of inquiry during which the teacher should expect, and be prepared for, student utterances that create opportunities to further student learning. Spontaneous teachable moments are instances when the teacher must choose to either follow the pace of the curriculum or adapt to the students' need. One implication of the study is that more teacher support is required in terms of how to plan for and effectively utilize the consolidation phases of inquiry.

  18. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  19. Science, technology and engineering at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer-smith, Janet A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Terry C [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The Laboratory provides science solution to the mission areas of nuclear deterrence, global security, and energy security. The capabilities support the Laboratory's vision as the premier national security science laboratory. The strength of LANL's science is at the core of the Laboratory. The Laboratory addresses important science questions for stockpile stewardship, emerging threats, and energy. The underpinning science vitality to support mission areas is supported through the Post Doc program, the fundamental science program in LDRD, collaborations fostered through the Institutes, and the LANL user facilities. LANL fosters the strategy of Science that Matters through investments, people, and facilities.

  20. Asteroid! An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Astronomy Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or general science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  1. Oil Spill!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Oceanography Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or general science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  2. Fraud! An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Chemistry Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school life science or physical science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  3. An Open Science Approach to Gis-Based Paleoenvironment Data (United States)

    Willmes, C.; Becker, D.; Verheul, J.; Yener, Y.; Zickel, M.; Bolten, A.; Bubenzer, O.; Bareth, G.


    Paleoenvironmental studies and according information (data) are abundantly published and available in the scientific record. However, GIS-based paleoenvironmental information and datasets are comparably rare. Here, we present an Open Science approach for creating GIS-based data and maps of paleoenvironments, and Open Access publishing them in a web based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), for access by the archaeology and paleoenvironment communities. We introduce an approach to gather and create GIS datasets from published non-GIS based facts and information (data), such as analogous maps, textual information or figures in scientific publications. These collected and created geo-datasets and maps are then published, including a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to facilitate scholarly reuse and citation of the data, in a web based Open Access Research Data Management Infrastructure. The geo-datasets are additionally published in an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards compliant SDI, and available for GIS integration via OGC Open Web Services (OWS).

  4. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M.


    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  5. Opportunities for Web-Based Indicators in Environmental Sciences (United States)

    Malcevschi, Sergio; Marchini, Agnese; Savini, Dario; Facchinetti, Tullio


    This paper proposes a set of web-based indicators for quantifying and ranking the relevance of terms related to key-issues in Ecology and Sustainability Science. Search engines that operate in different contexts (e.g. global, social, scientific) are considered as web information carriers (WICs) and are able to analyse; (i) relevance on different levels: global web, individual/personal sphere, on-line news, and culture/science; (ii) time trends of relevance; (iii) relevance of keywords for environmental governance. For the purposes of this study, several indicators and specific indices (relational indices and dynamic indices) were applied to a test-set of 24 keywords. Outputs consistently show that traditional study topics in environmental sciences such as water and air have remained the most quantitatively relevant keywords, while interest in systemic issues (i.e. ecosystem and landscape) has grown over the last 20 years. Nowadays, the relevance of new concepts such as resilience and ecosystem services is increasing, but the actual ability of these concepts to influence environmental governance needs to be further studied and understood. The proposed approach, which is based on intuitive and easily replicable procedures, can support the decision-making processes related to environmental governance. PMID:22905118

  6. Opportunities for web-based indicators in environmental sciences. (United States)

    Malcevschi, Sergio; Marchini, Agnese; Savini, Dario; Facchinetti, Tullio


    This paper proposes a set of web-based indicators for quantifying and ranking the relevance of terms related to key-issues in Ecology and Sustainability Science. Search engines that operate in different contexts (e.g. global, social, scientific) are considered as web information carriers (WICs) and are able to analyse; (i) relevance on different levels: global web, individual/personal sphere, on-line news, and culture/science; (ii) time trends of relevance; (iii) relevance of keywords for environmental governance. For the purposes of this study, several indicators and specific indices (relational indices and dynamic indices) were applied to a test-set of 24 keywords. Outputs consistently show that traditional study topics in environmental sciences such as water and air have remained the most quantitatively relevant keywords, while interest in systemic issues (i.e. ecosystem and landscape) has grown over the last 20 years. Nowadays, the relevance of new concepts such as resilience and ecosystem services is increasing, but the actual ability of these concepts to influence environmental governance needs to be further studied and understood. The proposed approach, which is based on intuitive and easily replicable procedures, can support the decision-making processes related to environmental governance.

  7. Opportunities for web-based indicators in environmental sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Malcevschi

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a set of web-based indicators for quantifying and ranking the relevance of terms related to key-issues in Ecology and Sustainability Science. Search engines that operate in different contexts (e.g. global, social, scientific are considered as web information carriers (WICs and are able to analyse; (i relevance on different levels: global web, individual/personal sphere, on-line news, and culture/science; (ii time trends of relevance; (iii relevance of keywords for environmental governance. For the purposes of this study, several indicators and specific indices (relational indices and dynamic indices were applied to a test-set of 24 keywords. Outputs consistently show that traditional study topics in environmental sciences such as water and air have remained the most quantitatively relevant keywords, while interest in systemic issues (i.e. ecosystem and landscape has grown over the last 20 years. Nowadays, the relevance of new concepts such as resilience and ecosystem services is increasing, but the actual ability of these concepts to influence environmental governance needs to be further studied and understood. The proposed approach, which is based on intuitive and easily replicable procedures, can support the decision-making processes related to environmental governance.

  8. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  9. Exploring the Relations of Inquiry-Based Teaching to Science Achievement and Dispositions in 54 Countries (United States)

    Cairns, Dean; Areepattamannil, Shaljan


    This study, drawing on data from the third cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an analytic strategy, examined the relations of inquiry-based science teaching to science achievement and dispositions toward science among 170,474 15-year-old students from 4780 schools in 54 countries across the globe. The results of the HLM analyses, after accounting for student-, school-, and country-level demographic characteristics and students' dispositions toward science, revealed that inquiry-based science teaching was significantly negatively related to science achievement. In contrast, inquiry-based science teaching was significantly positively associated with dispositions toward science, such as interest in and enjoyment of science learning, instrumental and future-oriented science motivation, and science self-concept and self-efficacy. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  10. Computational Science-based Research on Dark Matter at KISTI (United States)

    Cho, Kihyeon


    The Standard Model of particle physics was established after discovery of the Higgs boson. However, little is known about dark matter, which has mass and constitutes approximately five times the number of standard model particles in space. The cross-section of dark matter is much smaller than that of the existing Standard Model, and the range of the predicted mass is wide, from a few eV to several PeV. Therefore, massive amounts of astronomical, accelerator, and simulation data are required to study dark matter, and efficient processing of these data is vital. Computational science, which can combine experiments, theory, and simulation, is thus necessary for dark matter research. A computational science and deep learning-based dark matter research platform is suggested for enhanced coverage and sharing of data. Such an approach can efficiently add to our existing knowledge on the mystery of dark matter.

  11. Connecting Lab-Based Attosecond Science with FEL research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In the last few years laboratory-scale femtosecond laser-based research using XUV light has developed dramatically following the successful development of attosecond laser pulses by means of high-harmonic generation. Using attosecond laser pulses, studies of electron dynamics on the natural timescale that electronic processes occur in atoms, molecules and solids can be contemplated, providing unprecedented insight into the fundamental role that electrons play in photo-induced processes. In my talk I will briefly review the present status of the attosecond science research field in terms of present and foreseen capabilities, and discuss a few recent applications, including a first example of the use of attosecond laser pulses in molecular science. In addition, I will discuss very recent results of experiments where photoionization of dynamically aligned molecules is investigated using a high-harmonics XUV source. Photoionization of aligned molecules becomes all the more interesting if the experiment is perfo...

  12. Preparing elementary education majors to teach science using an inquiry-based approach: the Full Option Science System. (United States)

    Mangrubang, Fred R


    Science education traditionally has received insufficient attention. As a literature review shows, teacher preparation in science will be best served by improvements in pedagogy and in the content of required undergraduate science courses. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993, 1995) and the National Research Council (1993, 1995) have addressed this need in advocating a "science for all" that is highly significant for diverse learners. The No Child Left Behind Act emphasizes that reform of teacher preparation is part of an urgent national commitment to bring high-quality teacher candidates into the classroom. The Gallaudet University undergraduate teacher education program has developed an inquiry-based course that emphasizes integration of the sciences. Acquisition of the Full Option Science System, and its adaptation to and integration into the course, has resulted in specific curricular changes and positive results.

  13. The impact of an automated dose-dispensing scheme on user compliance, medication understanding, and medication stockpiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Bira; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig


    ' handling and consumption of medication in terms of compliance behavior, and how does the assumption of user benefits made by health professionals and legislators measure up to users' experiences with ADD? METHODS: The results built on a secondary analysis of 9 qualitative interviews with a varied selection...... the more frequent type of behavior. After switching to ADD, most users experienced no change in understanding of their medications. ADD did not lead to automatic removal of old medications in users' homes; in fact for some users, ADD led to even larger medication stockpiles. Overall, reports from patients...... understanding, nor does it automatically eliminate stockpiles of old medication in users' homes. The gap between the perspectives of users and health professionals makes a compelling case for considering users' voices in the development and implementation of future health technologies....

  14. Effects of an Inquiry-Based Science Program on Critical Thinking, Science Process Skills, Creativity, and Science Fair Achievement of Middle School Students (United States)

    Longo, Christopher M.

    This study investigated the impact of an inquiry-based science program on the critical thinking skills, science process skills, creativity, and science fair achievement of middle school students. Although research indicates the connection between inquiry and achievement, there is limited empirical research relating specific inquiry-based programs to critical thinking, creativity, and science fair achievement in middle school classrooms. The research took place in a small, suburban middle school in the northeast from November 2010 to May 2011. A sample of convenience was comprised of seventh and eighth grade students. The study was quasi-experimental in nature, with a pretest-posttest comparison group design using intact classrooms of students. Five instruments were administered related to the elements of science process skills, critical thinking, creative thinking, and science fair achievement. The scores of those students in the inquiry-based science program were compared to those students in the traditional science classroom to determine the impact of each method of delivering instruction. In the multivariate analysis of variance, the inquiry instruction group scored significantly higher for science process skills as measured by the Earthworm Test (p < .001) and Cognitive Integrity, an area of critical thinking measured by the CM3 (p < .025). In multiple regression analysis, program type contributed significantly to the prediction of science fair achievement scores above and beyond the predictor variables of science process skills, critical thinking, and creativity (p < .001). Science fair scores were significantly higher (p < .001) for the treatment as compared to that of the direct instruction group. Overall, science process skills (p < .025) and program type (p < .001) contributed significantly to the prediction of science fair achievement.

  15. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.


    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  16. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the chemical stockpile disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Griffin, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. 112 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  17. Recycling of plastics from stockpiles performed by means of low-pressure injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gintowt


    Full Text Available A viability analysis of manufacturing goods out of plastics, from stockpiles and municipal residues, has been carried out. The analysispertains goods in the form of inserts manufactured in light molds of big-sizes, by means of low-pressure injection. The cost analysis of the investment and manufacturing suggests that those goods are not price-competitive, as compared to other ones used in similar situations. Exploitation analysis proves that the goods, used outdoors are easily damaged on the surface by UV exposure, temperature differences of 24-hour cycle, as well as by water and plants. Re-recycling, and especially, the grinding of the product poses another challenge in the future. An analysis of the environmental impact of energy acquisition during the manufacturing of those goods was also carried out. The analysis also pertains the method of identifying the type of raw-material, in the process of segregation that stems from the necessity of a complex content training of staff running waste segregation posts.

  18. Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.


    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

  19. Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.


    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

  20. Evidence-Based Practice: Separating Science From Pseudoscience. (United States)

    Lee, Catherine M; Hunsley, John


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires that clinicians be guided by the best available evidence. In this article, we address the impact of science and pseudoscience on psychotherapy in psychiatric practice. We describe the key principles of evidence-based intervention. We describe pseudoscience and provide illustrative examples of popular intervention practices that have not been abandoned, despite evidence that they are not efficacious and may be harmful. We distinguish efficacy from effectiveness, and describe modular approaches to treatment. Reasons for the persistence of practices that are not evidence based are examined at both the individual and the professional system level. Finally, we offer suggestions for the promotion of EBP through clinical practice guidelines, modelling of scientific decision making, and training in core skills.

  1. Evidence-Based Practice: Separating Science From Pseudoscience (United States)

    Lee, Catherine M; Hunsley, John


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires that clinicians be guided by the best available evidence. In this article, we address the impact of science and pseudoscience on psychotherapy in psychiatric practice. We describe the key principles of evidence-based intervention. We describe pseudoscience and provide illustrative examples of popular intervention practices that have not been abandoned, despite evidence that they are not efficacious and may be harmful. We distinguish efficacy from effectiveness, and describe modular approaches to treatment. Reasons for the persistence of practices that are not evidence based are examined at both the individual and the professional system level. Finally, we offer suggestions for the promotion of EBP through clinical practice guidelines, modelling of scientific decision making, and training in core skills. PMID:26720821

  2. Improving Science and IT Literacy by Providing Urban-Based Environmental Science Research Opportunities (United States)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.; Liang, J.


    A U.C. Berkeley-based outreach program known as Environmental Science Information Technology Activities has been in operation over the past four years. The primary aim of the program is to provide opportunities for grades 9 and 10 students in diverse East San Francisco Bay Area communities to develop deeper understandings of the nature and conduct of science, which will increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future. Design of the program has been informed by recent research that indicates a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Accordingly, ESITA includes an important student-led environmental science research project component, which provides participants with opportunities to engage in research investigations that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews with participants and specific assessment/evaluation instruments indicates that ESITA program activities, including after-school meetings, summer and school year research projects, and conference preparations and presentations has provided students with high-quality inquiry science experiences that increased their knowledge of STEM and IT concepts, as well as their understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise. In addition, the program has achieved a high degree of success in that it has: enhanced participants' intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. Overall

  3. Using computer-based tests for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Callear


    Full Text Available The introduction of objective testing using computer software does not necessarily represent innovative assessment. Where tests occur as an add-on to a course, are timeconstrained, closed-book, invigilated, and where there is little (or no feedback of results to the students, such testing is best regarded as an innovative technique for traditional summative assessment. A computer-based examination of this nature using the commercial software Question Mark has been operating for a number of years in the Department of Information Science at Portsmouth, in the second-year unit for Logic Programming, with student numbers up to 160.

  4. Stockpiled pre-pandemic H5N1 influenza virus vaccines with AS03 adjuvant provide cross-protection from H5N2 clade virus challenge in ferrets. (United States)

    Sun, Xiangjie; Belser, Jessica A; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Creager, Hannah M; Guo, Zhu; Jefferson, Stacie N; Liu, Feng; York, Ian A; Stevens, James; Maines, Taronna R; Jernigan, Daniel B; Katz, Jacqueline M; Levine, Min Z; Tumpey, Terrence M


    Avian influenza viruses, notably H5 subtype viruses, pose a continuous threat to public health due to their pandemic potential. In recent years, influenza virus H5 subtype split vaccines with novel oil-in-water emulsion based adjuvants (e.g. AS03, MF59) have been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and able to induce broad immune responses in clinical trials, providing strong scientific support for vaccine stockpiling. However, whether such vaccines can provide protection from infection with emerging, antigenically distinct clades of H5 viruses has not been adequately addressed. Here, we selected two AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccines from the US national pre-pandemic influenza vaccine stockpile and assessed whether the 2004-05 vaccines could provide protection against a 2014 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus (A/northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014), a clade virus responsible for mass culling of poultry in North America. Ferrets received two doses of adjuvanted vaccine containing 7.5µg of hemagglutinin (HA) from A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (clade 1) or A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) virus either in a homologous or heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime. We found that both vaccination regimens elicited robust antibody responses against the 2004-05 vaccine viruses and could reduce virus-induced morbidity and viral replication in the lower respiratory tract upon heterologous challenge despite the low level of cross-reactive antibody titers to the challenge H5N2 virus. This study supports the value of existing stockpiled 2004-05 influenza H5N1 vaccines, combined with AS03-adjuvant for early use in the event of an emerging pandemic with H5N2-like clade viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparison of Bobath based and movement science based treatment for stroke: a randomised controlled trial


    van Vliet, P M; Lincoln, N; Foxall, A


    Objectives: Bobath based (BB) and movement science based (MSB) physiotherapy interventions are widely used for patients after stroke. There is little evidence to suggest which is most effective. This single-blind randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of these treatments on movement abilities and functional independence.

  6. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.


    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  7. Simple, Scalable, Script-Based Science Processor (S4P) (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Berrick, Stephen; Mack, Robert; Pham, Long; Zhou, Bryan; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)


    The development and deployment of data processing systems to process Earth Observing System (EOS) data has proven to be costly and prone to technical and schedule risk. Integration of science algorithms into a robust operational system has been difficult. The core processing system, based on commercial tools, has demonstrated limitations at the rates needed to produce the several terabytes per day for EOS, primarily due to job management overhead. This has motivated an evolution in the EOS Data Information System toward a more distributed one incorporating Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). As part of this evolution, the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has developed a simplified processing system to accommodate the increased load expected with the advent of reprocessing and launch of a second satellite. This system, the Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor (S42) may also serve as a resource for future SIPS. The current EOSDIS Core System was designed to be general, resulting in a large, complex mix of commercial and custom software. In contrast, many simpler systems, such as the EROS Data Center AVHRR IKM system, rely on a simple directory structure to drive processing, with directories representing different stages of production. The system passes input data to a directory, and the output data is placed in a "downstream" directory. The GES DAAC's Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processing System is based on the latter concept, but with modifications to allow varied science algorithms and improve portability. It uses a factory assembly-line paradigm: when work orders arrive at a station, an executable is run, and output work orders are sent to downstream stations. The stations are implemented as UNIX directories, while work orders are simple ASCII files. The core S4P infrastructure consists of a Perl program called stationmaster, which detects newly arrived work orders and forks a job to run the

  8. Influence of an Intensive, Field-Based Life Science Course on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Environmental Science Teaching (United States)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy


    Personal and professional experiences influence teachers' perceptions of their ability to implement environmental science curricula and to positively impact students' learning. The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine what influence, if any, an intensive field-based life science course and service learning had on preservice teachers'…

  9. Science Shops - a concept for community based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hende, Merete


    in other ways besides the direct work with science shop projects. The following ways have been identified: - Science shop staff develop theoretical and methodological courses, where students can learn the competence that can be developed through science shop projects like science communication, academia...

  10. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program. (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo


    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program.

  11. Ocean Science in a K-12 setting: Promoting Inquiry Based Science though Graduate Student and Teacher Collaboration (United States)

    Lodico, J. M.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.; Pyrtle, A.; Ivey, S.; Madeiros, A.; Saleem, S.


    The University of South Florida, College of Marine Science Oceans: GK-12 Teaching Fellowship Program is successfully enriching science learning via the oceans. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the program provides a unique opportunity among scientists and K-12 teachers to interact with the intention of bringing ocean science concepts and research to the classroom environment enhance the experience of learning and doing science, and to promote `citizen scientists' for the 21st century. The success of the program relies heavily on the extensive summer training program where graduate students develop teaching skills, create inquiry based science activities for a summer Oceanography Camp for Girls program and build a relationship with their mentor teacher. For the last year and a half, two graduate students from the College of Marine Science have worked in cooperation with teachers from the Pinellas county School District, Southside Fundamental Middle School. Successful lesson plans brought into a 6th grade Earth Science classroom include Weather and climate: Global warming, The Geologic timescale: It's all about time, Density: Layering liquids, and Erosion processes: What moves water and sediment. The school and students have benefited greatly from the program experiencing hands-on inquiry based science and the establishment of an after school science club providing opportunities for students to work on their science fair projects and pursuit other science interests. Students are provided scoring rubrics and their progress is creatively assessed through KWL worksheets, concept maps, surveys, oral one on one and classroom discussions and writing samples. The year culminated with a series of hands on lessons at the nearby beach, where students demonstrated their mastery of skills through practical application. Benefits to the graduate student include improved communication of current science research to a diverse audience, a better understanding of the

  12. Assessment for Learning in Inquiry Based Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornaguera, Cristina Carulla

    The study looks at assessment for learning and Inquiry Based Science Education —IBSE— as concepts established in a diversity of geographical areas, where the traditional summative assessment shapes what most individuals share as being experienced as assessment. Based on Leontiev and Radford......’s activity theory perspectives, this study looks critically at assessment for learning within IBSE activity research shaped by an individualistic approach to learning. The thesis proposed a movement towards an approach using a socio-cultural perspective. The researcher's process of learning structured...... the analytical process. The main contribution was the analysis and the results of researcher movement from a view of assessment considering learning as a psychological process in the mind, independent of the everyday life of individuals, towards one considering the inseparability of collective and individual...

  13. Web-based Visual Analytics for Extreme Scale Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Harney, John F [ORNL; Jewell, Brian C [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)


    In this paper, we introduce a Web-based visual analytics framework for democratizing advanced visualization and analysis capabilities pertinent to large-scale earth system simulations. We address significant limitations of present climate data analysis tools such as tightly coupled dependencies, ineffi- cient data movements, complex user interfaces, and static visualizations. Our Web-based visual analytics framework removes critical barriers to the widespread accessibility and adoption of advanced scientific techniques. Using distributed connections to back-end diagnostics, we minimize data movements and leverage HPC platforms. We also mitigate system dependency issues by employing a RESTful interface. Our framework embraces the visual analytics paradigm via new visual navigation techniques for hierarchical parameter spaces, multi-scale representations, and interactive spatio-temporal data mining methods that retain details. Although generalizable to other science domains, the current work focuses on improving exploratory analysis of large-scale Community Land Model (CLM) and Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) simulations.

  14. Global maps of science based on the new Web-of-Science categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Carley, S.; Rafols, I.


    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of

  15. Central Computer Science Concepts to Research-Based Teacher Training in Computer Science: An Experimental Study (United States)

    Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter


    The significance of computer science for economics and society is undisputed. In particular, computer science is acknowledged to play a key role in schools (e.g., by opening multiple career paths). The provision of effective computer science education in schools is dependent on teachers who are able to properly represent the discipline and whose…

  16. How Is a Science Lesson Developed and Implemented Based on Multiple Intelligences Theory? (United States)

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz


    The purpose of this study is to present the whole process step-by-step of how a science lesson can be planned and implemented based on Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory. First, it provides the potential of the MI theory for science teaching and learning. Then an MI science lesson that was developed based on a modified model in the literature and…

  17. Volcano!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Geology Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research,…

  18. Teaching with Web-Based Videos: Helping Students Grasp the Science in Popular Online Resources (United States)

    Pace, Barbara G.; Jones, Linda Cronin


    Today, the use of web-based videos in science classrooms is becoming more and more commonplace. However, these videos are often fast-paced and information rich--science concepts can be fragmented and embedded within larger cultural issues. This article addresses the cognitive difficulties posed by many web-based science videos. Drawing on concepts…

  19. Hurricane!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Meteorology Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science teachers to help their students learn about problems with hurricanes and scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning,…

  20. Theme-Based Project Learning: Design and Application of Convergent Science Experiments (United States)

    Chun, Man-Seog; Kang, Kwang Il; Kim, Young H.; Kim, Young Mee


    This case study aims to verify the benefits of theme-based project learning for convergent science experiments. The study explores the possibilities of enhancing creative, integrated and collaborative teaching and learning abilities in science-gifted education. A convergent project-based science experiment program of physics, chemistry and biology…

  1. Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) as a Means for School-Based Science Curriculum Change (United States)

    Browne, Christi L.

    The challenge of school-based science curriculum change and educational reform is often presented to science teachers and departments who are not necessarily prepared for the complexity of considerations that change movements require. The development of a Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on a science department's curriculum change efforts, may provide the necessary tools to foster sustainable school-based curriculum science changes. This research presents a case study of an evolving science department PLC consisting of 10 middle school science teachers from the same middle school and their efforts of school-based science curriculum change. A transformative mixed model case study with qualitative data and deepened by quantitative analysis, was chosen to guide the investigation. Collected data worked to document the essential developmental steps, the occurrence and frequency of the five essential dimensions of successful PLCs, and the influences the science department PLC had on the middle school science department's progression through school-based science curriculum change, and the barriers, struggles and inhibiting actions of the science department PLC. Findings indicated that a science department PLC was unique in that it allowed for a focal science departmental lens of science curriculum change to be applied to the structure and function of the PLC and therefore the process, proceedings, and results were directly aligned to and driven by the science department. The science PLC, while logically difficult to set-up and maintain, became a professional science forum where the middle school science teachers were exposed to new science teaching and learning knowledge, explored new science standards, discussed effects on student science learning, designed and critically analyzed science curriculum change application. Conclusions resulted in the science department PLC as an identified tool providing the ability for science departmental actions to lead to

  2. Equity Conscious Instruction in Problem-based Multilingual Science Classrooms (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines the instructional and relational moves implemented by an equity-conscious teacher in service of supporting discursive participation among her English Learners specifically in a problem-based science classroom. The research included also examines the evolution of discursive participation among English Learners as well as the nature of collaboration among English Learners and their English Fluent peers. Initial findings suggest that there were productive, unproductive, and problematic responses to the teacher's caring approach. Students saw the teacher as approachable and accessible which resulted in students seeking the teacher out, which in turn meant that the teacher was able to scaffold instruction for her students. Students recognized and appreciated teacher strategies, but did not generally take up or adopt her instructional supports when working with their peers. English Fluent students shielded English Learners from more rigorous participation in an effort to prevent them from feeling uncomfortable. Furthermore, English Learners and their English Fluent peers defined "help" in the context of group work differently. The implications for this work include further addressing the ways in which teachers support and scaffold science instruction, thinking more critically about the ways in which teachers are explicit in modeling instructional strategies, and working with students to better understand the implications of differences in the ways that they define help and collaborate.

  3. Universal Design for Learning and Elementary School Science: Exploring the Efficacy, Use, and Perceptions of a Web-Based Science Notebook (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Daley, Samantha G.; Lim, Seoin; Lapinski, Scott; Robinson, Kristin H.; Johnson, Mindy


    Science notebooks can play a critical role in activity-based science learning, but the tasks of recording, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data create barriers that impede science learning for many students. This study (a) assessed in a randomized controlled trial the potential for a web-based science notebook designed using the Universal…

  4. Inquiry-based science teasching competence of pre-service primary teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake-Tuenter, E.


    In recent years, improving primary science education has received considerable attention. In particular, researchers and policymakers advocate the use of inquiry-based science teaching and learning, believing that pupils learn best through direct personal experience and by incorporating new

  5. Problem-based learning versus traditional science instruction: Achievement and interest in science of middle grades minority females (United States)

    Mungin, Rochelle E.

    This quantitative study examined science interest and achievement of middle school minority females in both traditional science classes and Problem-based Learning (PBL) science classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference between traditional teaching and the PBL teaching method. The researcher also looked for a significant relationship between interest in science and achievement in science. This study used survey data from parents of female middle school science students to measure student interest in science concepts. The population of interest for this study was 13--15 year old eighth grade females from various racial make-ups such as, African American, Hispanic, Bi-racial, Asian, and Other Pacific Islander. Student achievement data was retrieved from the 8th grade science fall common assessed benchmark exam of both test groups. The results of the survey along with the benchmark data was to shed light on the way adolescent females learn and come to embrace science. The findings may provide guidance for science educators seeking to reach their minority female students and guide their achievement levels higher than before. From the results of the t-test and Pearson correlation test of this study, it can be concluded that while this study did not show a significant difference in academic achievement or interest between the two teaching styles, it revealed that interest in science has a positive role to play in the academic success of minority girls in science. The practical implications for examining these issues are to further the research on solutions for closing the minority and gender achievement gaps. The results of this study have implications for researchers as well as practitioners in the field of education.

  6. Utilizing Science Philosophy Statements to Facilitate K-3 Teacher Candidates' Development of Inquiry-Based Science Practice (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew


    This study utilized pre-service teachers' philosophy statements to connect their beliefs for science teaching with inquiry-based constructivist classroom practice. The major findings of this study suggested that before entering the classroom prospective teachers are strongly aligned with inquiry-based, constructivist-based theories, and describe…

  7. Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.


    The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.

  8. The Utilization of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction in Connecticut (United States)

    Bozzuto, David M.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of practitioners of inquiry-based instruction from 35 Connecticut school districts. The source of the participants, Connecticut State Science Assessment Advisory Committee members, and their involvement in science education acted to bound the research. Using a multiple case study design, data were gathered from 28 participants: teachers n = 21, curriculum leaders n = 4, professional development experts n = 2, and state education advisor/ teacher preparation expert n = 1 involved with Connecticut schools. Each participant was asked to complete an online demographic and inquiry utilization questionnaire. From the results of the questionnaires, a cadre of 11 participants was selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. A round of follow-up interviews of five key participants was conducted to further clarify the phenomenon. Two of the follow up interviewees were observed using the EQUIP rubric to assess inquiry implementation. Artifacts such as minutes, PowerPoint presentations, and a reflexive journal were collected throughout the study. An inductive approach to content analysis of data from the survey and interviews was used to explore constructs, themes, and patterns. After segmentation took place, the data were categorized to allow patterns and constructs to emerge. The data were reduced based on the emergent design and those reductions, or themes, were informed by ongoing data collection using constant comparison as different levels of codes emerge. Data collection further informed data analysis and future data collection. Initial coding of patterns was reduced until theoretical saturation occurred and the data allowed five thematic findings to emerge from the data. The five themes were: teach, process, impasse, develop, and support. The significance of each theme and its implication for practitioners and researchers were discussed and offered, respectively.

  9. CRISPR-Based Technologies and the Future of Food Science. (United States)

    Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe


    The on-going CRISPR craze is focused on the use of Cas9-based technologies for genome editing applications in eukaryotes, with high potential for translational medicine and next-generation gene therapy. Nevertheless, CRISPR-Cas systems actually provide adaptive immunity in bacteria, and have much promise for various applications in food bacteria that include high-resolution typing of pathogens, vaccination of starter cultures against phages, and the genesis of programmable and specific antibiotics that can selectively modulate bacterial population composition. Indeed, the molecular machinery from these DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated, DNA-targeting systems can be harnessed in native hosts, or repurposed in engineered systems for a plethora of applications that can be implemented in all organisms relevant to the food chain, including agricultural crops trait-enhancement, livestock breeding, and fermentation-based manufacturing, and for the genesis of next-generation food products with enhanced quality and health-promoting functionalities. CRISPR-based applications are now poised to revolutionize many fields within food science, from farm to fork. In this review, we describe CRISPR-Cas systems and highlight their potential for the development of enhanced foods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. A Rights-Based Approach to Science Literacy Using Local Languages: Contextualising Inquiry-Based Learning in Africa (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia


    This article addresses the importance of teaching and learning science in local languages. The author argues that acknowledging local knowledge and using local languages in science education while emphasising inquiry-based learning improve teaching and learning science. She frames her arguments with the theory of inquiry, which draws on…

  11. NASA's NPOESS Preparatory Project Science Data Segment: A Framework for Measurement-based Earth Science Data Systems (United States)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.; Schweiss, Robert J.


    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Data Segment (SDS) provides a framework for the future of NASA s distributed Earth science data systems. The NPP SDS performs research and data product assessment while using a fully distributed architecture. The components of this architecture are organized around key environmental data disciplines: land, ocean, ozone, atmospheric sounding, and atmospheric composition. The SDS thus establishes a set of concepts and a working prototypes. This paper describes the framework used by the NPP Project as it enabled Measurement-Based Earth Science Data Systems for the assessment of NPP products.

  12. Satellite-based Precipitation Measurements For Science and Society (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Huffman, G. J.


    Water is essential to Earth. Thus, knowing when, where, and how precipitation falls is of paramount importance for science and society. Some areas of the world have dense ground-based rain observations, but the vast oceans, less populated regions, and parts of developing countries lack adequate surface precipitation data. Satellites provide an optimal platform to measure precipitation globally. In the 1970's satellites started measuring precipitation and, over time, satellite precipitation sensors improved considerably. A major breakthrough was the 1998 launch of the joint NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The TRMM spacecraft had both a multi-frequency passive microwave imaging radiometer for measuring wide-swath rainfall surface intensity and horizontal structures, and a single-frequency radar channel capable of generating 3D views of rain in clouds. In 2014, NASA and JAXA launched the Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM-CO) spacecraft carrying the most advanced precipitation sensors currently in space, including a dual-frequency precipitation radar and a well-calibrated, multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer. The GPM-CO was designed to measure precipitation rates from 0.2-110 mm hr-1, to provide 3D particle size distributions, and to detect moderate to intense snow events, considerably improving over TRMM's capabilities. The GPM-CO serves as a reference for unifying data from a constellation of partner satellites to provide next-generation, merged estimates globally and with high temporal (30 min) and spatial (0.1ox0.1o) resolutions. GPM data have been used for observing hurricanes from the tropics to mid-latitudes; developing susceptibility maps for floods, landslides, and droughts; providing inputs into weather and climate models; and offering new insights into agricultural productivity and world health. The current status of GPM, its ongoing science, and the future plans will be

  13. T-126 Agricultural Science. T-017 Agricultural Science and Mechanization. A Competency-Based Curriculum Manual. (United States)

    Hudson, Coy L.

    This four-chapter manual outlines suggested curricula for two agricultural programs: Agricultural Science and Mechanization, which is designed to accommodate the requirements of the Veteran's Pension and Readjustment Assistance Act of 1967; and the Agricultural Science Program, which includes a general education component required for the…

  14. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program. (United States)

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W


    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  15. OCOD-CTTP Integrated Science: School Based Assessment Marker/Tutor Handbook. (United States)

    King, Winston, Ed.; And Others

    This manual informs tutors/evaluators and students about the Caribbean Examinations Council's (CXC) school based assessment (SBA) of integrated science skills. It includes directions for the teacher/evaluator and a student activity package. The SBA is done in agricultural science, biology, chemistry, integrated science, and social studies and is…

  16. The Role of Investigations in Promoting Inquiry-Based Science Education in Ireland (United States)

    Kennedy, Declan


    This paper describes recent developments in Ireland to promote a greater interest in science among students in the 12-15 age group by means of practical work involving Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE). The tasks, know as Investigations, are a component of the assessment of the subject Science which is studied as part of the Junior…

  17. Examination of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities Using Problem Based Learning Method (United States)

    Ekici, Didem Inel


    In this study, both the activities prepared by pre-service science teachers regarding the Problem Based Learning method and the pre-service science teachers' views regarding the method were examined before and after applying their activities in a real class environment. 69 pre-service science teachers studying in the 4th grade of the science…

  18. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students (United States)

    Kim, Hanna


    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  19. Using ICT-Based Instructional Technologies to Teach Science: Perspectives from Teachers in Trinidad and Tobago (United States)

    Maharaj-Sharma, Rawatee; Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Aditi


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how science teachers in Trinidad and Tobago use ICT-based instructional technologies in classroom science teaching. The participants were 30 secondary school science teachers who completed their Postgraduate Diploma in Education within the last 2 years from the University of the West Indies in Trinidad…

  20. Standards-Based External Exams and Students' Science-Related Career Expectations: An International Perspective (United States)

    Han, Seong Won


    Students' science-related career expectations are important for predicting their future science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related educational and occupational attainments. This study examines the degree to which standards-based external examinations are associated with a student's propensity for pursuing science-related…

  1. An Analysis of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Lee, Carole K.; Shea, Marilyn


    This study examines how pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) view inquiry-based science learning and teaching, and how the science methods course builds their confidence to teach inquiry science. Most PSETs think that inquiry is asking students questions rather than a formal set of pedagogical tools. In the present study, three groups of PSETs…

  2. Project-Based Learning versus Textbook/Lecture Learning in Middle School Science (United States)

    Main, Sindy


    As schools continue to become more diverse, it is important to look at science teaching methods that will meet the needs of all students. In this study, 172 students in a middle school in Northwestern Illinois were taught using two methods of teaching science. Half of the students were taught using project-based science (PBS) and the other half of…

  3. Why Do Most Science Educators Encourage To Teach School Science through Lab-Based Instruction?: A Neurological Explanation. (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lawson, Anton E.


    Tests the hypothesis that, because it uses tri-dimensional sensory pathways which show a higher rate of neural activity than uni- or bi-dimensionals, lab-activity-based instruction is a more effective teaching strategy for learning science than verbal-based instruction. Applies manipulative teaching strategies that use visual, somatosensory, and…

  4. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S


    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania, Acorn Technologies (South Africa, Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa, the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar, the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya, and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria. All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While

  5. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Al-Bader, Sara; Masum, Hassan; Simiyu, Ken; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A


    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation.This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation.The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan's development by Nigeria's National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria).All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems.For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy

  6. Exploring the Development of Preservice Science Teachers' Views on the Nature of Science in Inquiry-Based Laboratory Instruction (United States)

    Ozgelen, Sinan; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Hanuscin, Deborah L.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the inquiry-based and explicit-reflective laboratory instruction on preservice science teachers' (PSTs) conceptions of the nature of science (NOS) aspects. This study was carried out during the Laboratory Application in Science II course. All 52 preservice elementary science teachers…

  7. One Foot on the Dock and One Foot on the Boat: Differences among Preservice Science Teachers' Interpretations of Field-Based Science Methods in Culturally Diverse Contexts. (United States)

    Yerrick, Randy K.; Hoving, Timothy J.


    Investigates preservice science teachers' beliefs about science teaching and learning through reflections on teaching lower track science students. Studies preservice teachers enrolled in a field-based secondary science methods course working with rural Black children. Discusses implications for teacher education and research. (Author/KHR)

  8. A Module-Based Environmental Science Course for Teaching Ecology to Non-Majors (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey R.


    Using module-based courses has been suggested to improve undergraduate science courses. A course based around a series of modules focused on major environmental issues might be an effective way to teach non-science majors about ecology and ecology's role in helping to solve environmental problems. I have used such a module-based environmental…

  9. Learning to Teach Inquiry: A Course in Inquiry-Based Science for Future Primary School Teachers (United States)

    Kremer, Angelika; Walker, Mark; Schluter, Kirsten


    We developed a course in inquiry-based science for students training to become primary school teachers. The emphasis of the course was teaching students to do inquiry-based science activities themselves, as this is the best way of learning how to teach using inquiry-based methods. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Inquiry-Based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study (United States)

    Aso, Eze


    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulianti


    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the level of readability and feasibility of science comic, to knowcharacter development through a small test in some schools. The research design was Research & Development, trials were using quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test experimental design. The instruments to measure attitudes were: a questionnaire and observation sheet, a test used to measure comprehension of the material. The results showed that learning science by inquiry-based science comic can improvecharacters and cognitive achievement of primary school students. Results in the form of inquiry-based science comic can be utilized in learning science as a companion teaching materials.

  12. An Analysis of Citizen Science Based Research: Usage and Publication Patterns


    Follett, Ria; Strezov, Vladimir


    The use of citizen science for scientific discovery relies on the acceptance of this method by the scientific community. Using the Web of Science and Scopus as the source of peer reviewed articles, an analysis of all published articles on "citizen science" confirmed its growth, and found that significant research on methodology and validation techniques preceded the rapid rise of the publications on research outcomes based on citizen science methods. Of considerable interest is the growing nu...

  13. Meteorology--An Interdisciplinary Base for Science Learning. (United States)

    Howell, David C.


    Described is a freshman science program at Deerfield Academy (Deerfield, Mass.) in meteorology, designed as the first part of a three-year unified science sequence. Merits of the course, in which particular emphasis is placed on observation skills and making predictions, are enumerated. (CS)

  14. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling has come of age as a research tool in the basic sciences, especially the exact sciences. Specifically, in the discipline of chemistry, it has been of great utility. Its use dates back to the 17th Century and includes such wide areas as computational chemistry, chemoinformatics, molecular mechanics, chemical ...

  15. Science Achievement in TIMSS Cognitive Domains Based on Learning Styles (United States)

    Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel


    Problem Statement: The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects. Understanding how different learning styles might influence science achievement may guide educators in their efforts to raise achievement. This study is an attempt to examine…

  16. Dry Laboratories in Science Education : Computer-based Practical Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Huisman, W.


    Practical (laboratory) work in science education has traditionally been used to allow students to rediscover already known concepts and ideas, to demonstrate concepts taught in the classroom or, in the case of inquirybased science curricula, to teach concepts. Often, these laboratory practicals do

  17. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem


    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  18. The first investigative science-based evidence of Morgellons psychogenesis. (United States)

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Pusiol, Teresa; Piscioli, Francesco; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio


    Morgellons disease is an infrequent syndromic condition, that typically affects middle-aged white women, characterized by crawling sensations on and under the skin, associated with itchy rashes, stinging sores, fiber-like filaments emerging from the sores, severe fatigue, concentrating difficulty, and memory loss. The scientific community is prone to believe that Morgellons is the manifestation of various psychiatric syndromes (Munchausen, Munchausen by proxy, Ekbom, Wittmaack-Ekbom). Up until now, no investigative science-based evidence about its psychogenesis has ever been provided. In order to close this gap, we have analyzed the filaments extracted from the skin lesions of a 49-year-old Caucasian female patient, by using a Field Emission Gun-Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope equipped with an X-ray microprobe, for the chemico-elemental characterization of the filaments, comparing them with those collected during a detailed indoor investigation, with careful air monitoring, in her apartment. Our results prove the self-introduction under the epidermis of environmental filaments. For the first time in the literature, we have scientifically demonstrated the self-induced nature of Morgellons disease, thereby wiping out fanciful theories about its etiopathogenesis.

  19. Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke


    Full Text Available Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere. The focus is shifting from the environment as externality to the biosphere as precondition for social justice, economic development, and sustainability. In this article, we exemplify the intertwined nature of social-ecological systems and emphasize that they operate within, and as embedded parts of the biosphere and as such coevolve with and depend on it. We regard social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems and use a social-ecological resilience approach as a lens to address and understand their dynamics. We raise the challenge of stewardship of development in concert with the biosphere for people in diverse contexts and places as critical for long-term sustainability and dignity in human relations. Biosphere stewardship is essential, in the globalized world of interactions with the Earth system, to sustain and enhance our life-supporting environment for human well-being and future human development on Earth, hence, the need to reconnect development to the biosphere foundation and the need for a biosphere-based sustainability science.

  20. Problem-based learning online: perceptions of health science students. (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A; Jones, Bob; Hodges, Andrea


    This qualitative study explored health sciences students' perceptions of their experiences in online problem based learning (PBL) and focused on their views about learning and group process in the online environment. Participants were novices to online learning and highly experienced in PBL, therefore, they could reflect on past face-to-face PBL experiences. Three groups of learners were involved, including undergraduate nursing and midwifery students and graduate students in a neonatal nurse practitioner program. Findings are presented using the six steps of the PBL process (Rideout & Carpio, 2001). Results indicated that it is feasible to conduct PBL online. Students felt that it increased their flexibility for learning, enhanced their ability to deeply process content, and provided access to valuable learning resources. Students experienced a period of adaptation to the online environment, perceived a heavy workload, and had difficulties making group decisions online. In addition to using asynchronous communication, chats (synchronous communication) were valued to support group decision-making online. Students appreciated validation of their online contributions from their peers and wanted clear expectations of what constituted successful tutorial participation from their tutors. Although online PBL can work effectively, tutors and students need to develop online literacy skills to smooth their transition to an online PBL environment.

  1. An educational ethnography of teacher-developed science curriculum implementation: Enacting conceptual change-based science inquiry with Hispanic students (United States)

    Brunsell, Eric Steven

    An achievement gap exists between White and Hispanic students in the United States. Research has shown that improving the quality of instruction for minority students is an effective way to narrow this gap. Science education reform movements emphasize that science should be taught using a science inquiry approach. Extensive research in teaching and learning science also shows that a conceptual change model of teaching is effective in helping students learn science. Finally, research into how Hispanic students learn best has provided a number of suggestions for science instruction. The Inquiry for Conceptual Change model merges these three research strands into a comprehensive yet accessible model for instruction. This study investigates two questions. First, what are teachers' perceptions of science inquiry and its implementation in the classroom? Second, how does the use of the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model affect the learning of students in a predominantly Hispanic, urban neighborhood. Five teachers participated in a professional development project where they developed and implemented a science unit based on the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model. Three units were developed and implemented for this study. This is a qualitative study that included data from interviews, participant reflections and journals, student pre- and post-assessments, and researcher observations. This study provides an in-depth description of the role of professional development in helping teachers understand how science inquiry can be used to improve instructional quality for students in a predominantly Hispanic, urban neighborhood. These teachers demonstrated that it is important for professional development to be collaborative and provide opportunities for teachers to enact and reflect on new teaching paradigms. This study also shows promising results for the ability of the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model to improve student learning.

  2. New science-based endpoints to accelerate oncology drug development. (United States)

    Kelloff, Gary J; Sigman, Caroline C


    Although several new oncology drugs have reached the market, more than 80% of drugs for all indications entering clinical development do not get marketing approval, with many failing late in development often in Phase III trials, because of unexpected safety issues or difficulty determining efficacy, including confounded outcomes. These factors contribute to the high costs of oncology drug development and clearly show the need for faster, more cost-effective strategies for evaluating oncology drugs and better definition of patients who will benefit from treatment. Remarkable advances in the understanding of neoplastic progression at the cellular and molecular levels have spurred the discovery of molecularly targeted drugs. This progress along with advances in imaging and bioassay technologies are the basis for describing and evaluating new biomarker endpoints as well as for defining other biomarkers for identifying patient populations, potential toxicity, and providing evidence of drug effect and efficacy. Definitions and classifications of these biomarkers for use in oncology drug development are presented in this paper. Science-based and practical criteria for validating biomarkers have been developed including considerations of mechanistic plausibility, available methods and technology, and clinical feasibility. New promising tools for measuring biomarkers have also been developed and are based on genomics and proteomics, direct visualisation by microscopy (e.g., confocal microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis of cellular features), nanotechnologies, and direct and remote imaging (e.g., fluorescence endoscopy and anatomical, functional and molecular imaging techniques). The identification and evaluation of potential surrogate endpoints and other biomarkers require access to and analysis of large amounts of data, new technologies and extensive research resources. Further, there is a requirement for a convergence of research, regulatory and drug developer

  3. Fundamental Science-Based Simulation of Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    This report presents a hierarchical multiscale modeling scheme based on two-way information exchange. To account for all essential phenomena in waste forms over geological time scales, the models have to span length scales from nanometer to kilometer and time scales from picoseconds to millenia. A single model cannot cover this wide range and a multi-scale approach that integrates a number of different at-scale models is called for. The approach outlined here involves integration of quantum mechanical calculations, classical molecular dynamics simulations, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field methods at the mesoscale, and continuum models. The ultimate aim is to provide science-based input in the form of constitutive equations to integrated codes. The atomistic component of this scheme is demonstrated in the promising waste form xenotime. Density functional theory calculations have yielded valuable information about defect formation energies. This data can be used to develop interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage. Potentials developed in the present work show a good match for the equilibrium lattice constants, elastic constants and thermal expansion of xenotime. In novel waste forms, such as xenotime, a considerable amount of data needed to validate the models is not available. Integration of multiscale modeling with experimental work is essential to generate missing data needed to validate the modeling scheme and the individual models. Density functional theory can also be used to fill knowledge gaps. Key challenges lie in the areas of uncertainty quantification, verification and validation, which must be performed at each level of the multiscale model and across scales. The approach used to exchange information between different levels must also be rigorously validated. The outlook for multiscale modeling of wasteforms is quite promising.

  4. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    For more than 30 years the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has provided the scientific underpinnings in nuclear physics and material science needed to ensure the safety and surety of the nuclear stockpile into the future. In addition to national security research, the LANSCE User Facility has a vibrant research program in fundamental science, providing the scientific community with intense sources of neutrons and protons to perform experiments supporting civilian research and the production of medical and research isotopes. Five major experimental facilities operate simultaneously. These facilities contribute to the stockpile stewardship program, produce radionuclides for medical testing, and provide a venue for industrial users to irradiate and test electronics. In addition, they perform fundamental research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, materials science, and many other areas. The LANSCE User Program plays a key role in training the next generation of top scientists and in attracting the best graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and early-career scientists. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) —the principal sponsor of LANSCE—works with the Office of Science and the Office of Nuclear Energy, which have synergistic long-term needs for the linear accelerator and the neutron science that is the heart of LANSCE.

  5. Enhancing Pedagogical Content Knowledge in a Collaborative School-Based Professional Development Program for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Lee, Yeung-Chung


    This study reports on the trial of a school-based professional development process aimed at helping science teachers improve their inquiry-based science teaching skills. This process focuses on developing the pedagogical content knowledge of teachers through peer collaboration, under the guidance of a teacher educator. A multi-method interpretive…

  6. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social

  7. The cultural production of science in reform-based physics: Girls' access, participation, and resistance (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.


    Recent literature in science education suggests that, to transform girls' participation, learning, and identities within school science, we must think about ways to engage girls in different kinds of educational activities that promote broader meanings of science and scientist. This study was designed to examine more deeply this call for a changed science curriculum and its implications for girls' participation, interest, and emerging science identities. In this ethnographic study, I examine the culturally produced meanings of science and scientist in a reform-based physics classroom that used a curriculum called Active Physics, how these meanings reproduced and contested larger sociohistorical (and prototypical) meanings of science and scientist, and the ways girls participated within and against these meanings. The girls in this upper middle class school were mostly concerned with accessing and maintaining a good student identity (rather than connecting to science in any meaningful way) and resisted promoted meanings of science and scientist that they perceived as threatening to their good student identities. Their embrace of the ways school defined success (via grades and college admission) produced a meaning of Active Physics as a way to get credentials on a transcript and ensured their disconnection from real-world, meaningful science and science identities. The story of girls' participation and resistance in Active Physics complicates our quest for gender-fair science and highlights the power of sociohistorical meanings of schooling and science in producing educational subjects.

  8. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussions on different types of models, structural bioinformatics, Monte Carlos methods and their applications in finance and business, telecommunications, physical sciences, designs and visuals, games and methematics bioinformatics are presented. Some recent applications of molecular modeling in biological, ...

  9. Human Centred Design: a bibliometric overview based on Science Direct

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas José Garcia; Giselle Schmidt Alves Díaz Merino; Susana Cristina Domenech; Eugenio Andres Díaz Merino; Adilson Luiz Pinto


    This article aims to realize a bibliometric review on Science Direct to create a outlook about Human Centred Design in order to identify the most significant authors, journals and key-words as well...

  10. The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate (United States)

    Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of…

  11. The Impact of a Professional Development Program Integrating Informal Science Education on Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Beliefs about Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Duran, Emilio; Ballone-Duran, Lena; Haney, Jodi; Beltyukova, Svetlana


    This report aimed to measure the impact of a unique professional development program entitled Project ASTER III (Active Science Teaching Encourages Reform) on teachers' self-efficacy and perceptions about inquiry-based science teaching. Project ASTER III enabled teachers to explore inquiry-based science teaching through exhibit-based…

  12. Research Based Science Education: An Exemplary Program for Broader Impacts (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.


    Broader impacts are most effective when standing on the shoulders of successful programs. The Research Based Science Education (RBSE) program was such a successful program and played a major role in activating effective opportunities beyond the scope of its program. NSF funded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) to oversee the project from 1996-2008. RBSE provided primarily high school teachers with on-site astronomy research experiences and their students with astronomy research projects that their teachers could explain with confidence. The goal of most student research projects is to inspire and motivate students to go into STEM fields. The authors of the original NSF proposal felt that for students to do research in the classroom, a foundational research experience for teachers must first be provided. The key components of the program consisted of 16 teachers/year on average; a 15-week distance learning course covering astronomy content, research, mentoring and leadership skills; a subsequent 10-day summer workshop with half the time on Kitt Peak on research-class telescopes; results presented on the 9th day; research brought back to the classroom; more on-site observing opportunities for students and teachers; data placed on-line to reach a wider audience; opportunities to submit research articles to the project's refereed journal; and travel for teachers (and the 3 teachers they each mentored) to a professional meeting. In 2004, leveraging on the well-established RBSE program, the NOAO/NASA Spitzer Space Telescope Research began. Between 2005 and 2008, metrics included 32 teachers (mostly from RBSE), 10 scientists, 15 Spitzer Director Discretionary proposals, 31 AAS presentations and many Intel ISEF winners. Under new funding in 2009, the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program was born with similar goals and thankfully still runs today. Broader impacts, lessons learned and ideas for future projects will be discussed in this presentation.

  13. Asteroid! An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Astronomy Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  14. Oil Spill! An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Oceanography Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  15. Spiral and Project-Based Learning with Peer Assessment in a Computer Science Project Management Course (United States)

    Jaime, Arturo; Blanco, José Miguel; Domínguez, César; Sánchez, Ana; Heras, Jónathan; Usandizaga, Imanol


    Different learning methods such as project-based learning, spiral learning and peer assessment have been implemented in science disciplines with different outcomes. This paper presents a proposal for a project management course in the context of a computer science degree. Our proposal combines three well-known methods: project-based learning,…

  16. Volcano!: An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Geology Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  17. Dispositions Supporting Elementary Interns in the Teaching of Reform-Based Science Materials (United States)

    Eick, Charles J.; Stewart, Bethany


    Dispositions supporting the teaching of science as structured inquiry by four elementary candidates are presented. Candidates were studied during student teaching based on their positive attitudes toward teaching science with reform-based materials in their methods course. Personal learning histories informed their attitudes, values, and beliefs…

  18. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad


    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  19. Design of Personalized Blended Learning Environments Based on Web-Assisted Modelling in Science Education (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Murat


    Positive results of science teaching studies supported with the means provided by technology require the enrichment of the content of blended learning environments to provide more benefits. Within this context, it is thought that preparing a web-assisted model-based teaching, which is frequently used in science teaching, based on the "Matter…

  20. Brain Based Learning in Science Education in Turkey: Descriptive Content and Meta Analysis of Dissertations (United States)

    Yasar, M. Diyaddin


    This study aimed at performing content analysis and meta-analysis on dissertations related to brain-based learning in science education to find out the general trend and tendency of brain-based learning in science education and find out the effect of such studies on achievement and attitude of learners with the ultimate aim of raising awareness…

  1. Hurricane! An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Meteorology Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  2. The Dual Vulnerability of Transnational, Science-Based Standards in the National Legal Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanetake, Machiko


    This paper highlights the scientific and political vulnerability of transnational science-based standards. This paper focuses on radiation standards formulated by the decentralised web of expert committees and inter-governmental forums. Transnational science-based standards are beset with scientific

  3. Teaching Concepts of Natural Sciences to Foreigners through Content-Based Instruction: The Adjunct Model (United States)

    Satilmis, Yilmaz; Yakup, Doganay; Selim, Guvercin; Aybarsha, Islam


    This study investigates three models of content-based instruction in teaching concepts and terms of natural sciences in order to increase the efficiency of teaching these kinds of concepts in realization and to prove that the content-based instruction is a teaching strategy that helps students understand concepts of natural sciences. Content-based…

  4. Fraud! An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Chemistry Module. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  5. Demonstrating Inquiry-Based Teaching Competencies in the Life Sciences--Part 2 (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen


    This set of botany demonstrations is a continuation of the inquiry-based lecture activities that provide realistic connections to the history and nature of science and employ technology in data collection. The demonstrations also provide examples of inquiry-based teaching practices in the life sciences. (Contains 5 figures.) [For Part 1, see…

  6. Formative Assessment to Support Students' Competences in Inquiry-Based Science Education (United States)

    Grob, Regula; Holmeier, Monika; Labudde, Peter


    Inquiry-based education has been part of innovative science teaching for the last few decades. With the competence orientation now underlying many national curricula, one of the emerging questions is how the development of student competences can be fostered in the context of inquiry-based science education. One approach to supporting students in…

  7. Simulation-Based Performance Assessment: An Innovative Approach to Exploring Understanding of Physical Science Concepts (United States)

    Gale, Jessica; Wind, Stefanie; Koval, Jayma; Dagosta, Joseph; Ryan, Mike; Usselman, Marion


    This paper illustrates the use of simulation-based performance assessment (PA) methodology in a recent study of eighth-grade students' understanding of physical science concepts. A set of four simulation-based PA tasks were iteratively developed to assess student understanding of an array of physical science concepts, including net force,…

  8. Technology-Based Macrocontexts for Teaching Integrated Science and Language Arts. (United States)

    Kumar, David; Bristor, Valerie J.

    Technology can be utilized as a tool for creating macrocontexts for teaching integrated science and language arts. Teachers can use several criteria for deciding what kind of technology-based resources to use; the teacher's level of confidence in science and language arts content and knowledge of technology-based resources is vital to making such…

  9. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  10. Overall welfare assessment of laying hens: comparing science-based, environment-based and animal-based assessments. (United States)

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Bracke, Marc B M; De Mol, Rudi M; Hirahara, Satoshi; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio


    To increase the validity of evaluations and facilitate expansion and maintenance of assessment systems, we constructed a database of studies on the welfare of laying hens around the world. On the basis of this database, we devised a science-based welfare assessment model. Our model includes measurements, levels and weightings based on the scientific studies in the database, and can clarify the advantages and disadvantages of housing systems for laying hens from the viewpoint of the five freedoms. We also evaluated the usefulness of our model by comparing it with environment-based Animal Needs Index (ANI), another science-based model called FOWEL, and animal-based measurements. Our model showed that freedom from injury, pain and disease, and freedom from discomfort were more secure in the cage system, while non-cage systems scored better for natural behavior and freedom from fear and distress. A significant strong-positive correlation was found between the animal-based assessment and the total scores of ANI (rs = 0.94, P Animal Science.

  11. User-based Resource Design in Earth Science Education (United States)

    Luby, M.; Haber, J.; Wittenberg, K.


    Reform in the classroom, and certainly in academic publishing, is greatly influenced not only by educational research, but also by direct surveys of students and instructors. This presentation looks at changes to Columbia Earthscape,, based on an ongoing series of evaluation and testing measures. Two years ago, the Earthscape project was introduced as a central online resource. It aimed to select and make available authoritative materials from all the disciplines that constitute Earth-system science. Its design harnessed the dynamics of the Web and the interrelatedness of research, education, and public policy. In response to substantial class tests, involving five universities in the United States and abroad, three focus groups of geoscience faculty and librarians, user feedback, internal editorial-board review, and extensive consultation with colleagues in commercial and nonprofit educational publishing, Earthscape is implementing broad changes in design and content. These include arranging the site into sections that correspond to user profiles (scientist, policy-maker, teacher, and student), providing easier search or browsing (by research area, policy content, or lesson concept), and streamlining the presentation of links among our resources. These changes are implemented through more advanced searching capabilities, greater specificity of content metatags, and an overall increase in content from journals, books, and original material. The metatags now include all core geoscience disciplines or a range of pertinent issues (such as climate change, geologic hazards, and pollution). Reflecting the evaluation by librarians, Earthscape's revised interface will permit users to begin with a primary area of interest based on who they are, their "profile." They can then either browse the site's entire holdings in that area, perform searches within each area, or follow the extensive hyperlinks to explore connections to other areas and user needs

  12. Sustainability Logistics Basing - Science and Technology Objective - Demonstration; Industry Assessment and Demonstration Final Report (United States)



  13. Assessment of the Inquiry-Based Project Application in Science Education upon Turkish Science Teachers' Perspectives (United States)

    Akinoglu, Orhan


    Aim of the study is to assess the project works and application processes in science education of 6th, 7th and 8th grades in primary education upon teachers' perspectives. The research was fulfilled upon the descriptive survey model to collect data. Participants of the research were 90 teachers, having project management experience in science…

  14. Applying the science of learning: evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E


    During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in ways that help people learn. The author provides an overview of how the design of multimedia instruction can be informed by the science of learning and the science of instruction, which yields 10 principles of multimedia instructional design that are grounded in theory and based on evidence. Overall, the relationship between the science of learning and the science of instruction is reciprocal.

  15. Inquiry-based instruction in secondary science classrooms: A survey of teacher practice (United States)

    Gejda, Linda Muggeo

    The purpose of this quantitative investigation was to describe the extent to which secondary science teachers, who were certified through Connecticut's BEST portfolio assessment process between 1997 and 2004 and had taught secondary science during the past academic year, reported practicing the indicators of inquiry-based instruction in the classroom and the factors that they perceived facilitated, obstructed, or informed that practice. Indicators of inquiry-based instruction were derived from the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1997). The method for data collection was a researcher-developed, self-report, questionnaire entitled "Inquiry-based Instruction in Secondary Science Classrooms: A Survey", which was developed and disseminated using a slightly modified Dillman (2000) approach. Almost all of the study participants reported practicing the 5Es (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate) of inquiry-based instruction in their secondary science classrooms. Time, resources, the need to cover material for mandatory assessments, the science topics or concepts being taught, and professional development on inquiry-based instruction were reported to be important considerations in participants' decisions to practice inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. A majority of the secondary science teachers participating in this study indicated they had the time, access to resources and the professional development opportunities they needed to practice inquiry-based instruction in their secondary classrooms. Study participants ranked having the time to teach in an inquiry-based fashion and the need to cover material for mandated testing as the biggest obstacles to their practice of inquiry-based instruction in the secondary classroom. Classroom experience and collegial exchange informed the inquiry-based instruction practice of the secondary science teachers who participated in this study. Recommendations for further research

  16. Food-Based Science Curriculum Yields Gains in Nutrition Knowledge (United States)

    Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Showers, Carissa; Díaz, Sebastián; Duffrin, Melani W.


    Background: Students may be receiving less than an average of 4?hours of nutrition instruction per year. Integrating nutrition with other subject areas such as science may increase exposure to nutrition education, while supporting existing academics. Methods: During the 2009-2010 school year, researchers implemented the Food, Math, and Science…

  17. A Visualization-Based Computer Science Hypertextbook Prototype (United States)

    Rossling, Guido; Vellaramkalayil, Teena


    Hypertextbooks for Computer Science contents present an interesting approach to better support learners and integrate algorithm animations into the learning materials. We have developed a prototype for integrating a selection of the functionality of such a hypertextbook into the established Moodle LCMS. This article describes the goals and…

  18. Applications-Based Science Education, Should We Apply? (United States)

    Butlin, Chris


    Suggests an application basis for a combined science and technology education. Describes the development of ideas and materials for a course in "physics from its applications and use." Gives a sample activity from the course. Evaluates the program in terms of its requirements and directions. (CW)

  19. Defense Science Board Task Force on SEA BASING (United States)


    Defense Science Board’s “2002 Summer Study” on terrorism for an examination of the roots of that political and psychotic disease (authors: Major...found itself without the ability to conduct major operations against northern Iraq at the outbreak of war against Saddam Hussein’s regime, while the

  20. Ebola Crisis: Improving Science-Based Communication and Local ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journalism that educates and informs The program will strengthen mass media campaigns and counteract misinformation on Ebola virus disease transmission and control. WFSJ will develop and implement the program in collaboration with Fondation Hirondelle, various African associations of science journalists, and ...

  1. Original Science-Based Music and Student Learning (United States)

    Smolinski, Keith


    American middle school student science scores have been stagnating for several years, demonstrating a need for better learning strategies to aid teachers in instruction and students in content learning. It has also been suggested by researchers that music can be used to aid students in their learning and memory. Employing the theoretical framework…

  2. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education (United States)

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.


    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Igoshkina


    Full Text Available Despite of application of modem materials and methods for construction and repair of asphalt and concrete road pavement, the problem pertaining to removal of surface defects and consequently requirement for effective pot-hole repairing methods still remains an actual one and it is considered as one of the factors that ensures safety traffic conditions.Perspective repairing material has been obtained (cold stock-piled organic and mineral mixtures, which does not require special paving equipment, and which is characterized by a wide range of operational temperatures and excellent thixotropic properties. This allows to solve a problem to prevent asphalt and concrete pavement defects in the seasons of spring and winter. Possibility of long-term storage period and all-year-round application of repairing mixtures increase traffic safety and especially in the period of emergency pot-hole removal on asphalt road pavements.

  4. The Department of Defense Statement on the Science and Technology Program, (United States)


    transportation and disposal operations. Binary facility design as veill as maintenance and surveillance of the existing stockpile is continuing. E...the Defense Science Board, chaired by Dr. John S. Foster, examined the High Energy Laser Program. While im- pressed with technological progress to

  5. Validity of "Hi_Science" as instructional media based-android refer to experiential learning model (United States)

    Qamariah, Jumadi, Senam, Wilujeng, Insih


    Hi_Science is instructional media based-android in learning science on material environmental pollution and global warming. This study is aimed: (a) to show the display of Hi_Science that will be applied in Junior High School, and (b) to describe the validity of Hi_Science. Hi_Science as instructional media created with colaboration of innovative learning model and development of technology at the current time. Learning media selected is based-android and collaborated with experiential learning model as an innovative learning model. Hi_Science had adapted student worksheet by Taufiq (2015). Student worksheet had very good category by two expert lecturers and two science teachers (Taufik, 2015). This student worksheet is refined and redeveloped in android as an instructional media which can be used by students for learning science not only in the classroom, but also at home. Therefore, student worksheet which has become instructional media based-android must be validated again. Hi_Science has been validated by two experts. The validation is based on assessment of meterials aspects and media aspects. The data collection was done by media assessment instrument. The result showed the assessment of material aspects has obtained the average value 4,72 with percentage of agreement 96,47%, that means Hi_Science on the material aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. The assessment of media aspects has obtained the average value 4,53 with percentage of agreement 98,70%, that means Hi_Science on the media aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. It was concluded that Hi_Science as instructional media can be applied in the junior high school.

  6. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald Francis; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.


    AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter

  7. Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Goldberg


    Full Text Available We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET, for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

  8. The impact of computer-based versus "traditional" textbook science instruction on selected student learning outcomes (United States)

    Rothman, Alan H.

    This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking

  9. Reform-based science teaching: A mixed-methods approach to explaining variation in secondary science teacher practice (United States)

    Jetty, Lauren E.

    The purpose of this two-phase, sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was to understand and explain the variation seen in secondary science teachers' enactment of reform-based instructional practices. Utilizing teacher socialization theory, this mixed-methods analysis was conducted to determine the relative influence of secondary science teachers' characteristics, backgrounds and experiences across their teacher development to explain the range of teaching practices exhibited by graduates from three reform-oriented teacher preparation programs. Data for this study were obtained from the Investigating the Meaningfulness of Preservice Programs Across the Continuum of Teaching (IMPPACT) Project, a multi-university, longitudinal study funded by NSF. In the first quantitative phase of the study, data for the sample (N=120) were collected from three surveys from the IMPPACT Project database. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the separate as well as the combined influence of factors such as teachers' personal and professional background characteristics, beliefs about reform-based science teaching, feelings of preparedness to teach science, school context, school culture and climate of professional learning, and influences of the policy environment on the teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. Findings indicate three blocks of variables, professional background, beliefs/efficacy, and local school context added significant contribution to explaining nearly 38% of the variation in secondary science teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. The five variables that significantly contributed to explaining variation in teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices in the full model were, university of teacher preparation, sense of preparation for teaching science, the quality of professional development, science content focused professional, and the perceived level of professional autonomy. Using the results

  10. Chemistry and Materials Science Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodie, K B; Mailhiot, C; Eaglesham, D; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Turpin, L S; Allen, P G


    performance under extreme conditions--Fundamental investigations of the properties and performance of states of matter under extreme dynamic, environmental, and nanoscale conditions, with an emphasis on materials of interest to Laboratory programs and mission needs. (2) Chemistry under extreme conditions and chemical engineering to support national security programs--Insights into the chemical reactions of energetic materials in the nuclear stockpile through models of molecular response to extreme conditions of temperature and pressure, advancing a new technique for processing energetic materials by using sol-gel chemistry, providing materials for NIF optics, and furthering developments to enhance other high-power lasers. (3) Science supporting national objectives at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and biology--Multidisciplinary research for developing new technologies to combat chemical and biological terrorism, to monitor changes in the nation's nuclear stockpile, and to enable the development and application of new physical-science-based methodologies and tools for fundamental biology studies and human health applications. (4) Applied nuclear science for human health and national security: Nuclear science research that is used to develop new methods and technologies for detecting and attributing nuclear materials, assisting Laboratory programs that require nuclear and radiochemical expertise in carrying out their missions, discovering new elements in the periodic table, and finding ways of detecting and understanding cellular response to radiation.

  11. The Science Classroom as a Site of Epistemic Talk: A Case Study of a Teacher's Attempts to Teach Science Based on Argument (United States)

    Christodoulou, Andri; Osborne, Jonathan


    Current science education research and policy highlight the need to conceptualize scientific disciplines not only based on a view of "science-as-knowledge" but also on a perspective of "science-as-practice," placing an emphasis on practices such as explanation, argumentation, modeling, and communication. However, classroom…

  12. An exploration of the impact of reform-based science instruction on second graders' academic achievement (United States)

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data previously collected in a larger one-group pre/post test study of a science instructional intervention (ISI Science) (Connor et al., 2010). In the original study, six teachers and two graduate assistants taught two science units designed based upon constructivist principles and reform-based practices. Using the 5-E Learning Cycle (Bybee, 1997), reading and science were integrated into each lesson. Videotapes were made of all lessons and science and reading achievement data were collected. For the current study, dependent achievement variables were science achievement measured by the Iowa Science Test; reading comprehension, by the Woodcock Passage Comprehension; and vocabulary, by the Iowa Vocabulary. Pre- and post-tests scores on the dependent measures were available for 96 children from the original study. Quality of instruction was measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawanda & Piburn, 2000). Videotapes of 24 science lessons from the larger study were analyzed using the RTOP. Reliability of ratings for the RTOP in the study was determined to be .96. No significant results were found for relations between instructional quality (RTOP) and any of the achievement variables although significant pre to post increases on all three measures were observed. No differences by race or gender were found. This latter finding was noteworthy given the research in science identifying both gender and race differences in science achievement. Recommendations for future research and teacher education are discussed.

  13. Collaborative CPD and inquiry-based science in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    between seminars, individual trials in own classroom, and collaborative activities in the science-team at local schools. The QUEST research is aimed at understanding the relation between individual and social changes. In this study, quantitative data are used to compare the perceived effect from QUEST...... as merely hands-on activities. In-depth understanding from the case contributed to further understand the quantitative results. Findings reveal a moderate positive correlation between teachers’ reports about changing classroom practice as a consequence of participating in QUEST, and their reports about...... changes in collaboration. The case-teacher emphasized a high degree of changes in her classroom practice. Her more or less tacit beliefs in the importance of students exploring and inquiring in order to learn science were confirmed. She grew to be more confident and explicit about students’ minds-on: how...

  14. Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnakat, A. C.


    With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste.

  15. The European Nuclear Science network touches base at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    ENSAR (European Nuclear Science and Applications Research) is an EU-supported project, which aims at fostering cooperation within the European low-energy nuclear physics community through the active sharing of expertise and best practices. The project also includes a transnational access programme to allow a large community of users to access the participating facilities, which include CERN’s ISOLDE. In the last week of April, CERN hosted the General Assembly and Programme Coordination Committee meetings, about 18 months after the project’s kick-off.   Participants in the ENSAR project. ENSAR involves 30 partner institutes, which include the seven large nuclear physics facilities in Europe. A large part of the European nuclear physics community is represented in ENSAR, in particular scientists who are performing research related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and applications of nuclear science. In 2010, the project was awarded 8 million euros from the Europe...

  16. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.


    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  17. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.


    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  18. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun


    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine…

  19. Normative Beliefs, Discursive Claims, and Implementation of Reform-Based Science Standards (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Riley Lloyd, Mary E.; Howell, Malia R.; Peters, John


    Reform-based science instruction is guided by teachers' normative beliefs. Discursive claims are how teachers say they teach science. Previous research has studied the change in teachers' beliefs and how beliefs influence intended practice and action in the classroom. Few studies have connected what teachers believe, how they say they teach, and…

  20. Inquiry-based science education : towards a pedagogical framework for primary school teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uum, Martina S J; Verhoeff, Roald P.; Peeters, Marieke


    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) has been promoted as an inspiring way of learning science by engaging pupils in designing and conducting their own scientific investigations. For primary school teachers, the open nature of IBSE poses challenges as they often lack experience in supporting their

  1. Using Inquiry-Based Interventions to Improve Secondary Students' Interest in Science and Technology (United States)

    Potvin, Patrice; Hasni, Abdelkrim; Sy, Ousmane


    Nine secondary school teachers participated in a five day training program where they developed inquiry-based pedagogical interventions for their science classes. Student interest and self-concept in school science and technology were measured before and after the interventions. Increases in interest and self-concept were compared with the results…

  2. The Technology of Evidence-Based Practice: Tools for Navigating the Health Sciences Literature (United States)

    Townsend, Whitney


    Medical and health sciences libraries have incorporated the elements of evidence-based practice (EBP) into their reference services, instruction, and online resource development for years. While EBP focuses on the use of medical and health sciences literature in the clinical environment (i.e., making decisions about how to treat a particular…

  3. Findings from TIMSS 2007: What Drives Utilization of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction? (United States)

    Kuzhabekova, Aliya


    Prior research has shown that greatest student achievement in sciences is attributed to "inquiry-based instructional approach", in which the goal of science teaching is nurturing attitudes and skills necessary for independent quest for scientific knowledge. While prior research has clearly demonstrated positive instructional effects of…

  4. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and…

  5. A Science Teacher's Wisdom of Practice in Teaching Inquiry-Based Oceanography. (United States)

    Nelson, Tamara Holmlund

    Inquiry-based research is recommended as a method for helping more students understand the nature of science as well as learn the substance of scientific knowledge, yet there is much to learn about how teachers might adapt inquiry for science teaching and what teachers need to know in order to do this. This case study of an exemplary teacher's…

  6. Is Inquiry-Based Science Teaching Worth the Effort? Some Thoughts Worth Considering (United States)

    Zhang, Lin


    Inquiry-based science teaching has been advocated by many science educational standards and reports from around the world. Disagreements about and concerns with this teaching approach, however, are often ignored. Opposing ideas and conflicting results have been bouncing around in the field. It seems that the field carries on with a hope that…

  7. Inquiry-based Science Education Competence of Primary School Teachers: A Delphi Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake-Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Mulder, M.


    Earlier, extracted inquiry-based science teaching competency elements and domains from the international literature were compared to the United States' National Science Teaching Standards. The present Delphi study aimed to validate the findings for the Netherlands, where such standards are lacking.

  8. Sustaining Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods in the Middle School Science Classroom (United States)

    Murphy, Amy Fowler


    This dissertation used a combination of case study and phenomenological research methods to investigate how individual teachers of middle school science in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) program sustain their use of inquiry-based methods of teaching and learning. While the overall context for the cases was the AMSTI…

  9. The Effect of a Collaborative Mentoring Program on Beginning Science Teachers' Inquiry-Based Teaching Practice (United States)

    Nam, Jeonghee; Seung, Eulsun; Go, MunSuk


    This study investigated how a collaborative mentoring program influenced beginning science teachers' inquiry-based teaching and their reflection on practice. The one-year program consisted of five one-on-one mentoring meetings, weekly science education seminars, weekly mentoring group discussions, and self-evaluation activities. The participants…

  10. A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Teaching Introductory Soil Science (United States)

    Amador, Jose A.; Gorres, Josef H.


    At most land-grant universities in the USA, Introduction to Soil Science is traditionally taught using a combination of lecture and laboratory formats. To promote engagement, improve comprehension, and enhance retention of content by students, we developed a problem-based learning (PBL) introductory soil science course. Students work in groups to…

  11. Effects of Using Inquiry-Based Learning on Science Achievement for Fifth-Grade Students (United States)

    Maxwell, Deborah O.; Lambeth, Dawn T.; Cox, J. T.


    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) on the academic achievement, attitudes, and engagement of fifth-grade science students. Participants were from two science classes (N = 42). The experimental group received IBL instruction, while the control group received traditional instruction. Pretests and…

  12. Middle School Girls: Experiences in a Place-Based Education Science Classroom (United States)

    Shea, Charlene K.


    The middle school years are a crucial time when girls' science interest and participation decrease (Barton, Tan, O'Neill, Bautista-Guerra, & Brecklin, 2013). The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of middle school girls and their teacher in an eighth grade place-based education (PBE) science classroom. PBE strives to increase…

  13. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Practices in a Science Teacher Training Program (United States)

    Yakar, Zeha; Baykara, Hatice


    In this study, the effects of inquiry-based learning practices on the scientific process skills, creative thinking, and attitudes towards science experiments of preservice science teachers have been analyzed. A non-experimental quantitative analysis method, the single-group pre test posttest design, has been used. In order to observe the…

  14. ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), global leader in advancing translational science to create science-based solutions for a sustainable, healthier world. (United States)

    Takei, Ayako


    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is a non-profit scientific research organization based in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. HESI was established in 1989 as a global branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) to provide an international forum to advance the understanding of scientific issues related to human health, toxicology, risk assessment and the environment. For the last 25 years, HESI has been the global leader to advance application of new science and technologies in the areas of human health, toxicology, risk assessment and environment. The core principle of "tripartite approach" and the multi-sector operational model have successfully supported HESI's scientific programs to create science-based solutions for a sustainable and healthier world. HESI's achievements include the dataset to guide the selection of appropriate supporting assays for carcinogenicity testing, a new testing framework for agricultural chemicals with enhanced efficacy, predictivity, and reduced animal usage, novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity which provide data on the location of timing of drug effects in the kidney allowing for enhanced drug development, etc.

  15. Alexander Forbes, Walter Cannon, and science-based literature. (United States)

    Garson, Justin


    The Harvard physiologists Alexander Forbes (1882-1965) and Walter Bradford Cannon (1871-1945) had an enormous impact on the physiology and neuroscience of the twentieth century. In addition to their voluminous scientific output, they also used literature to reflect on the nature of science itself and its social significance. Forbes wrote a novel, The Radio Gunner, a literary memoir, Quest for a Northern Air Route, and several short stories. Cannon, in addition to several books of popular science, wrote a literary memoir in the last year of his life, The Way of an Investigator. The following will provide a brief overview of the life and work of Forbes and Cannon. It will then discuss the way that Forbes used literature to express his views about the changing role of communications technology in the military, and his evolving view of the nervous system itself as a kind of information-processing device. It will go on to discuss the way that Cannon used literature to articulate the horrors he witnessed on the battlefield, as well as to contribute to the philosophy of science, and in particular, to the logic of scientific discovery. Finally, it will consider the historical and philosophical value of deeper investigation of the literary productions of scientists. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Food-based science curriculum yields gains in nutrition knowledge. (United States)

    Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Showers, Carissa; Díaz, Sebastián; Duffrin, Melani W


    Students may be receiving less than an average of 4 hours of nutrition instruction per year. Integrating nutrition with other subject areas such as science may increase exposure to nutrition education, while supporting existing academics. During the 2009-2010 school year, researchers implemented the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Intermediate (FMI) curriculum in 18 fourth-grade classrooms, whereas 16 classrooms served as comparison. FMI is a hands-on, integrative curriculum for children in grades 3-5 that uses food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Researchers developed a 28-item multiple-choice questionnaire to assess students' nutrition knowledge in 6 content areas. Students were evaluated at baseline and post-intervention. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Analysis of covariance was employed to control for differences at baseline when assessing the effectiveness of the FMI curriculum to increase nutrition knowledge. A significant improvement was observed in total nutrition knowledge at post-intervention (adjusting for baseline) between groups (F [1] = 128.95; p knowledge compared with students not exposed to FMI. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  17. Lessons Learned from Real-Time, Event-Based Internet Science Communications (United States)

    Phillips, T.; Myszka, E.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adams, M. L.; Koczor, R. J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)


    For the last several years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of Internet-based science communication. The Directorate's Science Roundtable includes active researchers, NASA public relations, educators, and administrators. The Science@NASA award-winning family of Web sites features science, mathematics, and space news. The program includes extended stories about NASA science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. The focus of sharing science activities in real-time has been to involve and excite students and the public about science. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases, broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. Through these projects a pattern has emerged in the level of interest or popularity with the public. The pattern differentiates projects that include science from those that do not, All real-time, event-based Internet activities have captured public interest at a level not achieved through science stories or educator resource material exclusively. The worst event-based activity attracted more interest than the best written science story. One truly rewarding lesson learned through these projects is that the public recognizes the importance and excitement of being part of scientific discovery. Flying a camera to 100,000 feet altitude isn't as interesting to the public as searching for viable life-forms at these oxygen-poor altitudes. The details of these real-time, event-based projects and lessons learned will be discussed.

  18. Engaging a middle school teacher and students in formal-informal science education: Contexts of science standards-based curriculum and an urban science center (United States)

    Grace, Shamarion Gladys

    This is a three-article five chapter doctoral dissertation. The overall purpose of this three-pronged study is to engage a middle school science teacher and students in formal-informal science education within the context of a science standards-based curriculum and Urban Science Center. The goals of the study were: (1) to characterize the conversations of formal and informal science educators as they attempted to implement a standards-based curriculum augmented with science center exhibits; (2) to study the classroom discourse between the teacher and students that foster the development of common knowledge in science and student understanding of the concept of energy before observing science center exhibits on energy; (3) to investigate whether or not a standards-driven, project-based Investigating and Questioning our World through Science and Technology (IQWST) curriculum unit on forms and transformation of energy augmented with science center exhibits had a significant effect on urban African-American seventh grade students' achievement and learning. Overall, the study consisted of a mixed-method approach. Article one consists of a case study featuring semi-structured interviews and field notes. Article two consists of documenting and interpreting teacher-students' classroom discourse. Article three consists of qualitative methods (classroom discussion, focus group interviews, student video creation) and quantitative methods (multiple choice and open-ended questions). Oral discourses in all three studies were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. In article one, the community of educators' conversations were critically analyzed to discern the challenges educators encountered when they attempted to connect school curriculum to energy exhibits at the Urban Science Center. The five challenges that characterize the emergence of a third space were as follows: (a) science terminology for lesson focus, (b) "dumb-down" of science exhibits, (c) exploration distracts

  19. Inquiry-Based Learning in China: Lesson Learned for School Science Practices (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart


    Inquiry-based learning is widely considered for science education in this era. This study aims to explore inquiry-based learning in teacher preparation program and the findings will help us to understanding what inquiry-based classroom is and how inquiry-based learning are. Data were collected by qualitative methods; classroom observation,…

  20. An Analysis of Citizen Science Based Research: Usage and Publication Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Follett

    Full Text Available The use of citizen science for scientific discovery relies on the acceptance of this method by the scientific community. Using the Web of Science and Scopus as the source of peer reviewed articles, an analysis of all published articles on "citizen science" confirmed its growth, and found that significant research on methodology and validation techniques preceded the rapid rise of the publications on research outcomes based on citizen science methods. Of considerable interest is the growing number of studies relying on the re-use of collected datasets from past citizen science research projects, which used data from either individual or multiple citizen science projects for new discoveries, such as for climate change research. The extent to which citizen science has been used in scientific discovery demonstrates its importance as a research approach. This broad analysis of peer reviewed papers on citizen science, that included not only citizen science projects, but the theory and methods developed to underpin the research, highlights the breadth and depth of the citizen science approach and encourages cross-fertilization between the different disciplines.

  1. An Analysis of Citizen Science Based Research: Usage and Publication Patterns. (United States)

    Follett, Ria; Strezov, Vladimir


    The use of citizen science for scientific discovery relies on the acceptance of this method by the scientific community. Using the Web of Science and Scopus as the source of peer reviewed articles, an analysis of all published articles on "citizen science" confirmed its growth, and found that significant research on methodology and validation techniques preceded the rapid rise of the publications on research outcomes based on citizen science methods. Of considerable interest is the growing number of studies relying on the re-use of collected datasets from past citizen science research projects, which used data from either individual or multiple citizen science projects for new discoveries, such as for climate change research. The extent to which citizen science has been used in scientific discovery demonstrates its importance as a research approach. This broad analysis of peer reviewed papers on citizen science, that included not only citizen science projects, but the theory and methods developed to underpin the research, highlights the breadth and depth of the citizen science approach and encourages cross-fertilization between the different disciplines.

  2. An observational study of excellence in science teaching based on a sample of outstanding science teachers: Methods of teaching excellence in science (United States)

    Mazmanian, Victor

    The aim of this study was to document the teaching and learning strategies utilized by a group of science teachers, who were recipients of the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science and Math Teaching (PAESMT). Six science teachers were observed in their classrooms while they were teaching. Thirty-six lessons were analyzed using a framework of categories of analysis to determine the special traits and common exceptional methods that these teachers had. The findings confirmed the ones predicted by theoretical frameworks of cognitive science and current models of constructivism in teaching. The results of the study supported the importance of the role of the teacher as an active agent in construction of knowledge while also providing sufficient student freedom of exploration and self-realization as needed to grow intellectually and develop skills in metacognition (e.g., reflective critical thought, and learning how to learn). Further, the analyses revealed the complementarity between the teacher's methodology and the processes of student cognition. Some misconceptions that commonly appeared among the observed science students were also documented. The study also explored possible methods to rectify these misconceptions, based in part on prior publications and also on observations of the PAESMT teachers' strategies. The results of this study showed the unique methods of teaching employed by PAESMT recipients to an extent that reached beyond the results of previous research, which published traits and characteristics of such teachers. This study determined the common traits among these teachers and identified their common methods of teaching science. The teacher's role as a facilitator was documented repeatedly among these award-winning teachers and was determined to be an integral tool for the students' successful knowledge construction and development of accurate scientific ways of thinking.

  3. At the Elbows of Scientists: Shaping Science Teachers' Conceptions and Enactment of Inquiry-Based Instruction (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.; MacFadden, Bruce J.


    This study stemmed from concerns among researchers that reform efforts grounded in promoting inquiry as the basis for teaching science have not achieved the desired changes in American science classrooms. Many science teachers assume that they are employing inquiry-based strategies when they use cookbook investigations with highly structured step-by-step instructions. Additionally, most science teachers equate hands-on activities with classroom inquiry and, as such, repeatedly use prepackaged, disconnected activities to break the monotony of direct instruction. Despite participation in numerous professional development activities, many science teachers continue to hold misconceptions about inquiry that influence the way they design and enact instruction. To date, there is very limited research exploring the role of inquiry-based professional development in facilitating desired changes in science teachers' conceptions of inquiry. This qualitative study of five high school science teachers explores the ways in which authentic inquiry experiences with a team of scientists in Panama shaped their conceptions and reported enactments of inquiry-based instruction. Our findings suggest that professional development experiences engaging science teachers in authentic research with scientists have the potential to change teachers' naïve conceptions of inquiry, provided that necessary supports are provided for reflection and lesson design.

  4. Planning for Reform-Based Science: Case Studies of Two Urban Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva


    The intent of national efforts to frame science education standards is to promote students' development of scientific practices and conceptual understanding for their future role as scientifically literate citizens (NRC 2012). A guiding principle of science education reform is that all students receive equitable opportunities to engage in rigorous science learning. Yet, implementation of science education reform depends on teachers' instructional decisions. In urban schools serving students primarily from poor, diverse communities, teachers typically face obstacles in providing reform-based science due to limited resources and accountability pressures, as well as a culture of teacher-directed pedagogy, and deficit views of students. The purpose of this qualitative research was to study two white, fourth grade teachers from high-poverty urban schools, who were identified as transforming their science teaching and to investigate how their beliefs, knowledge bases, and resources shaped their planning for reform-based science. Using the Shavelson and Stern's decision model for teacher planning to analyze evidence gathered from interviews, documents, planning meetings, and lesson observations, the findings indicated their planning for scientific practices was influenced by the type and extent of professional development each received, each teacher's beliefs about their students and their background, and the mission and learning environment each teacher envisioned for the reform to serve their students. The results provided specific insights into factors that impacted their planning in high-poverty urban schools and indicated considerations for those in similar contexts to promote teachers' planning for equitable science learning opportunities by all students.

  5. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond (United States)

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  6. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling...... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....

  7. An evaluation of an enquiry based learning strategy for the science of imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, Sarah, E-mail: [Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Campus, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Diagnostic radiography is a science based health course. Due to the variation in science background of the students at entry level the imaging science modules can be problematic. Enquiry based learning (EBL) was introduced as teaching strategy in an imaging science module in order to promote learner autonomy and enhance the student experience. The module was evaluated using a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The impact of working as a team was a strong theme emerging from the evaluation of the project, with the majority of students viewing teamwork as beneficial to their learning. It was identified that they gained support from the team, and this assisted their learning. The enhancement of transferable skills and the promotion of learner autonomy were achieved. Areas for further investigation are the utilisation of peer assessment and a science event for the summative assessment.

  8. Science Base and Tools for Evaluating Stream Restoration Project Proposals. (United States)

    Cluer, B.; Thorne, C.; Skidmore, P.; Castro, J.; Pess, G.; Beechie, T.; Shea, C.


    Stream restoration, stabilization, or enhancement projects typically employ site-specific designs and site- scale habitat improvement projects have become the default solution to many habitat problems and constraints. Such projects are often planned and implemented without thorough consideration of the broader scale problems that may be contributing to habitat degradation, attention to project resiliency to flood events, accounting for possible changes in climate or watershed land use, or ensuring the long term sustainability of the project. To address these issues, NOAA Fisheries and USFWS have collaboratively commissioned research to develop a science document and accompanying tools to support more consistent and comprehensive review of stream management and restoration projects proposals by Service staff responsible for permitting. The science document synthesizes the body of knowledge in fluvial geomorphology and presents it in a way that is accessible to the Services staff biologists, who are not trained experts in this field. Accompanying the science document are two electronic tools: a Project Information Checklist to assist in evaluating whether a proposal includes all the information necessary to allow critical and thorough project evaluation; and a Project Evaluation Tool (in flow chart format) that guides reviewers through the steps necessary to critically evaluate the quality of the information submitted, the goals and objectives of the project, project planning and development, project design, geomorphic-habitat-species relevance, and risks to listed species. Materials for training Services staff and others in the efficient use of the science document and tools have also been developed. The longer term goals of this effort include: enabling consistent and comprehensive reviews that are completed in a timely fashion by regulators; facilitating improved project planning and design by proponents; encouraging projects that are attuned to their watershed

  9. Research Strategies in Science-based Start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    instead the attention to the quality of their science, or the roles of boards, management, and collaborative networks etc. Using a unique comprehensive dataset on Danish and Swedish biotech start-ups in drug discovery this paper analyzes their research strategies. Adopting a Simonean point of departure we...... developed as congruent responses to problem architectures; 3) Testing and confirming that financial valuation of firms is driven by achievements conforming to requisite research strategies. These strategies, in turn, require careful combination of multiple dimensions of research.Findings demonstrate...

  10. Analysis of Computer Science Communities Based on DBLP

    CERN Document Server

    Biryukov, Maria; 10.1007/978-3-642-15464-5_24


    It is popular nowadays to bring techniques from bibliometrics and scientometrics into the world of digital libraries to analyze the collaboration patterns and explore mechanisms which underlie community development. In this paper we use the DBLP data to investigate the author's scientific career and provide an in-depth exploration of some of the computer science communities. We compare them in terms of productivity, population stability and collaboration trends.Besides we use these features to compare the sets of topranked conferences with their lower ranked counterparts.

  11. A comparison of readability in science-based texts: Implications for elementary teachers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Tiffany; Fazio, Xavier; Ciampa, Katia


    .... Online texts were the most disparate with respect to text difficulty. These findings suggest implications for elementary teachers to support students who learn through reading online, science-based resources...

  12. The Development of Interactive World Wide Web Based Teaching Material in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Daeid, Niamh Nic


    Describes the development of a Web-based tutorial in the forensic science teaching program at the University of Strathclyde (Scotland). Highlights include the theoretical basis for course development; objectives; Web site design; student feedback; and staff feedback. (LRW)

  13. Meeting report: the road to science-based policy - ESOF through the eyes of young scientists. (United States)

    Sinjab, Ansam; Nöske, Katharina


    Communication and common understanding between politicians, scientists, and the society can lead to evidence-based science policy, a core principle that guides high caliber research and open innovation for a sustainable future. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fostering science literacy, environmental stewardship, and collaboration: Assessing a garden-based approach to teaching life science (United States)

    Fisher-Maltese, Carley B.

    Recently, schools nationwide have expressed a renewed interest in school gardens (California School Garden Network, 2010), viewing them as innovative educational tools. Most of the scant studies on these settings investigate the health/nutritional impacts, environmental attitudes, or emotional dispositions of students. However, few studies examine the science learning potential of a school garden from an informal learning perspective. Those studies that do examine learning emphasize individual learning of traditional school content (math, science, etc.) (Blaire, 2009; Dirks & Orvis, 2005; Klemmer, Waliczek & Zajicek, 2005a & b; Smith & Mostenbocker, 2005). My study sought to demonstrate the value of school garden learning through a focus on measures of learning typically associated with traditional learning environments, as well as informal learning environments. Grounded in situated, experiential, and contextual model of learning theories, the purpose of this case study was to examine the impacts of a school garden program at a K-3 elementary school. Results from pre/post tests, pre/post surveys, interviews, recorded student conversations, and student work reveal a number of affordances, including science learning, cross-curricular lessons in an authentic setting, a sense of school community, and positive shifts in attitude toward nature and working collaboratively with other students. I also analyzed this garden-based unit as a type curriculum reform in one school in an effort to explore issues of implementing effective practices in schools. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a garden-based science curriculum at a K-3 elementary school are discussed. Participants reported a number of implementation processes necessary for success: leadership, vision, and material, human, and social resources. However, in spite of facilitators, teachers reported barriers to implementing the garden-based curriculum, specifically lack of time and content knowledge.



    Acosta, Manuel; CORONADO, Daniel; FERRANDIZ, Esther; LEON, Dolores; Moreno, Pedro


    This paper contributes with some insights into scientific knowledge base in food industry at the regional level in Europe 15. We argue that science production by universities is not enough to create a scientific knowledge base. An additional requirement is counting on some standards of quality for being useful to firms. We explore this line of inquiry by first examining the regional distribution of food science across Europe and its relationship with the production of technology in the Europe...

  16. Problem- and Case-Based Learning in Science: An Introduction to Distinctions, Values, and Outcomes


    Allchin, Douglas


    Case-based learning and problem-based learning have demonstrated great promise in reforming science education. Yet an instructor, in newly considering this suite of interrelated pedagogical strategies, faces a number of important instructional choices. Different features and their related values and learning outcomes are profiled here, including: the level of student autonomy; instructional focus on content, skills development, or nature-of-science understanding; the role of history, or known...

  17. Development of Science Learning Activity Package based on Marzano’s Principle for Mathayomsaksa 2 students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanee Wangkanont


    Full Text Available The purposes of this study aims to: 1 develop science package of learning activity to promote analytical thinking based on Marzano’s principle with criterion 75/75 2 find out effective index, 3 compare learning achievement and analytical thinking between before and after learned through science package, and 4 study learning satisfaction of students who learned by science package to promote analytical thinking based on Marzano’s principle. Participants were Mathayomsaksa 2 students from Ban Kudlao, KhonKaen primary service area, academic year 2014 Research tools consisted of science package, achievement test, analytical thinking test, and learning satisfaction questionnaire. The findings can be reported that: 1 Science package to promote analytical thinking had criterion at 79.38/71.63 2 Learning activities can be reached 0.5017 of effective index. 3 Student had learning achievementand analytical thinking scores after learned higher than those before at .05 of statistical significance. 4 Students had the highest level of learning satisfaction after learned by science package based on Marzano’s principle. In summary, science package based on Marzano’s principle can promote both learning achievement and analytical thinking. Also, student satisfied with learning activities in which developed and implied.

  18. Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological

  19. Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention. (United States)

    Shah, Ronak; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S


    Tanzania is East Africa's largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania's status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania's science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing, formulation and standardization, and related areas important

  20. A Pharmacology-Based Enrichment Program for Undergraduates Promotes Interest in Science (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Perez, Tony; Barger, Michael M.; Snyder, Kate E.; Richman, Laura Smart; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa


    There is a strong need to increase the number of undergraduate students who pursue careers in science to provide the “fuel” that will power a science and technology–driven U.S. economy. Prior research suggests that both evidence-based teaching methods and early undergraduate research experiences may help to increase retention rates in the sciences. In this study, we examined the effect of a program that included 1) a Summer enrichment 2-wk minicourse and 2) an authentic Fall research course, both of which were designed specifically to support students' science motivation. Undergraduates who participated in the pharmacology-based enrichment program significantly improved their knowledge of basic biology and chemistry concepts; reported high levels of science motivation; and were likely to major in a biological, chemical, or biomedical field. Additionally, program participants who decided to major in biology or chemistry were significantly more likely to choose a pharmacology concentration than those majoring in biology or chemistry who did not participate in the enrichment program. Thus, by supporting students' science motivation, we can increase the number of students who are interested in science and science careers. PMID:26538389

  1. Critical Reading of Science-Based News Reports: Establishing a knowledge, skills and attitudes framework (United States)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth


    A recognised aim of science education is to promote critical engagement with science in the media. Evidence would suggest that this is challenging for both teachers and pupils and that science education does not yet adequately prepare young people for this task. Furthermore, in the absence of clear guidance as to what this means and how this may be achieved it is difficult for teachers to develop approaches and resources that address the matter and that systematically promote such critical engagement within their teaching programmes. Twenty-six individuals with recognised expertise or interest in science in the media, drawn from a range of disciplines and areas of practice, constituted a specialist panel in this study. The question this research sought to answer was "what are the elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude which underpin critical reading of science-based news reports?" During in-depth individual interviews the panel were asked to explore what they considered to be essential elements of knowledge, skills, and attitude which people need to enable them to respond critically to news reports with a science component. Analysis of the data revealed 14 fundamental elements which together contribute to an individual's capacity to engage critically with science-based news. These are classified in five categories "knowledge of science", "knowledge of writing and language", "knowledge about news, newspapers and journalism", "skills", and "attitudes". Illustrative profiles of each category along with indicators of critical engagement are presented. The implications for curriculum planning and pedagogy are considered.

  2. Application of data mining in science and technology management information system based on WebGIS (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Xu, Zhiyong; Bao, Shitai; Chen, Feixiang


    With the rapid development of science and technology and the quick increase of information, a great deal of data is accumulated in the management department of science and technology. Usually, many knowledge and rules are contained and concealed in the data. Therefore, how to excavate and use the knowledge fully is very important in the management of science and technology. It will help to examine and approve the project of science and technology more scientifically and make the achievement transformed as the realistic productive forces easier. Therefore, the data mine technology will be researched and applied to the science and technology management information system to find and excavate the knowledge in the paper. According to analyzing the disadvantages of traditional science and technology management information system, the database technology, data mining and web geographic information systems (WebGIS) technology will be introduced to develop and construct the science and technology management information system based on WebGIS. The key problems are researched in detail such as data mining and statistical analysis. What's more, the prototype system is developed and validated based on the project data of National Natural Science Foundation Committee. The spatial data mining is done from the axis of time, space and other factors. Then the variety of knowledge and rules will be excavated by using data mining technology, which helps to provide an effective support for decisionmaking.

  3. LiLEDDA: A Six-Step Forum-Based Netnographic Research Method for Nursing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Internet research methods in nursing science are less developed than in other sciences. We choose to present an approach to conducting nursing research on an internet-based forum. This paper presents LiLEDDA, a six-step forum-based netnographic research method for nursing science. The steps consist of: 1. Literature review and identification of the research question(s; 2. Locating the field(s online; 3. Ethical considerations; 4. Data gathering; 5. Data analysis and interpretation; and 6. Abstractions and trustworthiness. Traditional research approaches are limiting when studying non-normative and non-mainstream life-worlds and their cultures. We argue that it is timely to develop more up-to-date research methods and study designs applicable to nursing science that reflect social developments and human living conditions that tend to be increasingly online-based.

  4. A System for Ontology-Based Sharing of Expert Knowledge in Sustainability Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kraines


    Full Text Available Work towards creation of a knowledge sharing system for sustainability science through the application of semantic data modeling is described. An ontology grounded in description logics was developed based on the ISO 15926 data model to describe three types of sustainability science conceptualizations: situational knowledge, analytic methods, and scenario frameworks. Semantic statements were then created using this ontology to describe expert knowledge expressed in research proposals and papers related to sustainability science and in scenarios for achieving sustainable societies. Semantic matching based on logic and rule-based inference was used to quantify the conceptual overlap of semantic statements, which shows the semantic similarity of topics studied by different researchers in sustainability science, similarities that might be unknown to the researchers themselves.

  5. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A Literature Study and Critical Review of the American National Science Education Standards (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin


    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a…

  6. The Impact of a Cryogenics-Based Enrichment Programme on Attitude Towards Science and the Learning of Science Concepts. Research Report (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.


    This study explores the impact of a cryogenics-based enrichment programme, which involves demonstrations that use liquid nitrogen, on attitudes towards science and the learning of science concepts. The findings presented in this paper are based on a sample of 214 fifth-grade students from two schools in Singapore who had their enrichment lesson in…

  7. Influence of an Intensive, Field-Based Life Science Course on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Environmental Science Teaching (United States)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy


    Personal and professional experiences influence teachers' perceptions of their ability to implement environmental science curricula and to positively impact students' learning. The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine what influence, if any, an intensive field-based life science course and service learning had on preservice teachers' self-efficacy for teaching about the environment and to determine which aspects of the combined field-based course/service learning preservice teachers perceived as effective for enhancing their self-efficacy. Data were collected from class documents and written teaching reflections of 38 middle-level preservice teachers. Some participants ( n = 18) also completed the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument at the beginning and end of the semester. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses indicated a significant increase in PSTs' personal efficacies for environmental teaching, t(17) = 4.50, p = .000, d = 1.30, 95 % CI (.33, .90), but not outcome expectancy, t(17) = 1.15, p = .268, d = .220, 95 % CI (-.06, .20). Preservice teachers reported three aspects of the course as important for enhancing their self-efficacies: learning about ecological concepts through place-based issues, service learning with K-5 students and EE curriculum development. Data from this study extend prior work by indicating that practical experiences with students were not the sole factor in shaping PSTs' self-efficacy; learning ecological concepts and theories in field-based activities grounded in the local landscape also influenced PSTs' self-efficacy.

  8. Effects of Problem-Based Learning with Web-Anchored Instruction in Nanotechnology on the Science Conceptual Understanding, the Attitude towards Science, and the Perception of Science in Society of Elementary Students (United States)

    Yurick, Karla Anne


    This study explored the effects of Problem-Based Leaning (PBL) with web-anchored instruction in nanotechnology on the science conceptual understanding, the attitude towards science, and the perception of science in society of elementary students. A mixed-methods approach was used. Subjects (N=46) participated in the study for approximately two…

  9. Advancing microbial sciences by individual-based modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellweger, F.L.; Clegg, R.J.; Clark, J.R.; Plugge, C.M.; Kreft, J.U.


    Remarkable technological advances have revealed ever more properties and behaviours of individual microorganisms, but the novel data generated by these techniques have not yet been fully exploited. In this Opinion article, we explain how individual-based models (IBMs) can be constructed based on the

  10. Inquiry Based Science Education og den sociokulturelt forankrede dialog i naturfagsundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino


    Through study, investigation and discussion of the concept Best Practice in science education (Ellebæk & Østergaard, 2009) it was shown, that the dialogue in the teaching sequences was an important factor for the children’s understanding, engagement and interest for the science subjects and pheno......Through study, investigation and discussion of the concept Best Practice in science education (Ellebæk & Østergaard, 2009) it was shown, that the dialogue in the teaching sequences was an important factor for the children’s understanding, engagement and interest for the science subjects...... and phenomena. In this article we will discuss dialogue in the light of sociocultural learning theories, and relate it to Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE), as the pedagogical and didactical method, which are promoted most strongly these years (e.g. in the inter-European Pollen and Fibonacci projects...

  11. Closing the science achievement gap for ninth grade English learners through standards- and inquiry-based science instruction (United States)

    Estrada, Myrna Hipol

    In light of the need to close the achievement gap among our culturally and linguistically diverse students, more specifically the Hispanics and the Hispanic English Learners (ELs), the effects of teacher professional development (2 year PD vs. 1 Year PD vs. no PD) on the implementation of a standards-aligned and inquiry-based science curriculum program---the Integrated Coordinated Science for the 21st Century published by It's About Time, Inc. (ICS-IAT)---on the LAUSD ninth graders science scores were examined. Participants included 8,937 9th grade students (7,356 Hispanics). The primary outcome measurement was scaled scores from the California Standard Test (CST) in Integrated Coordinated Science (CST_ICS1). Correlations between California English Language Development Test (CELDT) component subscores (reading, listening and speaking) and CST scores were also examined. Results indicated that the science scores of the students of teachers who participated in two year PD were significantly higher compared to the scores of students of the one year PD group and the control group. The results show that all ethnic groups benefited from two years of teacher PD, except the African American group. Among Hispanics, students classified as IFEP, RFEP and EO gained from the teachers having two years of professional development. But the target population, ELs did not benefit from two years of teacher PD. The correlations between the CELDT and CST_ELA were much higher than the CELDT and CST_ICS1 correlations. This finding validates Abedi's claim (2004) that EL students are disadvantaged because of their language handicap on tests that have a greater language load. Two year PD participation significantly enhanced the accessibility of science to the ninth graders. The essential features in the PD were classroom simulation of all the activities identified in the storyboard with the actual and correct use of needed equipment and materials; creation and presentation of sample or model

  12. Analyzing students' attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons (United States)

    Kostenbader, Tracy C.

    Due to the logistics of guided-inquiry lesson, students learn to problem solve and develop critical thinking skills. This mixed-methods study analyzed the students' attitudes towards science during inquiry lessons. My quantitative results from a repeated measures survey showed no significant difference between student attitudes when taught with either structured-inquiry or guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative results analyzed through a constant-comparative method did show that students generate positive interest, critical thinking and low level stress during guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative research also gave insight into a teacher's transition to guided-inquiry. This study showed that with my students, their attitudes did not change during this transition according to the qualitative data however, the qualitative data did how high levels of excitement. The results imply that students like guided-inquiry laboratories, even though they require more work, just as much as they like traditional laboratories with less work and less opportunity for creativity.

  13. Comparison of Bobath based and movement science based treatment for stroke: a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    van Vliet, P M; Lincoln, N B; Foxall, A


    Bobath based (BB) and movement science based (MSB) physiotherapy interventions are widely used for patients after stroke. There is little evidence to suggest which is most effective. This single-blind randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of these treatments on movement abilities and functional independence. A total of 120 patients admitted to a stroke rehabilitation ward were randomised into two treatment groups to receive either BB or MSB treatment. Primary outcome measures were the Rivermead Motor Assessment and the Motor Assessment Scale. Secondary measures assessed functional independence, walking speed, arm function, muscle tone, and sensation. Measures were performed by a blinded assessor at baseline, and then at 1, 3, and 6 months after baseline. Analysis of serial measurements was performed to compare outcomes between the groups by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) and inserting AUC values into Mann-Whitney U tests. Comparison between groups showed no significant difference for any outcome measures. Significance values for the Rivermead Motor Assessment ranged from p = 0.23 to p = 0.97 and for the Motor Assessment Scale from p = 0.29 to p = 0.87. There were no significant differences in movement abilities or functional independence between patients receiving a BB or an MSB intervention. Therefore the study did not show that one approach was more effective than the other in the treatment of stroke patients.

  14. The relationship between inquiry-based science instruction and student achievement (United States)

    Suarez, Michael Louis

    Teaching science through inquiry has become a focus of recent educational reform in Mississippi and other states. Based on the Constructivist learning theory, inquiry instruction can take many forms, but generally follows the scientific method by requiring students to learn concepts through experimentation and real-world, hands-on experiences. This dissertation examines the relationship between the amounts of time spent using inquiry-based science instruction and student achievement as measured by the Mississippi State Science Assessment. The study also identifies teacher perceptions of inquiry and the amount of professional development received by participants on using inquiry-based instructional techniques. Finally, this study identifies factors that hinder the use of inquiry. Using a 24-question written survey, the researcher collected quantitative data from 204 science teachers in grades K-8 in four southern Mississippi school districts. Participants rated their average amount of time spent using inquiry-based science instruction in their classrooms. These results were then compared to each school's average test score on the 2009-2010 Mississippi State Science Assessment using a Spearman rho correlation. A significant positive relationship was found between amounts of time spent using inquiry-based science instruction and student achievement. The participants also indicated their perceptions of inquiry, amount of professional development, and deterrents to inquiry usage on a five-point Likert scale survey. Overall, participants held a favorable opinion of inquiry-based instruction and felt that it was important for their students' success. Over half of participants had not attended professional development on inquiry-based instruction. A majority indicated a desire for professional development. The most commonly identified factor hindering the use of inquiry was a lack of materials and resources. Many participants also indicated that time constraints prevented

  15. Implementation of inquiry-based science education in different countries: some reflections (United States)

    Rundgren, Carl-Johan


    In this forum article, I reflect on issues related to the implementation of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in different countries. Regarding education within the European Union (EU), the Bologna system has in later years provided extended coordination and comparability at an organizational level. However, the possibility of the EU to influence the member countries regarding the actual teaching and learning in the classrooms is more limited. In later years, several EU-projects focusing on IBSE have been funded in order to make science education in Europe better, and more motivating for students. Highlighting what Heinz and her colleagues call the policy of `soft governance' of the EU regarding how to improve science education in Europe, I discuss the focus on IBSE in the seventh framework projects, and how it is possible to maintain more long-lasting results in schools through well-designed teacher professional development programs. Another aspect highlighted by Heinz and her colleagues is how global pressures on convergence in education interact with educational structures and traditions in the individual countries. The rise of science and science education as a global culture, encompassing contributions from all around the world, is a phenomenon of great potential and value to humankind. However, it is important to bear in mind that if science and science education is going to become a truly global culture, local variation and differences regarding foci and applications of science in different cultures must be acknowledged.

  16. Examining student conceptions of the nature of science from two project-based classrooms (United States)

    Moss, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to develop descriptive accounts of precollege students' conceptions of the nature of science from two project-based classrooms, and track those conceptions over the course of an academic year. A model of the nature of science was developed and served as the criterion by which students' beliefs were evaluated. The model distinguishes between two major categories of science, the nature of the scientific enterprise and the nature of scientific knowledge. Five students were selected from each class and interviewed individually for 30-45 minutes each, six times over the year. Data from semi-structured, formal interviewing consisted of audio-recorded interviews which were transcribed verbatim. All passages were coded using codes which corresponded to the premises of the model of the nature of science. Passages in the transcripts were interpreted to develop a summary of the students' conceptions over the year. Qualitative methodologies, especially formal interviewing in conjunction with participant observation, were effective for uncovering students' conceptions of the nature of science, adding to the knowledge base in this field. The research design of the current study was a significant factor in explaining the inconsistencies seen between findings from this study and the literature. This study finds that participants at both classroom sites held fully formed conceptions of the nature of science for approximately 40 percent of the premises across the model. For two-thirds of the elements which comprise the premises, participants held full understandings. Participants held more complete understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge than the nature of the scientific enterprise. Most participants had difficulty distinguishing between science and non-science and held poor understandings of the role of questions in science. Students' beliefs generally remained unchanged over the year. When their conceptions did evolve, project-based

  17. Development of a Design-Based Learning Curriculum through Design-Based Research for a Technology-Enabled Science Classroom (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Suh, Esther; Song, Donggil


    This exploratory study provides a deeper look into the aspects of students' experience from design-based learning (DBL) activities for fifth grade students. Using design-based research (DBR), this study was conducted on a series of science learning activities leveraging mobile phones with relevant applications and sensors. We observed 3 different…

  18. Using Social Media to Promote Pre-Service Science Teachers' Practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) - Based Teaching (United States)

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Lankford, Deanna Marie


    This paper addresses using social media to promote pre-service science teachers' practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) based teaching in a science classroom setting. We designed our research in two phases. The first phase examined pre-service science teachers' perceptions about using social media to promote their SSI-based teaching. The…

  19. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.


    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  20. The meaning-making of science teachers participating in a school-based PD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    The meaning-making of four science teachers involved in collaboratively analyzing video and other artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The research aim...... they feel supported in relation to tensions in their professional practice. For example a novice teacher, who before the project referred to students’ self-regulated hands-on activities as the most important part of good science teaching, but experienced problems with classroom management, feels inspired...

  1. The meaning-making of science teachers participating in as school based PD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    The meaning-making of four science teachers involved in collaboratively analyzing video and other artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The research aim...... they feel supported in relation to tensions in their professional practice. For example a novice teacher, who before the project referred to students’ self-regulated hands-on activities as the most important part of good science teaching, but experienced problems with classroom management, feels inspired...

  2. A rights-based approach to science literacy using local languages: Contextualising inquiry-based learning in Africa (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia


    This article addresses the importance of teaching and learning science in local languages. The author argues that acknowledging local knowledge and using local languages in science education while emphasising inquiry-based learning improve teaching and learning science. She frames her arguments with the theory of inquiry, which draws on perspectives of both dominant and non-dominant cultures with a focus on science literacy as a human right. She first examines key assumptions about knowledge which inform mainstream educational research and practice. She then argues for an emphasis on contextualised learning as a right in education. This means accounting for contextualised knowledge and resisting the current trend towards de-contextualisation of curricula. This trend is reflected in Zanzibar's recent curriculum reform, in which English replaced Kiswahili as the language of instruction (LOI) in the last two years of primary school. The author's own research during the initial stage of the change (2010-2015) revealed that the effect has in fact proven to be counterproductive, with educational quality deteriorating further rather than improving. Arguing that language is essential to inquiry-based learning, she introduces a new didactic model which integrates alternative assumptions about the value of local knowledge and local languages in the teaching and learning of science subjects. In practical terms, the model is designed to address key science concepts through multiple modalities - "do it, say it, read it, write it" - a "hands-on" experiential combination which, she posits, may form a new platform for innovation based on a unique mix of local and global knowledge, and facilitate genuine science literacy. She provides examples from cutting-edge educational research and practice that illustrate this new model of teaching and learning science. This model has the potential to improve learning while supporting local languages and culture, giving local languages their

  3. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training


    Pennock, Robert T.; O'Rourke, Michael


    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock?s notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations?theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-cent...

  4. An Overview of the Integration of Problem Based Learning into an existing Computer Science Programming Module


    O'Kelly, Jackie; Mooney, Aidan; Bergin, Susan; Gaughran, Peter; Ghent, John


    In this paper we present an overview of the use of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in a first year Computer Science programming module.PBL was not employed in any of the programmong modules within the Department of Computer Science and assessment and learning for this module was on an individual student basis. We outline the problems that we encountered with our previous approach for teaching this module and our rationale for enhancing our approach through PBL.

  5. Student-driven Inquiry-based Science Education in Luxembourg Primary School Contexts


    Dombkowski-Wilmes, Sara Elizabeth


    This study examined the use of a student-driven inquiry-based science education instructional approach designed specifically to meet the contextualized needs of Luxembourg primary schools. The key issues, namely an increasing linguistically diverse student population and limited instructional time for science, were considered in the design of the instructional approach. Drawing on theories of dialogic inquiry, the instructional approach engages students in asking questions and ...

  6. Relationship between teacher preparedness and inquiry-based instructional practices to students' science achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007 (United States)

    Martin, Lynn A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' self-reported preparedness for teaching science content and their instructional practices to the science achievement of eighth grade science students in the United States as demonstrated by TIMSS 2007. Six hundred eighty-seven eighth grade science teachers in the United States representing 7,377 students responded to the TIMSS 2007 questionnaire about their instructional preparedness and their instructional practices. Quantitative data were reported. Through correlation analysis, the researcher found statistically significant positive relationships emerge between eighth grade science teachers' main area of study and their self-reported beliefs about their preparedness to teach that same content area. Another correlation analysis found a statistically significant negative relationship existed between teachers' self-reported use of inquiry-based instruction and preparedness to teach chemistry, physics and earth science. Another correlation analysis discovered a statistically significant positive relationship existed between physics preparedness and student science achievement. Finally, a correlation analysis found a statistically significant positive relationship existed between science teachers' self-reported implementation of inquiry-based instructional practices and student achievement. The data findings support the conclusion that teachers who have feelings of preparedness to teach science content and implement more inquiry-based instruction and less didactic instruction produce high achieving science students. As science teachers obtain the appropriate knowledge in science content and pedagogy, science teachers will feel prepared and will implement inquiry-based instruction in science classrooms.

  7. A Multi-Instructor, Team-Based, Active-Learning Exercise to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences Content


    Kolluru, Srikanth; Roesch, Darren M.; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha


    Objectives. To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum.

  8. Problem based teaching in indoor Air Science and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.


    a month achieving, evaluating literature, and using a strategic algorithm based on 1) problem analysis, 2) setting goals and target groups, 3) selecting intervention, 3) implementation of intervention, and 4) evaluation. An example has been childhood asthma and indoor air pollution. It is suggested...

  9. Designing Science Learning with Game-Based Approaches (United States)

    Liu, Min; Rosenblum, Jason A.; Horton, Lucas; Kang, Jina


    Given the growing popularity of digital games as a form of entertainment, educators are interested in exploring using digital games as a tool to facilitate learning. In this study, we examine game-based learning by describing a learning environment that combines game elements, play, and authenticity in the real world for the purpose of engaging…

  10. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -II. Physics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One important area of application of molecular modeling is in the physics discipline. It has been used extensively in understudying some physics based principles which have often proved difficult to unravel by laboratory experimental studies. Use is made of theories and models like density functional theory, molecular ...

  11. The effect of site-based preservice experiences on elementary science teaching self-efficacy beliefs (United States)

    Wingfield, Mary E.

    Current reform in science education has focused on the need for improvement of preservice teacher training (National Science Education Standards, 1996). As a situation specific construct (Bandura, 1977), self-efficacy studies have been conducted to investigate factors that impact preservice teachers' sense of confidence as it relates to their ability to become successful science teachers. This descriptive study identified factors in the site based experiences that affected preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBL-B) (Enochs and Riggs, 1990). The sample consisted of the entire population of undergraduate elementary preservice teachers in the site based teacher education program during the fall semester of 1997 at a large south central urban university. The 131 paired, pretest posttests of the entire STEBL-B and the two constructs were analyzed for significance in mean score gains. Results of the paired t test yielded a t value of 11.52 which was significant at p Bandura identified as sources of information used to determine self-efficacy. These include performance accomplishments through authentic teaching experiences, vicarious experiences through observation of the site based teachers, and verbal persuasion and physiological states from feedback given by the university coordinators. The majority of these preservice teachers started the semester with a negative attitude toward teaching science, but ended the semester with a positive view of themselves as effective science teachers in the future.

  12. The Utility of Inquiry-Based Exercises in Mexican Science Classrooms: Reports from a Professional Development Workshop for Science Teachers in Quintana Roo, Mexico (United States)

    Racelis, A. E.; Brovold, A. A.


    The quality of science teaching is of growing importance in Mexico. Mexican students score well below the world mean in math and science. Although the government has recognized these deficiencies and has implemented new policies aimed to improve student achievement in the sciences, teachers are still encountering in-class barriers to effective teaching, especially in public colleges. This paper reports on the utility of inquiry based exercises in Mexican classrooms. In particular, it describes a two-day professional development workshop with science teachers at the Instituto Tecnologico Superior in Felipe Carrillo Puerto in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Felipe Carrillo Puerto is an indigenous municipality where a significant majority of the population speak Maya as their first language. This alone presents a unique barrier to teaching science in the municipality, but accompanied with other factors such as student apathy, insufficient prior training of both students and teachers, and pressure to deliver specific science curriculum, science teachers have formidable challenges for effective science teaching. The goals of the workshop were to (1) have a directed discussion regarding science as both content and process, (2) introduce inquiry based learning as one tool of teaching science, and (3) get teachers to think about how they can apply these techniques in their classes.

  13. Explore the Human-Based Teaching for the Professional Course of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yufeng


    As viewed from two sides such as teacher and student, in this article, we explore the human-based teaching reform for the college professional course of materials Science and Engineering, point out the qualities and conditions that professional teacher should possess in the process of human-based teaching reform of professional course and the…

  14. Searching the "Nuclear Science Abstracts" Data Base by Use of the Berkeley Mass Storage System (United States)

    Herr, J. Joanne; Smith, Gloria L.


    Advantages of the Berkeley Mass Storage System (MSS) for information retrieval other than its size are: high serial-read rate, archival data storage; and random-access capability. By use of this device, the search cost in an SDI system based on the Nuclear Science Abstracts" data base was reduced by 20 percent. (6 references) (Author/NH)

  15. Collaborative Inquiry with a Web-Based Science Learning Environment: When Teachers Enact It Differently (United States)

    Sun, Daner; Looi, Chee-Kit; Xie, Wenting


    Though discussion of the teacher factor in ICT-enabled science learning abounds in the literature, the investigation of Teacher Enactments (TEs) of ICT-facilitated lessons through exploring teaching practices is still under-explored and under-recognized. Current studies are still lacking in evidence-based findings of TEs based on the investigation…

  16. Applied Epistemology and Professional Training in a Science-Based Cultural Enterprise (United States)

    Hoshmand; Lisa Tsoi


    Receptiveness toward evidence-based practice such as proposed by Chwalisz (2003) (this issue) is a function of how one defines the discipline and how one views counseling and psychotherapy. By acknowledging the dual nature of therapeutic psychology as a science-based cultural enterprise, one may be able to overcome schisms in the field and related…

  17. Kuwaiti Science Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions Regarding the Use of Inquiry-Based Instruction (United States)

    Alhendal, Dalal; Marshman, Margaret; Grootenboer, Peter


    To improve the quality of education, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education has encouraged schools to implement inquiry-based instruction. This study identifies psychosocial factors that predict teachers' intention to use inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. An adapted model of Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behaviour--the Science…

  18. Possibilities of the application of the inquiry-based science education at a country school


    DAŇOVÁ, Dagmar


    This master thesis presents the results of the inquiry-based science education at a country school. It compares the current coverage teaching with inquiry-based teaching in theory and describes the process, levels, benefits and limitations of this pedagogical approach.

  19. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj


    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and…

  20. The Use of Wikis in a Science Inquiry-Based Project in a Primary School (United States)

    Lau, Wilfred W. F.; Lui, Vicky; Chu, Samuel K. W.


    This study explored the use of wikis in a science inquiry-based project conducted with Primary 6 students (aged 11-12). It used an online wiki-based platform called PBworks and addressed the following research questions: (1) What are students' attitudes toward learning with wikis? (2) What are students' interactions in online group collaboration…

  1. Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Approach on Student Resistance in a Science and Technology Course (United States)

    Sever, Demet; Guven, Meral


    The aim of this study was to identify the resistance behaviors of 7th grade students exhibited during their Science and Technology course teaching-learning processes, and to remove the identified resistance behaviors through teaching-learning processes that were constructed based on the inquiry-based learning approach. In the quasi-experimentally…

  2. Advanced biomass science and technology for bio-based products: proceedings (United States)

    Chung Hse; Zehui Jiang; Mon-Lin Kuo


    This book was developed from the proceedings of the Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products Symposium held in Beijing, China, May 23-25, 2007. The symposium was designed to provide a forum for researchers, producers, and consumers of biomass and bio-based products; to exchange information and ideas; and to stimulate new research and...

  3. Problem-Based Learning in K-8 Mathematics and Science Education: A Literature Review (United States)

    Merritt, Joi; Lee, Mi Yeon; Rillero, Peter; Kinach, Barbara M.


    This systematic literature review was conducted to explore the effectiveness of problem-based and project-based learning (PBL) implemented with students in early elementary to grade 8 (ages 3-14) in mathematics and science classrooms. Nine studies met the following inclusion criteria: (a) focus on PBL, (b) experimental study, (c) kindergarten to…

  4. The Intersection of Inquiry-Based Science and Language: Preparing Teachers for ELL Classrooms (United States)

    Weinburgh, Molly; Silva, Cecilia; Smith, Kathy Horak; Groulx, Judy; Nettles, Jenesta


    As teacher educators, we are tasked with preparing prospective teachers to enter a field that has undergone significant changes in student population and policy since we were K-12 teachers. With the emphasis placed on connections, mathematics integration, and communication by the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve in Next generation science standards, 2012), more research is needed on how teachers can accomplish this integration (Bunch in Rev Res Educ 37:298-341, 2013; Lee et al. in Educ Res 42(4):223-233, 2013). Science teacher educators, in response to the NGSS, recognize that it is necessary for pre-service and in-service teachers to know more about how instructional strategies in language and science can complement one another. Our purpose in this study was to explore a model of integration that can be used in classrooms. To do this, we examined the change in science content knowledge and academic vocabulary for English language learners (ELLs) as they engaged in inquiry-based science experience utilizing the 5R Instructional Model. Two units, erosion and wind turbines, were developed using the 5R Instructional Model and taught during two different years in a summer school program for ELLs. We analyzed data from interviews to assess change in conceptual understanding and science academic vocabulary over the 60 h of instruction. The statistics show a clear trend of growth supporting our claim that ELLs did construct more sophisticated understanding of the topics and use more language to communicate their knowledge. As science teacher educators seek ways to prepare elementary teachers to help preK-12 students to learn science and develop the language of science, the 5R Instructional Model is one pathway.

  5. A PACS-based interactive teaching module for radiologic sciences. (United States)

    Sinha, S; Sinha, U; Kangarloo, H; Huang, H K


    This article describes an interactive teaching module, linked to a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) data base, for teaching radiology. The module is currently tailored to MR images but can be adapted to any other imaging technique. An algorithm has been developed that allows the use of MR images acquired with routine clinical protocols and stored in the data base to yield, in real time, images at any other arbitrary TE and TR. In the browse mode, the user can study either the effect of different scan parameters or clinical cases on synthesized or acquired images. The quiz mode has multiple-choice questions and answers, accompanied by images. In the teaching mode, the instructor has access to the clinical data base and WRITE privileges for setting up the browse or quiz mode. The module achieves considerable flexibility when linked to the PACS, with access to all archived images and the ability to subsequently synthesize MR images at arbitrary TE and TR values in real time. The module is also "dynamic" in character, in that the instructor can easily add new cases and comments to the teaching files, both to enhance its clinical aspects and to reflect advances in technology.

  6. Inquiry-Driven Field-Based (IDFB) Ocean Science Classes: an Important Role in College Students' Development as Scientists, and Student Retention in the Geo-science Pipeline. (United States)

    Crane, N. L.


    Experiential learning, engaging students in the process of science, can not only teach students important skills and knowledge, it can also help them become connected with the process on a personal level. This study investigates the role that Inquiry-Driven Field-Based (IDFB) experiences (primarily field classes) in ocean science have on undergraduate science students' development as ocean scientists. Both cognitive (knowledge-based) and affective (motivation and attitude) measures most important to students were used as indicators of development. Major themes will be presented to illustrate how IDFB science experiences can enhance the academic and personal development of students of science. Through their active engagement in the process of science, students gain important skills and knowledge as well as increased confidence, motivation, and ability to plan for their future (in particular their career and educational pathways). This growth is an important part of their development as scientists; the IDFB experience provides them a way to build a relationship with the world of science, and to better understand what science is, what scientists do, and their own future role as scientists. IDFB experiences have a particularly important role in affective measures of development: students develop an important personal connection to science. By doing science, students learn to be scientists and to understand science and science concepts in context. Many underrepresented students do not have the opportunity to take IDFB classes, and addressing this access issue could be an important step towards engaging more underrepresented students in the field. The nature of IDFB experiences and their impact on students makes them a potentially important mechanism for retaining students in the geo-science `pipeline'.

  7. Welcome to Los Alamos National Laboratory: A premier national security science laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Terry [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Dr Wallace presents visitors with an overview of LANL's national security science mission: stockpile stewardship, protecting against the nuclear threat, and energy security & emerging threats, which are underpinned by excellence in science/technology/engineering capabilities. He shows visitors a general Lab overview of budget, staff, and facilities before providing a more in-depth look at recent Global Security accomplishments and current programs.

  8. Science-based requirements and operations development for the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (United States)

    McConnachie, Alan W.; Flagey, Nicolas; Murowinski, Rick; Szeto, Kei; Salmon, Derrick; Withington, Kanoa; Mignot, Shan


    MSE is a wide field telescope (1.5 square degree field of view) with an aperture of 11.25m. It is dedicated to multi-object spectroscopy at several different spectral resolutions in the range R 2500 - 40000 over a broad wavelength range (0:36 - 1:8μm). MSE enables transformational science in areas as diverse as exoplanetary host characterization; stellar monitoring campaigns; tomographic mapping of the interstellar and intergalactic media; the in-situ chemical tagging of the distant Galaxy; connecting galaxies to the large scale structure of the Universe; measuring the mass functions of cold dark matter sub-halos in galaxy and cluster-scale hosts; reverberation mapping of supermassive black holes in quasars. Here, we summarize the Observatory and describe the development of the top level science requirements and operational concepts. Specifically, we describe the definition of the Science Requirements to be the set of capabilities that allow certain high impact science programs to be conducted. We cross reference these science cases to the science requirements to illustrate the traceability of this approach. We further discuss the operations model for MSE and describe the development of the Operations Concept Document, one of the foundational documents for the project. We also discuss the next stage in the science based development of MSE, specifically the development of the initial Legacy Survey that will occupy a majority of time on the telescope over the first few years of operation.

  9. Brain Based Learning: K-12 Teachers' Preferred Methods of Science Instruction (United States)

    Mansy, Donna Lachman

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate Brain Based Learning (BBL) techniques in teaching science. Participants included 216 K-12, full-time, regular education teachers from 8 Northeast Tennessee school systems who taught at least 1 science class. Specifically this research was guided by 7 research questions on teachers' perceptions and practices in teaching science. Data were collected by a survey that consisted of 82 statements where teachers rated their level of agreement and was distributed online via Survey Monkey. The first portion of my survey included demographic identifiers, teachers' knowledge of the term BBL, and inquiries regarding science background and training. The remainder of the statements were focused on teachers' perceptions and practices of BBL strategies in teaching science. The final item was open-ended and allowed teachers to share comments related to teaching science. For statements 6-81, participants responded by using a 5-point Likert scale that ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 ( strongly agree). Quantitative data were analyzed with a series of independent samples t tests, one-way analysis of variance tests, and a Pearson correlation coefficient. The results of the study indicate that teachers' perceptions are positively correlated to their self-reported practices. Females, in general, and elementary teachers tend to practice BBL strategies in teaching science significantly more than other subgroups.

  10. Effects of Design-Based Science Instruction on Science Problem-Solving Competency among Different Groups of High-School Traditional Chemistry Students (United States)

    Lartson, Cobina Adu


    Recent trends indicate a significant decline in the number of students graduating from Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) programs in the US. The under-representation of students of color, females and low income students in STEM programs has also been documented. Design Based Science (DBS) instruction has been suggested to improve…

  11. Science Teachers' Views and Stereotypes of Religion, Scientists and Scientific Research: A Call for Scientist-Science Teacher Partnerships to Promote Inquiry-Based Learning (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser


    Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better…

  12. The Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry-based Learning Material on Students’ Science Literacy Skills (United States)

    Aulia, E. V.; Poedjiastoeti, S.; Agustini, R.


    The purpose of this research is to describe the effectiveness of guided inquiry-based learning material to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts. This study used Research and Development (R&D) design and was implemented to the 11th graders of Muhammadiyah 4 Senior High School Surabaya in 2016/2017 academic year with one group pre-test and post-test design. The data collection techniques used were validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results of this research showed that the students’ science literacy skills are different after implementation of guided inquiry-based learning material. The guided inquiry-based learning material is effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts by getting N-gain score with medium and high category. This improvement caused by the developed learning material such as lesson plan, student worksheet, and science literacy skill tests were categorized as valid and very valid. In addition, each of the learning phases in lesson plan has been well implemented. Therefore, it can be concluded that the guided inquiry-based learning material are effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts in senior high school.

  13. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.


    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  14. Co-constructing inquiry-based science with teachers: Essential research for lasting reform (United States)

    Keys, Carolyn W.; Bryan, Lynn A.


    In this article we assert a potential research agenda for the teaching and learning of science as inquiry as part of the JRST series on reform in science education. Drawing on the theoretical frameworks of cognitive and sociocultural constructivism, cultural models of meaning, the dialogic function of language, and transformational models of teacher education, we propose that more research is needed in the areas of teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and practices of inquiry-based science, as well as, student learning. Because the efficacy of reform efforts rest largely with teachers, their voices need to be included in the design and implementation of inquiry-based curriculum. As we review the literature and pose future research questions, we propose that particular attention be paid to research on inquiry in diverse classrooms, and to modes of inquiry-based instruction that are designed by teachers.

  15. Empowering Rural Appalachian Youth Through Integrated Inquiry-based Earth Science (United States)

    Cartwright, T. J.; Hogsett, M.


    Science education must be relevant and inspiring to keep students engaged and receptive to learning. Reports suggest that science education reform can be advanced by involving students in active research (NSF 1996). Through a 2-year Geoscience Education award from the National Science Foundation, a program called IDGE (Integrated Design for Geoscience Education) has targeted low-income, under-represented, and minority high school students in rural Appalachia in inquiry-based projects, international collaboration, and an international environmental expedition incorporating the GLOBE program protocols. This program targeted Upward Bound students at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia. The Upward Bound is a federally-supported program targeting low-income, under-represented, and minority students for inclusion in a summer academic- enrichment program. IDGE builds on the mission of Upward Bound by encouraging underprivileged students to investigate science and scientific careers. This outreach has proven to be successful in enhancing positive attitudes and understanding about science and increasing the number of students considering science careers. IDGE has found that students must be challenged to observe the world around them and to consider how their decisions affect the future of our planet, thus making geoscience relevant and interesting to the students. By making the geoscience course inquiry-based and incorporating field research that is relevant to local environmental issues, it becomes possible for students to bridge the gap between science in theory and science in practice while remaining engaged. Participants were able to broaden environmental connections through an ecological expedition experience to Costa Rica, serving as an opportunity to broaden the vision of students as members of an international community of learners and scientists through their experiences with a diverse natural environment. This trip, in coordination with the inclusion

  16. Evidence-based creativity: Working between art and science in the field of fine dining. (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Chad


    This article examines how scientific knowledge drives creativity in the small but influential culinary movement of 'modernist cuisine'. Originating in the mid-1990s, modernist cuisine began with a small group of avant-garde chefs using science to produce wildly innovative culinary creations. Since then, many of the movement's innovations, as well as its more general 'science-based' approach to cooking, have gained adoption among a diverse range of culinary professionals. But while science has enabled modernist chefs to produce a wide array of innovations and refinements, the group's embrace of scientific values poses a potential threat to the subjective, intuition-driven logic of culinary creativity. Using data gathered through interviews and participant observation, I describe how modernist chefs navigate the potential challenges of using science in a creative field. I find that advocates of modernist cuisine address these challenges by adopting two separate rhetorical repertoires - one emphasizing science-based cooking's advantages over traditional methods, and another that minimizes the differences between these approaches. Observing the strategic deployment of these repertoires illustrates the challenges to incorporating science into creative fields and reveals a complex and nuanced relationship between objectivity, evidence, and aesthetic judgement.

  17. GSNL 2.0: leveraging on Open Science to promote science-based decision making in Disaster Risk Reduction (United States)

    Salvi, Stefano; Rubbia, Giuliana; Abruzzese, Luigi


    In 2010 the GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL) launched the concept of a global partnership among the geophysical scientific community and the satellite and in situ data providers, aiming to promote scientific advancements in the knowledge of seismic and volcanic phenomena. The initial goal was successfully achieved, and many more new scientific results were obtained than it could have been possible if the Supersites had not existed ( At the same time the Supersites have demonstrated to be able to effectively support the rapid transfer of useful scientific information to the risk managers, exploiting the existing institutional relationships between the Supersite coordinators and the local decision makers. However, a more demanding call for action is given by the Sendai Framework 2015-2030 (outcome of the 2015 UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction), where for the first time the knowledge of the risk components and the science based decision-making process are defined as top priorities for an effective DRR. There are evident possible synergies between the Sendai framework, GEO, the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), and GSNL, but for maximum benefit and effectiveness the latter needs to progress at a faster pace towards a full implementation of the Open Science approach to geohazard science. In the above global framework the Supersites can represent local test beds where to experiment coordination, collaboration and communication approaches and technological solutions tailored to the local situation, to ensure that the scientific community can contribute the information needed for the best possible decision making. This vision and the new developments of GSNL 2.0 have been approved by the GEO Program Board, and a clear roadmap has been set for the period 2017-2019. We will present the approach and the implementation plan at the conference.

  18. Are health science students' beliefs about infant nutrition evidence-based? (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Bloomfield, Molly; Choi, Myunghan


    Globally, breastfeeding is a fundamental health promotion strategy, improving the health of mothers and infants, well beyond childhood. Healthcare professionals have the responsibility of providing breastfeeding education to families. Worldwide, most healthcare professionals do not receive sufficient evidence-based education to adequately support breastfeeding families. (1) What experiences have university health science students had with breastfeeding? (2) What are university health science students' beliefs and attitudes toward breast and formula feeding of infants? (3) What are the perceptions of university health science students about how other important people in their lives regard breastfeeding? (4) What are the relationships between students' personal experiences with breastfeeding and their beliefs and attitudes about infant feeding choices? A descriptive cross-sectional survey conceptualized using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The health science college within a major metropolitan research university in the United States. Health science undergraduate and graduate students (N=514), who were over the age of 18 and who were enrolled during the spring of 2011. Validated survey instruments were used to collect the data on the Theory of Planned Behavior variables. The request for participants was done by emailing all health science students. If students chose to participate, they filled out an anonymous on-line survey. Most participants were not parents; however, the majority of the 95 (21.05%) students who were parents reported their child was breastfed. Significantly more positive attitudes and beliefs were found in graduate students (n=101; 20.10%) when compared to undergraduates (n=403; 89.9%). Health science students' beliefs and attitudes toward infant nutrition often were not evidence-based. However, all students were remarkably consistent in their responses concerning formula feeding. Incorporating adequate education about human lactation is an unmet

  19. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training. (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael


    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.

  20. Problem- and case-based learning in science: an introduction to distinctions, values, and outcomes. (United States)

    Allchin, Douglas


    Case-based learning and problem-based learning have demonstrated great promise in reforming science education. Yet an instructor, in newly considering this suite of interrelated pedagogical strategies, faces a number of important instructional choices. Different features and their related values and learning outcomes are profiled here, including: the level of student autonomy; instructional focus on content, skills development, or nature-of-science understanding; the role of history, or known outcomes; scope, clarity, and authenticity of problems provided to students; extent of collaboration; complexity, in terms of number of interpretive perspectives; and, perhaps most importantly, the role of applying versus generating knowledge.

  1. Inquiry Teaching in Science - Problem Based Learning (PBL) in Astronomy (United States)

    Soares, Rosa; Teixeira, Daniel; Roxo, Áurea; Ruas, Fátima


    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a teaching methodology based on the Inquiry Teaching approach, which consists in finding a solution to a problem that requires the use of higher-level cognitive skills. It's best carried out in small groups. The scenario or problem must lead the student to ask questions and to find solutions through research. This methodology is a research-oriented approach, because it starts with questions (asked by the students after being introduced to the problem), it encourages the search for solutions, it develops scientific reasoning, and it helps students to learn about key aspects of scientific research, such as gathering data, finding evidence, looking for solutions, discussing and presenting findings. In PBL the teacher has the role of facilitator. In the study of the Solar System, the study of the Moon's craters started with the observation of photos, which led the students to ask questions like "What determines the size and shape of the craters?". To answer this question the students hypothesized about the size, speed and distance travelled of the object that hit the Moon. The students then planned and carried out an experimental activity to validate their hypotheses, using balls of different sizes and materials. The diameter and depth of the craters were estimated using Salsa J. With the data obtained in this experiment, the students did a Gowin's V diagram. In order to determine the relation between the characteristics of the celestial bodies and the craters formed, both on the Moon and on the Earth, we studied the Earth's craters. We used Impact Calculator, a program that estimates the effects of an impact on the Earth, using several variables, such as the size and density of the meteorite, and the speed and angle at which it impacts the Earth's surface. Another problem started with the film Visions of the Cosmos. It raised questions such as "Is there a relation between the Earth's past and the origin of the Solar System?" "How are

  2. Do inquiry-based science classroom experiences promote science achievement for public high school students? An application of the Opportunity-Propensity framework (United States)

    Hallman, Lydia Marie

    Recent research shows that science as inquiry provides fundamental connections necessary for students to understand and enjoy science. Yet, few studies have analyzed the links between standardized testing and inquiry-based science instruction. This study determined the effect of inquiry-based science instruction on students' physical science achievement after accounting for the tremendous number of confounding variables that influence students' physical science achievement The study focused on students who take high-level chemistry and physics courses and used the opportunity-propensity framework to categorize independent variables into three groups: antecedent, opportunity, and propensity. Data came from two nationally representative data sets, the 2009 National Assessment Educational Program (NAEP) and the 2009 High School Transcript Study (HSTS). To account for the effects on error variance as a result of complex sampling and missing data, all correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted on two data sets, one created through list wise deletion and the other created through EM. Furthermore, analyses were conducted on unweighted and weighted datasets. Results from the study indicated that the Opportunity-Propensity framework accounted for approximately half of the differences in physical science achievement when antecedent, opportunity, and propensity factors were included. Traditional instruction was found to associate negatively with physical science achievement after controlling for the influence of known confounding variables. Inquiry-based science instruction as measured by this study was found to have insignificant association with physical achievement for students who take high-level chemistry and physics courses. A possible reason for this finding might be that the rigor of the AP/IB curriculum has intrinsic time constraints, thereby minimizing the opportunity for time consuming interactive activities. Another possible reason might

  3. Sol-gel-based biosensing applied to medicinal science. (United States)

    Moreira, Felismina T C; Moreira-Tavares, Ana P; Sales, M Goreti F


    Biosensors have opened new horizons in biomedical analysis, by ensuring increased assay speed and flexibility, and allowing point-of-care applications, multi-target analyses, automation and reduced costs of testing. This has been a result of many studies merging nanotechnology with biochemistry over the years, thereby enabling the creation of more suitable environments to biological receptors and their substitution by synthetic analogue materials. Sol-gel chemistry, among other materials, is deeply involved in this process. Sol-gel processing allows the immobilization of organic molecules, biomacromolecules and cells maintaining their properties and activities, permitting their integration into different transduction devices, of electrochemical or optical nature, for single or multiple analyses. Sol-gel also allows to the production of synthetic materials mimicking the activity of natural receptors, while bringing advantages, mostly in terms of cost and stability. Moreover, the biocompatibility of sol-gel materials structures of biological nature allowed the use of these materials in emerging in vivo applications. In this chapter, biosensors for biomedical applications based on sol-gel derived composites are presented, compared and described, along with current emerging applications in vivo, concerning drug delivery or biomaterials. Sol-gel materials are shown as a promising tool for current, emerging and future medical applications.

  4. The Development of In-Service Science Teachers' Understandings of and Orientations to Teaching the Nature of Science within a PCK-Based NOS Course (United States)

    Faikhamta, Chatree


    The nature of science (NOS) has become a central goal of science education in many countries. This study sought an understanding of the extent to which a nature of science course (NOSC), designed according to the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching nature of science (NOS), affects in-service science teachers' understanding and learning of NOS, and their orientations towards teaching it. A qualitative research approach was employed as a research methodology, drawing upon pre- and post-instruction NOS questionnaires, field notes, and in-service teachers' weekly journal entries and assignments. Open-ended NOS questionnaires, used to assess participants' understandings of NOS, were analysed and categorized as either informed, partially informed and naive. Other qualitative data were analysed through an inductive process to identify ways in-service teachers engaged and learned in the NOSC. The results indicate that at the beginning of the course, a majority of the in-service science teachers held naive understandings of NOS, particularly with respect to the definition of science, scientific inquiry, and differences between laws and theories. They viewed implicit project-based science and science process skills as goals of NOS instruction. By engaging in the course, the in-service science teachers developed an understanding of NOS and orientations to teaching NOS based on various elements, especially reflective and explicit instruction, role modelling, and content- and non-content embedded instruction. The aim of this study is to help science teacher educators, consider how to support and develop science teachers' understandings of NOS while being mindful of PCK for NOS, and develop methods for teaching NOS frameworks.

  5. Classroom-based science research at the introductory level: changes in career choices and attitude. (United States)

    Harrison, Melinda; Dunbar, David; Ratmansky, Lisa; Boyd, Kimberly; Lopatto, David


    Our study, focused on classroom-based research at the introductory level and using the Phage Genomics course as the model, shows evidence that first-year students doing research learn the process of science as well as how scientists practice science. A preliminary but notable outcome of our work, which is based on a small sample, is the change in student interest in considering different career choices such as graduate education and science in general. This is particularly notable, as previous research has described research internships as clarifying or confirming rather than changing undergraduates' decisions to pursue graduate education. We hypothesize that our results differ from previous studies of the impact of engaging in research because the students in our study are still in the early stages of their undergraduate careers. Our work builds upon the classroom-based research movement and should be viewed as encouraging to the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education movement advocated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Science Foundation, and other undergraduate education stakeholders.

  6. Malaysia collaborates with the new york academy of sciences to develop an innovation-based economy. (United States)

    Wahome, Michel; Rubinstein, Ellis


    If Malaysia is to become a high-income country by 2020, it will have to transform into a knowledge-based, innovation economy. This goal will be achieved by developing an atmosphere conducive to experimentation and entrepreneurship at home; while reaching out to partners across the globe. One of Malaysia's newest partnerships is with the New York Academy of Sciences. The Academy has expertise in innovation and higher education and a long history of promoting science, education, and science-based solutions through a global network of scientists, industry-leaders, and policy-makers. Malaysia's Prime Minister, Dato' Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak, leveraged the Academy's network to convene a science, technology, and innovation advisory council. This council would provide practical guidance to establish Malaysia as an innovation-based economy. Three initial focus areas, namely palm-oil biomass utilisation, establishment of smart communities, and capacity building in science and engineering, were established to meet short-term and long-term targets.

  7. Revisiting the Authoritative-Dialogic Tension in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Teacher Questioning (United States)

    Van Booven, Christopher D.


    Building on the 'questioning-based discourse analytical' framework developed by Singapore-based science educator and discourse analyst, Christine Chin, this study investigated the extent to which fifth-grade science teachers' use of questions with either an authoritative or dialogic orientation differentially restricted or expanded the quality and complexity of student responses in the USA. The author analyzed approximately 10 hours of classroom discourse from elementary science classrooms organized around inquiry-based science curricula and texts. Teacher questions and feedback were classified according to their dialogic orientation and contextually inferred structural purpose, while student understanding was operationalized as a dynamic interaction between cognitive process, syntacto-semantic complexity, and science knowledge type. The results of this study closely mirror Chin's and other scholars' findings that the fixed nature of authoritatively oriented questioning can dramatically limit students' opportunities to demonstrate higher order scientific understanding, while dialogically oriented questions, by contrast, often grant students the discursive space to demonstrate a greater breadth and depth of both canonical and self-generated knowledge. However, certain teacher questioning sequences occupying the 'middle ground' between maximal authoritativeness and dialogicity revealed patterns of meaningful, if isolated, instances of higher order thinking. Implications for classroom practice are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  8. A Drupal-Based Collaborative Framework for Science Workflows (United States)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Gandara, A.


    Cyber-infrastructure is built from utilizing technical infrastructure to support organizational practices and social norms to provide support for scientific teams working together or dependent on each other to conduct scientific research. Such cyber-infrastructure enables the sharing of information and data so that scientists can leverage knowledge and expertise through automation. Scientific workflow systems have been used to build automated scientific systems used by scientists to conduct scientific research and, as a result, create artifacts in support of scientific discoveries. These complex systems are often developed by teams of scientists who are located in different places, e.g., scientists working in distinct buildings, and sometimes in different time zones, e.g., scientist working in distinct national laboratories. The sharing of these specifications is currently supported by the use of version control systems such as CVS or Subversion. Discussions about the design, improvement, and testing of these specifications, however, often happen elsewhere, e.g., through the exchange of email messages and IM chatting. Carrying on a discussion about these specifications is challenging because comments and specifications are not necessarily connected. For instance, the person reading a comment about a given workflow specification may not be able to see the workflow and even if the person can see the workflow, the person may not specifically know to which part of the workflow a given comments applies to. In this paper, we discuss the design, implementation and use of CI-Server, a Drupal-based infrastructure, to support the collaboration of both local and distributed teams of scientists using scientific workflows. CI-Server has three primary goals: to enable information sharing by providing tools that scientists can use within their scientific research to process data, publish and share artifacts; to build community by providing tools that support discussions between

  9. Physiology Should Be Taught as Science Is Practiced: An Inquiry-Based Activity to Investigate the "Alkaline Tide" (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.


    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) strongly recommends that "science be taught as science is practiced." This means that the teaching approach must be consistent with the nature of scientific inquiry. In this article, the authors describe how they added scientific inquiry to a large lecture-based physiology…

  10. Interactive Learning with Java Applets: Using Interactive, Web-Based Java Applets to Present Science in a Concrete, Meaningful Manner (United States)

    Corder, Greg


    Science teachers face challenges that affect the quality of instruction. Tight budgets, limited resources, school schedules, and other obstacles limit students' opportunities to experience science that is visual and interactive. Incorporating web-based Java applets into science instruction offers a practical solution to these challenges. The…

  11. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA) (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj


    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  12. A Rules-Based Service for Suggesting Visualizations to Analyze Earth Science Phenomena. (United States)

    Prabhu, A.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.


    Current Earth Science Information Systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers, who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. We need to evolve the current information systems, to reduce the time required for data preparation, processing and analysis. This can be done by effectively salvaging the "dark" resources in Earth Science. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. In order to effectively use these dark resources, especially for data processing and visualization, we need a combination of domain, data product and processing knowledge, i.e. a knowledge base from which specific data operations can be performed. In this presentation, we describe a semantic, rules based approach to provide i.e. a service to visualize Earth Science phenomena, based on the data variables extracted using the "dark" metadata resources. We use Jena rules to make assertions about compatibility between a phenomena and various visualizations based on multiple factors. We created separate orthogonal rulesets to map each of these factors to the various phenomena. Some of the factors we have considered include measurements, spatial resolution and time intervals. This approach enables easy additions and deletions based on newly obtained domain knowledge or phenomena related information and thus improving the accuracy of the rules service overall.

  13. Light-based science and technologies and human civilization: an optical course for general education (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Wang, Kaiwei; Yang, Qing; Si, Ke


    Starting from 2015, a general education course named "Light-based science and technologies and human civilization" has been offered in Zhejiang University. We try to give a humanism view angle to observe optics and optical engineering, and combine them with the relationship of human and the nature, the development of human society and human health. In this course we introduce different historical periods of light-based science and technologies, the great optical researchers, the typical research methods, advantages, academic discussions and the relationship with human civilization. The relevant cross-fields of learning and Nobel Prize winners are also included. This course provides the students with the typical examples about how academic revolution influences the world development, and also with humanism sight which exceeds the range of science and technologies themselves.

  14. Mentoring a new science teacher in reform-based ways: A focus on inquiry (United States)

    Schomer, Scott D.

    The processes, understandings, and uses of inquiry are identified by the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) as a key component of science instruction. Currently, there are few examples in the literature demonstrating how teachers go about co-constructing inquiry-based activities and how mentors can promote the use of reform-based practices by novices. The purpose of this interpretive case study was to investigate how a mentor and her protege collaboratively developed, implemented and assessed three inquiry-based experiences. The questions that guided this research were: (1) How does the mentor assist protege growth in the development, implementation and assessment of inquiry-based experiences for secondary science students? (2) How are the protege's perceptions of inquiry influenced by her participation in developing, implementing and assessing inquiry-based experiences for secondary science students? The co-construction of the inquiry activities and the facilitation provided by the mentor represented Lev Vygotsky's (1978) social construction of information as the mentor guided the protege beyond her cognitive zone of proximal development. The participants in this study were a veteran science teacher who was obtaining her mentor certification, or Teacher Support Specialist, and her protege who was a science teacher in the induction phase of her career. Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews, tape recordings of planning sessions, researcher field notes, and email reflections during the co-construction process. Inductive analysis of the data led to the identification of common categories and subsequent findings, which reflected what the mentor and protege discussed about inquiry and the process of collaboration. The six themes that emerged from this study led to several implications that are significant for science teacher preparation and the mentoring community. The teachers indicated tools, such as the

  15. A study of teachers' self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for science teaching throughout a science inquiry-based professional development program (United States)

    Cripe, M. Kathleen Leslie


    The goal of this study was to investigate the self-efficacies and outcome expectancies of science teachers over time as a result of their participation in an inquiry-based, professional development program designed to ensure that all participants are highly qualified science teachers. Eighty-six teachers participated in inquiry-based activities designed to increase their content knowledge and teaching expertise while increasing their science teaching self-efficacies and outcome expectancies of student learning. This 15-month professional development program included two summer workshops (summers of 2007 and 2008) with an 8-month classroom implementation period in between. A quasi-experimental research design was used to investigate the change in science teaching efficacy scores after participation in the inquiry-based professional development program and the relationship of this change with selected independent variables. The data consisted of (a) three sets of Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990) scores, STEBI-Form A (inservice), reported as a pretest, posttest, and follow-up posttest; and (b) demographic variables that were used as covariates: science education background, professional position, number of years taught, and teacher qualification status in science. Using repeated measures and multiple regressions with an alpha level of 0.05, and testing the hypothesized changes and relationships, results indicated that there were gains in Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) scores. Of the independent variables, only science education background was found to be a significant contributor toward increasing PSTE (p = .003) scores. The other variables were not predictive of gains in either personal science teaching efficacy or science teaching outcome expectancy. The data gave insight into possible relationships that may exist between science teachers' self-efficacies and outcome

  16. JournalBase. Comparer les bases de données scientifiques internationales en sciences humaines et sociales (SHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain


    Full Text Available Cet article dresse un tableau comparatif des contenus des bases de données et des listes de référence qui recensent les revues en sciences humaines et sociales (SHS. Il s’appuie sur JournalBase publié le 25 juin 2009 dans Cybergeo. Cette étude porte sur les bases AHCI et SSCI du Web of Science (publié par Thomson Reuters, de Scopus (publié par Elsevier, du European Reference Index for Humanities (ERIH (publié par la Fondation européenne pour la Science et de l’AERES (Agence pour l’évaluation de la recherche en France. La recherche a été réalisée en 2008 avec le soutien financier du TGE Adonis du CNRS. Avec quelque 20 000 entrées correspondant à environ 10 000 journaux différents, c’est une vue quasi exhaustive de la richesse des publications en sciences humaines et sociales qui est apportée par ce tableau. La nomenclature adoptée pour classer les revues par discipline est celle en 27 postes de la Fondation Européenne pour la Science. Les affectations multiples révèlent la multidisciplinarité des revues, assez fréquente en SHS, mais parfois aussi les incohérences des bases de données qui n’ont pas été rectifiées.L’article présente l’historique du projet, la méthodologie mise en place par les auteurs, les difficultés rencontrées dans la comparaison des données. Les premiers résultats mettent en évidence une couverture plus large de la liste ERIH pour les sciences humaines et une surreprésentation des revues anglophones dans les bases de données commerciales pour l’ensemble des disciplines. L’objectif de ce travail est d’alerter sur les contenus de ces bases de données, au moment où les outils bibliométriques soulèvent maints débats quant à leur application dans le champ des sciences humaines et sociales.

  17. Learning Through Nature: A Study of a Next Generation Science Standards Based Teacher Workshop that Blends Outdoor Learning Experiences with Formal Science (United States)

    Fanning, Ashley

    Many teachers lack the confidence and knowledge to transition their classroom science lessons to an outdoor setting. Very few teacher professional development (PD) programs focus on improving teachers' self-efficacy and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) that is needed to enhance their science curriculum with outdoor lessons. This study examined an exception: The Connect2Science workshops, which provided elementary teachers the opportunity to experience nature-based science lessons. My research question for this study is: In what ways does a professional development workshop focused around the Next Generation Science Standards influence teachers': a) self-efficacy in teaching science outdoors and b) science pedagogical content knowledge? Data was collected using a retrospective pre and post survey, a reflection piece on participants' pedagogical content knowledge and semi-structured interviews. The results showed that participants' self-efficacy was positively affected by the Connect2Science workshops. As for pedagogical content knowledge, the results give a small insight into how participants viewed and thought about student misconceptions and how the instructional strategies presented in the workshops equipped them to better address science content in an outdoor setting.

  18. Curriculum-Dependent and Curriculum-Independent Factors in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Science (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.


    In this nested mixed methods study I investigate factors influencing preservice elementary teachers' adaptation of science curriculum materials to better support students' engagement in science as inquiry. Analyses focus on two `reflective teaching assignments' completed by 46 preservice elementary teachers in an undergraduate elementary science methods course in which they were asked to adapt existing science curriculum materials to plan and enact inquiry-based science lessons in elementary classrooms. Data analysis involved regression modeling of artifacts associated with these lessons, as well as in-depth, semester-long case studies of six of these preservice teachers. Results suggest that features of the existing science curriculum materials, including measures of how inquiry-based they were, have a relatively small influence on the preservice teachers' curricular adaptations, while teacher-specific variables account for a much greater percentage of the variance. Evidence from the case studies illustrates the critical impact of the preservice teachers' field placement contexts as an explanatory, teacher-specific factor in their curricular adaptations. These findings have important implications for science teacher educators and science curriculum developers, in terms of not only better understanding how preservice teachers engage with curriculum materials, but also how programmatic features of teacher education programs influence their ability to do so.

  19. Application of Model Project Based Learning on Integrated Science in Water Pollution (United States)

    Yamin, Y.; Permanasari, A.; Redjeki, S.; Sopandi, W.


    The function of this research was to analyze the influence model Project Based Learning (PjBl) on integrated science about the concept mastery for junior high school students. Method used for this research constitutes the quasi of experiment method. Population and sample for this research are the students junior high school in Bandung as many as two classes to be experiment and control class. The instrument that used for this research is the test concept mastery, assessment questionnaire of product and the questionnaire responses of the student about learning integrated science. Based on the result of this research get some data that with accomplishment the model of PjBl. Learning authority of integrated science can increase the concept mastery for junior high school students. The highest increase in the theme of pollution water is in the concept of mixtures and the separation method. The students give a positive response in learning of integrated science for the theme of pollution of the water used model PjBL with questionnaire of the opinion aspect in amount of 83.5%, the anxiety of the students in amount of 95.5%, the profit learning model of PjBL in amount of 96.25% and profit learning of integrated science in amount of 95.75%.

  20. Community-based science education for fourth to sixth graders: Influences of a female role model (United States)

    Acklie, Deanna S.

    Women in the United States are underrepresented in science related careers. The Wonderwise curriculum was designed to encourage young women to become more involved in science and science careers. The Wonderwise kits have won numerous awards for quality science curriculum for formal educational environments. In 2000 the kits were adapted and new kits were developed to meet the needs of a nonformal Teaming environment (i.e., 4-H). The kits contain a video field trip with a featured female scientist demonstrating her work, an activity guidebook with five activities based on this scientist's work, and a CD-Rom serving as an additional resource. This study contributes to our understanding of a group of 4H youth who used the Wonderwise curriculum. It describes their view on science, their perspective about people who do science, the importance of role models within their lives, and their career visions. This study was a multi-method case study design. The subjects were youth ages 9--11 involved in 4H events in a three state area. Events such as overnight camps, day camps, special events and after school programs featuring the Wonderwise curriculum were used as sites for this study. The subjects studied in the Wonderwise 4-H project were primarily female youth who had some interest in science. Nearly half were Caucasian; the remainder were Hispanic, African American and Native American. The 25 youth involved in this study took part in a semi-structure interview process including four research methodologies: open-ended questions, drawing or writing a story about the featured scientist, a card sort activity and a relationship map drawn by the youth. Youths' prior experiences in formal, informal and nonformal settings impacted how they made sense of and incorporated Wonderwise experiences in their frame of reference. Through the experiential learning process youth experienced science activities and connected to individuals with science backgrounds, particularly those

  1. Fifth Graders' Flow Experience in a Digital Game-Based Science Learning Environment (United States)

    Zheng, Meixun; Spires, Hiller A.


    This mixed methods study examined 73 5th graders' flow experience in a game-based science learning environment using two gameplay approaches (solo and collaborative gameplay). Both survey and focus group interview findings revealed that students had high flow experience; however, there were no flow experience differences that were contingent upon…

  2. Inquiry Learning of High School Students through a Problem-Based Environmental Health Science Curriculum (United States)

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Smith, Grant


    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which high school students improved their inquiry capabilities in relation to scientific literacy through their experience of a problem-based environmental health science curriculum. The two inquiry capabilities studied were scientific questioning and approaches to inquiry into their own…

  3. Developing Teaching Materials PISA-Based for Mathematics and Science of Junior High School (United States)

    Somakim; Suharman, Andi; Madang, Kodri; Taufiq


    This research aims to develop valid and practical teaching materials for mathematics and science lesson PISA-based for junior high school students and to determine potential effects on students in scientific activity. Subjects of this study were students of Junior High School 9 Palembang (SMP Negeri 9 Palembang). The method used in this study is…

  4. Lessons Learned from Undergraduate Students in Designing a Science-Based Course in Bioethics (United States)

    Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.


    Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre-health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically…

  5. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course (United States)

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  6. The Conceptual Bases of Chemistry and the Development of Integrated Science. (United States)

    Manzelli, Paolo; Eaton, John


    Offers a model of scientific thought based on the multidisciplinary integration of the sciences. Stresses the importance of constructions/deconstructions of meanings, codifications/decodifications of symbols, and structurations/destructurations of conceptual operations in the development of scientific thought and in the modification of human…

  7. Science Teachers' Meaning-Making When Involved in a School-Based Professional Development Project (United States)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund


    A group of teachers' meaning-making when they are collaboratively analyzing artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development (PD) project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The interpretation of the teachers' meaning-making includes both their reference to…

  8. Comparative Effects of Computer-Based Concept Maps, Refutational Texts, and Expository Texts on Science Learning (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Cavagnetto, Andy; Hunsu, Nathaniel J.; Anguiano, Carlos; Lloyd, Joshua


    This study used a between-subjects experimental design to examine the effects of three different computer-based instructional strategies (concept map, refutation text, and expository scientific text) on science learning. Concept maps are node-link diagrams that show concepts as nodes and relationships among the concepts as labeled links.…

  9. Effectiveness and Accountability of the Inquiry-Based Methodology in Middle School Science (United States)

    Hardin, Cade


    When teaching science, the time allowed for students to make discoveries on their own through the inquiry method directly conflicts with the mandated targets of a broad spectrum of curricula. Research shows that using an inquiry-based approach can encourage student motivation and increase academic achievement (Wolf & Fraser, 2008, Bryant, 2006,…

  10. The Influence of Activity-Based Elementary Science Programs on Classroom Practices: A Quantitative Synthesis. (United States)

    Bredderman, Ted


    Results of 11 studies of classroom practices used with activity-based elementary science programs were combined quantitatively using a composite category system. One finding reported is that teachers trained in program use spent less time talking and more on activities than untrained teachers using the programs. (Author/JM)

  11. Alternative Assessment Practices of a Classroom Teacher: Alignment with Reform-Based Science Curriculum (United States)

    Serin, Gökhan


    The purpose of this study was to explore alignment between reform-based Turkish primary science curriculum and alternative assessment practices of a classroom teacher. Observational case study approach was utilized. A classroom teacher with 32 years of experience and his 31 students participated in the study. The data were collected during one…

  12. In Quest of Productive Modeling-Based Learning Discourse in Elementary School Science (United States)

    Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Constantinou, Constantinos P.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whole classroom discourse during modeling-based learning in science, seeking to describe the discourse's characteristics, its relation to the micro-context in which it took place and to the student-constructed models, and to ascertain when it becomes productive. Additionally, we aimed to describe how…

  13. Modeling-Based Learning in Science Education: Cognitive, Metacognitive, Social, Material and Epistemological Contributions (United States)

    Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.


    Models and modeling are considered integral parts of scientific literacy, reflecting educators' efforts to introduce and engage students in authentic scientific inquiry through Modeling-based Learning (MbL) approaches in science. Over the years research has developed a considerable amount of knowledge concerning MbL. Our purpose in this paper was…

  14. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course (United States)

    Abdi, Ali


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…

  15. Communicating Chemistry: A Framework for Sharing Science: A Practical Evidence-Based Guide (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016


    A growing body of evidence indicates that, increasingly, the public is engaging with science in a wide range of informal environments, which can be any setting outside of school such as community-based programs, festivals, libraries, or home. Yet undergraduate and graduate schools often don't prepare scientists for public communication. This…

  16. Strengthening Family and Consumer Sciences Extension Professionals through a Competency-Based Professional Development System (United States)

    Franck, Karen; Penn, Allisen; Wise, Dena; Berry, Ann


    Responding to reduced funding and organizational restructuring, many state Extension programs have reorganized counties into regional-based entities and limited family and consumer sciences (FCS) to specialized programs in areas such as foods and nutrition (Braverman, Franz, & Rennekamp, 2012; Franz & Cox, 2012; White & Teuteberg,…

  17. Effects of Brain-Based Learning Approach on Students' Motivation and Attitudes Levels in Science Class (United States)

    Akyurek, Erkan; Afacan, Ozlem


    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of brain-based learning approach on attitudes and motivation levels in 8th grade students' science classes. The main reason for examining attitudes and motivation levels, the effect of the short-term motivation, attitude shows the long-term effect. The pre/post-test control group research model…

  18. SimSketch & GearSketch: Sketch-based modelling for early science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joolingen, Wouter; Bollen, Lars; Leenaars, Frank


    In this interactive demo, we will present two modelling and drawing applications - SimSketch & GearSketch, which exemplarily demonstrate our approaches to sketch-based learning and modelling in early (science) education. Since drawings and sketches denote are very basic and fundamental way of

  19. The MORPG-Based Learning System for Multiple Courses: A Case Study on Computer Science Curriculum (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Yu


    This study aimed at developing a Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game-based (MORPG) Learning system which enabled instructors to construct a game scenario and manage sharable and reusable learning content for multiple courses. It used the curriculum of "Introduction to Computer Science" as a study case to assess students' learning…

  20. How to create a methodology of conceptual visualization based on experiential cognitive science and diagrammatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe


    Based on the insights of experiential cognitive science and of diagrammatology as defined by Charles S. Peirce and Frederik Stjernfelt, this article analyses the iconic links connecting visualizations of Stjernfelt diagrams with human perception and action and starts to lay the theoretical...

  1. Curriculum Design for Junior Life Sciences Based Upon the Theories of Piaget and Skiller. Final Report. (United States)

    Pearce, Ella Elizabeth

    Four seventh grade life science classes, given curriculum materials based upon Piagetian theories of intellectual development and Skinner's theories of secondary reinforcement, were compared with four control classes from the same school districts. Nine students from each class, who(at the pretest) were at the concrete operations stage of…

  2. Student Sensemaking with Science Diagrams in a Computer-Based Setting (United States)

    Furberg, Anniken; Kluge, Anders; Ludvigsen, Sten


    This paper reports on a study of students' conceptual sensemaking with science diagrams within a computer-based learning environment aimed at supporting collaborative learning. Through the microanalysis of students' interactions in a project about energy and heat transfer, we demonstrate "how" representations become productive social and cognitive…

  3. [Application of the life sciences platform based on oracle to biomedical informations]. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Yun; Li, Tai-Huan; Yang, Hong-Qiao


    The life sciences platform based on Oracle database technology is introduced in this paper. By providing a powerful data access, integrating a variety of data types, and managing vast quantities of data, the software presents a flexible, safe and scalable management platform for biomedical data processing.

  4. Bringing the Science of Team Training to School-Based Teams (United States)

    Benishek, Lauren E.; Gregory, Megan E.; Hodges, Karin; Newell, Markeda; Hughes, Ashley M.; Marlow, Shannon; Lacerenza, Christina; Rosenfield, Sylvia; Salas, Eduardo


    Teams are ubiquitous in schools in the 21st Century; yet training for effective teaming within these settings has lagged behind. The authors of this article developed 5 modules, grounded in the science of team training and adapted from an evidence-based curriculum used in medical settings called TeamSTEPPS®, to prepare instructional and…

  5. Global Warning: Project-Based Science Inspired by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (United States)

    Colaianne, Blake


    Misconceptions about climate change are common, which suggests a need to effectively address the subject in the classroom. This article describes a project-based science activity in which students report on the physical basis, adaptations, and mitigation of this global problem, adapting the framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel…

  6. Live from Boone Lake: Interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning Meets Public Science Writing (United States)

    Amador, Jose A.; Miles, Libby


    As strong proponents of problem-based learning (PBL), the authors designed and taught an interdisciplinary, team-taught PBL course on Writing Science for the Public at a midsize northeastern state university. This approach led to emphasizing collaboration and experiential learning and resulted in media-rich student projects.

  7. Design, Development, and Implementation of an Inquiry-Based, Technology-Rich, Science Curriculum. (United States)

    Myers, Robert J.; Botti, James A.; Pompea, Stephen M.

    A study was initiated at the inception of the Exploring the Environment (ETE) project to look at critical factors concerning the use of problem-based learning in Earth science classes. During the 1995-96 school year, the Tropical Poison module from the ETE Project was evaluated in nine high schools across the country. The module introduced…

  8. Magnetism Teaching Sequences Based on an Inductive Approach for First-Year Thai University Science Students (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Cowie, Bronwen


    The study investigated the impact on student motivation and understanding of magnetism of teaching sequences based on an inductive approach. The study was conducted in large lecture classes. A pre- and post-Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism was conducted with just fewer than 700 Thai undergraduate science students, before and after…

  9. Collaborating to Improve Inquiry-Based Teaching in Elementary Science and Mathematics Methods Courses (United States)

    Magee, Paula A.; Flessner, Ryan


    This study examines the effect of promoting inquiry-based teaching (IBT) through collaboration between a science methods course and mathematics methods course in an elementary teacher education program. During the collaboration, preservice elementary teacher (PST) candidates experienced 3 different types of inquiry as a way to foster increased…

  10. From practical science to a practice based approach: A short history of forest policy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, F.; Arts, B.J.M.; Laar, van J.N.


    This chapter presents a short history of forest policy studies, with the aim of situating the practice based approach of this book. Forest policy studies emerged as a sub-discipline within forestry science in the mid-20th century. Its early focus was strongly influenced by traditional forestry

  11. Comments on "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology:" Evidence-Based Interventions for Grandiose Bragging (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.


    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited…

  12. An Inquiry-Based Science Activity Centred on the Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Ecosystems (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia


    We propose an inquiry-based science activity centred on the effects of climate change on ocean ecosystems. This activity can be used to improve acquisition of knowledge on the effects of climate change and to promote inquiry skills, such as researching, reading and selecting relevant information, identifying a problem, focusing on a research…

  13. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  14. Teaching Probability to Pre-Service Teachers with Argumentation Based Science Learning Approach (United States)

    Can, Ömer Sinan; Isleyen, Tevfik


    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the argumentation based science learning (ABSL) approach on the teaching probability to pre-service teachers. The sample of the study included 41 students studying at the Department of Elementary School Mathematics Education in a public university during the 2014-2015 academic years. The study is…

  15. Influence Based Learning Program Scientific Learning Approach to Science Students Generic Skills (United States)

    Wahyuni, Ida; Amdani, Khairul


    This study aims to determine the influence of scientific approach based learning program (P2BPS) against generic science skills of students. The method used in this research is "quasi experiment" with "two-group pretest posttest" design.The population in this study were all students who take courses in general physics II at the…

  16. Interdisciplinarity at the journal and specialty level: the changing knowledge bases of the journal Cognitive Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Goldstone, R.L.


    Using the referencing patterns in articles in Cognitive Science over three decades, we analyze the knowledge base of this literature in terms of its changing disciplinary composition. Three periods are distinguished: (A) construction of the interdisciplinary space in the 1980s, (B) development of an

  17. An Inquiry-Based Science Activity Centred on the Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Ecosystems (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia

    We propose an inquiry-based science activity centred on the effects of climate change on ocean ecosystems. This activity can be used to improve acquisition of knowledge on the effects of climate change and to promote inquiry skills, such as researching, reading and selecting relevant information, identifying a problem, focusing on a research…

  18. Inquiry Based-Computational Experiment, Acquisition of Threshold Concepts and Argumentation in Science and Mathematics Education (United States)

    Psycharis, Sarantos


    Computational experiment approach considers models as the fundamental instructional units of Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSE) and STEM Education, where the model take the place of the "classical" experimental set-up and simulation replaces the experiment. Argumentation in IBSE and STEM education is related to the…

  19. The role of basic sciences in a problem-based learning clinical curriculum. (United States)

    O'Neill, P A


    Very little is known about the use of problem-based learning (PBL) during the later years of the undergraduate medical course and how it influences further acquisition of basic science knowledge. Similarly to many other Faculties, the PBL approach is used at Manchester in years 1 and 2, but more unusually, the curriculum continues to be centred on PBL in the clinical modules. To explore whether and how basic science learning was continued in year 3 of the PBL clinical curriculum. 10 of the weekly problems from the two core modules in year 3 were analysed to determine: (a) whether the design teams were using basic science objectives in devising the problems, and (b) whether PBL student groups were setting basic science learning objectives. The basic science knowledge of year 3 and 4 students was also measured. Similar numbers of objectives were being set by the management groups for each weekly problem (Heart, lung and blood (HLB) module, median 15, range 11-20; Nutrition, metabolism and excretion (NME) module, median 13, range 9-21). In the basic sciences, there was a median of 3 objectives per problem (range 0-6) in the NME module, but only 1 objective (0-2) per problem in the HLB module. The objectives set by six PBL groups in each module were analysed. Overall, agreement was reached on 130 occasions (62%) between the design team basic science objectives and those set for themselves by the student groups. In addition, there was a median of 2 (range 1-8) new basic science objectives brought out by the PBL groups that were not listed by the HLB module design team. In the NME module, there was again a median of 2 new objectives (range 0-6). The performance of year 3 and year 4 students in the multiple-choice questions progress test was analysed. For the 65 basic science questions, the year 3 mark was 40.8 +/- 12.3% compared with 57.1 +/- 12.3% for year 4 (P learning objectives in the basic sciences; (c) most of the objectives being set by the design teams are being

  20. Increasing participation in the Earth sciences through engagement of K-12 educators in Earth system science analysis, inquiry and problem- based learning and teaching (United States)

    Burrell, S.


    Given low course enrollment in geoscience courses, retention in undergraduate geoscience courses, and granting of BA and advanced degrees in the Earth sciences an effective strategy to increase participation in this field is necessary. In response, as K-12 education is a conduit to college education and the future workforce, Earth science education at the K-12 level was targeted with the development of teacher professional development around Earth system science, inquiry and problem-based learning. An NSF, NOAA and NASA funded effort through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies led to the development of the Earth System Science Educational Alliance (ESSEA) and dissemination of interdisciplinary Earth science content modules accessible to the public and educators. These modules formed the basis for two teacher workshops, two graduate level courses for in-service teachers and two university course for undergraduate teacher candidates. Data from all three models will be presented with emphasis on the teacher workshop. Essential components of the workshop model include: teaching and modeling Earth system science analysis; teacher development of interdisciplinary, problem-based academic units for implementation in the classroom; teacher collaboration; daily workshop evaluations; classroom observations; follow-up collaborative meetings/think tanks; and the building of an on-line professional community for continued communication and exchange of best practices. Preliminary data indicate increased understanding of Earth system science, proficiency with Earth system science analysis, and renewed interest in innovative delivery of content amongst teachers. Teacher-participants reported increased student engagement in learning with the implementation of problem-based investigations in Earth science and Earth system science thinking in the classroom, however, increased enthusiasm of the teacher acted as a contributing factor. Teacher feedback on open

  1. A proposal for science education policies in Lebanon based on trends in selected developed countries over the last twenty years (United States)

    Sarraf, Lina

    The present study examines science education policies in three selected developed countries and compares them with science education policies in Lebanon in order to identify their potential reform policies and practices applicable to Lebanon. The selection of the three countries, the U.S.A., U.K., and Japan, was based on the amount of time and effort devoted in these countries to improving and modernizing their science education policies and curricula. Three aspects of secondary science curriculum policy in the chosen countries were analyzed and compared with those of Lebanon. These were: aims and objectives; pattern of science program including the science curriculum, the amount of time allotted to the study of science and the content of school science subjects; and the organization of school science including science requirement for graduation from high school, teaching strategies and mode of examinations. The data collected for analysis from the three chosen countries showed that, unlike Lebanon, in the three developed countries: education is compulsory up to at least the age of 16; aims and objectives are stated clearly and carefully; science is an integrated subject in the first year of secondary level, then it becomes separated into chemistry, physics and biology. The content of science subjects emphasizes the method and process of science and its application to the society. Examinations are designed to evaluate students' learning in science in contrast to Lebanon where examinations are designed to discriminate among students.

  2. Toward a cultural studies-based pedagogy for the rhetoric of science (United States)

    Zerbe, Michael James

    The purpose of this study is to propose, justify, and theorize a cultural studies-based pedagogy for the rhetoric of science that would be useful in composition and writing across the curriculum courses. In contemporary western society, which ascribes truth to knowledge gained by science, scientific discourse reigns as the most privileged rhetoric and is often not questioned. The development of a cultural studies-based pedagogy would potentially allow students to gain a critical perspective of this type of discourse---that is, to learn to recognize the inherent rhetorical characteristics of producing and analyzing it---so that they can make more well-informed decisions about the numerous scientific and technological issues that face them and so that they can learn to recognize that their writing can help to construct science. To theorize this pedagogy, work from postmodern theorists on disciplinarity and power (Foucault), language (Lyotard), and education (Usher and Edwards) is combined with Althusser's notion of an ideological state apparatus to demonstrate how science operates as a powerful cultural institution that inscribes subjects. The roots of contemporary scientific discourse in the Renaissance are then explored to demonstrate that scientific rhetoric, as with any other form of rhetoric---arose from specific historical circumstances and self-interest. To connect these explorations of science/scientific discourse with the mission of composition, various conceptions of literacy as perceived by humanities scholars and scientific literacy as perceived by scientists and science educators are discussed. The contrast demonstrates that scientific literacy is often thought of in uncritical terms. Cultural studies is then introduced as a means of establishing a pedagogy for achieving a more complex scientific literacy. A case-based pedagogy that results from this theorizing is introduced.

  3. There’s More to Science than Research: A Team-Based Role Game to Develop School Students’ Understanding of Science Careers in Pharmaceutical Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Collins


    Full Text Available School students lack information about STEM based careers, a subject that is not sufficiently embedded in the national science curriculum. As a result, students feel they receive insufficient advice to support their choice of subjects at GCSE level and beyond. Students struggle to envisage potential career pathways leading on from studying science at school, and especially for younger students it is difficult to convey typical science-based career pictures in a way that is easily accessible to them. To address this need, we developed an interactive team-based activity which uses role play to help students envisage typical work processes within a science-based career—microbial quality control in a pharmaceutical industrial environment. This activity addresses children’s curiosity about science-based careers, by enabling them to experience typical every day work processes in an industrial environment in a hands-on fashion. Additionally, the activity helps to convey abstract concepts, such as the abundance of microbes in the natural environment, microbial contamination and the importance of hygiene, which link to the science curriculum.

  4. Design-based science and the transfer of science knowledge and real-world problem-solving skills (United States)

    Fortus, David Leon

    Design-Based Science (DBS) helps students develop new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills in the context of designing artifacts. This pedagogy was developed as a response to the potential problem of transfer of knowledge from academic settings to extra classroom environments. This dissertation describes DBS in detail and attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to transfer newly constructed science knowledge and 'designerly' skills (Baynes, 1994) to the solution of new real-world design problems in an extra-classroom setting? (2) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to construct new scientific knowledge? (3) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to develop 'designerly' problem-solving skills? Ninety-two students attending a public high school serving a working class community participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units over one school year. The analysis of pre- and posttests and of artifacts created by the students demonstrated that substantial knowledge was constructed during each of the enactments, with the tests leading to effect sizes of 2.1 on the first unit, 1.9 on the second, and 2.7 on the third. After each enactment the students solved a new design problem as a transfer task. The transfer tasks were unsequestered, unsupported by the teacher, lasted three days, were done in the school's library, required new learning, and were solved in groups of four. In order to generate an individual measure of transfer, the students responded to an individual post-transfer written test after each transfer task was completed, that assessed their understanding and recollection of the solution their group submitted. For all three units there was a stronger correlation between the individual transfer scores and posttests scores than with pretest scores, indicating that the knowledge and skills that were constructed during the enactments supported the solution of the transfer tasks

  5. Snow snakes and science agency: Empowering American Indian students through a culturally-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum (United States)

    Miller, Brant Gregory

    Mainstream curricula have struggled to provide American Indian students with meaningful learning experiences. This research project studied a novel approach to engaging students with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content through a culturally-based context. The traditional American Indian game of Snow Snakes (shushumeg in Ojibwe) presented a highly engaging context for delivering STEM content. Through the engaging context of snow snakes, the designed STEM curriculum explicitly applied mathematics (scaling and data), and science (force and motion) to an engineering prototype iteration that used available materials and tools (technology) for success. It was hypothesized that by engaging students through the carefully integrated STEM curriculum, driven by the culturally based context of snow snakes, students would exhibit an increase in science agency and achievement. The overarching research question explored for this study was: How does a culturally-based and integrated STEM curriculum impact student's science agency? Associated sub-questions were: (1) What does science agency look like for 6th grade students? (2) What key experiences are involved in the development of science agency through a culturally-based STEM curriculum context? And (3) What are the impacts on the community associated with the implementation of a culturally-based STEM curriculum? A case study research design was implemented for this research. Yin (2003) defines a case study as investigating a phenomenon (e.g. science agency) which occurs within authentic contexts (e.g. snow snakes, Adventure Learning, and Eagle Soaring School) especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are unclear. For this case study Eagle Soaring School acted as the bounded case with students from the 6th grade class representing the embedded units. Science agency was the theoretical framework for data analysis. Major findings were categorized as science and STEM learning, agency

  6. Mitigating effects of vaccination on influenza outbreaks given constraints in stockpile size and daily administration capacity (United States)


    nations with a wide variety of financial and medical resources. Finally, the model can be used by government and medical officials to create customized pandemic preparedness plans based on the supply and administration constraints of specific communities. PMID:21806800

  7. Update Direct-Strike Lightning Environment for Stockpile-to-Target Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uman, M A; Rakov, V A; Elisme, J O; Jordan, D M; Biagi, C J; Hill, J D


    The University of Florida has surveyed all relevant publications reporting lightning characteristics and presents here an up-to-date version of the direct-strike lightning environment specifications for nuclear weapons published in 1989 by R. J. Fisher and M. A. Uman. Further, we present functional expressions for current vs. time, current derivative vs. time, second current derivative vs. time, charge transfer vs. time, and action integral (specific energy) vs. time for first return strokes, for subsequent return strokes, and for continuing currents; and we give sets of constants for these expressions so that they yield approximately the median and extreme negative lightning parameters presented in this report. Expressions for the median negative lightning waveforms are plotted. Finally, we provide information on direct-strike lightning damage to metals such as stainless steel, which could be used as components of storage containers for nuclear waste materials; and we describe UF's new experimental research program to add to the sparse data base on the properties of positive lightning. Our literature survey, referred to above, is included in four Appendices. The following four sections (II, III, IV, and V) of this final report deal with related aspects of the research: Section II. Recommended Direct-Strike Median and Extreme Parameters; Section III. Time-Domain Waveforms for First Strokes, Subsequent Strokes, and Continuing Currents; Section IV. Damage to Metal Surfaces by Lightning Currents; and Section V. Measurement of the Characteristics of Positive Lightning. Results of the literature search used to derive the material in Section II and Section IV are found in the Appendices: Appendix 1. Return Stroke Current, Appendix 2. Continuing Current, Appendix 3. Positive Lightning, and Appendix 4. Lightning Damage to Metal Surfaces.

  8. Evaluating design-based formative assessment practices in outdoor science teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matthew Peter; Bentsen, Peter


    of the design, based on video-elicited focus group interviews with two groups of experienced science teachers. Both groups consisted of teachers who taught science outside the classroom on a regular basis. These groups watched identical video sequences which were recorded during lessons in which teachers...... applied the formative assessment design. These sequences focused on formative assessment in pairs, in small groups, or in whole class sessions. Afterwards, the teachers discussed each sequence. These discussions were audio recorded and later transcribed. The transcriptions were analysed using content...

  9. The extent of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities in social science textbooks. (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M; Serino, Patricia J


    Previous research has established that child welfare workers lack important information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors leading to death. Further, training has not been associated with improvements in knowledge. The authors assessed the presence of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors for death in 24 social science textbooks about child abuse and neglect or child welfare. The results indicate that basic information, such as definitions and incidence rates of child maltreatment fatalities are routinely included in social science textbooks, but information about child, parent, and household risk factors are not, and that inaccurate information is often included. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. A Program Based on Task-Based Teaching Approach to Develop Creative Thinking Teaching Skills for Female Science Teachers in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal Hassan Mohammed Bin


    This study aimed at developing creative thinking teaching skills for female science teachers in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) through designing a program based on task-based teaching approach. The problem of the study was specified as the weakness of creative thinking teaching skills for science teachers in KSA and the need for programs based on…

  11. Enhancing Teacher Preparation and Improving Faculty Teaching Skills: Lessons Learned from Implementing ``Science That Matters'' a Standards Based Interdisciplinary Science Course Sequence (United States)

    Potter, Robert; Meisels, Gerry


    In a highly collaborative process we developed an introductory science course sequence to improve science literacy especially among future elementary and middle school education majors. The materials and course features were designed using the results of research on teaching and learning to provide a rigorous, relevant and engaging, standard based science experience. More than ten years of combined planning, development, implementation and assessment of this college science course sequence for nonmajors/future teachers has provided significant insights and success in achieving our goal. This paper describes the history and iterative nature of our ongoing improvements, changes in faculty instructional practice, strategies used to overcome student resistance, significant student learning outcomes, support structures for faculty, and the essential and informative role of assessment in improving the outcomes. Our experience with diverse institutions, students and faculty provides the basis for the lessons we have learned and should be of help to others involved in advancing science education.

  12. Scientific Playworlds: a Model of Teaching Science in Play-Based Settings (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn


    Eminent scientists, like Einstein, worked with theoretical contradiction, thought experiments, mental models and visualisation—all characteristics of children's play. Supporting children's play is a strength of early childhood teachers. Promising research shows a link between imagination in science and imagination in play. A case study of 3 preschool teachers and 26 children (3.6-5.9 years; mean age of 4.6 years) over 6 weeks was undertaken, generating 59.6 h of digital observations and 788 photographs of play practices. The research sought to understand (1) how imaginative play promotes scientific learning and (2) examined how teachers engaged children in scientific play. Although play pedagogy is a strength of early childhood teachers, it was found that transforming imaginary situations into scientific narratives requires different pedagogical characteristics. The study found that the building of collective scientific narratives alongside of discourses of wondering were key determinants of science learning in play-based settings. Specifically, the pedagogical principles of using a cultural device that mirrors the science experiences, creating imaginary scientific situations, collectively building scientific problem situations, and imagining the relations between observable contexts and non-observable concepts, changed everyday practices into a scientific narrative and engagement. It is argued that these unique pedagogical characteristics promote scientific narratives in play-based settings. An approach, named as Scientific Playworlds, is presented as a possible model for teaching science in play-based settings.

  13. Effects of people knowledge on science learning in a computer-based learning environment (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao

    A weakness inherent in science education has been, and continues to be, its emphasis principally on the teaching of scientific knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the object (or the observed). Little attention has been directed to the teaching of people knowledge about scientists, i.e. knowledge of the subject (or the observer), who generates scientific knowledge. This study explored the possible effects of people knowledge on science learning. Participants in the study were 323 tenth graders from nine classes in a public school in Taipei, Taiwan. They were randomly assigned to three groups to self-study science in a computer-based learning environment. The control group was instructed to study various scientific laws discovered by three scientists in three science lessons. The other two groups were instructed to study the same science lessons after studying one of two kinds of people knowledge about the three scientists: achievement-oriented people knowledge (APK) and process-oriented people knowledge (PPK). APK profiles scientists' scientific achievements, and PPK describes scientists' struggles before making the scientific discoveries. The main findings were: Firstly, it was found from problem-solving tests that all three groups performed equally well in applying what they learned from the lessons to solve textbook problems. However, in applying what they learned to interpret the relationships between scientific laws, only the PPK group performed better. Secondly, regarding learning interest, among the students who showed high personal interest in science, the APK group tended to consider the lessons as less interesting than the control group. Among the students who demonstrated low personal interest in science, the PPK group tended to consider the science lessons as more interesting than the control group. Thirdly, in describing their image of the three scientists, the APK group tended to emphasize the abilities and successes of the scientists, whereas the PPK group

  14. Administral : une base de données de science administrative


    Jacques Chevallier


    I. ADMINISTRAL est le produit d’une longue histoire La création au début des années soixante-dix, à l’initiative du professeur Roland Drago et sous l’égide du Centre d’études et de recherches de science administrative (CERSA) qu’il dirigeait au sein de l’Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2), d’une base de données bibliographiques de science administrative francophone intitulée « Bibliographie internationale de science administrative » est indissociable de l’essor spectaculaire qu’a connu à par...

  15. Technical Note: A low cost unmanned aerial vehicle for ship based science missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Waugh


    Full Text Available A low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is compared with those already available and the motivation for its development is established. It is targeted at ship-based science missions and potential applications are described including a specific science case to measure white capping in the deep ocean. The current vehicle includes a range of more than 1000 Km, carrying a payload of 2 Kg and it can be launched and recovered from a coastal research vessel. The vehicle has flown successfully in Force 4 gusting Force 6–7 wind conditions, an important requirement for operation at sea. Data analysis is performed on images captured by the vehicle to provide a measurement of wave period and white capping fraction. The next stage of the project is to develop a suitable payload and perform a demonstration science mission.

  16. Communicative interaction in natural sciences lessons. A didactic analysis based on discursive circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Longhi, A.L.;


    Full Text Available This work argues the role of communication in natural sciences classrooms and delimits a way of analysis in relation to interactive discursive circuits. Three types of circuits for experimental sciences lessons are compared: open exposition, guided dialog and problematic dialogic inquiry. The data summary the records of a group of interpretative research developed by the team in the last years ten years, which analyses the dialogue associated with science topics and cycles of activity. The resulting scale of analysis and types of intervention sequences held by teachers and students are presented. Based on them, communication circuits are modeled ranging from the traditional classroom to a constructivist one. It is concluded in relation to the need of including the problem of communication in the classroom throughout the educational practice and the processes of teacher training, making it part of the design, development and evaluation of the teaching task.

  17. Improving Science Process Skills for Primary School Students Through 5E Instructional Model-Based Learning (United States)

    Choirunnisa, N. L.; Prabowo, P.; Suryanti, S.


    The main objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness of 5E instructional model-based learning to improve primary school students’ science process skills. The science process skills is important for students as it is the foundation for enhancing the mastery of concepts and thinking skills needed in the 21st century. The design of this study was experimental involving one group pre-test and post-test design. The result of this study shows that (1) the implementation of learning in both of classes, IVA and IVB, show that the percentage of learning implementation increased which indicates a better quality of learning and (2) the percentage of students’ science process skills test results on the aspects of observing, formulating hypotheses, determining variable, interpreting data and communicating increased as well.

  18. Science teachers' meaning-making when involved in a school-based professional development project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund


    A group of teachers’ meaning-making when they are collaboratively analyzing artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development (PD) project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The interpretation of the teachers......’ meaningmaking includes both their reference to outcomes from the project and their expressed ideas about teaching and learning of science. All four teachers refer to experiences from experimenting in their classrooms and interpret the collected artifacts in relation to students’ learning. Furthermore, they all...... felt encouraged to continue collaboration around science. During the interviews, the teachers emphasize various elements apparently connected to concrete challenges they each experience in their professional work. Implications in relation to the design of PD are discussed....

  19. Science teachers' meaning-making when involved in a school-based professional development project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund


    A group of teachers' meaning-making when they are collaboratively analyzing artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development (PD) project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-makig maps. The interpretation of the teachers......' meaning-making includes both their reference to outcomes from the project and their expressed ideas about teaching and learning of science. All four teachers refer to experiences from experimenting in their classrooms and interpret the collected artifacts in relation to students' learning. Furthermore......, they all felt encouraged to continue collaboration around science. During the interviews, the teachers emphasize various elements apparently connected to concrete challenges they each experience in their professional work. Implications in relation to the design of PD are discussed....

  20. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education. (United States)

    Bottom, William P


    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.