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Sample records for science analysis osa

  1. Security Analysis of Parlay/OSA Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.; Villain, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication protocol which is part of the Parlay/OSA Application Program Interfaces (APIs). Architectures based on Parlay/OSA APIs allow third party service providers to develop new services that can access,

  2. Security Analysis of Parlay/OSA Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.

    This paper analyzes the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication protocol which is part of the Parlay/OSA Application Program Interfaces (APIs). Architectures based on Parlay/OSA APIs allow third party service providers to develop new services that can access,

  3. Nasal vs Oronasal CPAP for OSA Treatment: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela G S; Viana, Fernanda M; Nascimento, Juliana A; Drager, Luciano F; Moffa, Adriano; Brunoni, André R; Genta, Pedro R; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2018-03-01

    Nasal CPAP is the "gold standard" treatment for OSA. However, oronasal masks are frequently used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomized and nonrandomized trials that compared nasal vs oronasal masks on CPAP level, residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and CPAP adherence to treat OSA. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies in any language with the following terms: "sleep apnea" and "CPAP" or "sleep apnea" and "oronasal mask" or "OSA" and "oronasal CPAP" or "oronasal mask" and "adherence." Studies on CPAP treatment for OSA were included, based on the following criteria: (1) original article; (2) randomized or nonrandomized trials; and (3) comparison between nasal and oronasal CPAP including pressure level, and/or residual AHI, and/or CPAP adherence. We identified five randomized and eight nonrandomized trials (4,563 patients) that reported CPAP level and/or residual AHI and/or CPAP adherence. Overall, the random-effects meta-analysis revealed that as compared with nasal, oronasal masks were associated with a significantly higher CPAP level (Hedges' g, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.37; P CPAP level, higher residual AHI, and poorer adherence than nasal masks. PROSPERO database; No.: CRD42017064584; URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Programs of the Office of the Science Advisor (OSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of the Science Advisor provides leadership in cross-Agency science and science policy. Program areas: Risk Assessment, Science and Technology Policy, Human Subjects Research, Environmental Measurement and Modeling, Scientific Integrity.

  5. Network science meets respiratory medicine for OSAS phenotyping and severity prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihaicuta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common clinical condition. The way that OSAS risk factors associate and converge is not a random process. As such, defining OSAS phenotypes fosters personalized patient management and population screening. In this paper, we present a network-based observational, retrospective study on a cohort of 1,371 consecutive OSAS patients and 611 non-OSAS control patients in order to explore the risk factor associations and their correlation with OSAS comorbidities. To this end, we construct the Apnea Patients Network (APN using patient compatibility relationships according to six objective parameters: age, gender, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, neck circumference (NC and the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS. By running targeted network clustering algorithms, we identify eight patient phenotypes and corroborate them with the co-morbidity types. Also, by employing machine learning on the uncovered phenotypes, we derive a classification tree and introduce a computational framework which render the Sleep Apnea Syndrome Score (SASScore; our OSAS score is implemented as an easy-to-use, web-based computer program which requires less than one minute for processing one individual. Our evaluation, performed on a distinct validation database with 231 consecutive patients, reveals that OSAS prediction with SASScore has a significant specificity improvement (an increase of 234% for only 8.2% sensitivity decrease in comparison with the state-of-the-art score STOP-BANG. The fact that SASScore has bigger specificity makes it appropriate for OSAS screening and risk prediction in big, general populations.

  6. Analysis of OSAS incidence and influential factors in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Niu, Xinqing; Zhang, Peipei; Su, Dexing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-24

    To investigate the detection rate and influencing factors of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension. A total of 440 patients with hypertension were selected as the research objects, all of them participated in the Berlin questionnaire survey, and the polysomnography (PSG) was performed on the patients with a high risk of OSAS. The detection rate of OSAS was analyzed, the clinical data between non-OSAS group and OSAS group were compared and stepwise linear regression and Logistic regression were used to analyze the related influencing factors to apnea hyponea index (AHI) and OSAS in hypertensive patients. A total of 235 patients completed PSG and 196 patients were diagnosed as OSAS with the detection rate of 83.40%. The detection rate of OSAS in male patients was higher than that in females (89.04% vs.74.16%, x²=8.025, P=0.006). The detection rates of OSAS in normal BMI group, overweight group and obesity group were 56.52%, 92.37% and 100%, respectively (x²=36.438, P<0.001). The detection rates of OSAS in normal waistline group and central obesity group were 74.42% and 88.59% (x²=7.539, P=0.016). The detection rates of OSAS in grade1, grade 2 and grade 3 hypertension groups were 57.47%, 98.23% and 100%, respectively (x²=44.623, P<0.001). BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and waist circumference of OSAS group were all higher than those in non-OSAS group (P<0.05). BMI, SBP and DBP were positively correlated with AHI (p<0.05), which were independent risk factors of OSAS [OR value (95%CI) = 2.548 (1.449-4.327), 1.342 (1.214-1.965) and 1.169 (1.025-1.622), respectively, P<0.05]. The incidence of OSAS in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension is high. High BMI, SBP, and DBP are independent risk factors of OSAS.

  7. A Formal Security Analysis of an OSA/Parlay Authentication Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an experience in analyzing the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication procedure within the OSA/Parlay Application Program Interfaces (APIs) of the Open Service Access and Parlay Group. The experience has been conducted jointly by research

  8. Epidemiological analysis of structural alterations of the nasal cavity associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhitarian Neto, Levon; Fava, Antonio Sérgio; Lopes, Hugo Canhete; Stamm, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that structural alterations of the nasal cavity, e.g. septal deviation and conchal hypertrophy have high incidence in patients with sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome and must be addressed with associated specific procedures of the syndrome. Clinical retrospective. A retrospective study of 200 patients was performed, with 196 male and 4 female, attended at the otorhinolaryngology ambulatory of Hospital Prof. Edmundo Vasconcelos and Unidade Paulista de Otorrinolaringologia, all of them subjected to polysomnography, otorhinolaryngological physical exam, endoscopy exam, and surgical treatment with nasal and pharyngeal procedures. All of them were subjected to pharyngeal procedure: uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or uvulopalatoplasty and nose procedure: 176 septoplasty with partial turbinectomy (88%) and 24 isolated turbinectomy, with satisfactory results. We can see that structural alterations of the nasal cavity have high incidence in patients with OSA.

  9. Análise da atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG Analysis of forest activity in Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Albino Fontes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG, a partir de questionário aplicado aos agricultores cujas propriedades rurais possuíam florestas plantadas. Foi amostrado um total de 63 propriedades rurais, abrangendo uma área de 2.096,95 ha. As áreas de floresta nativa e plantada, na amostra, foram de 372,00 e 260,17 ha, o que corresponde, respectivamente, a 17,74 e 12,41% da área amostrada. O tipo de floresta nativa predominante foi a capoeira (67,55%, e a espécie preferida para o reflorestamento foi o eucalipto (92,68%. O uso médio da mão-de-obra nas fases de implantação, manutenção e colheita dos plantios florestais foi estimado em 30,21, 13,64 e 61,25 dias-homem/ha, respectivamente, totalizando 105,10 dias-homem/ha, sendo a participação da mão-de-obra familiar de 25,24%. Os custos inerentes à atividade florestal foram estimados em R$419,30/ha para implantação; R$146,49/ha e R$80,34/ha para manutenção no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente; e R$2,11/m³ para colheita da madeira. Os plantios florestais concentram-se nas áreas de encostas, e o número médio de empregos gerados pelo reflorestamento (eucalipto foi 0,042 emprego/ha. Concluiu-se, de modo geral, que o reflorestamento é considerado atividade pouco atrativa, não identificando propriedades tipicamente florestais, sendo recomendada a elaboração de políticas públicas de incentivo ao reflorestamento.Forest activity was studied in Viçosa-MG, through a questionnaire applied to farmers who planted forests. A total of 63 farms were sampled, comprising an area of 2,096.95 ha. The natural and planted forest areas sampled were of 372.00 ha and 260.17 ha, corresponding to 17.74% and 12.41%, respectively. The predominant natural forest was the secondary forest (capoeira (67.55%, and the species chosen for reforestation was eucalypt (92.68%. Average labor use in the phases of implementation, maintenance and harvest of the forest plantations was

  10. Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds recorded with a smartphone according to obstruction site in OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Kwon, Soon Bok; Kim, Yang Jae; Moon, J I Seung; Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Snoring is a sign of increased upper airway resistance and is the most common symptom suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea. Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds is a non-invasive diagnostic technique and may provide a screening test that can determine the location of obstruction sites. We recorded snoring sounds according to obstruction level, measured by DISE, using a smartphone and focused on the analysis of formant frequencies. The study group comprised 32 male patients (mean age 42.9 years). The spectrogram pattern, intensity (dB), fundamental frequencies (F 0 ), and formant frequencies (F 1 , F 2 , and F 3 ) of the snoring sounds were analyzed for each subject. On spectrographic analysis, retropalatal level obstruction tended to produce sharp and regular peaks, while retrolingual level obstruction tended to show peaks with a gradual onset and decay. On formant frequency analysis, F 1 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 488.1 ± 125.8 vs. 634.7 ± 196.6 Hz) and F 2 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 1267.3 ± 306.6 vs. 1723.7 ± 550.0 Hz) of retrolingual level obstructions showed significantly higher values than retropalatal level obstruction (p smartphone can be effective for recording snoring sounds.

  11. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrançosa from different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil (VOO from the cv. “cobrançosa” integrated into a protected denomination of origin of “Azeite de Trás-os-Montes” in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc, (T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc and (T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006. Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts.

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el efecto de distintas estrategias de riego en la composición relativa de los compuestos volátiles y en la calidad sensorial. El experimento se realizó en el Noreste de Portugal, dentro de la denominación de origen protegida “Azeites de Tr

  12. CPAP increases bronchial reactivity in OSAS patients

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    P. Korczyski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP is a well known and safe method of treatment patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. The effects of CPAP administration on the upper respiratory tract are known. However its effects on the lower respiratory tract still needs to be determined. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity in patients treated by CPAP are contradictory. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a 3-week CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS and to evaluate associations between changes in bronchial reactivity and clinical features of OSAS and lung function tests (LFT. Patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and lack of infection or chronic illness of the respiratory tract or other conditions which could influence bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR were included. Investigations were performed in 101 patients. There were 88 males and 13 females, mean age 51.5±11.2 years and BMI 32.6±5.4 kg·m–2. Qualified patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 76 patients to CPAP treatment group, 25 control group. Both groups did not differ in anthropometrics features, severity of OSAS and LFT. Metacholine challenge test (MchCT was performed at baseline and repeated after 3 weeks. Analysis of the individual results showed that in 11 patients the MchCT was positive (6 in the CPAP and 5 in the control groups. After 3 weeks in the group of CPAP treated patients an increase of BHR was noted. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38±0.3 to 1.26±0.5 (p<0.05. The number of patients with a positive result in the MchCT increased from 6 to 16 patients. There was no significant change in BHR in the control group. It was found that CPAP treated patients with BHR were older, had less severe OSAS and lower FEV1 (p<0.05. In none of the patients positive result of BHR did no affect compliance to CPAP treatment. Conclusions: CPAP therapy increases bronchial reactivity, but does not affect compliance to treatment.

  13. Assessment of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S; Skinner, Timothy C; Starkstein, Sergio; Hillman, David; James, Alan; Hunter, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also physiological symptoms of OSA) produced lower severity scores in the OSA sample compared with the non-OSA sample. However, the degree of DIF for each of the subscales is not sufficient to cause concern when using the DASS-21; therefore, the total DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. Interestingly, the impact of symptom overlap in anxiety symptoms may be reducing anxiety scores because of DIF, which contrasts with the proposed effect of symptom overlap in depression, where it leads to the inflation of depression scores in OSA. This deserves greater consideration in relation to OSA and other clinical disorders or chronic illness conditions with different patterns of overlapping symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Cognitive MAC designs for OSA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents recent advances in the cognitive MAC designs for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) networks. It covers the basic MAC functionalities and MAC enhancements of IEEE 802.11. Later chapters discuss the existing MAC protocols for OSA and classify them based on characteristic features. The authors provide new research in adaptive carrier sensing-based MAC designs tailored for OSA, which optimize spectrum utilization and ensure a peaceful coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems. Analytically devised via optimization and game-theoretic approaches, these adaptive M

  15. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  16. Can you die from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, G

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest an independent association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular death. The purpose of our study is to examine doctors\\' awareness of this association and to determine whether this correlates with recording of OSAS on death certificates. We contacted the Central Statistics Office (CSO) and obtained relevant mention of OSAS on death certificates. We surveyed doctors on their view of OSAS-related deaths, CSO data from 2008-2011 reveal two deaths with OSAS documented as a direct cause and 52 deaths with OSAS as a contributory cause. Seventy-five doctors\\' surveyed (41%) believe OSAS can be a direct cause of death and 177 (96%) believe OSAS can be an indirect cause of death. Only 22 (12%) had putdown OSAS as a cause of death. OSAS is seldom recorded on death certificates. This is at odds with epidemiological forecasts and contrary to an opinion poll from a selection of doctors.

  17. Assessment of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2017-01-01

    compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning...... (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also...

  18. Mainstreaming Gender Analysis Into Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebinger, Londa

    This essay considers the question, Has feminism changed science? After three decades of active research, what new insights, questions, and priorities have feminists - men or women - brought to the sciences? The author provides examples of change from three areas: women's health research, primatology, and archaeology. The essay concludes with a discussion of mainstreaming gender analysis into science.

  19. Análisis de la calidad de varios cuerpos de agua superficiales en el GAM y la Península de Osa utilizando el Índice Holandés Quality analysis of various surface water bodies in the GAM and the osa peninsula using the Dutch Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-11-01

    ón positiva entre el ICA holandés y la densidad poblacional, y utiliza un nivel de probabilidad del 95%.Costa Rica is characterized by the amount of rivers, but most of them show high levels of contamination. Special interest is in those of the Gran Area Metropolitana (GAM since 70% of the population is located in this area. Even though there are many water quality indicators, it is advantageous the simplification by the use of water quality index. One of those already adopted in Costa Rica is the Holland Quality Index (Holland ICA.This is based on the use of three parameters: biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium nitrogen and the dissolve oxygen, expressed the last one as saturated oxygen percentage. This study focused in the analysis of the three parameters in 10 rivers located in the province of San José, Alajuela, Heredia, Car tago, as well as the Península of Osa. For the correlation of the Holland ICA with Population Density, there were sampled 3 places of the same river: one high up place close to the river birth, another in the middle, and the last one, close to the exit. It was found the rivers going through high density cities with populations over 8000 habitants per square kilometer (hab/km2, shows contamination corresponding to “severe” and “highly severe”. Places with population between 3000-8000 hab/km2, in general, shows contamination between “moderate” to “severe”. Places with less than 1000 hab/km2 are related to contamination levels of “lightly” to “none”. Those results vary depending of rivers flow rate, the total distance alongside the river, as well as the land use. The Univariate Regression Analysis showed positive correlation between Holland ICA and population density, with a 95% probability.

  20. online-osa festivalil / Tiia Johannson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannson, Tiia, 1965-2002

    1998-01-01

    Prantsusmaa, Balti ja Põhjamaade video ja uue meedia festival "offline@online" Eesti Kunstiakadeemias. Ka eesti netikunstist, festivali korralduslikust küljest, tulevikuplaanidest. Erilist äramärkimist leidis sloveenia kunstniku Vuk Cosici töö "ascii history of moving images", online-presentatsioonide osas Lev Manovichi teoreetiline loeng "Uue meedia keel". Aadress festivali netikunsti vaatamiseks

  1. Age, gender, neck circumference, and Epworth sleepiness scale do not predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: The challenge to predict OSA in advanced COPD.

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    Xavier Soler

    Full Text Available The combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that predictors of OSA among patients with COPD may be distinct from OSA in the general population. Therefore, we investigated associations between traditional OSA risk factors (e.g. age, and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale] in 44 patients with advanced COPD. As a second aim we proposed a pilot, simplified screening test for OSA in patients with COPD. In a prospective, observational study of patients enrolled in the UCSD Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program we collected baseline characteristics, cardiovascular events (e.g. atrial fibrillation, and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI]. For the pilot questionnaire, a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and the presence of cardiovascular disease were used to construct the pilot screening test. Male: 59%; OSA 66%. FEV1 (mean ± SD = 41.0±18.2% pred., FEV1/FVC = 41.5±12.7%]. Male gender, older age, and large neck circumference were not associated with OSA. Also, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the STOP-Bang questionnaire were not associated with OSA in univariate logistic regression. In contrast, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 3.94, p = 0.04 and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (OR = 5.06, p = 0.03 were significantly associated with OSA [area under curve (AUC = 0.74]. The pilot COPD-OSA test (OR = 5.28, p = 0.05 and STOP-Bang questionnaire (OR = 5.13, p = 0.03 were both associated with OSA in Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis. The COPD-OSA test had the best AUC (0.74, sensitivity (92%, and specificity (83%. A ten-fold cross-validation validated our results. We found that traditional OSA predictors (e.g. gender, Epworth score did not perform well in patients with more advanced COPD. Our pilot test may be an easy to implement instrument to screen for OSA. However, a larger validation study is necessary

  2. Age, gender, neck circumference, and Epworth sleepiness scale do not predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): The challenge to predict OSA in advanced COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Xavier; Liao, Shu-Yi; Marin, Jose Maria; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Jen, Rachel; DeYoung, Pamela; Owens, Robert L; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul

    2017-01-01

    The combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that predictors of OSA among patients with COPD may be distinct from OSA in the general population. Therefore, we investigated associations between traditional OSA risk factors (e.g. age), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale] in 44 patients with advanced COPD. As a second aim we proposed a pilot, simplified screening test for OSA in patients with COPD. In a prospective, observational study of patients enrolled in the UCSD Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program we collected baseline characteristics, cardiovascular events (e.g. atrial fibrillation), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. For the pilot questionnaire, a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and the presence of cardiovascular disease were used to construct the pilot screening test. Male: 59%; OSA 66%. FEV1 (mean ± SD) = 41.0±18.2% pred., FEV1/FVC = 41.5±12.7%]. Male gender, older age, and large neck circumference were not associated with OSA. Also, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the STOP-Bang questionnaire were not associated with OSA in univariate logistic regression. In contrast, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 3.94, p = 0.04) and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (OR = 5.06, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with OSA [area under curve (AUC) = 0.74]. The pilot COPD-OSA test (OR = 5.28, p = 0.05) and STOP-Bang questionnaire (OR = 5.13, p = 0.03) were both associated with OSA in Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. The COPD-OSA test had the best AUC (0.74), sensitivity (92%), and specificity (83%). A ten-fold cross-validation validated our results. We found that traditional OSA predictors (e.g. gender, Epworth score) did not perform well in patients with more advanced COPD. Our pilot test may be an easy to implement instrument to screen for OSA. However, a larger validation study is necessary before

  3. Increased MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients and under intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Pang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Lin, Yuling; Ko, Wen-Shan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be a risk factor of coronary artery disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as a critical factor for monocyte infiltration, is known to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSA, on the MCP-1 expression of monocytes. Peripheral blood was sampled from 61 adults enrolled for suspected OSA. RNA was prepared from the isolated monocytes for the analysis of MCP-1. The effect of in vitro intermittent hypoxia on the regulation and function of MCP-1 was investigated on THP-1 monocytic cells and human monocytes. The mRNA and secreted protein levels were investigated by RT/real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Monocytic MCP-1 gene expression was found to be increased significantly in severe OSA patients. In vitro intermittent hypoxia was demonstrated to increase the mRNA and protein expression levels of MCP-1 dose- and time-dependently in THP-1 monocytic cells. The MCP-1 mRNA expression in monocytes isolated from OSA patient was induced to a much higher level compared to that from normal control. Pre-treatment with inhibitor for p42/44 MAPK or p38 MAPK suppressed the activation of MCP-1 expression by intermittent hypoxia. This is the first study to demonstrate the increase of MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients. In addition, monocytic MCP-1 gene expression can be induced under intermittent hypoxia.

  4. Brain metabolic impairment of OSAS: evidence from MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jie; Long Miaomiao; Shen Wen; Qi Ji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on human cerebral metabolism by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Materials and methods: Twenty-one severe OSAS patients, 14 mild-moderate OSAS patients, and 15 healthy control subjects were included. All subjects underwent MRS using the point-resolved echo spin spectroscopy (PRESS). Proton volumes of interest were placed in the bilateral frontal lobes and left temporal -parietal-occipital cortex, and left hippocampus. Results: 1. Compared to the controls, the NAA/Cr ratio was significantly decreased in the left frontal lobe in the severe OSAS group (P=0.004), and in the right frontal lobe in the severe (P=0.002) and mild-moderate (P=0.007) OSAS patients. The NAA/Cr ratio trended to be decreased in the left hippocampus in the OSAS patients compared to controls. 2. A significant increase in the ml/Cr ratio was detected in the right frontal regions in the severe (P=0.008) and mild-moderate (P<0.001) OSAS groups. 3. Clx/Cr ratio values were significantly smaller than controls in the left (P=0.006) and right (P=0.027) frontal regions. Conclusion: Bilateral frontal lobes are the vulnerable location in patients with OSAS. MRS can be used to screen the brain metabolic impairment. (authors)

  5. Overlap syndrome of COPD and OSA in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Mee; Thomas, Robert J; Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Shin, Chol

    2017-07-01

    Overlap syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to increased morbidity and mortality. There have been no reports available on the overlap syndrome for Koreans. Our primary aim was to identify prevalence and predictors of the overlap syndrome in Koreans.This is a cross-sectional study with a community-based sample of 1298 participants (mean age, 59.7 ± 6.7) from the cohort of Korean Genomic and Epidemiologic Study during 2013 to 2014. OSA and COPD were assessed by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC syndrome. The prevalence of COPD remained the same as 10.8% regardless of the presence of OSA. The mean ratio of FEV1/FVC for those with COPD was 0.77, regardless of OSA. The OR increased for age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) and smokers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4), but decreased for body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9) and overweight state (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Risk factors of the overlap syndrome differed by OSA severity, that is, BMI in those with moderate-to-severe OSA, whereas sex (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.6) and age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) in those with mild OSA.In a population study from Korea, 10.8% of OSA patients had an overlap syndrome with COPD. Although BMI is a well-known risk factor of OSA, it is likely that being overweight may be protective for moderate-to-severe OSA patients from the risk of COPD (i.e., overlap syndrome).

  6. The USC-OSA Student Chapter: goals and benefits for the optics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Gargallo, Ana; González Núñez, Héctor; Delgado-García, Tamara; Almaguer-Gómez, Citlalli; Cambronero-López, F.; Flores-Arias, M. T.

    2014-07-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter has been constituted in March 2013 by members of the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) in Spain and sponsored by The Optical Society of America (OSA). It is formed by five graduate and one undergraduate students with the common interest in Optics and Photonics research and a professor of the USC is also involved as a faculty advisor. We decided to start this group with the aim of involving kids, precollege and undergraduate students in the world of Optics and Photonics. The activities that the USC-OSA Student Chapter members intend to realize are mainly educational tasks for the spreading of knowledge in Photonics by means of basic experiments, demonstrations and lectures by leading researchers and teachers. Most of the needed resources to accomplish these activities are provided by the OSA, such as educational posters and a portable kit for demonstrating Optics to students. At this moment the USC-OSA Student Chapter is carrying out several activities, as educational journeys at the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital Complex (CHUS), where hospitalized children can approach to Optics through some simple experiments and games. A teaching program is also being organized in collaboration with Galician secondary schools in order to show students the importance and uses of Optics and Photonics and to arouse their interest in this field, as well as encouraging them to develop their scientific thinking. Another activity will take place in November during the Science Week, which includes a program of lectures targeted to undergraduate students and an exposition of several demonstrations

  7. Particle size and cholesterol content of a mayonnaise formulated by OSA-modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ghazaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Egg yolk was partially replaced (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA-modified potato starch in a reduced-fat mayonnaise formulation to curtail the problems associated with high cholesterol and induced allergic reactions. The physicochemical properties included parameters such as: pH, fat content, and emulsion stability of the formulations analyzed. The samples with 75% and 100% egg yolk substitute showed the maximum emulsion stability (>95% after two of months storage, and they were selected according to cholesterol content, particle size distributions, dynamic rheological properties, microstructure, and sensory characteristic. A significant reduction (84-97% in the cholesterol content was observed in the selected samples. Particle size analysis showed that by increasing the amount of OSA starch, the oil droplets with the peak size of 70 µm engulfed by this compound became larger. The rheological tests elucidated that in the absence of egg yolk, OSA starch may not result in a final product with consistent texture and that the best ratio of the two emulsifiers (OSA starch/egg yolk to produce stable reduced-fat, low cholesterol mayonnaise is 75/25. The microscopic images confirmed the formation of a stable cohesive layer of starch surrounding the oil droplets emulsified in the samples selected.

  8. Kuninglikus õukonnateatris. I-IV osa / Jaanus Rohumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohumaa, Jaanus, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Jaanus Rohumaa Londonis Royal Court Theatre' poolt korraldatud residentuuris, mis on mõeldud tänapäeva näitekirjanikele ja lavastajatele. Muljeid kokkutulnud eri maade näitekirjanikest ja lavastajatest. Jaanus Rohumaa lavastab Londonis Royal Shakespeare Company teatris Jaan Tätte näidendit "Ristumine peateega"(II osa) Inglise näitekirjaniku Sarah Kane'i loomingust, Robert Lepage'i lavastusest "Imede geomeetria" (III osa)

  9. Digital Morphometrics: A New Upper Airway Phenotyping Paradigm in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Richard J; Leinwand, Sarah E; Bearn, Cary B; Maislin, Greg; Rao, Ramya Bhat; Nagaraja, Adithya; Wang, Stephen; Keenan, Brendan T

    2017-08-01

    OSA is associated with changes in pharyngeal anatomy. The goal of this study was to objectively and reproducibly quantify pharyngeal anatomy by using digital morphometrics based on a laser ruler and to assess differences between subjects with OSA and control subjects and associations with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use digital morphometrics to quantify intraoral risk factors for OSA. Digital photographs were obtained by using an intraoral laser ruler and digital camera in 318 control subjects (mean AHI, 4.2 events/hour) and 542 subjects with OSA (mean AHI, 39.2 events/hour). The digital morphometric paradigm was validated and reproducible over time and camera distances. A larger modified Mallampati score and having a nonvisible airway were associated with a higher AHI, both unadjusted (P digital morphometrics is an accurate, high-throughput, and noninvasive technique to identify anatomic OSA risk factors. Morphometrics may also provide a more reproducible and standardized measurement of the Mallampati score. Digital morphometrics represent an efficient and cost-effective method of examining intraoral crowding and tongue size when examining large populations, genetics, or screening for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How do we recognize the child with OSAS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen F; Larramona, Helena; Miano, Silvia; Van Waardenburg, Dick; Kaditis, Athanasios G; Vandenbussche, Nele; Ersu, Refika

    2017-02-01

    Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing includes a spectrum of clinical entities with variable severity ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The clinical suspicion for OSAS is most often raised by parental report of specific symptoms and/or abnormalities identified by the physical examination which predispose to upper airway obstruction (e.g., adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders). Symptoms and signs of OSAS are classified into those directly related to the intermittent pharyngeal airway obstruction (e.g., parental report of snoring, apneic events) and into morbidity resulting from the upper airway obstruction (e.g., increased daytime sleepiness, hyperactivity, poor school performance, inadequate somatic growth rate or enuresis). History of premature birth and a family history of OSAS as well as obesity and African American ethnicity are associated with increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing in childhood. Polysomnography is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of OSAS but may not be always feasible, especially in low-income countries or non-tertiary hospitals. Nocturnal oximetry and/or sleep questionnaires may be used to identify the child at high risk of OSAS when polysomnography is not an option. Endoscopy and MRI of the upper airway may help to identify the level(s) of upper airway obstruction and to evaluate the dynamic mechanics of the upper airway, especially in children with combined abnormalities. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:260-271. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Decision Analysis: Engineering Science or Clinical Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT TR 79-2-97 DECISION ANALYSIS: ENGINEERING SCIENCE OR CLINICAL ART ? by Dennis M. Buede Prepared for Defense Advanced Research...APPLICATIONS OF THE ENGINEER- ING SCIENCE AND CLINICAL ART EXTREMES 9 3.1 Applications of the Engineering Science Approach 9 3.1.1 Mexican electrical...DISCUSSION 29 4.1 Engineering Science versus Clinical Art : A Characterization of When Each is Most Attractive 30 4.2 The Implications of the Engineering

  12. The effect of CPAP treatment on EEG of OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Jun; Zhou, Junhong; Su, Li; Feng, Liping; Ma, Jing; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Jue

    2015-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the most effective treatment method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to compare the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) changes before and after the application of CPAP to OSAS patients. A retrospective study was conducted and 45 sequential patients who received both polysomnography (PSG) and CPAP titration were included. The raw data of sleep EEG were extracted and analyzed by engineers using two main factors: fractal dimension (FD) and the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD). FD was an effective indicator reflecting the EEG complexity and zDFD was useful to reflect the variability of the EEG complexity. The FD and zDFD indexes of sleep EEG of 45 OSAS patients before and after CPAP titration were analyzed. The age of 45 OSAS patients was 52.7 ± 5.6 years old and the patients include 12 females and 33 males. After CPAP treatment, FD of EEG in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreased significantly (P CPAP therapy (P CPAP therapy had a significant influence on sleep EEG in patients with OSAHS, which lead to a more stable EEG pattern. This may be one of the mechanisms that CPAP could improve sleep quality and brain function of OSAS patients.

  13. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome on Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffening, and Serum Inflammatory Markers: An Updated Meta-analysis and Metaregression of 18 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayang; Yu, Wenyuan; Gao, Mingxin; Zhang, Fan; Gu, Chengxiong; Yu, Yang; Wei, Yongxiang

    2015-11-13

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been indicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that OSAS may be associated with cardiovascular disease by elevating serum levels of inflammatory markers and causing arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. Related scientific reports published from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2015, were searched in the following electronic literature databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, ISI Web of Science, Directory of Open Access Journals, and the Cochrane Library. The association of OSAS with serum levels of inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial stiffening were investigated. Overall, 18 eligible articles containing 736 patients with OSAS and 424 healthy persons were included in this meta-analysis. Flow-mediated dilation in patients with moderate-severe OSAS was significantly lower than that in controls (standardized mean difference -1.02, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.73, Preactive protein and C-reactive protein (standardized mean difference 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.73, P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in controls. OSAS, particularly moderate-severe OSAS, appeared to reduce endothelial function, increase arterial stiffness, and cause chronic inflammation, leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Determinants of Unintentional Leaks During CPAP Treatment in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Marius; Arnol, Nathalie; Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Lambert, Loïc; Tamisier, Renaud; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Borel, Jean-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Unintentional leakage from the mouth or around the mask may lead to cessation of CPAP treatment; however, the causes of unintentional leaks are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify determining factors of unintentional leakage and (2) to determine the effect of the type of mask (nasal/oronasal) used on unintentional leakage. Seventy-four polysomnograms from patients with OSA syndrome treated with auto-CPAP were analyzed (23 women; 56 ± 13 years; BMI, 32.9 kg/m 2 (range, 29.0-38.0 kg/m 2 ). Polysomnographic recordings were obtained under auto-CPAP, and mandibular behavior was measured with a magnetic sensor. After sleep and respiratory scoring, polysomnographic signals were computed as mean values over nonoverlapping 10-s intervals. The presence/absence of unintentional leakage was dichotomized for each 10-s interval (yes/no). Univariate and multivariate conditional regression models estimated the risk of unintentional leaks during an interval "T" based on the explanatory variables from the previous interval "T-1." A sensitivity analysis for the type of mask was then conducted. The univariate analysis showed that mandibular lowering (mouth opening), a high level of CPAP, body position (other than supine), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased the risk of unintentional leaks and microarousal decreased it. In the multivariate analysis, the same variables remained independently associated with an increased risk of unintentional leakage. The sensitivity analysis showed that oronasal masks reduced the risk of unintentional leaks in cases of mouth opening and REM sleep. Mouth opening, CPAP level, sleep position, and REM sleep independently contribute to unintentional leakage. These results provide a strong rationale for the definition of phenotypes and the individual management of leaks during CPAP treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The USC-OSA-EPS section activities in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, María.; Cambronero-López, Ferran; Aragón, Ángel L.; Delgado, Tamara; Blanco, Manuel; Gómez Varela, Ana I.; Gargallo, Ana; Williamson, Sandra; Amorín, Adán.; Sánchez-García, Ángel; Bao-Varela, Carmen; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa

    2017-08-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter and USC-EPS Young Minds Section is a group financed by The Optical Society (OSA) and the European Physical Society (EPS). It is formed by PhD and degree students from the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC) and one supervisor of the Faculty of Physics. Its main goal is to promote and diffuse Optics in the society. For this purpose, the group carries out several activities in the academic and non-academic community. The group is also committed to the professional development of our members and motivates the exposition of our work into the scientific community.

  16. Autonomic and metabolic effects of OSA in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F M; Tran, W H; Lesser, D; Bhatia, R; Ortega, R; Mittelman, S D; Keens, T G; Davidson Ward, S L; Khoo, M C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of exposure to intermittent hypoxia on cardiovascular autonomic control and metabolic function in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Each subject underwent: (1) a polysomnography; (2) morning fasting blood samples and a subsequent FSIVGTT; (3) noninvasive measurement of respiration, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate during supine and standing postures. Assessment of adiposity was performed using a DEXA scan. From these measurements, we deduced the pertinent sleep parameters, Bergman minimal model parameters and the parameters characterizing a minimal model of cardiovascular variability. Results suggest that intermittent hypoxia in OSA contributes independently to insulin resistance and autonomic dysfunction in overweight children.

  17. Nuclear analysis techniques and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    31 theses are collected in this book. It introduced molecular activation analysis micro-PIXE and micro-probe analysis, x-ray fluorescence analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry. The applications about these nuclear analysis techniques are presented and reviewed for environmental sciences

  18. WBFSH aastakoosolek Varssavis. I-II osa / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2013-01-01

    Poolas 7.-9. oktoobrini Maailma Sporthobuste Kasvatajate Föderatsiooni peaassambleel toimunust ning loengutest ja aruteludest: Hobuste "genoomilisest aretusest", Jõudluskontrolli ja terviseandmete kasutamisest Rootsi aretuses, Hobuste lineaarse kirjeldamise meetodist, tõuraamatute tulevikust. Teises osas: Hobusekasvatuse seisust Poolas, Janow Podlaski hobusekasvatusest ja üldisest eluolust

  19. Omal jalal maailma : 1.-5.osa / Paul Salopek ; fotografeerinud John Stanmeyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salopek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Artikli 2. osa räägib autori rännakust läbi Saudi Araabias asuva Al-Hijāzi kõrbe, 3. osa rännakust piki Jordaania piiri ja Iisraelis, 4. osa rännakust Ida-Türgis ning kohtumistest Süüria sõjapõgenikega, 5. osa Armeeniast ja Türgist

  20. Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Or is it OSA and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    32–44. 66] A.K. Al-Shukaili, A.A. Al-Jabri, Rheumatoid arthritis , cytokines and hypoxia. What is the link? Saudi Med. J. 27 (2006) 1642–1649. 67...OSA. OSA appears to increase secretion of and/or lter responsiveness to the adipocyte hormone leptin and the rexigenic hormone ghrelin , and these...diabetes, dementia, arthritis , nd OSA itself [65–69]. Sequelae of obesity and OSA cross all organ systems. or example, chronic excessive

  1. Uus äriseadustik lihtsustab osaühingu asutamist ja juhtimist / Karina Paatsi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paatsi, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Osaühingut puudutavatest äriseadustiku muudatustest (sissemakseta osaühing, osa võõrandamise võimaluste laienemine, juhatuse liikme valimine tähtajatuks perioodiks, nõukogu nõude kaotamine, elukoha piirangu kaotamine, mitterahalise sissemakse hindamine, reservkapitali nõude kadumine)

  2. JEM-X science analysis software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Kretschmar, P.; Oxborrow, Carol Anne

    2003-01-01

    The science analysis of the data from JEM-X on INTEGRAL is performed through a number of levels including corrections, good time selection, imaging and source finding, spectrum and light-curve extraction. These levels consist of individual executables and the running of the complete analysis...

  3. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  4. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  5. Perspective of Dimensional Analysis in Medical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewski Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several applications of the dimensional analysis method to problems investigated in medical sciences. The method is used to analyze various complex processes without using formal laws governing the same. It is particularly suitable for a general analysis of fluid transfer (liquids and gases in the human body. This paper mainly serves as an overview of selected applications, mostly those emerging in the recent years, and includes a discussion of the mathematical fundamentals of dimensional analysis together followed by its critical analysis. Containing detailed calculations of two examples, the paper also serves as training material in the area of the computational method of the dimensional analysis algorithm.

  6. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Adiponectin in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Da Chen

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been suggested to be associated with low levels of adiponectin. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the gold standard treatment for OSA; however, previous studies assessing the effect of CPAP on adiponectin in patients with OSA yielded conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was performed to determine whether CPAP therapy could increase adiponectin levels.Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science before February 2015. Information on characteristics of subjects, study design and pre- and post-CPAP treatment of serum adiponectin was extracted for analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD was used to analyze the summary estimates for CPAP therapy.Eleven studies involving 240 patients were included in this meta-analysis, including ten observational studies and one randomized controlled study. The meta-analysis showed that there was no change of adiponectin levels before and after CPAP treatment in OSA patients (SMD = 0.059, 95% confidence interval (CI = -0.250 to 0.368, z = 0.37, p = 0.710. Subgroup analyses indicated that the results were not affected by age, baseline body mass index, severity of OSA, CPAP therapy duration, sample size and racial differences.This meta-analysis suggested that CPAP therapy has no impact on adiponectin in OSA patients, without significant changes in body weight. Further large-scale, well-designed long-term interventional investigations are needed to clarify this issue.

  7. Behavior analysis: the science of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoody, Parvene

    2012-09-01

    Behavior analysis is a data-driven science dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of behavior. Applied behavior analysis is a branch of this scientific field that systematically applies scientific principles to real-world problems in an effort to improve quality of life. The use of the behavioral technology provides a way to teach human and nonhuman animals more effectively and efficiently and offers those using this technology increased success in achieving behavioral goals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A

    2010-01-01

    The book provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of both SAS and Stata "side-by-side" and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set and course exercises in which students can choose their own research questions and data set.

  9. Social sciences via network analysis and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanduc, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years information and communication technologies have gained significant importance in the social sciences. Because there is such rapid growth of knowledge, methods and computer infrastructure, research can now seamlessly connect interdisciplinary fields such as business process management, data processing and mathematics. This study presents some of the latest results, practices and state-of-the-art approaches in network analysis, machine learning, data mining, data clustering and classifications in the contents of social sciences. It also covers various real-life examples such as t

  10. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  11. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  12. Specific insomnia symptoms and self-efficacy explain CPAP compliance in a sample of OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Altena, Elemarije; Morin, Charles M; Ghorayeb, Imad; Coste, Olivier; Monteyrol, Pierre-Jean; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the association between specific insomnia symptoms (sleep onset, sleep maintenance and early morning awakenings symptoms) and self-efficacy (perceived self-confidence in the ability to use CPAP) with CPAP compliance in French patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of CPAP compliance in a cohort of 404 patients diagnosed with OSAS. Patients completed mailed questionnaires on sleepiness (ESS), insomnia (ISI) and self-efficacy in sleep apnea (SEMSA). Linear regression modeling analyses were performed to explore the impact of measured variables on the number of hours of CPAP use. Of the initial pool of 404 patients, 288 returned the questionnaires (71% response rate). Their mean age was 63.16±12.73 yrs, 31% were females, mean BMI was 30.39±6.31 kg/m2, mean daily CPAP use was 6.19±2.03 h, mean number of years of use was 6.58±6.03 yrs, and mean initial AHI before CPAP use was 34.61±20.71 /h. Age (pCPAP use. We found that specific insomnia symptoms and self-efficacy were associated with CPAP compliance. Our findings underline the need to demonstrate that interventions that reduce insomnia symptoms and improve self-efficacy will increase CPAP compliance.

  13. Low morning serum cortisol levels in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and moderate-to-severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Varlami, Vasiliki; Chaidas, Konstantinos; Liakos, Nikolaos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophic tonsillar tissue in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has enhanced expression of glucocorticoid receptors, which may reflect low endogenous cortisol levels. We have evaluated the effect of the interaction between tonsillar hypertrophy and OSA severity on morning serum cortisol levels. Children with and without snoring underwent polysomnography, tonsillar size grading, and measurement of morning serum cortisol. Seventy children (2-13 years old) were recruited: 30 with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5 episodes/h), 26 with mild OSA (AHI > 1 and ≤ 5), and 14 controls (no snoring; AHI ≤ 1). Tonsillar hypertrophy was present in 56.7%, 53.8%, and 42.9% of participants in each group, respectively. Application of a general linear model demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between severity of OSA and tonsillar hypertrophy on cortisol levels (P = 0.04), after adjustment for obesity, gender, and age. Among children with tonsillar hypertrophy, subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 17; AHI 14.7 ± 10.6), mild OSA (n = 14; AHI 2.3 ± 1.2), and control participants (n = 6; AHI 0.7 ± 0.2) were significantly different regarding cortisol levels (P = 0.02). Subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA had lower cortisol (16.9 ± 8.7 mcg/dL) than those with mild OSA (23.3 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and those without OSA (controls) (23.6 ± 5.3 mcg/dL; P = 0.04). In contrast, children with normal-size tonsils and moderate-to-severe OSA, mild OSA, and controls did not differ in cortisol levels. Children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and the phenotype of hypertrophic tonsils have reduced morning serum cortisol levels and potentially decreased glucocorticoid inhibitory effects on tonsillar growth.

  14. RISA: Remote Interface for Science Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.; Ibarra, A.; de La Calle, I.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.; Tapiador, D.

    2008-08-01

    The Scientific Analysis System (SAS) is the package for interactive and pipeline data reduction of all XMM-Newton data. Freely distributed by ESA to run under many different operating systems, the SAS has been used by almost every one of the 1600 refereed scientific publications obtained so far from the mission. We are developing RISA, the Remote Interface for Science Analysis, which makes it possible to run SAS through fully configurable web service workflows, enabling observers to access and analyse data making use of all of the existing SAS functionalities, without any installation/download of software/data. The workflows run primarily but not exclusively on the ESAC Grid, which offers scalable processing resources, directly connected to the XMM-Newton Science Archive. A first project internal version of RISA was issued in May 2007, a public release is expected already within this year.

  15. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  16. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  17. SEA LEVEL RISE AND ITS POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON COASTAL URBAN AREA: A CASE OF ETI-OSA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Michael AGBOOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial extent of coastal urban development and its potential sensitivity to sea-level rise. The main aim of the study is to critically examine the extent of growth in Eti-Osa over time, and the potential impacts of sea leve rise. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imageries of years 2000 and 2015 were used to evaluate the different land use type identified. Post-classification change detection method was used to evaluate the output of the maximum likelihood supervised classification analysis done. This was also used to estimate the changes induces through urban development on the environment which accounts for the biodiversity loss. ASTER GDEM 2 imagery of 2011 was used to generate the elevation data used for the inundation analysis. Thus, both Land use map of Eti-Osa in 2015 and the down scaled Sea-level rise scenarios (at 0.5 to 15 meters were used for the inundation mapping. Results obtained from this research affirms that indeed EtiOsa has been subjected to gross urban expansion giving room for diverse forms of environmental degradation among which are huge replacement of natural land cover with built-up, reclamation of wetlands and sand filling of water bodies. This basically illustrates growth but also the risk that accompanies the advent of excessive alteration of natural ecosystem as Sea-level rise projections imply in this research.

  18. Overview of Infrastructure Science and Analysis for Homeland Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-21

    This presentation offers an analysis of infrastructure science with goals to provide third-party independent science based input into complex problems of national concern and to use scientific analysis to "turn down the noise" around complex problems.

  19. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  20. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate......, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect......) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; (2) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; (3) supporting transdisciplinary research; and (4) supporting education and outreach efforts....

  1. Radio-science performance analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.; Asmar, S. W.

    1995-02-01

    The Radio Science Systems Group (RSSG) provides various support functions for several flight project radio-science teams. Among these support functions are uplink and sequence planning, real-time operations monitoring and support, data validation, archiving and distribution functions, and data processing and analysis. This article describes the support functions that encompass radio-science data performance analysis. The primary tool used by the RSSG to fulfill this support function is the STBLTY program set. STBLTY is used to reconstruct observable frequencies and calculate model frequencies, frequency residuals, frequency stability in terms of Allan deviation, reconstructed phase, frequency and phase power spectral density, and frequency drift rates. In the case of one-way data, using an ultrastable oscillator (USO) as a frequency reference, the program set computes the spacecraft transmitted frequency and maintains a database containing the in-flight history of the USO measurements. The program set also produces graphical displays. Some examples and discussions on operating the program set on Galileo and Ulysses data will be presented.

  2. Evaluation of degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Methods: A total of 198 patients with OSAS were retrospectively studied from case information and test results, and were divided into mild group 84 cases, medium group 70 cases and severe group 44 cases according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, and 176 cases of non-OSAS people who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. Differences in the values of serum lacunar infarction-related indexes, blood viscosity and hemocyte-related indexes, carotid structure and function parameters, serum arteriosclerosis-related indexes and so on were compared among groups. Results: t-PA value of healthy control group was higher than those of OSAS group while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, t-PA value decreased while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values increased (P<0.05; blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values increased (P<0.05; FMD, NID and DC values of healthy control group were higher than those of OSAS group while Dis, CC and PWV values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, FMD, NID and DC values decreased while Dis, CC and PWV values increased (P<0.05; blood uric acid and EF-1 values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group while CGRP and fetuin A levels were higher than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the aggravation of OSAS, blood uric acid and EF-1 levels increased while CGRP and fetuin A levels decreased, and differences among groups were significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: With the aggravation of OSAS, patients’ microcirculation

  3. The Nature of Science in Science Curricula: Methods and Concepts of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically…

  4. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of Stata and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set. A separate set of exercises allows students to select a data set to apply the concepts learned in each chapter to a research question of interest to them, all updated for this edition.

  5. Preparation And Physicochemical Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA) Modified Sago Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Farhana Zainal Abiddin; Anida Yusoff; Noorlaila Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Starch from sago (Metroxylon sagu) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) in order to regulate its shortcoming by adding amphiphilic properties. The objective of this work is to determine the physicochemical properties of native sago and OSA sago starches. The OSA sago starch was produced according to the optimum condition generated via response surface methodology (RSM) with 5.00 % OSA at pH 7.20 and a reaction time of 9.65 hours. The esterified sago starch gives a degree of substitution (DS) value of 0.012. The physicochemical properties of OSA sago starch was determined by measuring the amylose content, laser diffraction particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The amylose content for OSA sago starch was found to be reduced after esterification reaction. The particle size of OSA sago starch was found to increase significantly (p<0.05) compared to their native starches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that OSA starch developed slightly rough surface and their edges lost some definition. FT-IR spectroscopy shows that there was appearance of new absorption correspond to ester carbonyl group (1717 cm -1 ) and carboxylate RCOO- (1569 cm -1 ). This study showed that the physicochemical properties of modified starches were influenced not only by DS but also on the botanical origin of the starches. (author)

  6. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matos

    Full Text Available The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  7. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzari, Milad; White, Todd

    2017-01-01

    NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 5th, 2012, was the largest and heaviest Mars entry vehicle representing a significant advancement in planetary entry, descent and landing capability. Hypersonic flight performance data was collected using MSLs on-board sensors called Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI). This talk will give an overview of MSL entry and a description of MEDLI sensors. Observations from flight data will be examined followed by a discussion of analysis efforts to reconstruct surface heating from heatshields in-depth temperature measurements. Finally, a brief overview of MEDLI2 instrumentation, which will fly on NASAs Mars2020 mission, will be presented with a discussion on how lessons learned from MEDLI data affected the design of MEDLI2 instrumentation.

  8. History of Science Content Analysis of Chinese Science Textbooks from the Perspective of Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-01-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation,…

  9. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology ...

  10. CPAP Adherence is Associated With Attentional Improvements in a Group of Primarily Male Patients With Moderate to Severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Sean; Liu, Lin; Zamora, Tania; Hamilton, Joanne; Stepnowsky, Carl

    2017-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a widespread condition that adversely affects physical health and cognitive functioning. The prevailing treatment for OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but therapeutic benefits are dependent on consistent use. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between CPAP adherence and measures of sustained attention in patients with OSA. Our hypothesis was that the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) would be sensitive to attention-related improvements resulting from CPAP use. This study was a secondary analysis of a larger clinical trial. Treatment adherence was determined from CPAP use data. Validated sleep-related questionnaires and a sustained-attention and alertness test (PVT) were administered to participants at baseline and at the 6-month time point. Over a 6-month time period, the average CPAP adherence was 3.32 h/night (standard deviation [SD] = 2.53), average improvement in PVT minor lapses was -4.77 (SD = 13.2), and average improvement in PVT reaction time was -73.1 milliseconds (standard deviation = 211). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher CPAP adherence was significantly associated with a greater reduction in minor lapses in attention after 6 months of continuous treatment with CPAP therapy (β = -0.72, standard error = 0.34, P = .037). The results of this study showed that higher levels of CPAP adherence were associated with significant improvements in vigilance. Because the PVT is a performance-based measure that is not influenced by prior learning and is not subjective, it may be an important supplement to patient self-reported assessments. Name: Effect of Self-Management on Improving Sleep Apnea Outcomes, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00310310, Identifier: NCT00310310. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  11. Teadusseltside osa rahvuskultuuris ja Õpetatud Eesti Selts / Tiit Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Seltsid said alguse 17. sajandil ja levisid Baltimaadesse 19. sajandiks. Ettekanne Eesti Teaduste Akadeemiaga assotsieerunud teadusseltside ühiskonverentsil (21.05.2003. a.) "Teadusseltside osa Eesti rahvusliku identiteedi kujunemisel ja säilimisel"

  12. The utility of the elbow sign in the diagnosis of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham Samy Diab

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The elbow sign questionnaire is a simple and quick screening tool for OSA with good sensitivity and specificity in comparison to other questionnaires, further studies are needed in other populations to determine its reliability and predictive utility.

  13. Migrantide raha hoiab vee peal suurt osa endisest NL-ist / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Brüsselis tutvustatud Maailmapanga uuringust, mille kohaselt on suure osa endise NSVL-i vabariikide jaoks arvestatav sissetulekuallikas migrantide kojusaadetud raha. Lisa: Lääne-Euroopasse ja Venemaale

  14. Remote sensing of methane emissions by combining optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS and lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galtier Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the emission of gases is difficult to achieve in industrial sites and in environments presenting poor infrastructures. Hence, robust methodologies should be developed and coupled to Lidar technology to allow remote sensing of gas emission. OSAS is a new methodology to evaluate gas concentration emission from spectrally integrated differential absorption measurements. Proof of concept of OSAS-Lidar for CH4 emission monitoring is here presented.

  15. Remote sensing of methane emissions by combining optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS) and lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, Sandrine; Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Sivignon, Jean-François; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring the emission of gases is difficult to achieve in industrial sites and in environments presenting poor infrastructures. Hence, robust methodologies should be developed and coupled to Lidar technology to allow remote sensing of gas emission. OSAS is a new methodology to evaluate gas concentration emission from spectrally integrated differential absorption measurements. Proof of concept of OSAS-Lidar for CH4 emission monitoring is here presented.

  16. Asthma Control and Its Relationship with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodorescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Asthma in older individuals is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the older asthma phenotype and test its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Pulmonary and Asthma/Allergy clinics. Participants. 659 asthma subjects aged 18–59 years (younger and 154 aged 60–75 (older. Measurements. Sleep Apnea scale of Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ, asthma severity step (1–4, severe if step 3 or 4, established OSA diagnosis, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP use, and comorbidities. Results. Older versus younger had worse control, as assessed by asthma step, lung function, and inhaled corticosteroid use. Among older subjects, after controlling for known asthma aggravators, OSA diagnosis was the only factor robustly associated with severe asthma: on average, OSA was associated with nearly 7 times greater likelihood of severe asthma in an older individual (OR=6.67. This relationship was of greater magnitude than in younger subjects (OR=2.16. CPAP use attenuated the likelihood of severe asthma in older subjects by 91% (P=0.005, much more than in the younger asthmatics. Conclusion. Diagnosed OSA increases the risk for worse asthma control in older patients, while CPAP therapy may have greater impact on asthma outcomes. Unrecognized OSA may be a reason for poor asthma control, particularly among older patients.

  17. The Science of Transportation Analysis and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleibe, John

    2010-03-01

    Transportation Science focuses on methods developed to model and analyze the interaction between human behavior and transportation systems. From the human behavioral, or demand, perspective, we are interested in how person and households organize their activities across space and time, with travel viewed as an enabling activity. We have a particular interest in how to model the range of responses to public policy and transportation system changes, which leads to the consideration of both short- and long-term decision-making, interpersonal dependencies, and non-transportation-related opportunities and constraints, including household budgets, land use systems and economic systems. This has led to the development of complex structural econometric modeling systems as well as agent-based simulations. From the transportation systems, or supply, perspective we are interested in the level of service provide by transportation facilities, be it auto, transit or multi-modal systems. This has led to the development of network models and equilibrium concepts as well as hybrid simulation systems based on concepts borrowed from physics, such as fluid flow models, and cellular automata-type models. In this presentation, we review a representative sample of these methods and their use in transportation planning and public policy analysis.

  18. A sociological Analysis on the Modes of Science Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani Khorasgani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was sociological Analysis on the modes of science, survey of new Approaches in this context, description of available Approaches relevant to Application of Indigenous paradigm in prodvetion of knowledge and conclusion to attain imitated Approaches from Analysis and mentioned discussions for planning in space of science production in society of Iran. After Analysis of propound Approaches in sociology of science concreted that sociology of science three generation transitioned yet : classic sociology of science (OSS [ Theories of Merton ] , New sociology of science ( NSS [Theories of Thomas kuhn and others ] and Third generation sociology of science that consisted of non - Marxist composinal and processive Approaches for example: Actor - Network theory (ANT, Triple Helix Theory life eyeles, mode 2 and Mode 3. On the other hand , because science production is encompass process in social structures and social communications , allowance for Analysis of Recent Development in mode of science production , three paradigm Analysis and critiqued titles mode 1 , 2 , 3 production of knowledge . Also, Application of Indigenous paradigm studied in production of knowledge and introduced two groups: A - External Approaches B - Internal Approaches that each of two groups propounded Ideas relevant to Indigenous knowledge and Indigenization of knowledge. In the final section, mode an efforted to answered this question that what doctrines can be concluded from these discourse in order to improve the conditions in Iran.

  19. Effect of CPAP Therapy in Improving Daytime Sleepiness in Indian Patients with Moderate and Severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battan, Gulshan; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Atam, Virendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Gangwar, Anil; Roy, Ujjawal

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease and a major public health issue in India. Excessive daytime sleepiness is an almost ubiquitous symptom of OSA. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score is a validated objective score to measure the degree of daytime sleepiness. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy has been established as the gold standard treatment modality for OSA patients. A few Indian studies have reported the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in improving ESS scores after 1 st month of CPAP use. To observe both, short-term (one month) and long-term (three month) effects of CPAP therapy on ESS scores in moderate to severe OSA patients. The patients complaining of excessive day-time sleepiness, snoring and choking episodes during sleep, consecutively presenting to medicine OPD over a period of 2 years, were subjected to Polysomnography (PSG). Seventy-three patients with apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 were categorised as having moderate to severe forms of OSA (moderate OSA with AHI=15-30 and severe OSA with AHI >30), and were scheduled for an initial trial of CPAP therapy. Forty-seven patients reported good tolerance to CPAP therapy after a trial period of 2 weeks and comprised the final study group. ESS scores in these patients were recorded at the baseline, and after 1 st and 3 rd month of CPAP therapy, and statistically analysed for significance. Mean ESS score at the baseline among moderate and severe OSA patients were 13.67±2.29 and 16.56 ±1.87, respectively. ESS score in both these subgroups improved significantly to 11.63±3.79, p=0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106)} and 14.13 ±3.74, p CPAP therapy. Likewise, mean ESS scores among moderate and severe OSA patients improved significantly to 9.84 ±2.97, p = 0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106) and 12.29 ±3.97, p CPAP therapy. The result of the present study shows that CPAP therapy is significantly effective in improving ESS scores in Indian patients having moderate to severe OSA. Benefits

  20. Quality of Life in Youth With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) Treated With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary K; Elliott, Lindsey C; Avis, Kristin T; Schwebel, David C; Goodin, Burel R

    2017-05-30

    Improvement is sought for youth with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) who have poor quality of life (QoL), which resolves somewhat following treatment. One mitigating factor in improved QoL following treatment may be adherence to the CPAP protocol, which presents a barrier to most youth. This study explored relations between CPAP adherence and QoL in youth with OSAS. We recruited 42 youth-caregiver dyads in which youth between the ages of 8 and 16 years were diagnosed with OSAS and required CPAP use as part of their treatment plan. Following diagnosis of OSAS requiring treatment with CPAP therapy, caregivers completed baseline measures of OSAS-specific QoL. The OSAS-specific QoL domains assessed included sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional distress, daytime function, and caregiver concern. Families received routine CPAP care for three months, after which caregivers again completed measures of OSAS-specific QoL. Adherence data were collected from smartcards within the CPAP machine after three months of treatment. Fifteen youth were adherent to CPAP therapy and 10 were not adherent. CPAP-adherent youth demonstrated significant changes in two domains of OSAS-specific QoL when compared to nonadherent youth: decreased sleep disturbance and decreased caregiver concern. CPAP adherence appears to be associated with positive changes in OSAS-specific QoL domains. It will be important for future research and clinical work to examine strategies for improving CPAP adherence in youth with OSAS.

  1. Computer science: Data analysis meets quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Steven

    2017-10-01

    A technique that combines machine learning and quantum computing has been used to identify the particles known as Higgs bosons. The method could find applications in many areas of science. See Letter p.375

  2. The effect of allergic rhinitis on the degree of stress, fatigue and quality of life in OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Eon; Shin, Seung Youp; Lee, Kun Hee; Cho, Joong Saeng; Kim, Sung Wan

    2012-09-01

    Both allergic rhinitis (AR) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are known to increase stress and fatigue, but the result of their coexistence has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of stress and fatigue when AR is combined with OSA. One hundred and twelve patients diagnosed with OSA by polysomnography were enrolled. Among them, 37 patients were diagnosed with AR by a skin prick test and symptoms (OSA-AR group) and 75 patients were classified into the OSA group since they tested negative for allergies. We evaluated the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), stress score, fatigue score, ability to cope with stress, and rhinosinusitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) with questionnaires and statistically compared the scores of both groups. There were no significant differences in BMI and sleep parameters such as LSAT, AHI, and RERA between the two groups. However, the OSA-AR group showed a significantly higher ESS score compared to the OSA group (13.7 ± 4.7 vs. 9.3 ± 4.8). Fatigue scores were also significantly higher in the OSA-AR group than in the OSA group (39.8 ± 11.0 vs. 30.6 ± 5.4). The OSA-AR group had a significantly higher stress score (60.4 ± 18.6 vs. 51.2 ± 10.4). The ability to cope with stress was higher in the OSA group, although this difference was not statistically significant. RQLQ scores were higher in the OSA-AR group (60.2 ± 16.7 compared to 25.1 ± 13.9). In conclusion, management of allergic rhinitis is very important in treating OSA patients in order to eliminate stress and fatigue and to minimize daytime sleepiness and quality of life.

  3. The Nature of Science and the "Next Generation Science Standards": Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are…

  4. Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets.

  5. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  6. Risk of Occupational Accidents in Workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Sanna, Antonio; Mancardi, Gian Luigi; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the single most important preventable medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and driving accidents. OSA may also adversely affect work performance through a decrease in productivity, and an increase in the injury rate. Nevertheless, no systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between OSA and work accidents has been performed thus far. Methods: PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched. Out of an initial list of 1,099 papers, 10 studies (12,553 participants) were eligible for our review, and 7 of them were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effects were measured by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). An assessment was made of the methodological quality of the studies. Moderator analysis and funnel plot analysis were used to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Results: Compared to controls, the odds of work accident was found to be nearly double in workers with OSA (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.53–3.10). Occupational driving was associated with a higher effect size. Conclusions: OSA is an underdiagnosed nonoccupational disease that has a strong adverse effect on work accidents. The nearly twofold increased odds of work accidents in subjects with OSA calls for workplace screening in selected safety-sensitive occupations. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1171. Citation: Garbarino S, Guglielmi O, Sanna A, Mancardi GL, Magnavita N. Risk of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea: systematic review and meta-analysis. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1211–1218. PMID:26951401

  7. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  9. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, N.; Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Shukla, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  10. Improving PTSD Symptoms and Preventing Progression of Subclinical PTSD to an Overt Disorder by Treating Comorbid OSA With CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M I; Campbell, Douglas G; Bhagat, Rajesh; Lyons, Judith A; Tamanna, Sadeka

    2017-10-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in United States veterans. These conditions often coexist and symptoms overlap. Previous studies reported improvement in PTSD symptoms with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for comorbid OSA but its effect has not been assessed in a non-PTSD cohort. We have prospectively assessed the effect of CPAP therapy on clinical symptom improvement as a function of CPAP compliance levels among PTSD and non-PTSD veterans. Veterans in whom OSA was newly diagnosed were enrolled in our study (n = 192). Assignment to PTSD and non-PTSD cohorts was determined by chart review. Each patient completed the military version of the PTSD Checklist (PCL), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and reported nightmare frequency (NMF) at baseline and 6 months after CPAP therapy. CPAP adherence was objectively documented from machine compliance data. We had complete data for 177 veterans (PTSD n = 59, non-PTSD n = 118) for analysis. The mean ages were 51.24 years in the PTSD cohort and 52.36 years in the non-PTSD cohort ( P = .30). In the PTSD cohort, the mean total PCL score (baseline = 66.06, post-CPAP = 61.27, P = .004, d = -0.34) and NMF (baseline = 4.61, post-CPAP = 1.49, P = .0001, d = -0.51) decreased after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Linear regression analysis showed that the CPAP compliance was the only significant predictor for these changes among veterans with PTSD (PCL score: P = .033, R 2 = .65; NMF; P = .03, R 2 = .61). Further analysis by CPAP compliance quartiles in this cohort (Q1 = 0% to 25%, Q2 = 26% to 50%, Q3 = 51% to 75%, Q4 > 75%) revealed that mean total PCL score declined in Q2 (change = -3.91, P = .045, d = 0.43), Q3 (change = -6.6, P = .002, d = 0.59), and Q4 (change = -7.94, P = .037, d = 0.49). In the non-PTSD cohort, the PCL score increased despite CPAP therapy in lower CPAP compliance quartiles Q1 (change = 8.71, P = .0001, d = 0.46) and Q2 (change = 4.51, P = .046, d = 0

  11. Converting a manned LCU into an unmanned surface vehicle (USV): an open systems architecture (OSA) case study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Montrell F.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis demonstrates the process by which the concepts of open systems architecture (OSA) might be applied within the context of an existing systems engineering methodology to result in a flexible system. This is accomplished by combining an existing systems engineering process model with OSA management and business principles to execute a successful asset-repurposing program. To demonstrate utility of this OSA approach to systems ...

  12. Decision analysis. Clinical art or Clinical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    having helped some clients. Over the past half century, psychotherapy has faced a series of crises concerned with its transformation from an art to a...clinical science . These include validation of the effectiveness of various forms of therapy, validating elements of treatment programs and

  13. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    curriculum and the new Life Sciences textbooks that are in accord with the National Curriculum Statement. The analysis .... lems and generate new ideas for improvement. (Castells, 2005). ... Accordingly, the following research questions were.

  14. OSA screening with the pediatric sleep questionnaire for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery in teen-LABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Stacey; Heubi, Christine; Jenkins, Todd; Michalsky, Marc; Simakajornboon, Narong; Inge, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is reported in 70% of adolescents who present for bariatric surgery. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to identify children at risk for OSA but is not validated in adolescents with obesity. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess validity of the PSQ to detect OSA and (2) to determine the correlation between anthropometric and polysomnography measurements. A cross-sectional assessment of Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery participants at high risk for OSA was performed. Participants completed an overnight polysomnography, and caregivers completed the PSQ. Forty-five participants (84% female, 78% Caucasian, mean age = 16.7 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated. Mean BMI was 51.3 ± 7.7 kg/m 2 and mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) was 6.1 ± 5.9 events/h. For diagnosis of OSA (oAHI ≥5), the total PSQ score sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were 86%, 38%, and 55%, respectively. For snoring >50% of the time, PPV was 84%, sensitivity was 64%, and specificity was 43%. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.027), whereas BMI, neck, and waist circumference correlated with neither. The PSQ demonstrated low specificity, and PPV and the question regarding snoring >50% of the time did not effectively identify OSA. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a complication of acute infectious mononucleosis infection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Independently, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and infectious mononucleosis are not uncommon in the pediatric population, but acute onset of OSA, as a respiratory complication in the setting of acute EBV infection is extremely uncommon. Previous reports of this clinical entity are sparse and from nearly two decades ago. Urgent adenotonsillectomy was commonly advocated. This complication may be managed medically with systemic corticosteroids and non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a case is presented to highlight an updated management approach to this rarely encountered clinical problem in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  17. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient......Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which...

  18. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  19. High school students presenting science: An interactional sociolinguistic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Robert

    Presenting science is an authentic activity of practicing scientists. Thus, effective communication of science is an important skill to nurture in high school students who are learning science. This study examines strategies employed by high school students as they make science presentations; it assesses students' conceptual understandings of particular science topics through their presentations and investigates gender differences. Data are derived from science presentation given by eight high school students, three females and five males who attended a summer science program. Data sources included videotaped presentations, ethnographic fieldnotes, interviews with presenters and members of the audience, and presenter notes and overheads. Presentations were transcribed and submitted to discourse analysis from an interactional sociolinguistic perspective. This article focuses on the methodology employed and how it helps inform the above research questions. The author argues that use of this methodology leads to findings that inform important social-communicative issues in the learning of science. Practical advice for teaching students to present science, implications for use of presentations to assess conceptual learning, and indications of some possible gender differences are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 February 1994;

  20. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  1. Navigating nuclear science: Enhancing analysis through visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, N.H.; Berkel, J. van; Johnson, D.K.; Wylie, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    Data visualization is an emerging technology with high potential for addressing the information overload problem. This project extends the data visualization work of the Navigating Science project by coupling it with more traditional information retrieval methods. A citation-derived landscape was augmented with documents using a text-based similarity measure to show viability of extension into datasets where citation lists do not exist. Landscapes, showing hills where clusters of similar documents occur, can be navigated, manipulated and queried in this environment. The capabilities of this tool provide users with an intuitive explore-by-navigation method not currently available in today`s retrieval systems.

  2. Critical analysis of science textbooks evaluating instructional effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The critical analysis of science textbooks is vital in improving teaching and learning at all levels in the subject, and this volume sets out a range of academic perspectives on how that analysis should be done. Each chapter focuses on an aspect of science textbook appraisal, with coverage of everything from theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, methodological issues, and conceptual frameworks for critical analysis, to practical techniques for evaluation. Contributions from many of the most distinguished scholars in the field give this collection its sure-footed contemporary relevance, reflecting the international standards of UNESCO as well as leading research organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (whose Project 2061 is an influential waypoint in developing protocols for textbook analysis). Thus the book shows how to gauge aspects of textbooks such as their treatment of controversial issues, graphical depictions, scientific historiography, vocabulary usage, acc...

  3. Review of compartmental analysis in ecosystem science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    The compartment model has a large number of applications in ecosystem science. An attempt is made to outline the problem areas and objectives for which this type of model has particular advantages. The areas identified are an adequate model of tracer movement through an undisturbed but non-equilibrium ecosystem; an adequate model of the movement of material in greater than tracer quantity through an ecosystem near steady state; a minimal model based on limited data; a tool for extrapolating past trends; a framework for the summarization of large data sets; and a theoretical tool for exploring and comparing limited aspects of ecosystem dynamics. The review is set in an historical perspective which helps explain why these models were adopted in ecology. References are also provided to literature which documents available mathematical techniques in an ecological context

  4. Application of automatic image analysis in wood science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1982-01-01

    In this paper I describe an image analysis system and illustrate with examples the application of automatic quantitative measurement to wood science. Automatic image analysis, a powerful and relatively new technology, uses optical, video, electronic, and computer components to rapidly derive information from images with minimal operator interaction. Such instruments...

  5. Remote sensing of methane with OSAS-lidar on the 2ν3 band Q-branch: Experimental proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, Sandrine; Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Sivignon, J. F.; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    Optical sensors based on absorption spectroscopy play a central role in the detection and monitoring of atmospheric trace gases. We here present for the first time the experimental demonstration of OSAS-Lidar on the remote sensing of CH4 in the atmosphere. This new methodology, the OSAS-Lidar, couples the Optical Similitude Absorption Spectroscopy (OSAS) methodology with a light detection and ranging device. It is based on the differential absorption of spectrally integrated signals following Beer Lambert-Bouguer law, which are range-resolved. Its novelty originates from the use of broadband laser spectroscopy and from the mathematical approach used to retrieve the trace gas concentration. We previously applied the OSAS methodology in laboratory on the 2ν3 methane absorption band, centered at the 1665 nm wavelength and demonstrated that the OSAS-methodology is almost independent from atmospheric temperature and pressure. In this paper, we achieve an OSAS-Lidar device capable of observing large concentrations of CH4 released from a methane source directly into the atmosphere. Comparison with a standard in-situ measurement device shows that the path-integrated concentrations retrieved from OSAS-Lidar methodology exhibit sufficient sensitivity (2 000 ppm m) and observational time resolution (1 s) to remotely sense methane leaks in the atmosphere. The coupling of OSAS-lidar with a wind measurement device opens the way to monitor time-resolved methane flux emissions, which is important in regards to future climate mitigation involving regional reduction of CH4 flux emissions.

  6. Lack of effect of sleep apnea on oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Simiakakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important factors that determine the oxidant-antioxidant status. METHODS: A total of 66 subjects referred to our Sleep laboratory were examined by full polysomnography. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were assessed by measurement of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs and the biological antioxidant capacity (BAP in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. Known risk factors for oxidative stress, such as age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypelipidemia, and hypertension, were investigated as possible confounding factors. RESULTS: 42 patients with OSAS (Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 events/hour were compared with 24 controls (AHI<5. The levels of d-ROMS were significantly higher (p = 0.005 in the control group but the levels of antioxidant capacity were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in OSAS patients. The most important factors predicting the variance of oxidative stress were obesity, smoking habit, and sex. Parameters of sleep apnea severity were not associated with oxidative stress. Minimal oxygen desaturation and smoking habit were the most important predicting factors of BAP levels. CONCLUSION: Obesity, smoking, and sex are the most important determinants of oxidative stress in OSAS subjects. Sleep apnea might enhance oxidative stress by the reduction of antioxidant capacity of blood due to nocturnal hypoxia.

  7. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gasparini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery and phase II (orthognathic surgery procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP and those who accepted phase II (IIP. To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation.

  8. Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux, asthma and symptoms of OSA: a longitudinal, general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilsson, Össur I; Bengtsson, Anna; Franklin, Karl A; Torén, Kjell; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Farkhooy, Amir; Weyler, Joost; Dom, Sandra; De Backer, Wilfried; Gislason, Thorarinn; Janson, Christer

    2013-06-01

    Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux (nGOR) is associated with asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Our aim was to investigate whether nGOR is a risk factor for onset of asthma and onset of respiratory and OSA symptoms in a prospective population-based study. We invited 2640 subjects from Iceland, Sweden and Belgium for two evaluations over a 9-year interval. They participated in structured interviews, answered questionnaires, and underwent spirometries and methacholine challenge testing. nGOR was defined by reported symptoms. Subjects with persistent nGOR (n=123) had an independent increased risk of new asthma at follow-up (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9). Persistent nGOR was independently related to onset of respiratory symptoms (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.6). The risk of developing symptoms of OSA was increased in subjects with new and persistent nGOR (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-1.6, and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7, respectively). No significant association was found between nGOR and lung function or bronchial responsiveness. Persistent symptoms of nGOR contribute to the development of asthma and respiratory symptoms. New onset of OSA symptoms is higher among subjects with symptoms of nGOR. These findings provide evidence that nGOR may play a role in the genesis of respiratory symptoms and diseases.

  9. Osa Pärnu poliitikuid saab ärimeestelt igakuist tasu / Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Teet, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Kuigi Pärnu uus linnavalitsus kärpis volikogu liikmete äriühingute nõukogudest makstavat tasu poole väiksemaks, saab osa poliitikuid endiselt lisasissetulekut, teiste seas linnakassast doteeritavalt Pärnu ATP-lt

  10. Driving simulator and neuropsychological [corrected] testing in OSAS before and under CPAP therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M; Duchna, H-W; Leidag, M; Widdig, W; Rasche, K; Bauer, T T; Walther, J W; de Zeeuw, J; Malin, J-P; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Kotterba, S

    2005-11-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) have an increased car accident rate. Investigations on accident frequency are based on case history, insurance reports and driving simulator studies. The present study combines neuropsychological testing of different attention aspects engaged in driving a car and driving simulation to evaluate a suitable instrument for assessing therapeutic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Driving simulator investigation and neuropsychological testing of alertness, vigilance and divided attention were performed in 31 patients with polysomnographically confirmed OSAS (apnoea-hypopnoea index 24.8+/-21.5.h(-1)) before, and 2 and 42 days after initiation of CPAP. Divided attention and alertness improved significantly during CPAP, whereas vigilance remained unchanged. However, accident frequency (OSAS before therapy: 2.7+/-2.0; 2 days after CPAP: 1.5+/-1.4; 42 days after CPAP: 0.9+/-1.3) and frequency of concentration faults (OSAS before therapy: 12.4+/-5.1; 2 days after CPAP: 6.5+/-3.9; 42 days after CPAP: 4.9+/-3.3) decreased in the simulated driving situation after 2 and 42 days of therapy. There was no relation between accident frequency, concentration faults and daytime sleepiness, as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and polysomnographic or neuropsychological findings, respectively. In conclusion, the present results suggest that driving simulation is a possible benchmark parameter of driving performance in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients.

  11. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jacob

    1988-01-01

    .... A chapter has been added for power analysis in set correlation and multivariate methods (Chapter 10). Set correlation is a realization of the multivariate general linear model, and incorporates the standard multivariate methods...

  12. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jacob

    1988-01-01

    ... offers a unifying framework and some new data-analytic possibilities. 2. A new chapter (Chapter 11) considers some general topics in power analysis in more integrted form than is possible in the earlier...

  13. Marcadores de estrés oxidativo en placentas de gestantes añosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un factor de riesgo alto ginecoobstétrico que contribuye a la morbimortalidad materna perinatal es la edad materna mayor de 35 años. Es posible que el estado oxidativo en la placenta de la gestante añosa sea mayor a la de la gestante no añosa. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado oxidativo de la placenta en gestantes mayores de 35 años. Diseño: Estudio observacional y transversal. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Docente Materno Infantil San Bartolomé y Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: 28 placentas de gestantes de 35 años o más y 28 placentas de gestantes de menos de 35 años, obtenidas de partos vaginales a término. Intervenciones: La muestra de placenta se homogenizó al 10% con buffer fosfato 10 mM, pH 7,4, se centrifugó a 2000 rpm por 5’. Parte del sobrenadante se usó para analizar lipoperoxidación y glutatión (GSH; el sobrenadante restante fue centrifugado a 42 000 rpm por 1 hora, para medir actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado oxidativo de placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas y no añosas. Resultados: La actividad de la SOD y el contenido de GSH placentarios en añosas fue 43,52 U/g de tejido y 4,67 µmol/mL x 10-²; para el grupo control fueron 54,13 U/g de tejido y 6,02 µmol/mL x 10-², respectivamente; en ambos hubo significancia estadística (p < 0,05. La medición de TBARS (lipoperoxidación no mostró diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: Las placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas muestran menor capacidad de defensa antioxidante frente a las placentas obtenidas de mujeres no añosas.

  14. Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroff, A

    1992-10-01

    A content analysis of research articles published between 1966 and 1990 in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association was undertaken. Four specific questions were addressed: What subjects are of interest to health sciences librarians? Who is conducting this research? How do health sciences librarians conduct their research? Do health sciences librarians obtain funding for their research activities? Bibliometric characteristics of the research articles are described and compared to characteristics of research in library and information science as a whole in terms of subject and methodology. General findings were that most research in health sciences librarianship is conducted by librarians affiliated with academic health sciences libraries (51.8%); most deals with an applied (45.7%) or a theoretical (29.2%) topic; survey (41.0%) or observational (20.7%) research methodologies are used; descriptive quantitative analytical techniques are used (83.5%); and over 25% of research is funded. The average number of authors was 1.85, average article length was 7.25 pages, and average number of citations per article was 9.23. These findings are consistent with those reported in the general library and information science literature for the most part, although specific differences do exist in methodological and analytical areas.

  15. Does CPAP treatment lead to gastroesophageal reflux in patients with moderate and severe OSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Hatice; Kayar, Yusuf; Danalioglu, Ahmet; Arabaci, Elif; Uysal, Omer; Yakar, Fatih; Kart, Levent

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to upper respiratory tract obstruction, causing increased abdominal-gastric pressure and decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and thus gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is known to be an effective method for OSA treatment, but its effect on GER is still controversial. There are a very few studies investigating CPAP and GER relationship and performed based on pre- and post-treatment objective parameters of GER in patients with OSA. The study investigated the effect of CPAP treatment in patients with moderate and severe OSA without GER complaints on pre- and post-treatment objective GER parameters. The study included 25 patients with respiratory disturbance indices >15 without reflux symptoms who had undergone polysomnography at sleep laboratory. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist, and neck circumference of the patients were documented. DeMeester score, LES pressure, and polysomnography parameters were evaluated pre- and post-CPAP. The results were statistically evaluated, and p value CPAP phase, mean sphincter pressure was 22.2 ± 1.2 (range 8-73), and mean DeMeester score was 18 ± 15.5 (range 0.2-57). At the post-CPAP, mean sphincter pressure was 22.9 ± 1.6 (range 9-95), and mean DeMeester score was 16.3 ± 14.8 (range 0.2-55). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found comparing pre-CPAP and post-CPAP measurements. Objective criteria show that CPAP treatment does not cause reflux in patients with OSA. Unlike studies reported in the literature, this conclusion has been reached by pre- and post-CPAP assessments.

  16. Influencing factors on CPAP adherence and anatomic characteristics of upper airway in OSA subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pona; Kim, Jinil; Song, Yoon Jae; Lim, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Woo; Won, Tae-Bin; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae Seo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-12-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective treatment modality, poor adherence still remains a problem for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment and there is little evidence regarding how this might be improved. This study aims to analyze the anatomic and clinical factors of OSA subjects who failed to comply with CPAP therapy.The medical records of 47 OSA subjects who received CPAP therapy as a first-line treatment modality were retrospectively reviewed. The medical records were reviewed for demographic and polysomnographic data and anatomic findings of the nasal cavity and oropharynx.24 patients who adhered to CPAP therapy and 23 patients who were nonadherent were enrolled in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in sleep parameters between CPAP-adherent patients and CPAP nonadherent subjects. Mean body mass index of CPAP nonadherent group was significantly higher than CPAP adherent group. Higher grades of septal deviation and hypertrophic change of the inferior turbinate were observed more in the CPAP nonadherent group. In addition, CPAP nonadherent subjects showed considerably bigger tonsils and higher grade palatal position comparing with the CPAP adherent subjects. Subjective discomfort including inconvenience, mouth dryness, and chest discomfort were the main problems for OSA subjects who did not comply with CPAP therapy.Excessive upper airway blockage in the nasal cavity and oropharynx was predominant in CPAP nonadherent subjects, which might cause the reported subjective discomfort that reduces CPAP compliance. Therefore, resolution of these issues is needed to enhance CPAP compliance for control of OSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of errors in forensic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of expert testimony is one of the foundations of judicial justice. Both expert bias and scientific errors affect the reliability of expert opinion, which in turn affects the trustworthiness of the findings of fact in legal proceedings. Expert bias can be eliminated by replacing experts; however, it may be more difficult to eliminate scientific errors. From the perspective of statistics, errors in operation of forensic science include systematic errors, random errors, and gross errors. In general, process repetition and abiding by the standard ISO/IEC:17025: 2005, general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, during operation are common measures used to reduce errors that originate from experts and equipment, respectively. For example, to reduce gross errors, the laboratory can ensure that a test is repeated several times by different experts. In applying for forensic principles and methods, the Federal Rules of Evidence 702 mandate that judges consider factors such as peer review, to ensure the reliability of the expert testimony. As the scientific principles and methods may not undergo professional review by specialists in a certain field, peer review serves as an exclusive standard. This study also examines two types of statistical errors. As false-positive errors involve a higher possibility of an unfair decision-making, they should receive more attention than false-negative errors.

  18. Ethnographic Discourse Analysis and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Macgilchrist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the perspectives of ethnography and discourse analysis, this paper first gives an overview of the emerging body of research bringing together the epistemologies and the methods of these two perspectives. It then presents a novel analytical framework for computer-assisted ethnographic discourse analysis. The paper outlines how close analysis of discursive practices—in this case journalistic writing practices—can provide insights into struggles over meaning and hegemony in contemporary knowledge work. The case study explores the production of a financial news story about the supply of gas to French consumers, and the way the practices in question subtly write Russia as a threat. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101183

  19. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenihan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  20. Ion beam analysis and modern materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Modern research has provided the means of creating materials structures controlled at the atomic scale. Familiar examples include the formation of hetero-structures grown with atomic precision, nanostructures with designed electronic properties and new organic structures employing the richness of organic chemistry. The current forefront of such materials research includes the creation of new materials for energy and electronics applications. The electron transport properties of these diverse materials, and hence their performance, is invariably linked by the basic interactions at the interface. Interfaces are the critical component, and least understood aspect, of almost all such materials-based structures. Ion beam analysis, and its role in interfacial definition, will be described in the context of a number of such forefront projects underway at the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology (IAMDN). These include: 1) quantitative analysis of self-assembled monolayers on organic single crystals resulting in enhanced surface mobility and more effective organic field effect transistors, 2) monolayer scale interfacial analysis of complex oxide hetero-structures to elucidate the properties of the enhanced two-dimensional electron mobility and 3) characterization of the semiconductor- dielectric interface in the SiC/SiO2 system, with application for energy efficient power transmission. Despite extraordinary advances in synthesis, interface properties continue as an uncontrolled region of hetero-materials formation. Their understanding requires the detailed analysis of a complement of tools including ion beam analysis. Fellow Researchers: R. A. Bartynski, L.C.Feldman, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, H.D. Lee, D. Mastrogiovanni, V. Podzorov, L. S. Wielunski, J. R. Williams(Auburn), G. Liu, J. Williams, S. Dhar. (author)

  1. Photometric Analysis in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Jenkins, Jon M.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Photometric Analysis (PA) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline. The primary tasks of this module are to compute the photometric flux and photocenters (centroids) for over 160,000 long cadence (thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (one minute) stellar targets from the calibrated pixels in their respective apertures. We discuss the science algorithms for long and short cadence PA: cosmic ray cleaning; background estimation and removal; aperture photometry; and flux-weighted centroiding. We discuss the end-to-end propagation of uncertainties for the science algorithms. Finally, we present examples of photometric apertures, raw flux light curves, and centroid time series from Kepler flight data. PA light curves, centroid time series, and barycentric timestamp corrections are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and are made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  2. The Nature of Science and the Next Generation Science Standards: Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are linked to the standards by their association with either the "practices of science" or "crosscutting concepts," but curiously not with the recommendations for science content. The study investigated all aspects of NOS in NGSS including the accuracy and inclusion of the supporting exemplar statements and the relationship of NOS in NGSS to other aspects of NOS to support teaching and learning science. We found that while 92 % of these exemplars are acceptable, only 78 % of those written actually appear with the standards. "Science as a way of knowing" is a recommended NOS category in NGSS but is not included with the standards. Also, several other NOS elements fail to be included at all grade levels thus limiting their impact. Finally, NGSS fails to include or insufficiently emphasize several frequently recommended NOS elements such as creativity and subjectivity. The paper concludes with a list of concerns and solutions to the challenges of NOS in NGSS.

  3. Journal rankings by citation analysis in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify objectively a hierarchical ranking of journals for health sciences librarians with faculty status. Such a guideline can indicate a journal's value for promotion and tenure consideration. Lists of recent research articles (1982-1986) in health sciences librarianship, and articles written by health sciences librarians, were compiled by searching Social SCISEARCH and MEDLINE. The journals publishing those articles are presented. Results show BMLA as the most prominent journal in the field. Therefore, citations from articles in BMLA from 1982 to 1986 were chosen as a sample for citation analysis. Citation analysis was employed to identify the most frequently cited journals. Some characteristics of the citations in BMLA are also discussed. The ranking of journals based on citation frequency, as a result, was identified. PMID:2655785

  4. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, R. E. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1967-10-15

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  5. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  6. Frequency of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Shaker

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: (1 A high risk for OSA development is more frequent in GERD patients especially NERD ones and who experience nighttime symptoms, (2 there is a mutual relationship between OSA and GERD reinforcing each other, and (3 CPAP therapy has a good role in the treatment of both OSA and GERD symptoms.

  7. Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South Africa's SANCOR-managed marine and coastal research programmes. D Scott. Abstract. The paper aims to describe and analyse three research programmes over the period 1995–2011 managed by the South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic ...

  8. An overview of animal science research 1945-2011 through science mapping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, A; Cobo, M J; Lopez-Pujalte, C; Herrera-Viedma, E

    2015-12-01

    The conceptual structure of the field of Animal Science (AS) research is examined by means of a longitudinal science mapping analysis. The whole of the AS research field is analysed, revealing its conceptual evolution. To this end, an automatic approach to detecting and visualizing hidden themes or topics and their evolution across a consecutive span of years was applied to AS publications of the JCR category 'Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science' during the period 1945-2011. This automatic approach was based on a coword analysis and combines performance analysis and science mapping. To observe the conceptual evolution of AS, six consecutive periods were defined: 1945-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2005 and 2006-2011. Research in AS was identified as having focused on ten main thematic areas: ANIMAL-FEEDING, SMALL-RUMINANTS, ANIMAL-REPRODUCTION, DAIRY-PRODUCTION, MEAT-QUALITY, SWINE-PRODUCTION, GENETICS-AND-ANIMAL-BREEDING, POULTRY, ANIMAL-WELFARE and GROWTH-FACTORS-AND-FATTY-ACIDS. The results show how genomic studies gain in weight and integrate with other thematic areas. The whole of AS research has become oriented towards an overall framework in which animal welfare, sustainable management and human health play a major role. All this would affect the future structure and management of livestock farming. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  10. Time series analysis in the social sciences the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Youseop

    2017-01-01

    Times Series Analysis in the Social Sciences is a practical and highly readable introduction written exclusively for students and researchers whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. The book focuses on fundamental elements of time series analysis that social scientists need to understand so they can employ time series analysis for their research and practice. Through step-by-step explanations and using monthly violent crime rates as case studies, this book explains univariate time series from the preliminary visual analysis through the modeling of seasonality, trends, and re

  11. Cognition and nocturnal disturbance in OSA: the importance of accounting for age and premorbid intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaithe, Michelle; Skinner, Timothy C.; Hillman, David

    2015-01-01

    and a tertiary hospital sleep clinic. All underwent comprehensive, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and completed assessments of cognition including attention, short- and long-term memory and executive function. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to construct a theoretically-driven model......© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with impaired attention, memory and executive function. However, the mechanisms underlying such dysfunction are unclear. To determine the influence of sleep fragmentation...... these significant relationships. No significant predictors of memory function were found. Conclusions: The mechanisms underlying the effects of OSA on cognition remain to be defined. Implications are discussed in light of these findings....

  12. Using Sentiment Analysis to Observe How Science is Communicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David; Illingworth, Sam

    2016-04-01

    'Citizen Science' and 'Big data' are terms that are currently ubiquitous in the field of science communication. Whilst opinions differ as to what exactly constitutes a 'citizen', and how much information is needed in order for a data set to be considered truly 'big', what is apparent is that both of these fields have the potential to help revolutionise not just the way that science is communicated, but also the way that it is conducted. However, both the generation of sufficient data, and the efficiency of then analysing the data once it has been analysed need to be taken into account. Sentiment Analysis is the process of determining whether a piece of writing is positive, negative or neutral. The process of sentiment analysis can be automated, providing that an adequate training set has been used, and that the nuances that are associated with a particular topic have been accounted for. Given the large amounts of data that are generated by social media posts, and the often-opinionated nature of these posts, they present an ideal source of data to both train with and then scrutinize using sentiment analysis. In this work we will demonstrate how sentiment analysis can be used to examine a large number of Twitter posts, and how a training set can be established to ensure consistency and accuracy in the automation. Following an explanation of the process, we will demonstrate how automated sentiment analysis can be used to categorise opinions in relation to a large-scale science festival, and will discuss if sentiment analysis can be used to tell us if there is a bias in these communications. We will also investigate if sentiment analysis can be used to replace more traditional, and invasive evaluation strategies, and how this approach can then be adopted to investigate other topics, both within scientific communication and in the wider scientific context.

  13. The use of endomarketing in credit unions: a case study of the UFVCredi and the Unicred-Viçosa O emprego do endomarketing em cooperativas de crédito: estudo de caso da UFV-Credi e da Unicred-Viçosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Lopes Dornelas

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Endomarketing can be considered as a group of activities concerned with the internal aspects of the organization, whose purpose is to value the human being. In order to become competitive, the Credit Unions should adopt Endomarketing strategies that combine motivation, training and communication elements. The purpose of the present work was to verify how the Credit Union of the Workers of the Federal University of Viçosa Ltd. / UFV-CREDI and the Credit Union of the Doctors and Health-related Professionals of Viçosa Ltd. – UNICRED/VIÇOSA – MG are using the tools offered by Endomarketing. In the methodology, a study concerning the Endomarketing and the Credit Unions war carried out. After that, the employees and the members of the Credit Unions were asked to answer a questionnaire. After the analysis of the obtained data, it was concluded that UFV-CREDI and UNICRED/VIÇOSA-MG have effectively reached their objectives because their Endomarketing strategies have presented positive results, making it possible for them to get new members as well as to keep their members and employees motivated and satisfied with the products and services offered by the Credit Unions.O Endomarketing pode ser conceituado como um conjunto de atividades voltadas para o interior da organização, cuja finalidade é valorizar o ser humano. Para que as cooperativas de crédito sejam competitivas, elas devem adotar estratégias de Endomarketing, que combinem elementos de motivação, treinamento e comunicação. Procurou-se com o presente estudo, verificar como a Cooperativa de Economia e Crédito Mútuo dos Servidores da Universidade Federal de Viçosa – LTDA / UFV-CREDI e a Cooperativa de Economia e Crédito Mútuo dos Médicos e demais Profissionais da Saúde de Viçosa Ltda – UNICRED/VIÇOSA-MG estão utilizando as ferramentas oferecidas pelo Endomarketing. Na metodologia foi realizado um estudo acerca do Endomarketing e das cooperativas de crédito, para

  14. A Comparative Analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology Textbooks for Inclusion of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Padayachee, Keshni

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology textbooks that were written…

  15. Olulist pärimisseadusest. [1.-3. osa] / Albert Paltser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paltser, Albert, 1931-2007

    1998-01-01

    Pärandamise ja pärimise liikidest, esimese, teise ja kolmanda järjekorra seadusjärgsetest pärijatest ning abikaasa õigusest eelosale. Testamendi liikidest (notariaalne testament, notari hoiule antud testament, kodune testament), pärija pärandi osa määramisest testamendis, annakust, ase- ja järelpärijast, testamendi tühistamisest ja abikaasade vastastikusest testamendist. Pärimislepingust ja pärandi sundosast

  16. Effect of CPAP Withdrawal on BP in OSA: Data from Three Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Esther I; Schlatzer, Christian; Rossi, Valentina A; Stradling, John R; Kohler, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    Based on meta-analyses, the BP-lowering effect of CPAP therapy in patients with OSA is reported to be approximately 2 to 3 mm Hg. This figure is derived from heterogeneous trials, which are often limited by poor CPAP adherence, and thus the treatment effect may possibly be underestimated. We analyzed morning BP data from three randomized controlled CPAP withdrawal trials, which included only patients with optimal CPAP compliance. Within the three trials, 149 patients with OSA who were receiving CPAP were randomized to continue therapeutic CPAP (n = 65) or to withdraw CPAP (n = 84) for 2 weeks. Morning BP was measured at home before and after sleep studies in the hospital. CPAP withdrawal was associated with a return of OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] at a baseline of 2.8/h and at follow-up of 33.2/h). Office systolic BP (SBP) increased in the CPAP withdrawal group compared with the CPAP continuation group by +5.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.8-8.9 mm Hg; P = .003) and in the home SBP group by +9.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 5.7-12.3 mm Hg; P CPAP withdrawal results in a clinically relevant increase in BP, which is considerably higher than in conventional CPAP trials; it is also underestimated when office BP is used. Greater OSA severity is associated with a higher BP rise in response to CPAP withdrawal. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01332175 and NCT01797653) URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov and ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN 93153804) URL: http://www.isrctn.com/. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of OSA with CPAP Is Associated with Improvement in PTSD Symptoms among Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeremy E.; Smales, Carolina; Alexander, Thomas H.; Stepnowsky, Carl; Pillar, Giora; Malhotra, Atul; Sarmiento, Kathleen F.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among veterans of the military, with sleep disturbance as a hallmark manifestation. A growing body of research has suggested a link between obstructive sleep apnea and PTSD, potentially due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) related sleep disruption, or via other mechanisms. We examined the hypothesis that treatment of OSA with positive airway pressure would reduce PTSD symptoms over 6 months. Methods: A prospective study of Veterans with confirmed PTSD and new diagnosis of OSA not yet using PAP therapy were recruited from a Veteran's Affairs sleep medicine clinic. All subjects were instructed to use PAP each night. Assessments were performed at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome was a reduction in PTSD symptoms at 6 months. Results: Fifty-nine subjects were enrolled; 32 remained in the study at 6 months. A significant reduction in PTSD symptoms, measured by PCL-S score was observed over the course of the study (60.6 ± 2.7 versus 52.3 ± 3.2 points; p J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(1):57–63. PMID:27707436

  18. The comparison of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness in patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaya, M; Otake, H; Suzuki, K; Yasuma, F; Yamamoto, H; Noda, A; Nishimura, Y; Sone, M; Nakashima, T; Nakata, S

    2017-09-01

    Residual sleepiness after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a critical problem in some patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, nasal surgery is likely to reduce daytime sleepiness and feelings of unrefreshed sleep. The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness. This is a retrospective and matched-case control study. The participants were consecutive 40 patients with OSAS who underwent nasal surgery (Surgery group) and 40 matched patients who were treated with CPAP (CPAP group). In the Surgery group, although the nasal surgery did not decrease either apnea or hypopnea, it improved oxygenation, the quality of sleep. In the CPAP Group, the CPAP treatment reduced apnea and hypopnea, and improved oxygenation, quality of sleep. The degree of relief from daytime sleepiness was different between the two groups. The improvement of Epworth Sleepiness Scale was more significant in the Surgery Group than those in the CPAP Group (Surgery from 11.0 to 5.1, CPAP from 10.0 to 6.2). These findings suggest that the results of the nasal surgery is more satisfactory for some patients with OSAS than CPAP on daytime sleepiness.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Middle School Science Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Leanna B.

    Researchers and educational practitioners have long been concerned with declines in science engagement reported by students as they transition into the middle school setting. Though the operationalization of engagement is still nascent, an emerging consensus on a three-faceted model of student engagement has recently emerged in the research literature (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Thus, a synthesis of existing primary research of early adolescents' science engagement under this emerging conceptualization was warranted. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that instructional methods, class characteristics and competence predictors had the strongest relationship with self-reported science engagement in early adolescence. These predictors also show the strongest relationship with affective and cognitive engagement sub-types. Though affective and cognitive engagement were well represented in primary studies, behavioral engagement was underrepresented in student self-reports.

  20. Doing gender/teaching science: A feminist poststructural analysis of middle school science teachers' identity negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Scott P.

    This research joins the gender equity conversation within science education by providing a feminist poststructural analysis of teachers' doing gender and teaching science. Feminist poststructuralism is used in recognition of the oppressive nature of dualistic modes of thought, which often reduce reality into a limiting either/or fallacy and can be theoretically constraining as research within any particular field becomes more sophisticated. By uprooting the concept of gendered identity from the unproductive grip of essentialism, and conceptualizing it instead as a shifting 'work in progress,' feminist poststructuralism provides an invigorating theoretical framework from which to conduct inquiries. From a this perspective, the identity of a teacher, as any identity, is not a fixed entity, but rather an unfinished project, swarmed upon by a variety of competing discourses. Situated in a rural middle school in the Florida panhandle, this research explores how numerous discourses compete to define what it means to be a female science teacher. More specifically, the aims of this research are to explore: (a) how the participants negotiated successful gendered identities within science and (b) how this taking up of subject positions crystallized into classroom practices which worked to reproduce and/or challenge commonsense notions of the heteropatriarchal gender dualism as well as the enmeshment of masculinity and science. Findings illustrate a wide array of classroom pedagogical practices, ranging from antioppressive emancipatory constructions of both gender and science to more traditional objectivist constructions that validated the patriarchal status quo. Explicating teacher identity as effects of these pedagogical approaches proved insightful in unveiling notions of resistance, frustration, enthusiasm, and agency as the teachers reflected on their practice.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and mental health in small enterprise workers. feasibility of an Action for Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Garbarino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and common mental disorders in the working population of 11 small enterprises and the feasibility of a program of action for health. METHOD: The clinical risk of OSAS, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and the level of psychological disorders were assessed during routine medical examination at the workplace in 2012. The response to medical advice was assessed in 2013. RESULTS: 12.3% of the workers were suspected of being affected by OSAS. One or more components of metabolic syndrome were present in 24.5% of cases. OSAS in "healthy" workers was significantly associated with the presence of one or more components of metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.83; 95%CI 1.45-10.13 and with a psychological disorders score in the highest quartile (OR = 4.67; 95%CI = 1.72-12.64. Workers with suspected OSAS were reluctant to follow advice about undergoing further tests under the NHS. However, in some cases, confirmation of the OSAS diagnosis and subsequent treatment led to an improvement in metabolic condition. CONCLUSION: Although participation in treatment was limited, anecdotal cases support the idea that prevention of obstructive sleep apnea in the workplace might be useful for workers' health.

  2. KDD for science data analysis: Issues and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyad, U.; Haussler, D.; Stolorz, P.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the massive data sets collected by scientific instruments demands automation as a prerequisite to analysis. There is an urgent need to create an intermediate level at which scientists can operate effectively; isolating them from the massive sizes and harnessing human analysis capabilities to focus on tasks in which machines do not even remotely approach humans-namely, creative data analysis, theory and hypothesis formation, and drawing insights into underlying phenomena. We give an overview of the main issues in the exploitation of scientific datasets, present five case studies where KDD tools play important and enabling roles, and conclude with future challenges for data mining and KDD techniques in science data analysis

  3. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of OSA-18, a Quality of Life Questionnaire for Evaluation of Children with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiner, Eusebi; Landete, Pedro; Sancho-Chust, José Norberto; Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Ferrer, Patricia; Pastor, Esther; Senent, Cristina; Arlandis, Mar; Navarro, Cristina; Selma, María José

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire in children with apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Children with suspected SAHS were studied with polysomnography (PSG) before and after adenotonsillectomy (AA). Age, gender, clinical data, PSG, anthropometric data, and Mallampati and Brodsky scales were analyzed. OSA-18 was administered at baseline and 3-6months post AA. After translation and backtranslation by bilingual professionals, the internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity, predictive validity and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire was assessed. In total, 45 boys and 15 girls were evaluated, showing BMI 18±4, neck 28±5, Brodsky (0: 7%; 50 to 75%: 6%), AHI 12±7 pre AA. Global Cronbach alpha was 0.91. Correlations between domains were significant except for emotional aspects, although the total scores correlated with all domains (0.50 to 0.90). The factorial analysis was virtually identical to the original structure. The total scores showed good correlation for concurrent validity (0.2-0.45). With regard to predictive validity, the questionnaire adequately differentiated levels of severity according to Mallampati (ANOVA P=.002) and apnea-hypopnea index (ANOVA P=.006). Test-retest reliability was excellent, as was sensitivity to change, both in the total scores (P<.001) and in each domain (P<.001). The Spanish adaptation of the OSA-18 and its psychometric characteristics suggest that the Spanish version is equivalent to the original and can be used in Spanish-speaking countries. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Trend Analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Production in Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRUCOLO, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of scientific information volume and diversity brings new challenges in order to understand the reasons, the process and the real essence that propel this growth. This information can be used as the basis for the development of strategies and public politics to improve the education and innovation services. Trend analysis is one of the steps in this way. In this work, trend analysis of Brazilian scientific production of graduate programs in the computer science area is made to identify the main subjects being studied by these programs in general and individual ways.

  5. Statistical analysis and interpolation of compositional data in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenson, Misha Z; Suram, Santosh K; Gregoire, John M

    2015-02-09

    Compositional data are ubiquitous in chemistry and materials science: analysis of elements in multicomponent systems, combinatorial problems, etc., lead to data that are non-negative and sum to a constant (for example, atomic concentrations). The constant sum constraint restricts the sampling space to a simplex instead of the usual Euclidean space. Since statistical measures such as mean and standard deviation are defined for the Euclidean space, traditional correlation studies, multivariate analysis, and hypothesis testing may lead to erroneous dependencies and incorrect inferences when applied to compositional data. Furthermore, composition measurements that are used for data analytics may not include all of the elements contained in the material; that is, the measurements may be subcompositions of a higher-dimensional parent composition. Physically meaningful statistical analysis must yield results that are invariant under the number of composition elements, requiring the application of specialized statistical tools. We present specifics and subtleties of compositional data processing through discussion of illustrative examples. We introduce basic concepts, terminology, and methods required for the analysis of compositional data and utilize them for the spatial interpolation of composition in a sputtered thin film. The results demonstrate the importance of this mathematical framework for compositional data analysis (CDA) in the fields of materials science and chemistry.

  6. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  7. Recognition of upper airway and surrounding structures at MRI in pediatric PCOS and OSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, J. K.; Odhner, D.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese children with risk being 4.5 fold compared to normal control subjects. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has recently been shown to be associated with OSAS that may further lead to significant cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive deficits. We are investigating image-based biomarkers to understand the architectural and dynamic changes in the upper airway and the surrounding hard and soft tissue structures via MRI in obese teenage children to study OSAS. At the previous SPIE conferences, we presented methods underlying Fuzzy Object Models (FOMs) for Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) based on CT images of the thorax and the abdomen. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the AAR approach is applicable to a different body region and image modality combination, namely in the study of upper airway structures via MRI. FOMs were built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. FOMs encode the uncertainty and variability present in the form and relationships among the objects over a study population. Totally 11 basic objects (17 including composite) were modeled. Automatic recognition for the best pose of FOMs in a given image was implemented by using four methods - a one-shot method that does not require search, another three searching methods that include Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD), a b-scale energy optimization strategy, and optimum threshold recognition method. In all, 30 multi-fold cross validation experiments based on 15 patient MRI data sets were carried out to assess the accuracy of recognition. The results indicate that the objects can be recognized with an average location error of less than 5 mm or 2-3 voxels. Then the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was adopted for delineation of the target organs based on the recognized results. The delineation results showed an overall FP and TP volume fraction of 0.02 and 0.93.

  8. Topical nasal steroid treatment does not improve CPAP compliance in unselected patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Werner; Schlageter, Manuel; Andersson, Morgan; Miedinger, David; Chhajed, Prashant N; Tamm, Michael; Leuppi, Jörg D

    2011-02-01

    Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can produce troublesome nasal symptoms (i.e. congestion, rhinorrhea) that may reduce the compliance of CPAP. Topical nasal steroids are often prescribed to reduce these side effects, although scientific data are scarce supporting any benefits of this treatment for CPAP-induced nasal side effects. To study whether a topical nasal steroid can reduce CPAP-induced nasal symptoms and improve CPAP adherence during the initial phase of OSA treatment. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with fluticasone propionate 100 μg/nasal cavity twice daily Treatment was started 10 days prior to and continued throughout the first 4 weeks of CPAP. 63 patients who were selected for CPAP treatment participated. Nasal symptoms were recorded, nasal patency was assessed and lung function was measured with a peak flow meter. The patients' adherence to CPAP was recorded by the CPAP device. Total nasal symptoms increased from baseline to 4 wks after CPAP use for both nasal treatments (p < 0.05). No differences in total nasal symptoms between treatments were seen (p = 1), and no differences in nasal peak flow values after treatment were seen (p = 0.11). Moreover, there were no differences in CPAP use between the treatments. Fluticasone propionate as a nasal topical steroid does not reduce CPAP-induced unwanted nasal side effects, and has no beneficial effect on CPAP compliance during the first four weeks of treatment in unselected patients with OSAS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  10. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  11. Development of an Analysis Model from the Perspectives of Science, Individual and Society in the Teaching of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel do Carmo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic vision of learning science has changed as scientific culture concepts evolution and the nature of the teaching of science go along. From a model essentially based on information acquisition, science instruction has included the practice of the science method when the importance of emphasizing the development of personal skills, thinking processes, and action was considered. The concern about citizens’ education in matters referring to the relationship between science and society and enlightened social participation demanded a special attention in investigation and in students’ participation in issues related to urban, natural, and technological environment. This research seeks to develop an integrative model of curriculum organizations based on these three axes or perspectives: science, individual, and society. A matrix enabling the analysis of curricular proposals and organization plans of didactic units is built, as well as the observation of teachers’ representations in the teaching of science.

  12. History of science content analysis of Chinese science textbooks from the perspective of acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-08-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation, and writing intention of the HOS sections in textbooks from different time periods. What's more, the textbooks aim at presenting the scientific culture and aim to help students understand it better. However, the cultural associations of the HOS in textbooks is insufficient and significant differences exist among textbooks of different subjects. In order to explore the reasons why the presentation of HOS in various subjects is different, we made a specific comparison of curriculum standards of two subjects with great differences and interviewed the editors-in-chief of two textbooks. Results show that one of the most important reasons for the different writings of the HOS in textbooks is that different subject curriculum standards attach greater importance to the HOS. In addition, the attention to the HOS by editors-in-chief, the tradition of studying the HOS within the history of the discipline, and the reference textbooks in compiling textbooks are all important influence factors. Some suggestions for future textbooks compilation are given at the end.

  13. Association of Type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Mårtensson, Jan; Ulander, Martin; Harder, Lena; Svanborg, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side effects are common and long-term adherence low. The Type D (distressed) personality is defined as a combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The association of Type D personality with adherence has not been studied in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of Type D personality in OSAS patients with CPAP treatment longer than 6 months and the association with self-reported side effects and adherence. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 247 OSAS patients with a mean use of CPAP treatment for 55 months (6-182 months) were included. Data collection was achieved by two questionnaires; the Type D scale 14 (DS14) (Type D personality), SECI (side effects of CPAP), as well as from medical records (clinical variables and objective adherence to CPAP treatment). Type D personality occurred in 30% of the patients with OSAS and significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) increased the perceived frequency and severity of a broad range of side effects. The objective adherence was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for OSAS patients with Type D compared to OSAS patients without Type D, both with regard to a mean use of 4 h per night and 85% of the self-rated sleep time per night. The additional effect of a Type D personality on perceived side effects and adherence to CPAP treatment found in this study could be used by healthcare personnel when evaluating patients waiting for treatment.

  14. Earth Science Data Analysis in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K.-S.; Clune, T. L.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with even a cursory interest in information technology cannot help but recognize that "Big Data" is one of the most fashionable catchphrases of late. From accurate voice and facial recognition, language translation, and airfare prediction and comparison, to monitoring the real-time spread of flu, Big Data techniques have been applied to many seemingly intractable problems with spectacular successes. They appear to be a rewarding way to approach many currently unsolved problems. Few fields of research can claim a longer history with problems involving voluminous data than Earth science. The problems we are facing today with our Earth's future are more complex and carry potentially graver consequences than the examples given above. How has our climate changed? Beside natural variations, what is causing these changes? What are the processes involved and through what mechanisms are these connected? How will they impact life as we know it? In attempts to answer these questions, we have resorted to observations and numerical simulations with ever-finer resolutions, which continue to feed the "data deluge." Plausibly, many Earth scientists are wondering: How will Big Data technologies benefit Earth science research? As an example from the global water cycle, one subdomain among many in Earth science, how would these technologies accelerate the analysis of decades of global precipitation to ascertain the changes in its characteristics, to validate these changes in predictive climate models, and to infer the implications of these changes to ecosystems, economies, and public health? Earth science researchers need a viable way to harness the power of Big Data technologies to analyze large volumes and varieties of data with velocity and veracity. Beyond providing speedy data analysis capabilities, Big Data technologies can also play a crucial, albeit indirect, role in boosting scientific productivity by facilitating effective collaboration within an analysis environment

  15. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF MISCONCEPTIONS IN SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS: EARTH SCIENCE IN ENGLAND AND WALES

    OpenAIRE

    King , Chris John Henry

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/ misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/ misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/ misconceptions. ...

  17. Adapting computational text analysis to social science (and vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul DiMaggio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists and computer scientist are divided by small differences in perspective and not by any significant disciplinary divide. In the field of text analysis, several such differences are noted: social scientists often use unsupervised models to explore corpora, whereas many computer scientists employ supervised models to train data; social scientists hold to more conventional causal notions than do most computer scientists, and often favor intense exploitation of existing algorithms, whereas computer scientists focus more on developing new models; and computer scientists tend to trust human judgment more than social scientists do. These differences have implications that potentially can improve the practice of social science.

  18. AMINO ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CALDA VIÇOSA IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fontebasso Pelizari Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose a mixture of micronutrients with amino acid-based foliar fertilizer as an alternative to calda viçosa for application in organic agriculture. The study was conducted in two simultaneous trials in an experimental field in Ipeúna, SP, Brazil. The test plant was carioca type dry edible bean cv. Pérola. The treatments in trial 1 were: Control 1 = water; FA = JK® amino acid-based foliar fertilizer; and FA+Mi = FA + CuSO4 + ZnSO4 + MnSO4 + H3BO3. In trial 2, the FA treatment was substituted by calda viçosa (CVi. The treatments were through spray application three times. Dry edible bean leaves were sampled for determination of macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations. Platings of the application rates used in the treatments were performed in the laboratory in a mixture with Bacillus thuringiensis and with Beauveria bassiana to compare the degree of compatibility by means of colony forming units (CFU. The FA+Mi and CVi treatments raised the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the leaves. The FA+Mi was compatible, the FA was a stimulant, and the CVi was noxious to B. bassiana and to B. thuringiensis when integrated in the spray mixture.

  19. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.; Guenther, E.; Gauger, J.; Nitz, W.; Kastenbauer, E.; Reiser, M.

    1996-01-01

    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager ('Vision', Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [de

  20. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…

  1. Analysis of students’ science motivation and nature of science comprehension in middle school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Ghofar Candra Wicaksono

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of science motivation and nature of science (NoS and the relationship between science motivation and nature of science in middle school students located in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The design of this study was survey followed by the correlation study to discover the relationship between science motivation level and nature of science comprehension. This research included 113 students as sample. The instrument used for data collection was SMQ and seven essay test from NoS indicator. This study revealed that the students had a median score of science motivation and the low score in nature of science comprehension. There were students’ science motivation and nature of science comprehension urgently need to be improved. It can be done by developing learning process and any support from school or family.

  2. A pedagogical analysis of science textbooks: How can we proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaidis, Vasilis; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the available frameworks for the pedagogical analysis of school science textbooks. First, it distinguishes between (a) studies which focus on elements of textbooks, such as the content, vocabulary, illustrations used, and the teaching methods promoted; and (b) those which consider the principles that organize the content and the form of presentation. In attempting to consider the sorts of principles that may be used in the studies categorised under (b), two crucial issues are discussed. The first issue refers to the relationship between scientific knowledge and school knowledge, which, as the relevant literature suggests, might not be conceived merely as a simplified “casting” of the scientific structure, but rather should be understood as a complex social process. The second issue explicitly addresses the nature of the pedagogic relationship and the place of the pedagogic text within it. Recent views about the nature of knowledge, it is argued, would suggest a reconceptualisation of the teaching activity, and indicate a model according to which the three elements of the teaching situation-the content, the pupil and the teacher—are seen as being (re)constituted in their articulation within and through the text(book). Thus, for example, what is to be a competent pupil in this approach is a function of the text. On the basis of these considerations, three approaches to the analysis of science textbooks are discussed: the socio-cognitive, the sociolinguistic and the socio-epistemic. The relative merits of the third approach are considered, and some examples are used from Greek science textbooks.

  3. Remote Access to Instrumental Analysis for Distance Education in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Kennepohl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote access to experiments offers distance educators another tool to integrate a strong laboratory component within a science course. Since virtually all modern chemical instrumental analysis in industry now use devices operated by a computer interface, remote control of instrumentation is not only relatively facile, it enhances students’ opportunity to learn the subject matter and be exposed to “real world” contents. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT and Athabasca University are developing teaching laboratories based on the control of analytical instruments in real-time via an Internet connection. Students perform real-time analysis using equipment, methods, and skills that are common to modern analytical laboratories (or sophisticated teaching laboratories. Students obtain real results using real substances to arrive at real conclusions, just as they would if they were in a physical laboratory with the equipment; this approach allows students to access to conduct instrumental science experiments, thus providing them with an advantageous route to upgrade their laboratory skills while learning at a distance.

  4. Preditive Models And Health Sciences: A Brief Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sales Paulino, Msc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predictive Models are an important tool in event predicting and health planning. Despite this, there are few works focusing this area. Thus, the analysis of the real benefits of these models in Health Sciences is necessary to be performed. Results: Predictive techniques largely evolved in second half of XX century. The development of AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models, through Box-Jenkins methodology, constitute a robust conjunct of mechanisms able to help in solution of epidemiological modeling problems, mainly in Health Sciences, once it allows to evaluate individual characteristics of living beings and its correlation with pathologies in the same space-time. Nevertheless, AR, MA and ARMA does not have tendency in seasonality, which weakens the analysis. Conclusions: To predict the natural history of endemic/epidemic and its health-disease processes in a determined population is a sine que non condition to its adequate management in Public Health context and in adoption of affirmative measures concerning health promotion. Thus, the predictive models, with emphasis in ARIMA, SARIMA, Artificial Neural Networks and Formalism of Copulas are alternatives that can be feasible.

  5. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  6. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  7. A comparative analysis of Science-Technology-Society standards in elementary, middle and high school state science curriculum frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen Marie

    An analysis of curriculum frameworks from the fifty states to ascertain the compliance with the National Science Education Standards for integrating Science-Technology-Society (STS) themes is reported within this dissertation. Science standards for all fifty states were analyzed to determine if the STS criteria were integrated at the elementary, middle, and high school levels of education. The analysis determined the compliance level for each state, then compared each educational level to see if the compliance was similar across the levels. Compliance is important because research shows that using STS themes in the science classroom increases the student's understanding of the concepts, increases the student's problem solving skills, increases the student's self-efficacy with respect to science, and students instructed using STS themes score well on science high stakes tests. The two hypotheses for this study are: (1) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school levels. (2) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school level when examined individually. The Analysis of Variance F ratio was used to determine the variance between and within the three educational levels. This analysis addressed hypothesis one. The Analysis of Variance results refused to reject the null hypothesis, meaning there is significant difference in the compliance to STS themes between the elementary, middle and high school educational levels. The Chi-Square test was the statistical analysis used to compare the educational levels for each individual criterion. This analysis addressed hypothesis two. The Chi-Squared results showed that none of the states were equally compliant with each

  8. International production on science oriented towards data: analysis of the terms data science and e-science in scopus and the web of science

    OpenAIRE

    Leilah Santiago Bufrem; Fábio Mascarenhas e Silva; Natanael Vitor Sobral; Anna Elizabeth Galvão Coutinho Correia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: current configuration in the dynamics of production and scientific communication reveals the role of Science Oriented Towards Data, a comprehensive conception represented, mainly, by terms such as "e-Science" and "Data Science". Objective: To present the global scientific production on Science Oriented Towards Data by using the terms "e-Science" and "Data Science" in Scopus and the Web of Science during 2006-2016. Methodology: The study is divided into five phases: a) sear...

  9. The rheological properties of blood and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Pierzchała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an important public health concern, which affects around 2–4% of the population. Left untreated, it causes a decrease not only in quality of life, but also of life expectancy. Despite the fact that knowledge about the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA is still incomplete, observations confirm a relationship between sleep disordered breathing and the rheological properties of blood. One possible consequence of an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease may be a rise in mortality in OSA patients. Continuously improved research methods are allowing for an increasingly more accurate understanding of the significance of observed changes. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 2, 206–210

  10. Materials science education: ion beam modification and analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert; Muntele, Claudiu; Ila, Daryush

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM) at Alabama A&M University (http://cim.aamu.edu) was established in 1990 to serve the University in its research, education and services to the need of the local community and industry. CIM irradiation capabilities are oriented around two tandem-type ion accelerators with seven beam lines providing high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, MeV focus ion beam, high-energy ion implantation and irradiation damage studies, particle-induced X-ray emission, particle-induced gamma emission and ion-induced nuclear reaction analysis in addition to fully automated ion channeling. One of the two tandem ion accelerators is designed to produce high-flux ion beam for MeV ion implantation and ion irradiation damage studies. The facility is well equipped with a variety of surface analysis systems, such as SEM, ESCA, as well as scanning micro-Raman analysis, UV-VIS Spectrometry, luminescence spectroscopy, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, IV/CV systems, mechanical test systems, AFM, FTIR, voltammetry analysis as well as low-energy implanters, ion beam-assisted deposition and MBE systems. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how the facility is used in material science education, as well as providing services to university, government and industry researches.

  11. Comparability of pulse oximeters used in sleep medicine for the screening of OSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhning, N; Schultheiß, B; Eilers, S; Schmittendorf, E; Penzel, T; Böhning, W

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a frequent clinical picture. It is characterized by repetitive respiratory arrest with a consecutive decrease in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ). In clinical practice, the number of desaturations per hour, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), is used as an important diagnostic criterion. Medical literature, however, mentions different threshold values that are defined as pathological. By means of systematic comparative measurements, the study presented here will examine to what extent the diagnosis and the quantification of OSA severity are affected by the device-specific measurement technique, thus impacting the predictive value of nighttime pulse oximetry in outpatient OSA screening. Different pulse oximeters commonly used in clinical practice were analyzed comparatively regarding technical parameters, temporal dynamics and the reproducibility of measuring results. The measurements were executed simultaneously and time synchronized in a reference group of five test subjects (four males, one female, average age 33.0 ± 9.4 years), in a group of five patients (all males, average age 51.8 ± 18.4 years) and using a simulator (pulse oximeter simulator index 2). All devices underestimate the simulator's predetermined oxygen desaturation of 10%. The dispersion of values is high. The device-specific characteristics have a significant influence on the collected data. The fundamental weakness of the systems lies in the reproducibility of measuring results (this only seems adequate at a signal resolution in steps of 0.1%) as well as the differing temporal dynamics. In the synchronous use of different systems on patients for the purpose of a direct comparison of devices, the dispersion of values is serious, reaching a fluctuation range of up to factor 1.42. In measuring dynamic events (apneas), different pulse oximeters do not record identical values. This is due to the different internal signal processing of the devices

  12. Caught in the Balance: An Organizational Analysis of Science Teaching in Schools with Elementary Science Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Bujosa, Lisa M.; Levy, Abigail Jurist

    2016-01-01

    Elementary schools are under increasing pressure to teach science and teach it well; yet, research documents that classroom teachers must overcome numerous personal and school-based challenges to teach science effectively at this level, such as access to materials and inadequate instructional time. The elementary science specialist model…

  13. Using Science Fiction Movie Scenes to Support Critical Analysis of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Kafka, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses pedagogical advantages and challenges of using science-fiction movies and television shows in an introductory science class for elementary teachers. The authors describe two instructional episodes in which scenes from the movies "Red Planet" and "The Core" were used to engage students in critiquing science as presented in…

  14. Analysis of Skylab IV fluid mechanic science demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, M. G.; Bourgeois, S. V.

    1975-01-01

    Several science demonstrations performed on Skylab III and IV were concerned with the behavior of fluid drops free floating in microgravity. These demonstrations, with large liquid drops, included the oscillation, rotation, impact and coalescence, and air injection into the drops. Rayleigh's analysis of the oscillation of spherical drops of a liquid predicts accurately the effect of size and surface tension on the frequency of vibrated water globules in the Skylab demonstration. However, damping occurred much faster than predicted by Lamb's or Scriven's analyses of the damping time for spherical drops. The impact demonstrations indicated that a minimum velocity is necessary to overcome surface forces and effect a coalescence, but a precise criterion for the coalescence of liquids in low g could not be determined.

  15. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Doing Better: Illuminating a Framework of Equitable Science Pedagogy through a Cross- Case Analysis of Urban High School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Manali J.

    Students of color are routinely asked to participate in science education that is less intellectually rich and self-affirming. Additionally, teachers have trouble embarking on professional growth related to issues of equity and diversity in science. The purpose of this dissertation research is to develop a multi-dimensional framework for equitable science pedagogy (ESP) through analyzing the efforts and struggles of high school science teachers. This study is grounded in a conceptual framework derived from scholarship in science education, multicultural education, critical science studies, and teacher learning. The following questions guide this research: 1) What visions and enactments emerge in teachers' practices towards equitable science pedagogy? 2) How are teachers' practice decisions towards ESP influenced by their personal theories of race/culture, science, and learning and sociocultural contexts? 3) Why are there consistencies and variances across teachers' practices? This study employs a qualitative multiple case study design with ethnographic data collection to explore the practices of three urban high school science teachers who were identified as being committed to nurturing the science learning of students of color. Data include over 120 hours of classroom observation, 60 hours of teacher interviews, and 500 teacher- and student-generated artifacts. Data analysis included coding teachers' practices using theory- and participant generated codes, construction of themes based on emergent patterns, and cross-case analysis. The affordances and limitations of the participants' pedagogical approaches inform the following framework for equitable science pedagogy: 1) Seeing race and culture and sharing responsibility for learning form foundational dimensions. Practices from the other three dimensions--- nurturing students' identities, re-centering students' epistemologies, and critiquing structural inequities---emerge from the foundation. As emergent practices

  17. Conceptual Change in Understanding the Nature of Science Learning: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetto, Christina M.

    This study is the first of its kind to explore the thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and values of secondary educators as they experience conceptual change in their understanding of the nature of science learning vis a vis the Framework for K-12 Science Education published by the National Research Council. The study takes aim at the existing gap between the vision for science learning as an active process of inquiry and current pedagogical practices in K-12 science classrooms. For students to understand and explain everyday science ideas and succeed in science studies and careers, the means by which they learn science must change. Focusing on this change, the study explores the significance of educator attitudes, beliefs and values to science learning through interpretive phenomenological analysis around the central question, "In what ways do educators understand and articulate attitudes and beliefs toward the nature of science learning?" The study further explores the questions, "How do educators experience changes in their understanding of the nature of science learning?" and "How do educators believe these changes influence their pedagogical practice?" Study findings converge on four conceptions that science learning: is the action of inquiry; is a visible process initiated by both teacher and learner; values student voice and changing conceptions is science learning. These findings have implications for the primacy of educator beliefs, attitudes and values in reform efforts, science teacher leadership and the explicit instruction of both Nature of Science and conceptual change in educator preparation programs. This study supports the understanding that the nature of science learning is cognitive and affective conceptual change. Keywords: conceptual change, educator attitudes and beliefs, framework for K-12 science education, interpretive phenomenological analysis, nature of science learning, next generation science standards, science professional development

  18. Application of short-time activation analysis in the sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1991-01-01

    Short-time activation analysis has proved to be a valuable tool in nearly all fields of science. To take full advantage of this technique, it is favorable to use a fast transfer system and a high resolution high rate gamma-spectroscopy system for short lived gamma-emitters and a Cherenkov detector for the determination of hard beta-emitters. It is then possible to utilize sub-minute nuclides Li-8 (740 ms), B-12 (20 ms), F-20 (11.1 s), Y-89m (16 s), and Pb-207m (800 ms) for the determination of these elements. Besides these sub-minute nuclides which constitute the only possibility for neutron activation analysis of these elements there are a number of other elements which form longer lived nuclides on short irradiation. The analysis of the halogenides F, Cl, Br, I in waste water of a sewage incineration plant can be achieved with a single 20 s irradiation and two consecutive measurement of 20 and 600 s using Cl-38m, F-20, Br-79m as well as the longer lived Cl-38, Br-80, I-128

  19. One-Click Data Analysis Software for Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    One of the important activities of ESA Science Operations Centre is to provide Data Analysis Software (DAS) to enable users and scientists to process data further to higher levels. During operations and post-operations, Data Analysis Software (DAS) is fully maintained and updated for new OS and library releases. Nonetheless, once a Mission goes into the "legacy" phase, there are very limited funds and long-term preservation becomes more and more difficult. Building on Virtual Machine (VM), Cloud computing and Software as a Service (SaaS) technologies, this project has aimed at providing long-term preservation of Data Analysis Software for the following missions: - PIA for ISO (1995) - SAS for XMM-Newton (1999) - Hipe for Herschel (2009) - EXIA for EXOSAT (1983) Following goals have guided the architecture: - Support for all operations, post-operations and archive/legacy phases. - Support for local (user's computer) and cloud environments (ESAC-Cloud, Amazon - AWS). - Support for expert users, requiring full capabilities. - Provision of a simple web-based interface. This talk describes the architecture, challenges, results and lessons learnt gathered in this project.

  20. 5-years APAP adherence in OSA patients--do first impressions matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeller, Mafalda; Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina; Drummond, Marta

    2013-12-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective in treating obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), inadequate adherence remains a major cause of treatment failure. This study aimed to determine long term adherence to auto adjusting-CPAP (APAP) and its influencing factors including the role of initial compliance. Eighty-eight male patients with newly diagnosed moderate/severe OSA were included. After initiation of APAP treatment, patients had periodic follow-up appointments at 2 weeks, 6 months and then annually for at least 5 years. Patient's compliance to therapy was assessed in each appointment and predictors to treatment abandonment and poor compliance were evaluated. The studied population had a mean age of 53.8 years and mean apnoea-hypopnoea index of 52.71/h. The mean time of follow-up was 5.2 (± 1.6) years, during that time 22 (25%) patients abandoned APAP, those who maintained treatment had good compliance to it since 94% of them used it more than 4 h/day for at least 70% of days. A significant negative association was found between age, % of days and mean time of APAP use on 12th day and 6th month and the risk of abandoning. APAP use lower than 33% and 57% of days at 12th day and 6th month, respectively had high specificity (≈ 100%) to detect treatment abandonment. the majority of patients adheres to long term APAP treatment and has good compliance after 5-years of follow-up. Age and initial compliance (% days of use and mean hour/day) have the ability to predict future adherence, as soon as 12 days and 6 months after initiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of CPAP on activity patterns and diet in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L; Drescher, Amy A; Baldwin, Carol M; Simon, Richard D; Smith, Terry W; Quan, Stuart F

    2014-05-15

    Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m(2), and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p increase in recreational activity in women, OSA patients treated with CPAP do not substantially change their diet or physical activity habits after treatment. .

  2. Sleep fragmentation: comparison of two definitions of short arousals during sleep in OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smurra, M V; Dury, M; Aubert, G; Rodenstein, D O; Liistro, G

    2001-04-01

    The measurement of arousals during sleep is useful to quantify sleep fragmentation. The criteria for electroencephalography (EEG) arousals defined by the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) have recently been criticized because of lack of interobserver agreement. The authors have adopted a scoring method that associates the increase in chin electromyography (EMG) with the occurrence of an alpha-rhythm in all sleep stages (Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) definition of arousals). The aim of the present study was to compare the two scoring definitions in terms of agreement and repeatability and the time taken for scoring in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) of varying severity. Two readers using both ASDA and UCL definitions scored twenty polysomnographies (PSGs) each on two occasions. The PSGs were chosen retrospectively to represent a wide range of arousal index (from 6-82) in OSAS patients. There was no difference in the arousal indices between readers and between scoring methods. The mean+/-SD difference between the two definitions (the bias) was 1.1+/-3.76 (95% confidence interval: -0.66-2.86). There was a strong linear relationship between the arousal index scored with the two definitions (r=0.981, pASDA definitions (18.5+/-5.4 versus 25.3+/-6.6 min, p<0.001). In conclusion, it has been found that in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients, the American Sleep Disorders Association and Université Catholique de Louvain definitions were comparable in terms of agreement and repeatability.

  3. Tradespace Analysis Tool for Designing Earth Science Distributed Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ESTO 2030 Science Vision envisions the future of Earth Science to be characterized by 'many more distributed observations,' and 'formation-flying [missions that]...

  4. Uncertainty analysis: an evaluation metric for synthesis science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Harmon; Becky Fasth; Charles B. Halpern; James A. Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The methods for conducting reductionist ecological science are well known and widely used. In contrast, those used in the synthesis of ecological science (i.e., synthesis science) are still being developed, vary widely, and often lack the rigor of reductionist approaches. This is unfortunate because the synthesis of ecological parts into a greater whole is...

  5. Towards Analysis of the Status of Science Technology Engineering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has been the case at both 'O' and 'A' levels. There is also a noticeable decline in enrolment statistics in STEM related subjects as the level of education increases. Within the sciences, at 'O' level, integrated science has high number of entries whilst pure science subjects such as biology, chemistry, physics and ...

  6. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (Panalysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine.

  8. The efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program on CPAP adherence in OSA: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lam, Jamie C M; Weaver, Terri E; Ip, Mary S M

    2014-09-01

    Poor adherence to CPAP treatment in OSA adversely affects the effectiveness of this therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program in improving adherence to CPAP treatment in subjects with OSA. Subjects with newly diagnosed OSA were recruited into this RCT. The control group received usual advice on the importance of CPAP therapy and its care. The intervention group received usual care plus a brief motivational enhancement education program directed at enhancing the subjects' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy to use CPAP through the use of a 25-min video, a 20-min patient-centered interview, and a 10-min telephone follow-up. Self-reported daytime sleepiness adherence-related cognitions and quality of life were assessed at 1 month and 3 months. CPAP usage data were downloaded at the completion of this 3-month study. One hundred subjects with OSA (mean ± SD, age 52 ± 10 years; Epworth Sleepiness Scales [ESS], 9 ± 5; median [interquartile range] apnea-hypopnea index, 29 [20, 53] events/h) prescribed CPAP treatment were recruited. The intervention group had better CPAP use (higher daily CPAP usage by 2 h/d [Cohen d = 1.33, P motivational enhancement education in addition to usual care were more likely to show better adherence to CPAP treatment, with greater improvements in treatment self-efficacy and daytime sleepiness. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01173406; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  9. Detection of Secondary Causes and Coexisting Diseases in Hypertensive Patients: OSA and PA Are the Common Causes Associated with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Nanfang; Yao, Xiaoguang; Chang, Guijuan; Zhang, Delian; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Wang, Menghui; Luo, Qin; Kong, Jianqiong

    2017-01-01

    Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was 39.5% among 3003 hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was the most common, accounting for 24.7% of patients, followed by primary aldosteronism (PA) (5.8%) and PA + OSA (4.9%). Endocrine hypertension accounted for 12.1% of patients, including 10.7% of patients with PA, 1.1% with hypothyroidism, 0.1% with pheochromocytoma, 0.1% with Cushing's syndrome, and 0.1% with hyperthyroidism, respectively. Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for 31.3%, 27.5%, and 16.6% of total patients, respectively. There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension. OSA was the most common in each age- and BMI-stratified group. Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

  10. Detection of Secondary Causes and Coexisting Diseases in Hypertensive Patients: OSA and PA Are the Common Causes Associated with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Methods. Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Results. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was 39.5% among 3003 hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA was the most common, accounting for 24.7% of patients, followed by primary aldosteronism (PA (5.8% and PA + OSA (4.9%. Endocrine hypertension accounted for 12.1% of patients, including 10.7% of patients with PA, 1.1% with hypothyroidism, 0.1% with pheochromocytoma, 0.1% with Cushing’s syndrome, and 0.1% with hyperthyroidism, respectively. Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for 31.3%, 27.5%, and 16.6% of total patients, respectively. There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension. OSA was the most common in each age- and BMI-stratified group. Conclusion. Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

  11. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine does not improve blood pressure in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; De Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2014-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with hypertension, which is one of the intermediary mechanisms leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and telemedicine support on blood pressure (BP) reduction in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. A multi-center randomized controlled trial that compared standard CPAP care and CPAP care and a telemedicine intervention. Sleep clinics in France. 107 adult (18-65 years old) OSA patients (AHI > 15 events/h) with a high cardiovascular risk (cardiovascular SCORE > 5% or secondary prevention). Patients were randomized to either standard care CPAP (n = 53) or CPAP and telemedicine (n = 54). Patients assigned to telemedicine were equipped with a smartphone for uploading BP measurements, CPAP adherence, sleepiness, and quality of life data; in return, they received pictograms containing health-related messages. The main outcome was home self-measured BP and secondary outcomes were cardiovascular risk evolution, objective physical activity, CPAP adherence, sleepiness and quality of life. Self-measured BP did not improve in either group (telemedicine or standard care). Patients in primary prevention showed greater BP reduction with CPAP treatment than those in secondary prevention. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine alone did not improve blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. This study emphasizes the need for diet and physical activity training programs in addition to CPAP when aiming at decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors in these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01226641.

  12. Integrating economic analysis and the science of climate instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Darwin C.; Behl, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific understanding of climate change and climate instability has undergone a revolution in the past decade with the discovery of numerous past climate transitions so rapid, and so unlike the expectation of smooth climate changes, that they would have previously been unbelievable to the scientific community. Models commonly used by economists to assess the wisdom of adapting to human-induced climate change, rather than averting it, lack the ability to incorporate this new scientific knowledge. Here, we identify and explain the nature of recent scientific advances, and describe the key ways in which failure to reflect new knowledge in economic analysis skews the results of that analysis. This includes the understanding that economic optimization models reliant on convexity are inherently unable to determine an 'optimal' policy solution. It is incumbent on economists to understand and to incorporate the new science in their models, and on climatologists and other scientists to understand the basis of economic models so that they can assist in this essential effort. (author)

  13. Content analysis of science material in junior school-based inquiry and science process skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonah, S.; Nuvitalia, D.; Saptaningrum, E.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain the characteristic map of science material content in Junior School which can be optimized using inquiry learning model to tone the science process skill. The research method used in the form of qualitative research on SMP science curriculum document in Indonesia. Documents are reviewed on the basis of the basic competencies of each level as well as their potential to trace the skills of the science process using inquiry learning models. The review was conducted by the research team. The results obtained, science process skills in grade 7 have the potential to be trained using the model of inquiry learning by 74%, 8th grade by 83%, and grade 9 by 75%. For the dominant process skills in each chapter and each level is the observing skill. Follow-up research is used to develop instructional inquiry tools to trace the skills of the science process.

  14. Scheduling science on television: A comparative analysis of the representations of science in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Markus; Karamanidou, Christina; Mörä, Tuomo; Petkova, Kristina; Trench, Brian

    2012-11-01

    This article explores the factors that influence the volume and structure of science programming by European television broadcasters, focussing on differences among channel patterns. It proposes three factors as relevant to understanding differences in science programming: A) the segmentation/fragmentation of television markets; B) the presence of middle sized commercial channels; C) the dependency of public service TV channels on commercial income (trading/advertising). We identified countries whose channel patterns encourage a varied picture of science - namely Sweden, Finland and Germany. They are distinguished from those which show a less differentiated picture and present a smaller volume of science content on television - such as Great Britain and Ireland. Finally, we identified countries whose channel patterns don't encourage a varied picture of science - namely Spain, Greece, Bulgaria and Estonia - and these countries present their small volume of science content at off-peak hours, in contrast to patterns in Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Environment, Science and Innovation. Analysis from the Perspective of Science Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, A.; Lopera, E.; Cornejo, M.

    2015-01-01

    )Humankind is facing important challenges. Environmental degradation, of which climate change is the main exponent, is one of them. Science and innovation are key factors to address this challenge, in a context in which is becoming more evident the lack of commitment of society with scientific and technological development. Taking this into consideration, this paper analyzes the interaction among environment, science and innovation from the perspective of science studies.

  16. Gravity Probe B data analysis: II. Science data and their handling prior to the final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbergleit, A S; Conklin, J W; Heifetz, M I; Holmes, T; Li, J; Mandel, I; Solomonik, V G; Stahl, K; P W Worden Jr; Everitt, C W F; Adams, M; Berberian, J E; Bencze, W; Clarke, B; Al-Jadaan, A; Keiser, G M; Kozaczuk, J A; Al-Meshari, M; Muhlfelder, B; Salomon, M

    2015-01-01

    The results of the Gravity Probe B relativity science mission published in Everitt et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 221101) required a rather sophisticated analysis of experimental data due to several unexpected complications discovered on-orbit. We give a detailed description of the Gravity Probe B data reduction. In the first paper (Silbergleit et al Class. Quantum Grav. 22 224018) we derived the measurement models, i.e., mathematical expressions for all the signals to analyze. In the third paper (Conklin et al Class. Quantum Grav. 22 224020) we explain the estimation algorithms and their program implementation, and discuss the experiment results obtained through data reduction. This paper deals with the science data preparation for the main analysis yielding the relativistic drift estimates. (paper)

  17. Examining the Nexus of Science Communication and Science Education: A Content Analysis of Genetics News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.

    2015-01-01

    Access to science information via communications in the media is rapidly becoming a central means for the public to gain knowledge about scientific advancements. However, little is known about what content knowledge is essential for understanding issues presented in news media. Very few empirical studies attempt to bridge science communication and…

  18. An Analysis of Science Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Perceptions about the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out to identify the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of student teachers and their metacognitive perceptions about the nature of science. The participants of the study totaled 336 student teachers enrolled in the elementary science education division of the department of elementary education at the…

  19. Development of Computer Science Disciplines - A Social Network Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Manh Cuong; Klamma, Ralf; Jarke, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to many other scientific disciplines, computer science considers conference publications. Conferences have the advantage of providing fast publication of papers and of bringing researchers together to present and discuss the paper with peers. Previous work on knowledge mapping focused on the map of all sciences or a particular domain based on ISI published JCR (Journal Citation Report). Although this data covers most of important journals, it lacks computer science conference and ...

  20. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  1. Development of materials science by Ab initio powder diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    Crystal structure is most important information to understand properties and behavior of target materials. Technique to analyze unknown crystal structures from powder diffraction data (ab initio powder diffraction analysis) enables us to reveal crystal structures of target materials even we cannot obtain a single crystal. In the present article, three examples are introduced to show the power of this technique in the field of materials sciences. The first example is dehydration/hydration of the pharmaceutically relevant material erythrocycin A. In this example, crystal structures of two anhydrous phases were determined from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and their different dehydration/hydration properties were understood from the crystal structures. In the second example, a crystal structure of a three dimensional metal-organic-framework prepared by a mechanochemical reaction was determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and the reaction scheme has been revealed. In the third example, a crystal structure of a novel oxide-ion conductor of a new structure family was determined from synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data which gave an important information to understand the mechanism of the oxide-ion conduction. (author)

  2. Brain Based Learning in Science Education in Turkey: Descriptive Content and Meta Analysis of Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, M. Diyaddin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at performing content analysis and meta-analysis on dissertations related to brain-based learning in science education to find out the general trend and tendency of brain-based learning in science education and find out the effect of such studies on achievement and attitude of learners with the ultimate aim of raising awareness…

  3. Mapping science communication scholarship in China: Content analysis on breadth, depth and agenda of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linjia; Huang, Biaowen; Wu, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the cause and relation between government, scholars, disciplines, and societal aspects, presenting data from a content analysis of published research with the key word "science communication" (Symbol: see text) in the title or in the key words, including academic papers published in journals and dissertations from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Of these, 572 articles were coded using categories that identified science topics, theory, authorship, and methods used in each study to examine the breadth and depth that Science Communication has achieved since its inception in China. This study explored the dominance of History and Philosophy of Science scholars rather than Communication scholars. We also explored how science communication research began from theories and concepts instead of science report analysis and the difficulties of the shift from public understanding of science to public engagement in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Deciding on Science: An Analysis of Higher Education Science Student Major Choice Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen Wilson

    The number of college students choosing to major in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in the United States affects the size and quality of the American workforce (Winters, 2009). The number of graduates in these academic fields has been on the decline in the United States since the 1960s, which, according to Lips and McNeil (2009), has resulted in a diminished ability of the United States to compete in science and engineering on the world stage. The purpose of this research was to learn why students chose a STEM major and determine what decision criteria influenced this decision. According to Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), the key components of decision-making can be quantified and used as predictors of behavior. In this study the STEM majors' decision criteria were compared between different institution types (two-year, public four-year, and private four-year), and between demographic groups (age and sex). Career, grade, intrinsic, self-efficacy, and self-determination were reported as motivational factors by a majority of science majors participating in this study. Few students reported being influenced by friends and family when deciding to major in science. Science students overwhelmingly attributed the desire to solve meaningful problems as central to their decision to major in science. A majority of students surveyed credited a teacher for influencing their desire to pursue science as a college major. This new information about the motivational construct of the studied group of science majors can be applied to the previously stated problem of not enough STEM majors in the American higher education system to provide workers required to fill the demand of a globally STEM-competitive United States (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine, 2010).

  5. Summary of research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science during the period October 1, 1983 through March 31, 1984 is summarized.

  6. Summary of research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989 is summarized.

  7. Analysis of the Interdisciplinary Nature of Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebor, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Library and information science (LIS) is highly interdisciplinary by nature and is affected by the incessant evolution of technologies. A recent study surveying research trends in the years 2002-6 at various information science departments worldwide has found that a clear trend was identified in Masters theses and doctoral dissertations of social…

  8. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  9. Science Teachers' Data Use Practices: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass; Monroy, Carlos; Bell, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a debate on students' low science achievement in the United States, particularly among low income, African American students, and Latino students. An important part of the education community's response to low achievement generally and in science specifically has been the implementation of high stakes accountability policies. Because of…

  10. Adoção sequencial de tecnologia pós-colheita aplicada à cafeicultura em Viçosa (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wemerson Gomes Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo de adoção tecnológica na agricultura é de fundamental importância para o aumento da produtividade e a melhoria da qualidade dos produtos agrícolas. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os determinantes da adoção da tecnologia pós-colheita na cafeicultura em Viçosa (MG, no ano de 2007. Os resultados sugerem que o modelo sequencial é o mais apropriado à análise e que as variáveis associativismo, rentabilidade, treinamento, crédito, capital próprio e escolaridade são os principais determinantes na adoção de estágios mais elevados de tecnologia pós-colheita aplicada à cafeicultura. Os efeitos marginais mais importantes para adoção de maiores níveis tecnológicos são associativismo, treinamento, crédito e rentabilidade.The process of tecnology adoption in agriculture is fundamentally important for increasing productivity and improving the quality of agricultural products. The objective of this study is to evaluate the factors that determine the technological adoption of post-harvest coffee employed in Viçosa (MG in the year of 2007. The results indicate that the sequential model is more appropriate for the analysis and the most important determinants for the adoption of higher levels of post-harvest technology are association, profitability, training, education, credit, stock of capital, and years at school. The most important marginal effects for the adoption of higher levels of post-harvest technology are association, training, credit and profitability.

  11. An analysis of Science Olympiad participants' perceptions regarding their experience with the science and engineering academic competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Jennifer L.

    Science education and literacy, along with a focus on the other STEM fields, have been a center of attention on the global scale for decades. The 1950's race to space is often considered the starting point. Through the years, the attention has spread to highlight the United States' scientific literacy rankings on international testing. The ever-expanding global economy and global workplace make the need for literacy in the STEM fields a necessity. Science and academic competitions are worthy of study to determine the overall and specific positive and negative aspects of their incorporation in students' educational experiences. Science Olympiad is a national science and engineering competition that engages thousands of students each year. The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of Science Olympiad participants, in terms of science learning and interest, 21st century skills and abilities, perceived influence on careers, and the overall benefits of being involved in Science Olympiad. The study sought to determine if there were any differences of perception when gender was viewed as a factor. Data was acquired through the Science Olympiad survey database. It consisted of 635 usable surveys, split evenly between males and females. This study employed a mixed methods analysis. The qualitative data allowed the individual perceptions of the respondents to be highlighted and acknowledged, while the quantitative data allowed generalizations to be identified. The qualitative and quantitative data clearly showed that Science Olympiad had an impact on the career choices of participants. The qualitative data showed that participants gained an increased level of learning and interest in science and STEM areas, 21st century skills, and overall positive benefits as a result of being involved. The qualitative data was almost exclusively positive. The quantitative data however, did not capture the significance of each researched category that the qualitative

  12. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: An analysis of inpatient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sei Y; Sylvester, Michael J; Patel, Varesh R; Zaki, Michael; Baredes, Soly; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2018-05-01

    Although previous studies have reported increased perioperative complications among obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients undergoing any surgery requiring general anesthesia, there is a paucity of literature addressing the impact of OSA on postoperative transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) complications. The aim of this study was to analyze postoperative outcomes in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery patients with OSA. Secondarily, we examined patient characteristics and comorbidities. Retrospective analysis. The 2002 to 2013 National Inpatient Sample was queried for patients undergoing TSS for pituitary neoplasm. Patients with an additional diagnosis of OSA were identified, and compared to a non-OSA cohort. There were 17,777 patients identified; 5.0% (N = 889) had an additional diagnosis of OSA. The OSA cohort had more comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, coagulopathy, hypertension, hypothyroidism, liver disease, obesity, peripheral vascular disease, renal failure, acromegaly, and Cushing's syndrome. Postoperatively, OSA was independently associated with increased risks of tracheostomy (P = .015) and hypoxemia (P transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, OSA was associated with higher rates of certain pulmonary and airway complications. OSA was not associated with increased non-pulmonary/airway complications or inpatient mortality, despite older average age and higher comorbidity rates. 2C. Laryngoscope, 128:1027-1032, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. The predictive value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for CPAP titration in OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Huang, Yun-Chen; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chiu, Tsan-Jen; Yang, Mei-Chen

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to identify possible upper airway obstructions causing a higher continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level, utilizing drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). A total of 76 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent CPAP titration and DISE. DISE findings were recorded using the VOTE classification system. Polysomnographic (PSG) data, anthropometric variables, and patterns of airway collapse during DISE were analyzed with CPAP titration levels. A significant association was found between the CPAP titration level and BMI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and neck circumference (NC) (P CPAP titration level (P CPAP titration level and any other collapse at the tongue base or epiglottis. By analyzing PSG data, anthropometric variables, and DISE results with CPAP titration levels, we can better understand possible mechanisms resulting in a higher CPAP titration level. We believe that the role of DISE can be expanded as a tool to identify the possible anatomical structures that may be corrected by oral appliance therapy or surgical intervention to improve CPAP compliance.

  14. Analysis of Sci-Hub downloads of computer science papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andročec Darko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific knowledge is disseminated by research papers. Most of the research literature is copyrighted by publishers and avail- able only through paywalls. Recently, some websites offer most of the recent content for free. One of them is the controversial website Sci-Hub that enables access to more than 47 million pirated research papers. In April 2016, Science Magazine published an article on Sci-Hub activity over the period of six months and publicly released the Sci-Hub’s server log data. The mentioned paper aggregates the view that relies on all downloads and for all fields of study, but these findings might be hiding interesting patterns within computer science. The mentioned Sci-Hub log data was used in this paper to analyse downloads of computer science papers based on DBLP’s list of computer science publications. The top downloads of computer science papers were analysed, together with the geographical location of Sci-Hub users, the most downloaded publishers, types of papers downloaded, and downloads of computer science papers per publication year. The results of this research can be used to improve legal access to the most relevant scientific repositories or journals for the computer science field.

  15. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  16. Piperaceae C. Agardh da Estação Experimental Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG Piperaceae C. Agardh from the Experimental Station of "Mata do Paraíso", Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria de Carvalho-Okano

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento dos representantes de Piperaceae na Estação Experimental Mata do Paraíso, no município de Viçosa, MG (20º42'S e 42º55'W, coberta por Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual Montana. No período de março/97 a junho/98 foram realizadas 30 visitas quinzenais à Estação para coleta de material botânico que se encontra depositado no herbário VIC da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram reconhecidos 18 táxons distribuídos nos gêneros Piper L. com 14 espécies, Ottonia Spreng. com três e Pothomorphe Miq. com uma espécie. As espécies mais abundantes foram Piper caldense C.DC., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper vicosanum Yunck. São apresentadas chaves para identificação dos gêneros e espécies, descrições, ilustrações e comentários.An inventory of the Piperaceae species was made at the Experimental Station of "Mata do Paraíso" in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State (20º42'S and 42º55'W, an area covered by the Semideciduous Mesophytic Montana Forest. Thirty visits were made fortnightly to the station, from March/1997 to June/1998, in order to collect botanical material which was deposited in the VIC herbarium (Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Eighteen taxa, represented by the genera Piper L. (14 species, Ottonia Spreng (3 species, and Potliotnorplie Miq. (1 species were recognized. The most abundant species were Piper caldense CDC, Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper vicosanum Yunck. Identification keys for the genera and species as well as species descriptions, illustrations and comments are presented.

  17. Discrete calculus applied analysis on graphs for computational science

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, Leo J

    2010-01-01

    This unique text brings together into a single framework current research in the three areas of discrete calculus, complex networks, and algorithmic content extraction. Many example applications from several fields of computational science are provided.

  18. International production on science oriented towards data: analysis of the terms data science and e-science in scopus and the web of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Santiago Bufrem

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: current configuration in the dynamics of production and scientific communication reveals the role of Science Oriented Towards Data, a comprehensive conception represented, mainly, by terms such as "e-Science" and "Data Science". Objective: To present the global scientific production on Science Oriented Towards Data by using the terms "e-Science" and "Data Science" in Scopus and the Web of Science during 2006-2016. Methodology: The study is divided into five phases: a search for information in Scopus and the Web of Science data bases; b obtaining bibliometric records; c complementing keywords; d data correction and crossing; e analytical data representation. Results: The most important terms within the analyzed scientific production were Distributed computer systems (2006, Grid computing (2007-2013 and Big data (2014- 2016. In the area of Library and Information Science, the emphasis was on Digital Library and Open Access issues, highlighting the importance of the field for the discussions on the devices providing access to scientific information in digital media. Conclusions: Under a diachronic look, it was found a visible shift of focus, from issues approaching data exchange operations to an analytical perspective for finding patterns in large data volumes

  19. Ten years of science news: A longitudinal analysis of scientific culture in the Spanish digital press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Tamar; Figuerola, Carlos G; Quintanilla, Miguel Á

    2016-08-01

    This article presents our study of science coverage in the digital Spanish press over the last decade. We employed automated information retrieval procedures to create a corpus of 50,763 text units dealing with science and technology, and used automated text-analysis procedures in order to provide a general picture of the structure, characteristics and evolution of science news in Spain. We found between 6% and 7% of science coverage, a clear high proportion of biomedicine and predominance of science over technology, although we also detected an increase in technological content during the second half of the decade. Analysing the extrinsic and intrinsic features of science culture, we found a predominance of intrinsic features that still need further analysis. Our attempt to use specialised software to examine big data was effective, and allowed us to reach these preliminary conclusions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. What Is Citizen Science? – A Scientometric Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullenberg, Christopher; Kasperowski, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Context The concept of citizen science (CS) is currently referred to by many actors inside and outside science and research. Several descriptions of this purportedly new approach of science are often heard in connection with large datasets and the possibilities of mobilizing crowds outside science to assists with observations and classifications. However, other accounts refer to CS as a way of democratizing science, aiding concerned communities in creating data to influence policy and as a way of promoting political decision processes involving environment and health. Objective In this study we analyse two datasets (N = 1935, N = 633) retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) with the aim of giving a scientometric description of what the concept of CS entails. We account for its development over time, and what strands of research that has adopted CS and give an assessment of what scientific output has been achieved in CS-related projects. To attain this, scientometric methods have been combined with qualitative approaches to render more precise search terms. Results Results indicate that there are three main focal points of CS. The largest is composed of research on biology, conservation and ecology, and utilizes CS mainly as a methodology of collecting and classifying data. A second strand of research has emerged through geographic information research, where citizens participate in the collection of geographic data. Thirdly, there is a line of research relating to the social sciences and epidemiology, which studies and facilitates public participation in relation to environmental issues and health. In terms of scientific output, the largest body of articles are to be found in biology and conservation research. In absolute numbers, the amount of publications generated by CS is low (N = 1935), but over the past decade a new and very productive line of CS based on digital platforms has emerged for the collection and classification of data. PMID:26766577

  1. An analysis of high-performing science students' preparation for collegiate science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Karen

    This mixed-method study surveyed first year high-performing science students who participated in high-level courses such as International Baccalaureate (IB), Advanced Placement (AP), and honors science courses in high school to determine their perception of preparation for academic success at the collegiate level. The study used 52 students from an honors college campus and surveyed the students and their professors. The students reported that they felt better prepared for academic success at the collegiate level by taking these courses in high school (pstudent GPA with honors science courses (n=55 and Pearson's r=-0.336), while AP courses (n=47 and Pearson's r=0.0016) and IB courses (n=17 and Pearson's r=-0.2716) demonstrated no correlation between perception of preparation and GPA. Students reported various themes that helped or hindered their perception of academic success once at the collegiate level. Those themes that reportedly helped students were preparedness, different types of learning, and teacher qualities. Students reported in a post-hoc experience that more lab time, rigorous coursework, better teachers, and better study techniques helped prepare them for academic success at the collegiate level. Students further reported on qualities of teachers and teaching that helped foster their academic abilities at the collegiate level, including teacher knowledge, caring, teaching style, and expectations. Some reasons for taking high-level science courses in high school include boosting GPA, college credit, challenge, and getting into better colleges.

  2. Evaluating social science and humanities knowledge production: An exploratory analysis of dynamics in science systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, P.P.; Nijkamp, P.; Verbraak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge is gaining increasing importance in modern-day society as a factor of production and, ultimately, growth. This article explores the dynamics in university knowledge production and its effect on the state of university-industry-policy exchange in the Netherlands. Science systems are said to

  3. Science Textbooks' Use of Graphical Representation: A Descriptive Analysis of Four Sixth Grade Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, Scott W.; McTigue, Erin M.; Kim, Suyeon; Jennings, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school teachers tend to rely heavily on texts that have become increasing more visual. There is little information available about the graphical demands of general middle grades' science texts. The purpose of this study was to quantify the type and quality of the graphical representations and how they interacted with the textual material in…

  4. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  5. Scientific production of Sports Science in Iran: A Scientometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminifirouz, Masoud

    2014-06-01

    Physical education and sports science is one of the branches of humanities. The purpose of this study is determining the quantitative and qualitative rate of progress in scientific Production of Iran's researcher in Web of Science. Research Methods is Scientometric survey and Statistical Society Includes 233 Documents From 1993 to 2012 are indexed in ISI. Results showed that the time of this study, Iranian researchers' published 233 documents in this base during this period of time which has been cited 1106(4.76 times on average). The H- index has also been 17. Iran's most scientific productions in sports science realm was indexed in 2010 with 57 documents and the least in 2000. By considering the numbers of citations and the obtained H- index, it can be said that the quality of Iranian's articles is rather acceptable but in comparison to prestigious universities and large number of professors and university students in this field, the quantity of outputted articles is very low.

  6. Learning on the Trail: A Content Analysis of a University Arboretum's Exemplary Interpretive Science Signage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, James H.; Clary, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    This is an in-depth content analysis of an exemplary outdoor science signage system. The authors offer useful criteria for assessing the quality of the "opportunity to learn" within science signage systems in informal educational sites. This research may be helpful in the design or improvement of trailside interpretive signage systems.

  7. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  8. The use of quasi-experiments in the social sciences : A content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aussems, M.E.; Boomsma, A.; Snijders, T.A.B.

    This article examines the use of various research designs in the social sciences as well as the choices that are made when a quasi-experimental design is used. A content analysis was carried out on articles published in 18 social science journals with various impact factors. The presence of

  9. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  10. Report and analysis of S-cube. Super science seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Kentaro; Yasuhara, Yuko

    2004-04-01

    At the ITBL Promotion Office, the science seminar (S-cube: Super Science Seminar) which was held for the first time on Wed., October 30, 2002 has been held more than 50 times. Lectures have been invited from many universities and research organizations. Seminars have been held which are of interest to junior high school students and high school students. In this article, in addition to introducing the seminars that have been held, attention is paid to the theme of the seminars, and what management considerations are necessary in order to increase participants in the future. (author)

  11. The importance of neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TM as a predictor of difficult intubation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ezzat Abdel Naim

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Difficult intubation in OSA obese patients was independently associated with a Mallampati score of III or IV, and NC/TM ⩾5.15. Moreover, NC/TM yielded a high sensitivity, specificity and a negative predictive value.

  12. High Adherence to CPAP Treatment Does Not Prevent the Continuation of Weight Gain among Severely Obese OSAS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Minna; Kurki, Samu; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in a dose-response manner. We determined adherence and weight control, as well as their predictors, among long-term CPAP users. Methods: Cohort of 1,023 OSAS patients had used CPAP on average of 6.6 ± 1.2 years. BMI was determined at baseline and at follow-up visits. There were 7.4 ± 1.7 BMI and 6.5 ± 1.8 CPAP usage measurements per patient on average. Using the Bayesian hierarchical model, we determined the patients' individual trends of BMI and adherence development. Patients with significantly increasing or decreasing trends were identified at the posterior probability level of > 90%. Results: The mean age in the cohort was 55.6 ± 9.8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnea index 33.7 ± 23.1, and CPAP usage 6.0 ± 1.8 h/day. The majority of patients had no significant change in BMI (mean annual weight gain 0.04 ± 0.29 kg/m2) or CPAP adherence (mean annual increase 11.4 ± 7.0 min/day). However, at the individual level, 10% of the patients showed significant annual weight gain (0.63 ± 0.35 kg/m2) during the 5-year follow-up period. At baseline these patients were already more severely obese (mean BMI 40.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) despite being younger (mean 50.9 ± 9.5 years) than the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: In the majority of CPAP-treated OSAS patients, weight did not significantly change but gained slightly slower than in age-matched population in general. However, in 10% of patients, high adherence to CPAP treatment did not prevent the continuation of weight gain. These patients present a high-risk group for OSAS-related multimorbidity later in life. Citation: Myllylä M, Kurki S, Anttalainen U, Saaresranta T, Laitinen T. High adherence to CPAP treatment does not prevent the continuation of weight gain among severely obese OSAS patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):519–528. PMID:26888588

  13. When complexity science meets implementation science: a theoretical and empirical analysis of systems change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Churruca, Kate; Long, Janet C; Ellis, Louise A; Herkes, Jessica

    2018-04-30

    Implementation science has a core aim - to get evidence into practice. Early in the evidence-based medicine movement, this task was construed in linear terms, wherein the knowledge pipeline moved from evidence created in the laboratory through to clinical trials and, finally, via new tests, drugs, equipment, or procedures, into clinical practice. We now know that this straight-line thinking was naïve at best, and little more than an idealization, with multiple fractures appearing in the pipeline. The knowledge pipeline derives from a mechanistic and linear approach to science, which, while delivering huge advances in medicine over the last two centuries, is limited in its application to complex social systems such as healthcare. Instead, complexity science, a theoretical approach to understanding interconnections among agents and how they give rise to emergent, dynamic, systems-level behaviors, represents an increasingly useful conceptual framework for change. Herein, we discuss what implementation science can learn from complexity science, and tease out some of the properties of healthcare systems that enable or constrain the goals we have for better, more effective, more evidence-based care. Two Australian examples, one largely top-down, predicated on applying new standards across the country, and the other largely bottom-up, adopting medical emergency teams in over 200 hospitals, provide empirical support for a complexity-informed approach to implementation. The key lessons are that change can be stimulated in many ways, but a triggering mechanism is needed, such as legislation or widespread stakeholder agreement; that feedback loops are crucial to continue change momentum; that extended sweeps of time are involved, typically much longer than believed at the outset; and that taking a systems-informed, complexity approach, having regard for existing networks and socio-technical characteristics, is beneficial. Construing healthcare as a complex adaptive system

  14. Memory and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Anna; Bucks, Romola S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine episodic memory performance in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results from individual studies examining the impact of OSA on episodic memory performance. The performance of individuals with OSA was compared to healthy controls or normative data. Participants Forty-two studies were included, comprising 2,294 adults with untreated OSA and 1,364 healthy controls. Studies that recorded information about participants at baseline prior to treatment interventions were included in the analysis. Measurements Participants were assessed with tasks that included a measure of episodic memory: immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and/or recognition memory. Results: The results of the meta-analyses provide evidence that individuals with OSA are significantly impaired when compared to healthy controls on verbal episodic memory (immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and recognition) and visuo-spatial episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall), but not visual immediate recall or visuo-spatial learning. When patients were compared to norms, negative effects of OSA were found only in verbal immediate and delayed recall. Conclusions: This meta-analysis contributes to understanding of the nature of episodic memory deficits in individuals with OSA. Impairments to episodic memory are likely to affect the daily functioning of individuals with OSA. Citation Wallace A; Bucks RS. Memory and obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2013;36(2):203-220. PMID:23372268

  15. A POST-MODERNIST ANALYSIS OF THE NEURO-SCIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Rand Afrikaans University. Anita Stuart. D Litt et Phil ... of neuro-science, including the assumptive framework upon which the dominant discourse in this field is based, which ultimately serves to maintain .... 1978:52; 1979:67). Each narrative or text, once embraced, “invites certain.

  16. Analysis Of Career Aspirations Of Agricultural Science Graduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the career aspirations of agricultural science graduates from Nigerian Universities of Agriculture. A random sample of 215 graduating students of agriculture was selected using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and the ...

  17. Pre- and in-therapy predictive score models of adult OSAS patients with poor adherence pattern on nCPAP therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeying Wang,1,2 Alan F Geater,3 Yanling Chai,1 Jiahong Luo,2 Xiaoqun Niu,1 Bing Hai,1 Jingting Qin,1 Yongxia Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand Objectives: To identify patterns of adherence to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP use in the first 3 months of therapy among newly diagnosed adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAS and their predictors. To develop pretherapy and in-therapy scores to predict adherence pattern. Methods: Newly diagnosed adult OSAS patients were consecutively recruited from March to August 2013. Baseline clinical information and measures such as Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, and The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI at baseline and at the end of 3rd-week therapy were collected. Twelve weeks’ adherence data were collected from the nCPAP memory card, and K-means cluster analysis was used to explore adherence patterns. Predictive scores were developed from the coefficients of cumulative logit models of adherence patterns using variables available at baseline and after 3 weeks of therapy. Performance of the score was validated using 500 bootstrap resamples. Results: Seventy six patients completed a 12-week follow-up. Three patterns were revealed. Patients were identified as developing an adherence pattern that was poor (n=14, mean ± SD, 2.3±0.9 hours per night, moderate (n=19, 5.3±0.6 hours per night, or good (n=43, 6.8±0.3 hours per night. Cumulative logit regression models (good → moderate → poor revealed independent baseline

  18. The Intellectual Structure of Metacognitive Scaffolding in Science Education: A Co-Citation Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Yu; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Sufen; Lo, Hao-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The issues of metacognitive scaffolding in science education (MSiSE) have become increasingly popular and important. Differing from previous content reviews, this study proposes a series of quantitative computer-based analyses by integrating document co-citation analysis, social network analysis, and exploratory factor analysis to explore the…

  19. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    Cultural-historical theory is primarily a psychological theory about and human action and development within meaningful contexts. As a psychologically-oriented theory, it can be relevant to science education research, even if it was not been developed or elaborated specifically in relation...... to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  20. Program Analysis and Design Requirements for tne National Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    shell of an old exposition building with secondhand furniture to display exhibit items, to the Ontario Science Center, which is a more modem building...Storage Area Pigeonhole storage cabinets for children’s school books , coats, and boots are provided at the Indianapolis Center. The Ontario center...used shopping carts for school groups to store their coats and books . They do not work well according to center staff and are cumbersome and unsightly

  1. Biological sciences teaching undergraduates’ environmental knowledge: a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana do Nascimento Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, environmental issues have been addressed in a way that goes beyond the natural impacts, embracing socio-economic, political and cultural aspects. This paper makes a description of the types of environmental conceptions, giving special emphasis to the interactions that permeate it, and develops an empirical work by analyzing the conceptions about the environmental knowledge of students majoring in a teacher preparation course on biological sciences of a university in the State of Bahia, Brazil. In a qualitative research, data were collected by application of a questionnaire with open questions with answers in text and drawings. The results revealed a predominance of naturalistic conceptions, while socio-environmental conceptions of systemic or socio-metabolic characteristics were not found. These findings lead to the need for the integration of these critical approaches about the environmental issue in Sciences and Biology teachers’ training, emphasizing the interactions between work, nature and society. Finally, some suggestions also emerge for future research, among which to analyze the biological sciences university teachers’ environmental conceptions and an action-research with these investigated undergraduates concerning environmental critical approaches.

  2. Inclusão digital de jovens na microrregião de Viçosa/Minas Gerais: dimensões políticas e subjetivas | Digital inclusion of youngsters in the Viçosa/Minas Gerais micro region: political and subjective dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves de Alves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo apresenta resultados de um diagnóstico das implicações das políticas públicas de inclusão digital nas escolas de ensino médio da microrregião de Viçosa. Analisamos a amplitude e os efeitos destas políticas para os jovens da referida região, explorando qualitativamente a dimensão da inclusão, especialmente através da análise dos usos da tecnologia por parte dos jovens considerados incluídos. Constatamos que a inserção dos jovens em políticas de inclusão digital através da escola é limitada e a internet tem sido usada pelos jovens entrevistados predominantemente como espaço de sociabilidade e de pesquisas escolares. O acesso à internet apresenta inúmeras desigualdades. Palavras-chave inclusão digital, internet, rede sociotécnica, jovens, políticas públicas Abstract This article presents results from the diagnosis of the implications of public policies for digital inclusion in secondary schools of the micro-region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The amplitude and effect of these policies for the youngsters of this region were analyzed, exploring qualitatively the dimensions of the inclusion, especially through the analysis of the uses of technology by the teenagers considered. It could be verified that the insertion of these youngsters in digital inclusion policies at school is limited, and that the Internet has been used by the juveniles interviewed predominantly as a space for sociability and school research. Access to the Internet represents innumerable inequalities. Keywords digital inclusion, internet, socio-technical web, youngsters, public policies

  3. Algunas plantas leñosas del Trapecio Amazónico Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1956-09-01

    Full Text Available La lista de plantas que compone este breve artículo fue confeccionada extrayendo los datos respectivos de la obra "Woods of Northeastern Peru" de Llewelyn Williams, publicada en FIELD MUSEUMOF NATURAL, HISTORY,BOTANICALSERIES, Vol. 15, pp. 1-509; 1936. En dicha obra el señor Williams cataloga -entre muchas otras de distintas regiones de la Amazonia peruana-- un buen numero de plantas leñosas coleccionadas por él en la hacienda "La Victoria", muy cerca de Leticia, haciéndolas figurar como del Perú. Esto se debe a que en la época que Williams visito aquella región hoy colombiana -a mediados de 1929- no se había perfeccionado todavía, o mejor dicho, no se había puesto en práctica (aunque ya estaba promulgado solemnemente el tratado de fronteras entre Colombia y el Perú que puso fin al litigio que estos dos países sostuvieron por más de un siglo sobre una gran parte del territorio selvoso que se extiende entre los ríos Caquetá y Amazonas. Digo que no se había puesto en practica dicho tratado porque, si bien se firmó el 24 de marzo de 1922 y se promulgo el 31 de marzo de 1938, sólo vino a ejecutarse in situ el 17 de agosto de 1930, después de localizada y amojonada la frontera, mediante la formalidad del acto de entrega y de recibo de los territorios que les tocó definitivamente a un país y al otro. Fue, pues, un año después de la visita de Williams a dicha región cuando la bandera y las autoridades colombianas reemplazaron efectivamente a las peruanas en el llamado "Trapecio Amazónico", cuya población principal es Leticia, sobre el rio Amazonas.

  4. Calidad nutricional y digestibilidad in situ de ensilajes de cuatro leñosas forrajeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ligia Roa

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tiempo de conservación en la calidad nutricional y la digestibilidad in situ de ensilajes de cuatro plantas leñosas forrajeras: Cratylia argentea (T1, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (T2, Trichanthera gigantea (T3 y Tithonia diversifolia (T4. Las plantas fueron podadas a los seis meses de establecidas y a los tres meses de rebrote, y se utilizaron las hojas y ramas tiernas pequeñas para confeccionar 64 silos de 10 kg, en bolsas plásticas. Cada tiempo de conservación (0, 30, 60 y 90 días tuvo cuatro repeticiones. Para calcular la digestibilidad de la MS, el NT y la FDN y los parámetros de la digestibilidad efectiva (DE, se utilizaron cuatro bovinos fistulados en el rumen, distribuidos en un diseño cuadrado latino 4 x 4. Los ensilajes presentaron aspecto y olor agradables, con pH entre 4,2 y 4,6 y nitrógeno amoniacal menor que 1 %. El porcentaje de NT fue mayor para T1 (2,52 y T2 (2,43, y este nutriente se redujo hasta los 90 días. La DE de la MS, el NT y la FDN fue superior (p < 0,05 en T2, con tendencia a disminuir con el tiempo de conservación (90 días. Este mismo comportamiento presentaron las fracciones A, B y c. El mayor contenido de lignina se resentó en T3 (5,45 % y T4 (5,60 %, indicador que afectó de manera negativa la cinética ruminal. La disminución de la calidad nutricional y la digestibilidad por el tiempo de conservación fue menor para T2 y T3. Se concluye que las propiedades órganolepticas de los ensilajes fueron óptimas, el nitrógeno amoniacal no superó el 1% y el ácido láctico varió entre 1,0 y 3,6 %; mientras que el tiempo afectó en menor grado la composición nutricional del ensilaje de H. rosa-sinensis, con respecto a las otras forrajeras. Se recomienda ensilar para la época de seca y utilizar los ensilajes antes de los 60 días de conservación.

  5. STUDY OF THE SITUATION OF MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF VIÇOSA (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  6. Desenvolvimento dos frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense LAM, em Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monteiro Matarazzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O lulo é um fruto tropical e exótico, originário dos Andes, tem cor laranja quando maduro, e é uma baga globosa, assemelha- se a um tomate, o epicarpo é grosso e coriáceo, sua polpa é verde-clara, pegajosa, ácida e suculenta, contendo muitas sementes. Objetivou-se acompanhar as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento do fruto de lulo, da antese ao amadurecimento completo, em Viçosa-MG. Os frutos apresentaram um padrão de crescimento sigmoidal simples em resposta à variação do tempo. O desenvolvimento do fruto foi dividido em três fases. A primeira foi até os 7,39 dias após a antese (DAA, sendo caracterizada pela alta taxa respiratória, provavelmente devido à intensa multiplicação celular, e o pericarpo apresentava coloração verde-clara. A segunda fase estendeu-se a partir dos 7,39 até os 57,63 DAA, sendo caracterizada pelas taxas máximas das características estudadas. A taxa respiratória cresceu até 45 DAA, mantendo-se estável até os 52 DAA. A última fase estendeu-se a partir dos 57,63 DAA até os 95,00 DAA. Essa fase foi caracterizada pela estabilização nas dimensões e no acúmulo de massa fresca. Nesse período, ocorreu a ascensão climatérica (dos 52 aos 59 DAA. O climatério respiratório ocorreu aos 66 DAA, com pico de produção de CO2 de 110,99 mg de CO2 kg-1h-1. O pós-climatério ocorreu dos 73 aos 95 DAA, quando houve aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis e queda da acidez titulável e vitamina C da polpa. Nessa fase, o pericarpo dos frutos apresentava-se com coloração alaranjada.

  7. First Image Products from EcoSAR - Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Rincon, Rafael; Fatuyinbo, Lola; Bollian, Tobias; Ranson, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Designed especially for forest ecosystem studies, EcoSAR employs state-of-the-art digital beamforming technology to generate wide-swath, high-resolution imagery. EcoSARs dual antenna single-pass imaging capability eliminates temporal decorrelation from polarimetric and interferometric analysis, increasing the signal strength and simplifying models used to invert forest structure parameters. Antennae are physically separated by 25 meters providing single pass interferometry. In this mode the radar is most sensitive to topography. With 32 active transmit and receive channels, EcoSARs digital beamforming is an order of magnitude more versatile than the digital beamforming employed on the upcoming NISAR mission. EcoSARs long wavelength (P-band, 435 MHz, 69 cm) measurements can be used to simulate data products for ESAs future BIOMASS mission, allowing scientists to develop algorithms before the launch of the satellite. EcoSAR can also be deployed to collect much needed data where BIOMASS satellite wont be allowed to collect data (North America, Europe and Arctic), filling in the gaps to keep a watchful eye on the global carbon cycle. EcoSAR can play a vital role in monitoring, reporting and verification schemes of internationals programs such as UN-REDD (United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) benefiting global society. EcoSAR was developed and flown with support from NASA Earth Sciences Technology Offices Instrument Incubator Program.

  8. Literacy learning in secondary school science classrooms: A cross-case analysis of three qualitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Deborah R.; O'Brien, David G.; Moje, Elizabeth B.; Stewart, Roger A.

    The purpose of this cross-case analysis is to illustrate how and why literacy was incorporated into science teaching and learning in three secondary classrooms. Research questions guiding the analysis include: (a) How were literacy events shaped by the teachers' philosophies about teaching science content and teaching students? and (b) How was literacy (reading, writing, and oral language) structured by the teachers and manifested in science lessons? The methodology of ethnography and the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism were employed in the three studies on which the cross-case analysis was based. The researchers assumed the role of participant observers, collecting data over the period of 1 year in each of the three classrooms. Data, in the form of fieldnotes, interviews, and artifacts, were collected. In each study, data were analyzed using the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to determine patterns in the teachers' beliefs about learning and how these influenced their choice of literacy activities. The cross-case analysis was conducted to determine patterns across the three teachers and their classrooms. The findings from this analysis are used to compare how the teachers' philosophies of teaching science and their beliefs about how students learn influenced their use of literacy practices during lessons. Specifically, each teacher's use of literacy activities varied based on his or her beliefs about teaching science concepts. Furthermore, reading, writing, and oral language were important vehicles to learning science concepts within daily classroom activities in the three classrooms.Received: 1 April 1993; Revised: 30 August 1993;

  9. Space science technology: In-situ science. Sample Acquisition, Analysis, and Preservation Project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Kim

    1991-01-01

    The Sample Acquisition, Analysis, and Preservation Project is summarized in outline and graphic form. The objective of the project is to develop component and system level technology to enable the unmanned collection, analysis and preservation of physical, chemical and mineralogical data from the surface of planetary bodies. Technology needs and challenges are identified and specific objectives are described.

  10. Introduction to statistical data analysis for the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    This text provides a computational toolbox that enables students to analyze real datasets and gain the confidence and skills to undertake more sophisticated analyses. Although accessible with any statistical software, the text encourages a reliance on R. For those new to R, an introduction to the software is available in an appendix. The book also includes end-of-chapter exercises as well as an entire chapter of case exercises that help students apply their knowledge to larger datasets and learn more about approaches specific to the life sciences.

  11. Social Representations of the Artisan Work: Study of Case of an Association of Craftsmen in Viçosa, Minas Gerais – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alair Ferreira de Freitas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the social representations of small-scale artisans working for associated Association of Artisans and food producers Homemade of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State-Brazil (Adapac. To this end we have tried to identify and analyse the trajectory of the craftsmen and the reasons for becoming involved with crafts and renditions of the craft for craftsmen linked to this Association. The methodological strategy adopted for the research consisted in case study. As an instrument of data collection, were used to survey participant and application of semi-structured interviews. The method of "content analysis" was used in the Organization and analysis of data. For discussion of the results were defined two categories: (i motivations for the craft and (ii representations of the craft. The results show that this type of work associates itself as the premier opportunity to occupation and income generation found by some members and another as vocation and manual skills. For women the social representations of craft relate the condition of personal satisfaction and possibility of reconciliation with the domestic activities, while for men representations indicate the enhancement of the economic dimension of the craft, distinguishing it from domestic activities.

  12. Influence of environmental variables on the shrub and tree species distribution in two Semideciduous Forest sites in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sheila Isabel do C; Martins, Sebastião V; de Barros, Nairam F; Dias, Herly Carlos T; Kunz, Sustanis H

    2008-09-01

    The floristic variations of shrub and tree components were studied in two sites of Semideciduous Forest, initial forest and mature forest, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, in order to analyze the floristic similarity and the correlations between environmental variables and the distribution of tree species in these forests. Individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > or = 4.8 cm were sampled in twenty 10 x 30 m plots (10 plots in each site). The plots were distributed systematically at 10 m intervals. The environmental variables analyzed were: the canopy openness and soil chemical and texture characteristics. The two forest sites showed clear differences in the levels of canopy openness and soil fertility, factors that reflect the floristic and successional differences of the shrub and tree component, revealed by the low similarity between these forests by cluster analysis. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of environmental variables and species abundance indicated that the species in these forests studied are distributed under strong influence of canopy openness, moisture and soil fertility.

  13. Accelerator mass spectrometry: ultrasensitive analysis of global science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Bird, J.B.; Fink, D.; Herzog, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an innovative analytical technique, measures rare atoms at unprecedented levels of sensitivity, revolutionizing the science of radiocarbon dating and accessing new environmental tracers and chronometers. AMS can study extraterrestrial materials, the earth sciences, the future of the global environment, and the history of mankind. The Shroud of Turin, meteorites from Mars, the crown of Charlemagne, and ancient air trapped in Antarctic ice indicate some of the samples on which AMS has been applied. This book has compiled the diverse set of scientific literature into a single volume, suitable as a text or resource on the major AMS-related outcomes, issues, and methods. It explains how scientists and researchers succeeded in counting Carbon-14 atoms at an extraordinary level, examines the impact of AMS on the branches of scientific technology and historical research, provides an understanding of the chronology and significance of past and present environmental changes, details the advances in AMS equipment, technology, and methods as well as the expansion of AMS research

  14. A Grounded Theory Analysis of Introductory Computer Science Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wellons

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.

  15. Analysis of preservice science teacher information literacy towards research skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, H.; Purnomo, A. R.; Susilo, H.; Ibrohim; Suwono, H.

    2018-04-01

    Information literacy is an important component for university students necessary to support personal development both in academic and real-life setting. This research aimed to analyze the drawing picture of information literacy ability among preservice science teacher in Universitas Negeri Surabaya related to research skills. Purposive sampling was used to determine the amount of participants, thereby involving 208 participants from class year 2014, 2015, and 2016. For gathering the data, the instruments being applied were questionnaire based information literacy test. The data then were analyzed in descriptive manner. The results indicated that the male students outperformed the female students by which they obtained 51.1% correct answer, 2% higher than the female students. Based on the duration of the study, the percentage of correct answers varies among students of class year 2014, 2015, and 2016; 56.2%, 45.1%, and 48.4% respectively. When looked at the average percentage of all students, however, most of items were scored in low category (below 50%) except for type of notification, strategy to accessing information, mastery of terminologies used in research and the essence of the copyright . To conclude, the literacy ability of preservice science teachers is still relatively low and the tendency of information literacy possessed by male students is relatively higher than female students.

  16. Why Implementing History and Philosophy in School Science Education is a Challenge: An Analysis of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höttecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2011-03-01

    Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order to better understand this problem, an analysis of the obstacles of implementing HPS into classrooms was undertaken. The obstacles taken into account were structured in four groups: 1. culture of teaching physics, 2. teachers' skills, epistemological and didactical attitudes and beliefs, 3. institutional framework of science teaching, and 4. textbooks as fundamental didactical support. Implications for more effective implementation of HPS are presented, taking the social nature of educational systems into account.

  17. Stylistic analysis of headlines in science journalism: A case study of New Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek-Kozakowska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    This article explores science journalism in the context of the media competition for readers' attention. It offers a qualitative stylistic perspective on how popular journalism colonizes science communication. It examines a sample of 400 headlines collected over the period of 15 months from the ranking of five 'most-read' articles on the website of the international magazine New Scientist. Dominant lexical properties of the sample are first identified through frequency and keyness survey and then analysed qualitatively from the perspective of the stylistic projection of newsworthiness. The analysis illustrates various degrees of stylistic 'hybridity' in online popularization of scientific research. Stylistic patterns that celebrate, domesticate or personalize science coverage (characteristic of popular journalism) are intertwined with devices that foreground tentativeness, precision and informativeness (characteristic of science communication). The article reflects on the implications of including various proportions of academic and popular styles in science journalism.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Science and Chemistry Textbooks for Indicators of Reform: A complementary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-07-01

    In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses. An unobtrusive research method, content analysis, was used by coding the manifest content and counting the frequency of words, photographs, drawings, and questions by cognitive level. The context was an undergraduate chemistry teacher preparation program at a large public university in a metropolitan area in northwestern Turkey. Forty preservice chemistry teachers were guided to analyze 10 middle school science and 10 high school chemistry textbooks. Overall, the textbooks included unfair gender representations, a considerably higher number of input and processing than output level questions, and high load of science terminology. The textbooks failed to provide sufficient empirical evidence to be considered as gender equitable and inquiry-based. The quantitative approach employed for evaluation contrasts with a more interpretive approach, and has the potential in depicting textbook profiles in a more reliable way, complementing the commonly employed qualitative procedures. Implications suggest that further work in this line is needed on calibrating the analysis procedures with science textbooks used in different international settings. The procedures could be modified and improved to meet specific evaluation needs. In the Turkish context, next step research may concern the analysis of science textbooks being rewritten for the reform-based curricula to make cross-comparisons and evaluate a possible progression.

  19. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  20. The “DOC” screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H.; Cayley, Megan L.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Murray, Brian J.; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Sicard, Michelle N.; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Background Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment (“DOC”) are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool (“DOC” screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. Methods All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. Findings 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Conclusions Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may

  1. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  2. A content analysis of sixth-grade, seventh-grade, and eighth-grade science textbooks with regard to the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne C.

    Science teachers rely heavily on their textbooks; for many, it is the only curriculum they use (Weiss, 1993). Therefore, it is important these materials convey an accurate conception of the nature of science. Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) call for teaching students about the nature of science. Including the nature of science throughout science textbooks will produce scientifically literate citizens (Driver and others, 1993) with an improved ability to make informed decisions (McComas, 1998). Teaching the nature of science supports the successful learning of science content and process (Driver and others, 1996), and bridges the gap between the two cultures of practicing scientists and school science (Sorsby, 2000). Do middle school science textbooks provide a balanced presentation of the nature of science throughout their text? To determine the answer, this investigation used a content analysis technique to analyze a random sample from the introduction chapter and the rest of the textbook chapters from twelve middle school science textbooks for the four aspects of the nature of science (Chiappetta, Fillman, & Sethna, 2004). Scoring procedures were used to determine interrater agreement using both Cohen's kappa (kappa) and Krippendorff's alpha (alpha). Kappa values were determined to be fair to excellent beyond chance among the three coders. The resulting values for Krippendorff's alpha ranged from acceptable (alpha > .80) to unacceptable (alpha imbalance is providing students with a rudimentary and fragmented view of how science works, despite the fact that science impacts every aspect of life (McComas, 1998). Given the impact of textbooks on learning, it is recommended that teachers be informed of these shortcomings to enable them to supplement content where it is lacking.

  3. Taking stock: A meta-analysis of studies on the media's coverage of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Mike S

    2012-08-01

    The presentation of science in the mass media is one of the most important questions facing social scientists who analyse science. Accordingly, media coverage of science has been a constant focal point in the respective literature, and a flurry of such publications has appeared in the past few years. Yet the activity and growth of the respective research have not been accompanied by systematic overviews. This article aims to provide such an overview by means of a meta-analysis: it analyses existing studies systematically and provides an empirical overview of the literature. The analysis shows that while the research field grew significantly in the past few years and employs a variety of research strategies and methods, it has been biased in three ways: mainly natural sciences (and namely biosciences and medicine), Western countries, and print media have been analysed.

  4. [Analysis of ophthalmic projects granted by National Natural Science Foundation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing-Jing; Mo, Xiao-Fen; Pan, Zhi-Qiang; Gan, De-Kang; Xu, Yan-Ying

    2008-09-01

    To understand the status of basic research work in the field of ophthalmology by analyzing the projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from the year of 1986 to 2007, and offer as a reference to the ophthalmologists and researchers. NSFC supported ophthalmology projects in the 22 year's period were collected from the database of NSFC. The field of funded projects, the research team and their achievements were analyzed. There were 228 applicants from 47 home institutions were funded in the field of ophthalmology during the past 22 years, 323 projects funded with 66.74 million Yuan in total, in which 165 projects were fulfilled before the end of 2006. The applied and funded projects mainly focus on six different kinds of research area related to retinal diseases, corneal diseases, glaucoma, optic nerve diseases, myopia and cataract, and 70% of them were basic research in nature. As a brief achievement of 165 fulfilled projects, more than 610 papers were published in domestic journals, over 140 papers were published in Science Citation Index journals, more than 600 people were trained, and over 20 scientific awards were obtained. The number of funded projects and achievement of fulfilled projects in the discipline of ophthalmology gradually increased over the past two decades, the research fields were concentrated in certain diseases. NSFC has played an important role in promoting the development of ophthalmology research and bringing up specialists in China. However, clinical research, continuously research, transforming from basic research to clinic applications and multidisciplinary cross studies should be strengthened.

  5. Summary of research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The major categories of current ICASE research programs addressed include: numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; control and parameter identification problems, with emphasis on effective numerical methods; computational problems in engineering and physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  6. Effectiveness of Various Innovative Learning Methods in Health Science Classrooms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of the available literature on the effectiveness of various forms of innovative small-group learning methods on student achievement in undergraduate college health science classrooms. The results of the analysis revealed that most of the primary studies supported the effectiveness of the…

  7. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  8. Using Citation Analysis Methods to Assess the Influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenseid, Lija O.; Lawrenz, Frances

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the use of citation analysis methods to assess the influence of program evaluations conducted within the area of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Citation analysis is widely used within scientific research communities to measure the relative influence of scientific research enterprises and/or…

  9. English Language Needs Analysis of Qur'anic Sciences and Tradition Students in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hadi; Davari, Ameneh; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    Needs analysis is fundamental to determine what students need to achieve through the medium of English accurately analysis. In this regard, the present study seeks to evaluate the ESP course book entitled "The ESP Course of Qur'anic Sciences and Tradition" taught at some universities in Iran. More specifically, the study aims to identify…

  10. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  11. Recent applications of harmonic analysis to function spaces, differential equations, and data science novel methods in harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gia, Quoc; Mayeli, Azita; Mhaskar, Hrushikesh; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The second of a two volume set on novel methods in harmonic analysis, this book draws on a number of original research and survey papers from well-known specialists detailing the latest innovations and recently discovered links between various fields. Along with many deep theoretical results, these volumes contain numerous applications to problems in signal processing, medical imaging, geodesy, statistics, and data science. The chapters within cover an impressive range of ideas from both traditional and modern harmonic analysis, such as: the Fourier transform, Shannon sampling, frames, wavelets, functions on Euclidean spaces, analysis on function spaces of Riemannian and sub-Riemannian manifolds, Fourier analysis on manifolds and Lie groups, analysis on combinatorial graphs, sheaves, co-sheaves, and persistent homologies on topological spaces. Volume II is organized around the theme of recent applications of harmonic analysis to function spaces, differential equations, and data science, covering topics such a...

  12. Brain Structure Network Analysis in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a sleeping disorder commonly affecting school-aged children and is characterized by repeated episodes of blockage of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed a graph theoretical analysis on the brain morphometric correlation network in 25 OSA patients (OSA group; 5 female; mean age, 10.1 ± 1.8 years and investigated the topological alterations in global and regional properties compared with 20 healthy control individuals (CON group; 6 females; mean age, 10.4 ± 1.8 years. A structural correlation network based on regional gray matter volume was constructed respectively for each group. Our results revealed a significantly decreased mean local efficiency in the OSA group over the density range of 0.32-0.44 (p < 0.05. Regionally, the OSAs showed a tendency of decreased betweenness centrality in the left angular gyrus, and a tendency of decreased degree in the right lingual and inferior frontal (orbital part gyrus (p < 0.005, uncorrected. We also found that the network hubs in OSA and controls were distributed differently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that characterizes the brain structure network in OSA patients and invests the alteration of topological properties of gray matter volume structural network. This study may help to provide new evidence for understanding the neuropathophysiology of OSA from a topological perspective.

  13. [Treatment compliance with continuous positive airway pressure device among adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): how many adhere to treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Chomsky, Ofer; Shechter, Dalia

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) afflicts approximately 5% of the adult population and increases with age. The gold standard treatment is with the Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) machine. Well-designed prospective trials to elucidate long term compliance with CPAP machine are rare. Assessing compliance and long-term use of CPAP machines among patients with OSA who were referred for treatment with this machine. A 4 years prospective cohort observational study was conducted using telephone interviews of 371 newly diagnosed patients with moderate to severe OSA, who received a specialist recommendation to use the CPAP machine which was bought and adjusted to their use. At the end of the first year, 126 (34%) of the OSA patients used the CPAP machine on a nightly basis (regular users), 120 (32.3%) had not used it at all, and 125 (33.7%) had used it only intermittently. The number of regular users increased between the 1st and 2nd year from 126 (34%), to 163 (44%) (p < 0.07) due to additions from the intermittent users group. The non-users group grew from 120 (32.3%) in the first year, and every year afterwards, up to 221 (59.6%) in the fourth year (p < 0.02). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the intermittent users group, which declined from 125 (33.7%) in the first year to only 18 (4.8%) in the 4th year (p < 0.005). Most of the patients (92.9%) were males. The average age of the regular users was 59.6 years (+/- 11), which was higher in comparison to 55.9 years (+/- 10.3) for the non-users or 58.9 years (+/- 12.6) among the intermittent users (p = 0.064). There were no statistical differences in co-morbidities or demographics between the three groups. However, the regular users were found to have a higher score in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a minimal arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) level lower than the patients in the non-users and intermittent users groups (p = 0.019 and p = 0.03 respectively). Four years follow

  14. El cura y sus hijos osos o el recorrido civilizador de los hijos de un cura y una osa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available LE CURE ET SES ENFANTS OURS OU LE PARCOURS CIVILISATEUR DES ENFANTS D’UN CURE ET D’UNE OURSE. Cet article constitue un essai d’interprétation de deux versions quechuas cuzquéniennes du récit panandin connu comme “Jean de l’Ours” ou “Le fils de l’ours”. A partir d’une analyse du symbolisme du récit, la logique profonde qui l’ordonne est mise en lumière: la société humaine et civilisée ne peut se perpétuer sans établir des échanges et une coopération avec les êtres sauvages de l’au-delà. Les protagonistes, fils d’un curé et d’une ourse, ainsi que le curé lui-même, sont les héros médiateurs d’un récit mythique dont la logique prétend aussi s’appliquer aux relations interethniques dans les Andes. Este artículo presenta un ensayo de interpretación de dos versiones quechuas cuzqueñas del relato panandino conocido como “Juan Oso” o “El hijo del oso”. A partir de un análisis del simbolismo del relato, se saca a luz la lógica profunda que lo ordena: la sociedad humana y civilizada no puede perpetuarse sin establecer un intercambio y una cooperación con los seres salvajes del más allá. Los protagonistas, hijos de un cura y una osa, así como el cura mismo, son los héroes mediadores de un relato mítico cuya lógica pretende también aplicarse a las relaciones interétnicas en los Andes. THE PRIEST AND HIS BEAR CHILDREN OR THE PASSAGE TO CIVILIZATION OF THE CHILDREN OF A PRIEST AND A SHE-BEAR. This article sets out to interpret two Cuzco Quechua versions of the pan-Andean tale known as “Juan Oso” or “The Bear’s Son”. The analysis of the story’s symbolism sheds light on the profound logic on which it is based: human and civilized society cannot survive without establishing interchange and cooperation with wild beings from the other world. The protagonist, the son of the priest and the she-bear, as well as the priest himself, are the mediator heroes of a tale whose logic also applies to interethnic

  15. A social representations analysis of design science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Naidoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Design science research (DSR is a relatively unfamiliar research paradigm within the computing field in South Africa. In light of recent interest in this paradigm, this study sought to explore DSR perspectives among local computing researchers. Key theoretical concepts from social representations theory (SRT such as anchoring and objectification were used to explore how researchers construct their understanding of DSR. A visual approach was used to administer drawing and association tasks to two focus groups; each focus group comprised around 25 participants ranging from doctoral students to experienced researchers. The focus group discussions invoked interesting complementary and distinctive associations about the process and content of DSR – anchored in dominant and conventional research practices. The results also illustrated several ways in which DSR is objectified by the researchers in drawings and metaphorical constructions. We conclude that SRT is useful for exploring beliefs about novel and relatively unfamiliar research practices. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of how computing researchers go about making sense and assigning meaning to changing research practices. The findings are developed into recommendations for introducing changes to research practices. These recommendations can be used to direct efforts to more appropriately accommodate changing research practices within the computing community to broaden knowledge generation.

  16. Multidimensional analysis algebras and systems for science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, George W

    1995-01-01

    This book deals with the mathematical properties of dimensioned quantities, such as length, mass, voltage, and viscosity. Beginning with a careful examination of how one expresses the numerical results of a measurement and uses these results in subsequent manipulations, the author rigorously constructs the notion of dimensioned numbers and discusses their algebraic structure. The result is a unification of linear algebra and traditional dimensional analysis that can be extended from the scalars to which the traditional analysis is perforce restricted to multidimensional vectors of the sort frequently encountered in engineering, systems theory, economics, and other applications.

  17. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  18. Making Sense of Cluster Analysis: Revelations from Pakistani Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Tony; Hargreaves, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis has been applied to quantitative data in educational research over several decades and has been a feature of the Maurice Galton's research in primary and secondary classrooms. It has offered potentially useful insights for teaching yet its implications for practice are rarely implemented. It has been subject also to negative…

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of Instructional Coaches' Data Use in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Monroy, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    A key assumption of accountability policies is that educators will use data to improve their instruction. In practice, however, data use is quite hard, and more districts are looking to instructional coaches to support their teachers. The purpose of this descriptive analysis is to examine how instructional coaches in elementary and middle school…

  20. Analysis of Coaching Science Research Published from 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Wade D.; Trudel, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The study followed a four-phase design. In Phase I an exhaustive search was conducted for all English language coaching research published in journals from 1970 to 2001. In Phase II, copies of the research were obtained. An expert panel conducted a manual search and a review in Phase III to address validity. Analysis of the research was completed…

  1. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  2. Bibliometrics and citation analysis from the science citation index to cybermetrics

    CERN Document Server

    De Bellis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis: From the Science Citation Index to Cybermetrics offers a comprehensive overview of theories, techniques, concepts, and applications in the interdisciplinary and steadily growing field of bibliometrics. This book looks at bibliographic citation and citation networks by discussing the past, present, and future of bibliometrics, from its foundations in the Science Citation Index to its expansion into the World Wide Web. It is useful to those in every area of scholarship involved in the quantitative analysis of information exchanges, but also to general readers

  3. Data Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawner Weinberg, Sharon; Knapp Abramowitz, Sarah

    2002-04-01

    This book is written from the perspective that statistics is an integrated set of tools used together to uncover the story contained in numerical data. Accordingly, the book comes with a disk containing a series of real data sets to motivate discussions of appropriate methods of analysis. The presentation is based on a conceptual approach supported by an understanding of underlying mathematical foundations. Students learn that more than one method of analysis is typically needed and that an ample characterization of results is a critical component of any data analytic plan. The use of real data and SPSS to perform computations and create graphical summaries enables a greater emphasis on conceptual understanding and interpretation.

  4. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses’ records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, N.; Hamilton, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little......' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More...... probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  5. NASA Citizen Science: Putting Real Data, Observations, and Analysis Methods in the Hands of the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.

    2014-12-01

    The ability for the general public, science attentive public, educators, and amateur scientists to obtain and use data from remote instrumentation in authentic research / citizen science activities has grown enormously in the past decade due to the internet, increasing bandwidths, easy translation of data formats, and an expanding population of web based acquisition, display, analysis, and publishing tools. The impact of this new and rapidly growing capability is both evolutionary and paradigm changing. At no other time in history have we had the ability to marshal planetary scale resources to educate large populations across socio economic and geographical boundaries and to push the envelope of science discovery through long baseline observing campaigns, crowd sourcing, and the like. This talk will focus on some of NASA's authentic research and citizen science campaigns and discuss opportunities for future public collaborations.

  6. Professional development and poststructural analysis: Stories of African-American science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Felicia Michelle

    2003-10-01

    This interpretivist study focused on the professional development of three African American science teachers from a small rural school district, Carver School District (pseudonym), in the southeastern United States. Stories teachers shared of their experiences in teaching and learning science and in their professional development were analyzed using a feminist poststructural analysis of power, knowledge/meaning, language, and difference. For science teaching, power was viewed as a form of ownership or possession and also as effect and processes that impact teaching, learning, and professional development. Teachers through instructional practices exerted a certain amount of power in their classrooms. Teaching practices heavily influenced student learning in science classrooms. For teacher professional development, power was viewed as effecting relationships between administration, peers, and students as a shifting force within different social contexts. Science teachers were perceived as objects of the system and as active social agents who in particular relations of power acted in their best interests as they developed as science teachers. Teachers negotiated for themselves certain power relations to do as they wished for teaching science and for participating in teacher professional development activities. Power was an inherent and critically important aspect in understanding what science teachers do in their classrooms, in teaching and learning science, and in developing as science teachers. Knowledge was closely tied to relations of power in that teachers acquired knowledge about themselves, their teaching of science, and their students from their past experiences and professional development activities. Through language, interactions between teachers and students enabled or disabled access to the culture of power via instructional practices. Language was implicated in teacher professional development as a powerful force for advancing or hindering teachers

  7. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  8. Structure and dynamics of European sports science textual contents: Analysis of ECSS abstracts (1996-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Robert; Aceski, Aleksandar; Balague, Natalia; Seifert, Ludovic; Tufekcievski, Aleksandar; Cecilia, Aguirre

    2017-02-01

    The article discusses general structure and dynamics of the sports science research content as obtained from the analysis of 21998 European College of Sport Science abstracts belonging to 12 science topics. The structural analysis showed intertwined multidisciplinary and unifying tendencies structured along horizontal (scope) and vertical (level) axes. Methodological (instrumental and mode of inquiry) integrative tendencies are dominant. Theoretical integrative tendencies are much less detectable along both horizontal and vertical axes. The dynamic analysis of written abstracts text content over the 19 years reveals the contextualizing and guiding role of thematic skeletons of each sports science topic in forming more detailed contingent research ideas and the role of the latter in stabilizing and procreating the former. This circular causality between both hierarchical levels and functioning on separate characteristic time scales is crucial for understanding how stable research traditions self-maintain and self-procreate through innovative contingencies. The structure of sports science continuously rebuilds itself through use and re-use of contingent research ideas. The thematic skeleton ensures its identity and the contingent conceptual sets its flexibility and adaptability to different research or applicative problems.

  9. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different

  10. Racial classification in the evolutionary sciences: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Human racial classification has long been a problem for the discipline of anthropology, but much of the criticism of the race concept has focused on its social and political connotations. The central argument of this paper is that race is not a specifically human problem, but one that exists in evolutionary thought in general. This paper looks at various disciplinary approaches to racial or subspecies classification, extending its focus beyond the anthropological race concept by providing a comparative analysis of the use of racial classification in evolutionary biology, genetics, and anthropology.

  11. The different audiences of science communication: A segmentation analysis of the Swiss population's perceptions of science and their information and media use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Mike S; Füchslin, Tobias; Metag, Julia; Kristiansen, Silje; Rauchfleisch, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have assessed whether populations can be divided into segments with different perceptions of science. We provide such an analysis and assess whether these segments exhibit specific patterns of media and information use. Based on representative survey data from Switzerland, we use latent class analysis to reconstruct four segments: the "Sciencephiles," with strong interest for science, extensive knowledge, and a pronounced belief in its potential, who use a variety of sources intensively; the "Critically Interested," also with strong interest and support for science but with less trust in it, who use similar sources but are more cautious toward them; the "Passive Supporters" with moderate levels of interest, trust, and knowledge and tempered perceptions of science, who use fewer sources; and the "Disengaged," who are not interested in science, do not know much about it, harbor critical views toward it, and encounter it-if at all-mostly through television.

  12. Assessment and characterization of joineries in the city of Viçosa, MG/ Diagnóstico e caracterização das marcenarias na cidade de Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The forestry sector is not only formed by large companies, such as pulp and paper or reconstituted panels, but also by small businesses, and often strictly family businesses, as joineries. This study aimed to identify, assess and characterize joineries in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The object of study was limited to the city’s joinery businesses, mainly the ones belonging to the former Joiner’s Association. A questionnaire was drawn up to obtain information on the used wood, internal management and employee training, machinery, products, market, product advertising and prospects for the sector. It was found that both entrepreneurs and workers have low educational level and lack their own product design. They were producing only ordered products with intensive use of solid wood particularly from native forests. Products were heterogeneous, ranging from furniture to farm utilities. Competition, mainly the informal, represented the biggest obstacle to sector development, as well as serialized products from other locations sold in shops at lower prices. It was concluded that the joinery sector in Viçosa needs greater skill levels, both technical and managerial, to improve the activity. Moreover, the sector needs better organization through associations and support of agencies such as local Sebrae, and wider product advertising targeting consumers in the region.O setor florestal não é constituído apenas por grandes empresas, como as de celulose e papel ou de painéis reconstituídos, mas também por pequenas empresas, muitas das vezes estritamente familiares, como as marcenarias. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a identificação, diagnóstico e caracterização das marcenarias de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. Delimitaram-se, como objeto de estudo, as empresas de marcenaria da cidade, principalmente, pertencentes ao antigo Núcleo de Marceneiros. Elaborou-se um questionário para buscar informações sobre a madeira utilizada

  13. Column: The Science of Digital Forensics: Analysis of Digital Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In part 1 of this series (Cohen, 2011a, Analysis of digital traces is a foundational process by which the examiner, typically using computer software tools, comes to understand and answer basic questions regarding digital traces.“Input sequences to digital systems produce outputs and state changes as a function of the previous state. To the extent that the state or outputs produce stored and/or captured bit sequences, these form traces of the event sequences that caused them. Thus the definition of a trace may be stated as: "A set of bit sequences produced from the execution of a finite state machine."(see PDF for full column

  14. A systematic analysis of the science of sandboxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandboxes are increasingly important building materials for secure software systems. In recognition of their potential to improve the security posture of many systems at various points in the development lifecycle, researchers have spent the last several decades developing, improving, and evaluating sandboxing techniques. What has been done in this space? Where are the barriers to advancement? What are the gaps in these efforts? We systematically analyze a decade of sandbox research from five top-tier security and systems conferences using qualitative content analysis, statistical clustering, and graph-based metrics to answer these questions and more. We find that the term “sandbox” currently has no widely accepted or acceptable definition. We use our broad scope to propose the first concise and comprehensive definition for “sandbox” that consistently encompasses research sandboxes. We learn that the sandboxing landscape covers a range of deployment options and policy enforcement techniques collectively capable of defending diverse sets of components while mitigating a wide range of vulnerabilities. Researchers consistently make security, performance, and applicability claims about their sandboxes and tend to narrowly define the claims to ensure they can be evaluated. Those claims are validated using multi-faceted strategies spanning proof, analytical analysis, benchmark suites, case studies, and argumentation. However, we find two cases for improvement: (1 the arguments researchers present are often ad hoc and (2 sandbox usability is mostly uncharted territory. We propose ways to structure arguments to ensure they fully support their corresponding claims and suggest lightweight means of evaluating sandbox usability.

  15. Who Publishes in Top-Tier Library Science Journals? An Analysis by Faculty Status and Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Quinn; Smart, Elizabeth; Smith, Sara D.; Reed, Megan

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the status and background of authors publishing in high-impact library science journals. Twenty-three high-impact journals were selected in this study by both quantitative and qualitative measures, while the analysis of author background focuses on whether the author holds a faculty status position with a tenure track. This…

  16. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  17. An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

  18. An Exploratory Analysis of TPACK Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers: A Regional Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vicente Chua, Jr.; Rizk, Nadya; Gregory, Sue; Doyle, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Four distinct constructs were identified from a survey of a sample of pre-service science teachers at a regional Australian University. The constructs emerged after employing Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on respondents' perceptions of pedagogical practices incorporating the use of Information Communication and Technology (ICT). The key…

  19. Quality in environmental science for policy: assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  1. Long Term Preservation of Data Analysis Software at the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teplitz, H.I.; Groom, S.; Brooke, T.; Desai, V.; Engler, D.; Fowler, J.; Good, J.; Khan, I.; Levine, D.; Alexov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) curates both data and analysis tools from NASA's infrared missions. As part of our primary goal, we provide long term access to mission-specific software from projects such as IRAS and Spitzer. We will review the efforts by IRSA (and within the greater

  2. An Exploratory Analysis of a Middle School Science Curriculum: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory S.; Hord, Casey

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study of a middle school curriculum directly aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards was conducted with a focus on how the curriculum addresses the instructional needs of students with learning disabilities. A descriptive analysis of a lesson on speed and velocity was conducted and implications discussed for students with…

  3. Student Motivation and Learning in Mathematics and Science: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Betsy L. L.; Liu, W. C.; Wang, John C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on an in-depth understanding of student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics and science through cluster analysis. It examined the different learning profiles of motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies in relation to perceived teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs (i.e. autonomy,…

  4. A Multi-Science Data Analysis Platform and the GeneROOT Use Case

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rademakers, Fons

    2017-01-01

    This talk will cover two areas of current research in the context of knowledge sharing between CERN openlab and the life science communities. The first area covers the development and prototyping of a multi-science data analysis platform build up around CERN developed technologies like, Zenodo, REANA and CVMFS. When finished this platform will support a complete data analysis life-cycle from data discovery, to data access, to data processing to end-user data analysis. The second area covers a specific use case, where HEP specific software like ROOT is used to store and process genomics data sequences. There are a number of handcrafted genomics data formats being used, like FASTQ, SAM, BAM, CRAM, etc. They range from pure ASCII to compressed binary formats. We will compare the features of these formats with the generic capabilities of ROOT’s TTree containers. Also we will show performance numbers of typical analysis scenarios.

  5. The Longitudinal Analysis of Elementary School Pupils’ Science Competition Experience, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Hsiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparing students who have participated in Taiwan International Science Fair and those who have not, this study aims to understand the creativity development between the ones with creativity trainings for participating in the Fair and the ones who did not participate in science fair and did not receive any related trainings. Furthermore, this study intends to investigate the effects of intrinsic motivation on the development of creativity between the two groups. From National Taiwan Science Education Center, 208 student participants of the 41st-50th Fair and 871 non-participants were sampled through their teachers who voluntarily participated in this study. With growth model analysis in Hierarchical Linear Modeling, individual differences in scientific creativity between science fair participants and non-participants were found and its growth was developed distinctively. Students who participated in Taiwan International Science Fair presented downward development in scientific creativity and then upward, while the non-participants revealed upward then downward development. In regard to intrinsic motivation, science fair participants showed positive effects of Self-efficacy and Internal value on creativity, while their intrinsic motivation presents moderating effects on the rapid growth of creativity. Contrarily, intrinsic motivation did not appear to have any effects on non-participants. Based on the research outcomes, relevant suggestions are further proposed.

  6. What Effects Do Didactic Interventions Have on Students' Attitudes Towards Science? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, David; Perales-Palacios, F. Javier

    2018-03-01

    Improving the attitudes of students towards science is one of the main challenges facing the teaching of the subject. The main objective of this study is to analyze the effect of students' attitudes towards science through different didactic interventions. The bibliographic search was carried out via the Web of Science database, specifically in the Education and Educational Research category, obtaining a population of 374 articles published between 2006 and 2016. We included studies with pre-experimental or quasi-experimental design that used pretest and posttest phases. Following the application of the inclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected with which a random effects meta-analysis was adopted, obtaining an average effect size of 0.54. Three moderating variables were analyzed, with a significant correlation between the type of teaching strategy and the effect of the attitude towards Science (Q = 23.17; df = 8; p educational implications are mainly due to the importance of the teaching/learning strategy used in science education in the development of positive attitudes towards the subject, and the need to increase the number of Didactic Interventions that contemplate students' attitudes towards science as a study variable is also advocated.

  7. Analysis Science Process Skills Content in Chemistry Textbooks Grade XI at Solubility and Solubility Product Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Antrakusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the analysis of science process skills in textbooks of chemistry grade XI in SMA N 1 Teras, Boyolali. This research used the descriptive method. The instruments were developed based on 10 indicators of science process skills (observing, classifying, finding a conclusion, predicting, raising the question, hypothesizing, planning an experiment, manipulating materials, and equipment, Applying, and communicating. We analyzed 3 different chemistry textbooks that often used by teachers in teaching. The material analyzed in the book was solubility and solubility product concept in terms of concept explanation and student activity. The results of this research showed different science process skill criteria in 3 different chemistry textbooks. Book A appeared 50% of all aspects of science process skills, in Book B appeared 80% of all aspects of science process skills, and in Book C there was 40% of all aspects of the science process skills. The most common indicator in all books was observing (33.3%, followed by prediction (19.05%, classifying (11.90%, Applying (11.90% , planning experiments (9.52%, manipulating materials and equipment (7.14%, finding conclusion (4.76%, communicating (2.38%. Asking the question and hypothesizing did not appear in textbooks.

  8. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  9. Genetics of Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera in fragments of the Atlantic Forest in the region of Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Waldschmidt

    Full Text Available With uncontrolled deforestation, forest fragments remain, which in most cases are in different stages of regeneration and present isolated populations. In the present study we analyzed the genetic patterns of Eulaema nigrita populations in seven Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes and successional stages in the region of Viçosa, MG. This was done by RAPD molecular markers. We observed that the area of the fragments had no effect on the genetic variability of E. nigrita in the direction predicted by meta-population models. Medium-sized well-preserved woods presented the lowest variability, whereas large and small woods were statistically identical. The evidence supports the notion that rural areas present greater dispersal among fragments, implying greater similarity between the populations of fragments located in rural areas when compared to fragments in urban areas.

  10. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuenta

  11. Disciplinary analysis of nuclear engineering education for 21st century style science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Taeho

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear engineering education (NEE) is analyzed by the aspect of the advanced science and technology which is characterized by interdisciplinary R and D. The creative innovation is a goal of the education. This work is performed by the conceptual analysis and numerical analysis. Creativity and its innovation are represented as a critical role in the science and technology. So, the education should follow the characteristics of the creativity and its innovation philosophy. Using system dynamics (SD) method, the quantification of the education effect is performed. In addition, the dynamical simulation shows the expected situations of the education usefulness. The final result shows the highest value is 19.11 of Nuclear Industry Innovation. The value increases gradually. So, the education is well developed, as time goes on in this study. In this paper, the education of the nuclear science and technology is modelled for the interdisciplinary promotions in the nuclear industry. The conventional technology has focused on the unit subject and its related technologies. By the way, creativity and its innovation are shown as a critical role in the science and technology. Hence, the education should follow the characteristics of the creativity and its innovation philosophy. Following the characteristics of the 21 st style science and technology, it is necessary to construct the education program of the information technology (IT), nanotechnology (NT), and biotechnology (BT). (orig.)

  12. Disciplinary analysis of nuclear engineering education for 21{sup st} century style science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Taeho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Yoon, Jaehwan [2G-PEM Engineers, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The nuclear engineering education (NEE) is analyzed by the aspect of the advanced science and technology which is characterized by interdisciplinary R and D. The creative innovation is a goal of the education. This work is performed by the conceptual analysis and numerical analysis. Creativity and its innovation are represented as a critical role in the science and technology. So, the education should follow the characteristics of the creativity and its innovation philosophy. Using system dynamics (SD) method, the quantification of the education effect is performed. In addition, the dynamical simulation shows the expected situations of the education usefulness. The final result shows the highest value is 19.11 of Nuclear Industry Innovation. The value increases gradually. So, the education is well developed, as time goes on in this study. In this paper, the education of the nuclear science and technology is modelled for the interdisciplinary promotions in the nuclear industry. The conventional technology has focused on the unit subject and its related technologies. By the way, creativity and its innovation are shown as a critical role in the science and technology. Hence, the education should follow the characteristics of the creativity and its innovation philosophy. Following the characteristics of the 21{sup st} style science and technology, it is necessary to construct the education program of the information technology (IT), nanotechnology (NT), and biotechnology (BT). (orig.)

  13. Initiation of CPAP therapy for OSA: does prophylactic humidification during CPAP pressure titration improve initial patient acceptance and comfort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, G H; Harsch, I A; Fuchs, F S; Kitzbichler, S; Bogner, K; Brueckl, W M; Hahn, E G; Ficker, J H

    2002-01-01

    Heated humidifiers (HH) enable effective treatment of upper airway dryness during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but the role of prophylactic use of HH during the initiation of nCPAP treatment has not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether prophylactic HH during the initiation of CPAP would result in improved initial patient comfort and acceptance. In 44 consecutive, previously untreated OSA patients with no history of upper airway dryness, CPAP titration with and without HH was performed on two consecutive nights in a randomised order. The patients were interviewed after each treatment night in order to establish the comfort of the treatment, and, after the second treatment, they were asked which of the two nights they considered more pleasant, and which treatment they would prefer for long-term use. Following CPAP titration with HH, 32 patients (73%) claimed to have had a better night's sleep than usual (i.e. without CPAP treatment) compared with 33 patients (75%) saying the same following CPAP treatment without HH. For 21 patients (47.7%) treatment with HH was more pleasant, 23 (52.3%) saw no difference or said that treatment without HH was more pleasant. Nineteen patients (43.2%) gave preference to treatment with HH for long-term use, while 25 patients (56.8%) had no preference or said they would prefer treatment without HH. The use of HH during the initiation phase of CPAP treatment was associated neither with an initial improvement in comfort nor with greater initial treatment acceptance. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  15. Translation of Berlin Questionnaire to Portuguese language and its application in OSA identification in a sleep disordered breathing clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Vaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Berlin Questionnaire (BQ, an English language screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in primary care, has been applied in tertiary settings, with variable results. Aims: Development of BQ Portuguese version and evaluation of its utility in a sleep disordered breathing clinic (SDBC. Material and methods: BQ was translated using back translation methodology and prospectively applied, previously to cardiorespiratory sleep study, to 95 consecutive subjects, referred to a SDBC, with OSA suspicion. OSA risk assessment was based on responses in 10 items, organized in 3 categories: snoring and witnessed apneas (category 1, daytime sleepiness (category 2, high blood pressure (HBP/obesity (category 3. Results: In the studied sample, 67.4% were males, with a mean age of 51 ± 13 years. Categories 1, 2 and 3 were positive in 91.6, 24.2 and 66.3%, respectively. BQ identified 68.4% of the patients as being in the high risk group for OSA and the remaining 31.6% in the low risk. BQ sensitivity and specificity were 72.1 and 50%, respectively, for an apnea-hipopnea index (AHI > 5, 82.6 and 44.8% for AHI > 15, 88.4 and 39.1% for AHI > 30. Being in the high risk group for OSA did not infl uence significantly the probability of having the disease (positive likelihood ratio [LR] between 1.44-1.49. Only the items related to snoring loudness, witnessed apneas and HBP/obesity presented a statistically positive association with AHI, with the model constituted by their association presenting a greater discrimination capability, especially for an AHI > 5 (sensitivity 65.2%, specificity 80%, positive LR 3.26. Conclusions: The BQ is not an appropriate screening tool for OSA in a SDBC, although snoring loudness, witnessed apneas, HBP/obesity have demonstrated being significant questionnaire elements in this population. Resumo: Introdução: O Questionário de Berlim (QB, originalmente desenvolvido em língua inglesa como um instrumento de

  16. Tendências recentes nos elementos do clima e suas implicações na evapotranspiração da cultura do milho em Viçosa - MG Recent trends in the weather elements and its implications in the maize crop evapotranspiration in Viçosa-MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas P. de Alencar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mudança nas condições climáticas tem gerado grandes preocupações em nível mundial, sendo que uma das grandes questões, neste contexto, é o aquecimento global. As alterações ocorridas nas condições climáticas podem afetar a demanda de água das plantas, porque a evapotranspiração é afetada por mudanças nos elementos climáticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos das possíveis mudanças dos elementos do clima na evapotranspiração de referência e na evapotranspiração da cultura do milho para a região de Viçosa - MG. Mediante análise de tendência pelo teste de Mann-Kendall e da estatística do teste t da regressão linear, verificou-se o comportamento dos seguintes elementos climáticos: temperaturas máxima e mínima, insolação, velocidade do vento e umidade relativa. Observou-se uma redução na evapotranspiração de referência e da cultura do milho ao longo dos últimos 41 anos, principalmente em razão da redução da insolação e da velocidade do vento. A evapotranspiração de referência apresentou redução da ordem de 4,2 mm por ano.The change in weather conditions has caused great concern in the world and the major issue, in this context, is the global warming. The changes in climate may affect the water demand of plants, because the evapotranspiration is affected by changes in climatic elements. The objective of this study was to examine the possible effects of climatological changes in evapotranspiration and reference evapotranspiration of corn in Viçosa - MG, Brazil. Trend analysis by the Mann-Kendall statistic and student t test of the linear regression were used to study the behavior of the following weather elements: maximum and minimum temperatures, sunshine duration, wind speed and relative humidity. It was observed a reduction in the reference evapotranspiration and maize crop evapotranspiration over the recent past 41 years, mainly because of reduced solar radiation and wind

  17. A Survey on Quality of Service Monitoring and Analysis of Network of Agricultural Science and Technology Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jian , Ma

    2014-01-01

    International audience; First, current situation on Network of agricultural science and technology resources is described. Then we pay much attention to the quality of service monitoring and analysis system of network resources. And finally, we come to the conclusion that the construction of Quality of service monitoring, analysis of network of agricultural science and technology resources is in great need.

  18. Opening up to Big Data: Computer-Assisted Analysis of Textual Data in Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wiedemann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two developments in computational text analysis may change the way qualitative data analysis in social sciences is performed: 1. the availability of digital text worth to investigate is growing rapidly, and 2. the improvement of algorithmic information extraction approaches, also called text mining, allows for further bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative text analysis. The key factor hereby is the inclusion of context into computational linguistic models which extends conventional computational content analysis towards the extraction of meaning. To clarify methodological differences of various computer-assisted text analysis approaches the article suggests a typology from the perspective of a qualitative researcher. This typology shows compatibilities between manual qualitative data analysis methods and computational, rather quantitative approaches for large scale mixed method text analysis designs. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302231

  19. Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, C R; Melquiades, F L

    2014-02-01

    Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels after CPAP treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhuo; Wang Liangxing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods: Plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 60 patients with OSAS both before and after CPAS therapy as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before CPAP therapy, the plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with OSAS were significantly higher than those in controls (25.92 ± 4.48pg/ ml and 11.27 ± 2.60pg/ml vs 13.21 ± 1.97pg/ml and 5.83±0.99pg/mi, P 2 level (r=-0.495, 0.483, P<0.05). After treatment with CPAP for three months, the plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased (15.37±1.78pg/ml and 6.79±0.87pg/ml, vs pre-treatment levels, P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: CPAP therapy could effectively decrease the plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with OSAS. (authors)

  1. Oronasal mask may compromise the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure on OSA treatment: is there evidence for avoiding the oronasal route?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela Garcia Santos; Madeiro, Fernanda; Genta, Pedro Rodrigues; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2016-11-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered by nasal mask is the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, oral and oronasal masks are also available. We considered experimental evidence and reviewed clinical trials that evaluated the impact of oral and oronasal mask on OSA treatment. One recent study in 18 OSA patients that slept with a customized oronasal mask with two sealed compartments showed that the change of CPAP flow from nasal to oronasal and oral caused upper airway obstruction because of posterior displacement of the tongue demonstrated by nasoendoscopy. Oral masks use a mouthpiece that may stabilize the jaw and the tongue and have shown to be effective. However, oral masks are not widely used in clinical practice. Four out of five observational studies and all five reviewed randomized studies showed a worse performance of oronasal when compared with nasal masks. Oronasal masks were associated with higher residual apnea-hypopnea index, lower adherence, more leaks, and less satisfaction than nasal mask in the majority of the studies. Nasal CPAP must be the first choice to treat OSA. Patients on oronasal mask should be carefully followed. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  2. Indicadores de campo para solos hidromórficos na região de Viçosa (MG Field indicators for the identification of hydromorphic soils in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. B. Campos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicadores locais são úteis para a identificação de ambientes. Na região de Viçosa, embora os solos encharcados ocorram sob vegetação de taboa (Thypha dominguensis, Gleissolos, de coloração típica acinzentada, são incomuns. A maioria dos solos com lençol freático alto é coberta pela taboa e as características gleizadas do solo são pouco pronunciadas, especialmente nos solos com mais altos teores de ferro. Não há clara conexão entre altura do lençol freático e deficiência de oxigênio. Como as relações entre altura do lençol freático, deficiência de oxigênio e cor do solo não são claras o bastante, hipotetizou-se que outros indicadores para as condições de redução poderiam ser encontrados nesses ambientes. Neste propósito, caracterizou-se o solo e trabalhou-se na sua relação com a vegetação. Estudaram-se os solos com várias intensidades de condições de drenagem em três áreas: Cajuri (Área 1, Viçosa (Área 2 e Coimbra (Área 3, todas pertencentes ao Planalto de Viçosa. Na avaliação das condições de redox dos solos (pH e pE a campo, utilizou-se um medidor digital adaptado a uma sonda de aço. Conquanto importante na identificação de indicadores de ambientes, a caracterização morfológica não se mostrou precisa o bastante para evidenciar o que os solos encharcados têm mais em comum: a deficiência de oxigênio por longos períodos. A cor, embora seja um bom e útil indicador para muitas das condições de drenagem do solo, não se mostrou também eficiente nessas áreas. De modo geral, os Gleissolos estudados apresentaram cromas maiores do que dois, o que supera o limite do critério para identificar horizonte glei no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, embora o teste indicador da presença de Fe2+ com alfa,alfa'-dipiridil tenha sido positivo. Por outro lado, a presença da taboa foi um bom indicador das condições de má drenagem. Nos locais dos povoamentos puros de taboa, os

  3. Increasing participation in the Earth sciences through engagement of K-12 educators in Earth system science analysis, inquiry and problem- based learning and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, S.

    2012-12-01

    Given low course enrollment in geoscience courses, retention in undergraduate geoscience courses, and granting of BA and advanced degrees in the Earth sciences an effective strategy to increase participation in this field is necessary. In response, as K-12 education is a conduit to college education and the future workforce, Earth science education at the K-12 level was targeted with the development of teacher professional development around Earth system science, inquiry and problem-based learning. An NSF, NOAA and NASA funded effort through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies led to the development of the Earth System Science Educational Alliance (ESSEA) and dissemination of interdisciplinary Earth science content modules accessible to the public and educators. These modules formed the basis for two teacher workshops, two graduate level courses for in-service teachers and two university course for undergraduate teacher candidates. Data from all three models will be presented with emphasis on the teacher workshop. Essential components of the workshop model include: teaching and modeling Earth system science analysis; teacher development of interdisciplinary, problem-based academic units for implementation in the classroom; teacher collaboration; daily workshop evaluations; classroom observations; follow-up collaborative meetings/think tanks; and the building of an on-line professional community for continued communication and exchange of best practices. Preliminary data indicate increased understanding of Earth system science, proficiency with Earth system science analysis, and renewed interest in innovative delivery of content amongst teachers. Teacher-participants reported increased student engagement in learning with the implementation of problem-based investigations in Earth science and Earth system science thinking in the classroom, however, increased enthusiasm of the teacher acted as a contributing factor. Teacher feedback on open

  4. The Third Man: comparative analysis of a science autobiography and a cinema classic as windows into post-war life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2015-12-01

    In 2003, biophysicist and Nobel Laureate Maurice Wilkins published his autobiography entitled The Third Man. In the preface, he diffidently points out that the title (which presents him as the 'third' man credited with the co-discovery of the structure of DNA, besides Watson and Crick) was chosen by his publisher, as a reference to the famous 1949 movie no doubt, featuring Orson Welles in his classical role as penicillin racketeer Harry Lime. In this paper I intend to show that there is much more to this title than merely its familiar ring. If subjected to a (psychoanalytically inspired) comparative analysis, multiple correspondences between movie and memoirs can be brought to the fore. Taken together, these documents shed an intriguing light on the vicissitudes of budding life sciences research during the post-war era. I will focus my comparative analysis on issues still relevant today, such as dual use, the handling of sensitive scientific information (in a moral setting defined by the tension between collaboration and competition) and, finally, on the interwovenness of science and warfare (i.e. the 'militarisation' of research and the relationship between beauty and destruction). Thus, I will explain how science autobiographies on the one hand and genres of the imagination (such as novels and movies) on the other may deepen our comprehension of tensions and dilemmas of life sciences research then and now. For that reason, science autobiographies can provide valuable input (case material) for teaching philosophy and history of science to science students.

  5. Analysis and modeling of complex data in behavioral and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Akinori; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Weihs, Claus

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents theoretical developments, applications and computational methods for the analysis and modeling in behavioral and social sciences where data are usually complex to explore and investigate. The challenging proposals provide a connection between statistical methodology and the social domain with particular attention to computational issues in order to effectively address complicated data analysis problems. The papers in this volume stem from contributions initially presented at the joint international meeting JCS-CLADAG held in Anacapri (Italy) where the Japanese Classification Society and the Classification and Data Analysis Group of the Italian Statistical Society had a stimulating scientific discussion and exchange.

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiríosa Foundation, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2012-03-01

    Doctors’ relationship with patients and their role in society is changing. Until the 1960s doctors concentrated on the welfare of patients with less emphasis placed on patients’ rights1. Over recent decades there has been increasing empowerment of the individual across all facets of society including health care. Doctors continue to be perceived as having expertise and authority over medical science. Patients, however, now hold sway over questions of values or preferences. We all must be aware of this change in the doctor- patient interaction. We need to be more aware of the outcomes that patients view as important. The concept of shared decision-making with the patient is now widely appreciated. The process involves a change in mind set particularly for doctors who trained in an earlier era.

  7. The Relative Efficiencies of Research Universities of Science and Technology in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyi, Wang; Xiaohong, Lv; Shikui, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to explore the relative efficiency of China's research universities of science and technology. According to the finding, when talent training is the only output, the efficiency of research universities of science and technology is far lower than that of…

  8. Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Melquiades, F.L.

    2014-01-01

    Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. - Highlights: • The paper is about a direct method for bills discrimination by EDXRF and principal component analysis. • The bills are analyzed directly, without sample preparation and non destructively. • The results demonstrates that the methodology is feasible and could be applied in forensic science for identification of origin and false banknotes. • The novelty is that portable EDXRF is very fast and efficient for bills characterization

  9. Analysis of the Image of Scientists Portrayed in the Lebanese National Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.; Al-Khatib, Layan; Mardirossian, Taline

    2017-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of how scientists are portrayed in the Lebanese national science textbooks. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, to develop a comprehensive analytical framework that can serve as a tool to analyze the image of scientists portrayed in educational resources. Second, to analyze the image of scientists portrayed in the Lebanese national science textbooks that are used in Basic Education. An analytical framework, based on an extensive review of the relevant literature, was constructed that served as a tool for analyzing the textbooks. Based on evidence-based stereotypes, the framework focused on the individual and work-related characteristics of scientists. Fifteen science textbooks were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative measures. Our analysis of the textbooks showed the presence of a number of stereotypical images. The scientists are predominantly white males of European descent. Non-Western scientists, including Lebanese and/or Arab scientists are mostly absent in the textbooks. In addition, the scientists are portrayed as rational individuals who work alone, who conduct experiments in their labs by following the scientific method, and by operating within Eurocentric paradigms. External factors do not influence their work. They are engaged in an enterprise which is objective, which aims for discovering the truth out there, and which involves dealing with direct evidence. Implications for science education are discussed.

  10. Book Review: Khine Swe, M. (Ed., Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Slapničar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Science educators agree that textbooks play a crucial role in teaching and learning processes (Clement, 2008; Koppal & Caldwell, 2004; consequently, numerous research studies have been conducted in the analysis of science textbooks. In 1941, Graham noted that ‘The textbook is an old instrument in learning and teaching processes’ and traced the origin of the textbook back to the classical Greek era. With the invention of the printing press, textbooks became omnipresent in every school. Since textbooks are being used as a major source of information in teaching a particular subject, the quality and accuracy of the content is crucial for their educational effectiveness. Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness includes contributions by authors from various backgrounds, theorists and practitioners. In analysing science textbooks, researchers look into the balance between theoretical and practical knowledge, the portrayal of minorities, women and gender fairness, the treatment of socio-scientific and controversial issues, and the depiction of graphical information, vocabulary load, comprehensibility and readability at the intended level, the representation of indigenous knowledge, the role of textbook questions, and cultural and religious sensibility

  11. Estado nutricional e fatores associados em idosos do Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Matos Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se as prevalências de baixo peso e excesso de peso, bem como os fatores associados em idosos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com 621 idosos residentes no Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, realizado em 2009. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas domiciliares e se referiam à avaliação do estado nutricional, condições sociodemográficas e de saúde. Do total de pessoas estudadas, 53,3% eram do gênero feminino. A mediana do IMC foi de 26,40kg/m² (mínima 15,20 e máxima 46,82 e foi menor para os homens do que para as mulheres. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi elevada (45%; IC95%: 40%-49%, diminuiu com a idade, associou-se positivamente ao gênero feminino e história de artrite/artrose, e negativamente à faixa etária de 80 anos ou mais e ao tabagismo. A prevalência de baixo peso foi maior no gênero masculino (18,2%, aumentou com o avanço da idade e associou-se positivamente à pior percepção de saúde. O conjunto dos resultados salientam a importância de estratégias em saúde que favoreçam mudanças no estilo de vida e hábitos alimentares saudáveis.This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82 and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%, decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%, increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies

  12. Atributos vitales de especies leñosas en bordes de bosque altoandino de la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Montenegro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia, estudiamos mediante transectos la vegetación leñosa en dos parches de bosque altoandino para tres tipos de borde: chusque, paramizado y antiguo (este último denominado así por presentar un estado sucesional más avanzado. Seleccionamos como especies típicas de borde las que tenían mayor abundancia en esta zona, presentes en ambos parches del borde y capaces de colonizar la matriz adyacente. Se obtuvo un conjunto de nueve especies a las cuales se les evaluaron 20 atributos vitales, generando seis grupos mediante un análisis de agrupamiento (cluster: 1 Weinmannia balbisiana-W. tomentosa, 2 Gaiadendron punctatum-Hedyosmum bonplandianum, 3 Miconia ligustrina-M. squamulosa, 4 Macleania rupestris, 5 Pentacalia pulchella y 6 Tibouchina grossa. La amplia variación y plasticidad de las especies estudiadas en cuanto a los atributos analizados, conduce a pensar que los conjuntos obtenidos no obedecen a grupos funcionales claramente diferenciados, sino más bien a estrategias diferentes y que estas especies podrían hacer parte de un solo grupo funcional de gran plasticidad. T. grossa es la especie de borde más exitosa en la reserva, dados sus altos valores de abundancia, tolerancia fisiológica, reproducción vegetativa, producción de hojarasca y producción de semillas pequeñas, numerosas, formadoras de un banco de semillas persistente que evidencian su alta fecundidad.Vital traits of woody species in High Andean forest edges of the Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia. The Cogua Forest Reserve was studied throughout eight months to detect the existence of functional species-groups associated with edge wood forest. A second goal was to determine which species were the most successful in edge areas and their particular vital traits. The regeneration and growth of the forest patches to the adjacent matrix depends on the establishment of these species and their tolerance to both habitats. Three types of High

  13. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-12-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to problems of their own disciplines. For example, Irzik and Nola adapted Wittgenstein's generic definition of the family resemblance idea to NOS, while Erduran and Dagher reconceptualized Irzik and Nola's FRA-to-NOS by synthesizing educational applications by drawing on perspectives from science education research. In this article, we use the terminology of "Reconceptualized FRA-to-NOS (RFN)" to refer to Erduran and Dagher's FRA version which offers an educational account inclusive of knowledge about pedagogical, instructional, curricular and assessment issues in science education. Our motivation for making this distinction is rooted in the need to clarify the various accounts of the family resemblance idea.The key components of the RFN include the aims and values of science, methods and methodological rules, scientific practices, scientific knowledge as well as the social-institutional dimensions of science including the social ethos, certification, and power relations. We investigate the potential of RFN in facilitating curriculum analysis and in determining the gaps related to NOS in the curriculum. We analyze two Turkish science curricula published 7 years apart and illustrate how RFN can contribute not only to the analysis of science curriculum itself but also to trends in science curriculum development. Furthermore, we present an analysis of documents from USA and Ireland and contrast them to the Turkish curricula thereby illustrating some trends in the coverage of RFN categories. The results indicate that while both Turkish curricula contain statements that identify science as a cognitive-epistemic system, they

  14. A philosophy of science perspective on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the current use, benefit, and value of the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R; Weichel, J

    2010-01-01

    The Open Science Grid usage has ramped up more than 25% in the past twelve months due to both the increase in throughput of the core stakeholders - US LHC, LIGO and Run II - and increase in usage by non-physics communities. It is important to understand the value collaborative projects, such as the OSG, contribute to the scientific community. This needs to be cognizant of the environment of commercial cloud offerings, the evolving and maturing middleware for grid based distributed computing, and the evolution in science and research dependence on computation. We present a first categorization of OSG value and analysis across several different aspects of the Consortium's goals and activities. And lastly, we presents some of the upcoming challenges of LHC data analysis ramp up and our ongoing contributions to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid.

  16. An analysis of science content and representations in introductory college physics textbooks and multimodal learning resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Suzanne M.

    This study features a comparative descriptive analysis of the physics content and representations surrounding the first law of thermodynamics as presented in four widely used introductory college physics textbooks representing each of four physics textbook categories (calculus-based, algebra/trigonometry-based, conceptual, and technical/applied). Introducing and employing a newly developed theoretical framework, multimodal generative learning theory (MGLT), an analysis of the multimodal characteristics of textbook and multimedia representations of physics principles was conducted. The modal affordances of textbook representations were identified, characterized, and compared across the four physics textbook categories in the context of their support of problem-solving. Keywords: college science, science textbooks, multimodal learning theory, thermodynamics, representations

  17. Video-based Analysis of Motivation and Interaction in Science Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2013-01-01

    in groups. Subsequently, the framework was used for an analysis of students’ motivation in the whole class situation. A cross-case analysis was carried out illustrating characteristics of students’ motivation dependent on the context. This research showed that students’ motivation to learn science...... is stimulated by a range of different factors, with autonomy, relatedness and belonging apparently being the main sources of motivation. The teacher’s combined use of questions, uptake and high level evaluation was very important for students’ learning processes and motivation, especially students’ self......An analytical framework for examining students’ motivation was developed and used for analyses of video excerpts from science classrooms. The framework was developed in an iterative process involving theories on motivation and video excerpts from a ‘motivational event’ where students worked...

  18. Analysis of the Current Use, Benefit, and Value of the Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    The Open Science Grid usage has ramped up more than 25% in the past twelve months due to both the increase in throughput of the core stakeholders - US LHC, LIGO and Run II - and increase in usage by nonphysics communities. It is important to understand the value collaborative projects, such as the OSG, contribute to the scientific community. This needs to be cognizant of the environment of commercial cloud offerings, the evolving and maturing middleware for grid based distributed computing, and the evolution in science and research dependence on computation. We present a first categorization of OSG value and analysis across several different aspects of the Consortium's goals and activities. And lastly, we presents some of the upcoming challenges of LHC data analysis ramp up and our ongoing contributions to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid.

  19. An analysis of distribution transformer failure using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Mago Ramos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology was developed for analysing faults in distribution transformers using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS; it consisted of organising and creating of database regarding failed equipment, incorporating such data into the processing programme and converting all the information into numerical variables to be processed, thereby obtaining descriptive statistics and enabling factor and discriminant analysis. The research was based on information provided by companies in areas served by Corpoelec (Valencia, Venezuela and Codensa (Bogotá, Colombia.

  20. An analysis of program planning in schools with emerging excellence in science instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Karen Marie

    Science educators agree on many of the program elements that characterize exemplary science instructional programs, but it has not been clear how the processes of planning and implementation lead to excellence in program design. This study focuses on two K--12 school clusters located in unified school districts and one K--12 school cluster spanning two non-unified districts that are in the midst of building new science programs. The clusters were selected for support by an organization of educators, scientists, and businesspersons because they were recognized as likely to produce good programs. The investigation centers on three research questions: (1) To what extent have schools engaged in science education reform achieved excellence? (2) How did schools engaged in science program improvement go about achieving their goals, and (3) What contextual factors are most closely related to the realization of quality program elements? The degree to which each program studied met indicators of quality suggested by the National Science Education Standards (NSES) are described according to an Innovation Configuration (IC) Chart. Using a Stream Diagnostic method of analysis, levels of practice were associated with contextual factors categorized as Social, Organizing, and Resource. Findings reveal the importance of a balanced and synchronized function of all components, including administrative commitment, teacher participation, and favorable logistical aspects. Individual reform projects were more likely to be successful if they included exemplary program elements and mechanisms for program managers to access district personnel and procedures needed to implement programs. A review of the cluster case histories also revealed the positive impact of cooperation between the funding organization and the project, the degree to which professional development is directly related to the new program, and the availability of resources and support for each exemplary program element.

  1. Brain Structure Network Analysis in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun-Gang; Wang, Defeng; Liu, Kai; Weng, Jian; Guan, Yuefeng; Chan, Kate C C; Chu, Winnie C W; Shi, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleeping disorder commonly affecting school-aged children and is characterized by repeated episodes of blockage of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed a graph theoretical analysis on the brain morphometric correlation network in 25 OSA patients (OSA group; 5 female; mean age, 10.1 ± 1.8 years) and investigated the topological alterations in global and regional properties compared with 20 healthy control individuals (CON group; 6 females; mean age, 10.4 ± 1.8 years). A structural correlation network based on regional gray matter volume was constructed respectively for each group. Our results revealed a significantly decreased mean local efficiency in the OSA group over the density range of 0.32-0.44 (p gyrus, and a tendency of decreased degree in the right lingual and inferior frontal (orbital part) gyrus (p < 0.005, uncorrected). We also found that the network hubs in OSA and controls were distributed differently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that characterizes the brain structure network in OSA patients and invests the alteration of topological properties of gray matter volume structural network. This study may help to provide new evidence for understanding the neuropathophysiology of OSA from a topological perspective.

  2. Carotene and provitamin A content of vegetables sold in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, during spring and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Costa Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the α- and β-carotene content and provitamin A value of four leafy vegetables sold at local and street markets in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in the spring and winter of 2002. Carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Carotene was detected in all samples sold during spring, but was only present in a few samples of smooth and curly lettuce and kale in winter. β-Carotene was found in marked quantities in all leafy vegetables analyzed. Duncan's test (α = 5% showed significantly higher α-carotene content in curly lettuce and vitamin A value in large-leaved watercress in the spring. Mean β-carotene content and vitamin A value were 7544, 8751, 2584, 2792, 8193, and 5338 μg/100 g and 666, 760, 227, 238, 698, and 460 μg RAE/100 g in large-leaved and hydroponic watercress, smooth and curly lettuce, kale and spinach, respectively. All leafy vegetables analyzed represent important sources of provitamin A and supply an important part of the daily requirements of children and adults.Investigou-se o conteúdo de α e β-caroteno e avaliou-se o valor pro-vitamínico A de quatro hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em mercados locais e feira- livre de Viçosa, MG durante a primavera e o inverno de 2002. Os carotenóides foram analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O α-caroteno foi detectado em todas as amostras analisadas na primavera, porém no inverno, somente algumas amostras de alface crespa e lisa, e couve apresentaram tal carotenóide. O β-caroteno foi encontrado, em quantidades apreciáveis, em todas as hortaliças folhosas analisadas. O teste de Duncan (α=5% detectou que o conteúdo de α-caroteno em alface crespa e o valor de vitamina A em agrião de folha larga foram estatisticamente superiores na primavera. Os teores médios de β-caroteno e de valor de vitamina A para agrião de folha larga e hidropônico, alface crespa e lisa, couve e espinafre foram: 7544; 8751

  3. Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Ronald H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

  4. Confirmatory factors analysis of science teacher leadership in the Thailand world-class standard schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawinkarn, Dawruwan

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to analyze factors of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools. The research instrument was a five scale rating questionnaire with reliability 0.986. The sample group included 500 science teachers from World-Class Standard Schools who had been selected by using the stratified random sampling technique. Factor analysis of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools was conducted by using M plus for Windows. The results are as follows: The results of confirmatory factor analysis on science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools revealed that the model significantly correlated with the empirical data. The consistency index value was x2 = 105.655, df = 88, P-Value = 0.086, TLI = 0.997, CFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.022, and SRMR = 0.019. The value of factor loading of science teacher leadership was positive, with statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The value of six factors was between 0.880-0.996. The highest factor loading was the professional learning community, followed by child-centered instruction, participation in development, the role model in teaching, transformational leaders, and self-development with factor loading at 0.996, 0.928, 0.911, 0.907, 0.901, and 0.871, respectively. The reliability of each factor was 99.1%, 86.0%, 83.0%, 82.2%, 81.0%, and 75.8%, respectively.

  5. Survey report. New energy vision formulation project for Osa Town, Okayama Prefecture; 2001 nendo Osa cho shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo chosa hokokusho. Chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    A New Energy Vision was formulated for Osa Town after investigations about energy demand, new energy reserves, and their available amounts. The town consumes approximately 50.6-billion kcal in total, with automobiles consuming a half thereof as fuel. Studies were made about new energy reserves and recoverable amounts in the town, and then an estimation was made that 16.2 times 10{sup 5} kWh/year would be recoverable from photovoltaic energy, 1.58 times 10{sup 5} kWh from small-scale hydropower, 8.79 times 10{sup 6} kWh from ligneous biomass, and 1.96 times 10{sup 5} kWh from livestock biomass, and that 40 MW, for example, would come from wind power, subject to change depending on the wind power generator system to be built. Projects for new energy introduction were discussed, which involved the use of biodiesel fuel for official vehicles, installation of solar hot water showers in primary and junior high schools, application of photovoltaic/wind power to crime prevention lights and street lamps, snow melting systems for roads utilizing geothermal energy, use of heat from thinnings and ligneous waste, wind power facilities, small-scale hydropower facilities, introduction of new energy appliances into sightseeing facilities, and the introduction of photovoltaic power or the like into public facilities. (NEDO)

  6. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación en los ríos de Costa Rica es un problema que merece especial atención. El concepto “contaminación del agua” implica la incorporación de materias extrañas a esta, tales como microorganis- mos (coliformes totales y fecales, productos quími- cos (jabones, fer tilizantes, pesticidas, metales pesados (cromo, plomo, mercurio, etc. o materia orgánica proveniente de los suelos a través de la escorrentía superficial y de las aguas residuales domésticas. Estas materias deterioran la calidad del agua y reducen los diferentes usos que podría tener un río. El recurso hídrico es importante tanto para la preservación de la vida humana como para la conservación de la flora y fauna. Costa Rica se ha caracterizado por ser un país poseedor de una rica biodiversidad. Sin embargo, muchos de los ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana ya presentan una contaminación severa, según el Índice holandés de clasificación de la calidad del agua. En este estudio se analizó el contenido de colifor- mes fecales en 10 ríos de las provincias de San José, Alajuela, Heredia y Car tago, así como de la Península de Osa. Para correlacionar el contenido de colifor- mes fecales con la densidad poblacional, además, se muestrearon tres puntos en cada río: la zona alta cercana a la naciente, la zona media y la zona baja cercana a su desembocadura. Se encontró que los puntos de muestreo con densi- dades poblacionales medias o altas están altamente contaminados con coliformes fecales.Varios de ellos superan el límite máximo permisible en el contenido de coliformes fecales establecido por los reglamen- tos nacionales para el uso de los ríos en actividades de recreación de contacto primario. También se determinó que las zonas con menor pobla- ción, tales como los ríos Tigre y Rincón en la Península de Osa, el río Poás en Alajuela en todo su recorrido y los ríos Purires y Birrís en Cartago, en sus zonas medias y altas, están menos

  7. Competence in Mathematics and Academic Achievement: An Analysis of Enrollees in the Bachelor of Science in Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Robert; Maswere, Dyson W.; Mwanga, Yeko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the role of prior grounding attained in mathematics in predicting the academic achievement of enrollees in Bachelor of Science in Actuarial Science (BSAS). The investigation is based on administrative records of 240 BSAS enrollees at Makerere University, School of Statistics and Planning in the 2007-2009 cohorts. Students'…

  8. An Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions through Metaphors: Prospective Turkish Teachers of Science, Math and Social Science in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, teachers' perceptions of prospective Turkish teachers (that is, those who have completed their undergraduate studies) in the fields of Science, Mathematics and Social Sciences are investigated through teacher metaphors. These perceptions were classified in accordance with their answers to two open-ended questions within a metaphoric…

  9. A quantitative analysis of factors influencing the professional longevity of high school science teachers in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, James Alexander, Jr.

    This dissertation is an exploratory quantitative analysis of various independent variables to determine their effect on the professional longevity (years of service) of high school science teachers in the state of Florida for the academic years 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. Data are collected from the Florida Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress databases. The following research hypotheses are examined: H1 - There are statistically significant differences in Level 1 (teacher variables) that influence the professional longevity of a high school science teacher in Florida. H2 - There are statistically significant differences in Level 2 (school variables) that influence the professional longevity of a high school science teacher in Florida. H3 - There are statistically significant differences in Level 3 (district variables) that influence the professional longevity of a high school science teacher in Florida. H4 - When tested in a hierarchical multiple regression, there are statistically significant differences in Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3 that influence the professional longevity of a high school science teacher in Florida. The professional longevity of a Floridian high school science teacher is the dependent variable. The independent variables are: (Level 1) a teacher's sex, age, ethnicity, earned degree, salary, number of schools taught in, migration count, and various years of service in different areas of education; (Level 2) a school's geographic location, residential population density, average class size, charter status, and SES; and (Level 3) a school district's average SES and average spending per pupil. Statistical analyses of exploratory MLRs and a HMR are used to support the research hypotheses. The final results of the HMR analysis show a teacher's age, salary, earned degree (unknown, associate, and doctorate), and ethnicity (Hispanic and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander); a

  10. Changes in quality parameters of bread supplemented with OSA starch during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hadnađev-Dapčević, Tamara R.; Dokić, Ljubica P.; Hadnađev, Miroslav S.; Pojić, Milica M.; Rakita, Slađana M.; Torbica, Aleksandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Different methods are available for the monitoring of visual and structural changes during bread staling such as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, enzymatic tests, sensory evaluations and/or crumb texture analysis. However, since they are often rather expensive and time consuming, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to monitor the progress of bread stalling by following the changes in bread crumb colour characteristics. In order to achieve this, the re...

  11. Composição florística da vegetação arbórea de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecídua em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e espécies de maior ocorrência na região Floristic composition of trees in a seasonal semidecious forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, and species of greater ocurrence in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnir Gomes Ferreira Júnior

    2007-12-01

    the qualitative survey of the flora. Thus, this work aimed to determine the floristic composition of a site in the Biological Reserve of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV in Vicosa-MG, under natural regeneration for 78 years, as well as to establish a comparative analysis with other works in the region, providing information to serve as a basis for further works on recovery and conservation of the biodiversity of seasonal semi deciduous forest sites. The floristic data were obtained by phytosociological sampling in 1 ha, through contiguous plots, with all the wood individuals with stem diameter = 4.7 cm, 1.30m far from the soil were recorded. A total of 130 species was sampled, belonging to 94 genera and 38 botanical families. The analysis of those data combined with other surveys in different sites of the Biological Reserve on the UFV campus showed a remarkable influence of local environmental variables (topography, slopes, sun exposure and water availability on the floristic richness distribution of this site. Casearia decandra, Guapira opposita, Apuleia leiocarpa, Dalbergia nigra, Jacaranda macratha, Matayba elaeagnoides, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Bathysa nicholsonii, Carpotroche brasiliensis, Luehea grandiflora, Mabea fistulifera, Ocotea odorifera, Sorocea bonplandii and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium presented the highest occurrence in the sites studied in the Viçosa region and are recommended for recovery of degraded environments in regions.

  12. Comparative analysis of female physicists in the physical sciences: Motivation and background variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2014-06-01

    The majority of existing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following question: On average, do females who select physics as compared to chemistry doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? This question is analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey data set through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists (n =1137). A logistic regression analysis and prototypical odds ratio uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their academic achievement and experiences ranging from high school through undergraduate education. Results indicate that females who have negative undergraduate chemistry experiences as well as higher grades and positive experiences in undergraduate physics are more likely to pursue a career in physics as opposed to chemistry. Conclusions suggest that a greater emphasis should be placed on the classroom experiences that are provided to females in gateway physics courses. Analyses show that women are not a single entity that should only be examined as a whole group or in comparison to men. Instead women can be compared to one another to see what influences their differences in educational experiences and career choice in STEM-based fields as well as other academic areas of study.

  13. SPADER - Science Planning Analysis and Data Estimation Resource for the NASA Parker Solar Probe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D. J.; Fox, N. J.; Kusterer, M. B.; Turner, F. S.; Woleslagle, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Scheduled to launch in July 2018, the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) will orbit the Sun for seven years, making a total of twenty-four extended encounters inside a solar radial distance of 0.25 AU. During most orbits, there are extended periods of time where PSP-Sun-Earth geometry dramatically reduces PSP-Earth communications via the Deep Space Network (DSN); there is the possibility that multiple orbits will have little to no high-rate downlink available. Science and housekeeping data taken during an encounter may reside on the spacecraft solid state recorder (SSR) for multiple orbits, potentially running the risk of overflowing the SSR in the absence of mitigation. The Science Planning Analysis and Data Estimation Resource (SPADER) has been developed to provide the science and operations teams the ability to plan operations accounting for multiple orbits in order to mitigate the effects caused by the lack of high-rate downlink. Capabilities and visualizations of SPADER are presented; further complications associated with file downlink priority and high-speed data transfers between instrument SSRs and the spacecraft SSR are discussed, as well as the long-term consequences of variations in DSN downlink parameters on the science data downlink.

  14. Comparative analysis of female physicists in the physical sciences: Motivation and background variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of existing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following question: On average, do females who select physics as compared to chemistry doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? This question is analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey data set through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists (n=1137. A logistic regression analysis and prototypical odds ratio uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their academic achievement and experiences ranging from high school through undergraduate education. Results indicate that females who have negative undergraduate chemistry experiences as well as higher grades and positive experiences in undergraduate physics are more likely to pursue a career in physics as opposed to chemistry. Conclusions suggest that a greater emphasis should be placed on the classroom experiences that are provided to females in gateway physics courses. Analyses show that women are not a single entity that should only be examined as a whole group or in comparison to men. Instead women can be compared to one another to see what influences their differences in educational experiences and career choice in STEM-based fields as well as other academic areas of study.

  15. Evaluating the Collaborative Ecosystem for an Innovation-Driven Economy: A Systems Analysis and Case Study of Science Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy based on historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis are adopted to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long range perspective. Third, the concepts of government-academia-industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem.

  16. Social inclusion and its approach at Information Science: scientific production analysis in the area of information science periodicals between 2001 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Serrano Almeida

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has the purpose to check how the social inclusion has been approached at Information Science area, from the scientific production area published at the area national periodicals. Over there, to verify which inclusion forms are recurrently approached at Information Science area; to show the use tendencies of social inclusion concept at the Science Information area scientific articles; to find how it presents the social inclusion concept connected to the information professional and analyze if it there is any association to other themes. It was realized searches in six periodicals at the period between 2001 and 2010. We used how analysis method the Bardin content analysis reference. The analysis corpus was constituted of 30 articles which approached the social inclusion theme. As the results, it was showed that the social inclusion on Information Science area publications, in general, is turned to digital inclusion and to the Information Science area publications uses. Besides, it was still identified connections with the information professionals, which one must serve as mediator between the information and the environment where information and users are inserted.

  17. O tratamento dos doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa no hospital de Rilhafoles (segunda metade do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo de Araújo, Maria Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined the procedural requirements related to the sending of insane patients of Vila Viçosa to the hospital of Rilhafoles, in the second half of the 19th century, and the relationships established with the hospital of this Alentejo town relating to the payment of treatment. Faced with a severe financial crisis, the hospital of Vila Viçosa systematically refused the responsibility to send the insane patients to the Rilhafoles hospital in an attempt to pass this burden on the administration of the county, being very reluctant to pay the bills that came to him from the hospital of São José. The conflict between the two institutions came to the monarch with no other alternative than the payment, the hospital of village of the Alentejo region proceeded to sending parcels of money, albeit way too late. For the realization of this work we use the books of the Misericórdia and the documents of the Civil Governor found of the city of Évora under the custody of the Distrital Archive of the same city. This documents results, basically, from the correspondence between the Misericórdia of Vila Viçosa, the council administrator and the civil governor of Évora.[pt] Neste trabalho analisamos os trâmites processuais respeitantes ao envio de doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa para o hospital de Rilhafoles, na segunda metade do século XIX, e as relações estabelecidas com o hospital desta vila alentejana relativamente ao pagamento do tratamento. A braços com uma grave crise financeira, o hospital de Vila Viçosa recusava sistematicamente a responsabilidade de enviar os alienados para Rilhafoles, numa tentativa de passar esse ónus para a administração do concelho, mostrando-se muito renitente no pagamento das faturas que lhe chegavam do hospital de São José. O conflito entre as duas instituições chegou ao monarca e sem outra alternativa que a do pagamento, o hospital da vila alentejana procedeu ao envio de parcelas de dinheiro

  18. Evaluation of the Science, Technology, and Engineering Leadership Program, Year Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Natalie L.; Wade, Julie H.

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) conducted an evaluation of the implementation of the second year (2011-2012) of the Science, Technology, and Engineering Leadership Program (STELP) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). Funding for STELP, including the evaluation study, is provided by a grant from the Howard Hughes Medical…

  19. Doing, talking and writing science: A discourse analysis of the process of resemiotization in a middle school lab-based science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Laura J.

    This study examines students' sense making practices in a middle school science class from a discourse analytic perspective. Using Mediated Discourse Analysis (MDA) (Scollon 1998, 2001) and interactional sociolinguistics (Gumperz 1999, 2001, Schiffrin 1994), my research seeks to enrich findings from recent sociocultural studies of science classrooms that focus on doing, talking and writing science (Roth 2005, Kress, et al. 2002, Halliday & Martin 1993, Lemke 1990). Within a middle school science classroom, these fundamental activities form a nexus of practice (Scollon 1998, 2001) basic to science literacy (AAAS 1989) and reflective of the work of practicing scientists. Moreover, students' engagement in these practices provides insight into the cultural production and reproduction of science and scientist. I first examine how the students' curriculum text encourages these three scientific practices and then trace students' uptake; that is, how they subsequently do, talk, and write science throughout the course of the unit. I argue that learning science with this curriculum unit requires students to resemiotize (Iedema 2001, 2003) first hand experience so they can represent their knowledge cohesively and coherently in evaluable forms. Ultimately, students must transform language from the curriculum text and their teacher into action in their laboratory activities and action in their laboratory activities into language. In addition, I show how students are apprenticed to the conventionalized practices and voices (Bakhtin 1986) of science (i.e. the scientific register), and how their figures of personhood (Agha 2005) reflect the development of their scientific identities. Overall, I argue that the microanalytic methods I use illuminate how students draw upon curricular resources to become scientifically literate and develop scientific identities.

  20. An Update on the NASA Planetary Science Division Research and Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Christina; Bernstein, Max; Rall, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) solicits its Research and Analysis (R&A) programs each year in Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES). Beginning with the 2014 ROSES solicitation, PSD will be changing the structure of the program elements under which the majority of planetary science R&A is done. Major changes include the creation of five core research program elements aligned with PSD's strategic science questions, the introduction of several new R&A opportunities, new submission requirements, and a new timeline for proposal submissionROSES and NSPIRES: ROSES contains the research announcements for all of SMD. Submission of ROSES proposals is done electronically via NSPIRES: http://nspires.nasaprs.com. We will present further details on the proposal submission process to help guide younger scientists. Statistical trends, including the average award size within the PSD programs, selections rates, and lessons learned, will be presented. Information on new programs will also be presented, if available.Review Process and Volunteering: The SARA website (http://sara.nasa.gov) contains information on all ROSES solicitations. There is an email address (SARA@nasa.gov) for inquiries and an area for volunteer reviewers to sign up. The peer review process is based on Scientific/Technical Merit, Relevance, and Level of Effort, and will be detailed within this presentation.ROSES 2014 submission changes: All PSD programs will use a two-step proposal submission process. A Step-1 proposal is required and must be submitted electronically by the Step-1 due date. The Step-1 proposal should include a description of the science goals and objectives to be addressed by the proposal, a brief description of the methodology to be used to address the science goals and objectives, and the relevance of the proposed research to the call submitted to.Additional Information: Additional details will be provided on the Cassini Data Analysis Program, the

  1. Ocorrência da síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS em crianças respiradoras orais Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS in mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suemy Cioffi Izu

    2010-10-01

    DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHOD: Data analysis from 248 medical charts of mouth breathing children seen at the Pediatric Otolaryngologic Division of a large medical institution between the years of 2000 and 2006. All patients had nasofibroscopy and or Cavum radiographs and polysomnographic exams. According to the Apnea index, patients were classified as primary snorers (AI1. RESULTS: From 248 patients included in the study, 144 (58% were primary snorers and 104 (42% had OSAS. The most prevalent otorhinolaryngological findings were adenotonsillar hypertrophy (n=152; 61.2%, tonsilar hypertrophy (n=17; 6.8%, adenoid hypertrophy (n=37; 14.9%, rhinitis (n=155; 62.5% and secretory otitis (n=36; 14.5%. CONCLUSIONS: primary snoring and OSAS are frequent findings in mouth breathing children. The most frequent otorhinolaryngological disorder in children with OSAS is adenotonsillar hypertrophy with or without rhinitis.

  2. Data management challenges in analysis and synthesis in the ecosystem sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Guru, S; Houghton, L; Keniger, L; Driver, P; Ritchie, E G; Lai, K; Treloar, A

    2015-11-15

    Open-data has created an unprecedented opportunity with new challenges for ecosystem scientists. Skills in data management are essential to acquire, manage, publish, access and re-use data. These skills span many disciplines and require trans-disciplinary collaboration. Science synthesis centres support analysis and synthesis through collaborative 'Working Groups' where domain specialists work together to synthesise existing information to provide insight into critical problems. The Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS) served a wide range of stakeholders, from scientists to policy-makers to managers. This paper investigates the level of sophistication in data management in the ecosystem science community through the lens of the ACEAS experience, and identifies the important factors required to enable us to benefit from this new data-world and produce innovative science. ACEAS promoted the analysis and synthesis of data to solve transdisciplinary questions, and promoted the publication of the synthesised data. To do so, it provided support in many of the key skillsets required. Analysis and synthesis in multi-disciplinary and multi-organisational teams, and publishing data were new for most. Data were difficult to discover and access, and to make ready for analysis, largely due to lack of metadata. Data use and publication were hampered by concerns about data ownership and a desire for data citation. A web portal was created to visualise geospatial datasets to maximise data interpretation. By the end of the experience there was a significant increase in appreciation of the importance of a Data Management Plan. It is extremely doubtful that the work would have occurred or data delivered without the support of the Synthesis centre, as few of the participants had the necessary networks or skills. It is argued that participation in the Centre provided an important learning opportunity, and has resulted in improved knowledge and understanding

  3. The Analysis of Curriculum Development Studies Which are Applied For Effective Science Teaching at Primary Level in Turkey and Suggestions to Problems Encountered

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi YAĞBASAN; Murat DEMİRBAŞ

    2005-01-01

    In this study, curriculum development studies for effective science teaching were analyzed in Turkey, solution suggestions were made by determining the confronted problems. The studies for curriculum analysis toward science teaching were done by covering applications of modern science teaching started in 1970s, curriculum of science teaching made in 1990s and applications of science teaching curriculum put into practice in 2000. It was determined that new science teaching studies that will be...

  4. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Guittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica’s only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals, remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%, Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%, Ceiba pentandra (n=7, 14.0% and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%. We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw’s long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 387-393. Epub 2009 June 30.

  5. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  6. Science education policy for emergency, conflict, and post-conflict: An analysis of trends and implications for the science education program in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udongo, Betty Pacutho

    This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the level of government funding towards improving science education program in Uganda? (2) Have recent initiatives, such as free Primary and Secondary education, compulsory science, and 75% sponsorship for science-based courses, had a measurable impact on the proportion of students from the conflict-affected regions who enter tertiary institutions to pursue science and technology programs? (3) To what extent do the Ugandan Education Policy and, in particular, the Science Education Policy effectively address the educational needs of students affected by armed conflicts? The study employed a mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Quantitative data were obtained from a comprehensive search of policy documents and content analysis of literature on education policy, science education programs, and impact of conflicts on educational delivery. Qualitative data were obtained from surveys and interviews distributed to policy makers, central government and the local government officials, teachers, and students from the war-ravaged Northern Uganda. Analysis of policy documents and respondents' views revealed that Uganda does not have a science education policy, and the present education policy does not fully address the educational needs of students studying in conflict-affected regions. It was further observed that fewer students from the conflict-affected regions qualify for government scholarship to study science courses in higher institutions of learning. The study recommended the following policy interventions: (a) affirmative

  7. KNIME for reproducible cross-domain analysis of life science data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillbrunn, Alexander; Dietz, Christian; Pfeuffer, Julianus; Rahn, René; Landrum, Gregory A; Berthold, Michael R

    2017-11-10

    Experiments in the life sciences often involve tools from a variety of domains such as mass spectrometry, next generation sequencing, or image processing. Passing the data between those tools often involves complex scripts for controlling data flow, data transformation, and statistical analysis. Such scripts are not only prone to be platform dependent, they also tend to grow as the experiment progresses and are seldomly well documented, a fact that hinders the reproducibility of the experiment. Workflow systems such as KNIME Analytics Platform aim to solve these problems by providing a platform for connecting tools graphically and guaranteeing the same results on different operating systems. As an open source software, KNIME allows scientists and programmers to provide their own extensions to the scientific community. In this review paper we present selected extensions from the life sciences that simplify data exploration, analysis, and visualization and are interoperable due to KNIME's unified data model. Additionally, we name other workflow systems that are commonly used in the life sciences and highlight their similarities and differences to KNIME. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Data quality studies for burst analysis of Virgo data acquired during Weekly Science Runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acernese, F; Amico, P; Alshourbagy, M

    2007-01-01

    Virgo started collecting science data during weekends in order to not interfere with commissioning activities. The goal of Weekly Science Runs is to ease the transition between commissioning periods and data taking periods, in addition to providing data sets exploiting the stationary behavior of the detector. The detection of gravitational wave (GW) bursts emitted by core collapse of supernovae is one of the most difficult tasks for the GW community due to the fact that there are uncertainties in the exact shape of the waveforms, as we do not have complete models. A major task for this kind of detection effort is the cleaning of the event triggers found by the detection pipelines, namely the removal of accidental transient signals due to noise source events. In order to clean our data from false GW events, we need to define a strategy for data quality cut and veto of auxiliary and environmental monitoring channels. In this paper we report on the analysis we performed on data acquired during Weekly Science Runs to explore and define the data quality cut and veto studies for burst analysis

  9. Rice microRNA osa-miR1848 targets the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene OsCYP51G3 and mediates the biosynthesis of phytosterols and brassinosteroids during development and in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojing; Tang, Huadan; Wang, Ren; Wu, Ping; Jia, Yongxia; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xinlan; Kang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-11-01

    Phytosterols are membrane components or precursors for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. As they cannot be transported long distances, their homeostasis is tightly controlled through their biosynthesis and metabolism. However, it is unknown whether microRNAs are involved in their homeostatic regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants transformed with microRNA osa-miR1848 and its target, the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene, OsCYP51G3, were used to investigate the role of osa-miR1848 in the regulation of phytosterol biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 directs OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage to regulate phytosterol and BR biosynthesis in rice. The role of OsCYP51G3 as one of the osa-miR1848 targets is supported by the opposite expression patterns of osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 in transgenic rice plants, and by the identification of OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage sites. Increased osa-miR1848 and decreased OsCYP51G3 expression reduced phytosterol and BR concentrations, and caused typical phenotypic changes related to phytosterol and BR deficiency, including dwarf plants, erect leaves, semi-sterile pollen grains, and shorter cells. Circadian expression of osa-miR1848 regulated the diurnal abundance of OsCYP51G3 transcript in developing organs, and the response of OsCYP51G3 to salt stress. We propose that osa-miR1848 regulates OsCYP51G3 expression posttranscriptionally, and mediates phytosterol and BR biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 might have potential applications in rice breeding to modulate leaf angle, and the size and quality of seeds. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Blog Citations as Indicators of the Societal Impact of Research : Content Analysis of Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations are good indicators for the societal impact or benefits of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging.org published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty‐one (22.68% of all cited journals were from the social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy‐five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited at the time of citation was 5.8 years. Discussion and criticism were the two main categories of motivations. Overall, the study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact. A considerable number of citation motivations in blogs such as disputing a belief, suggesting policies, providing a solution to a problem, reacting to media, criticism and the like seemed to support gaining societal benefits. Societal benefits are considered as helping stimulate new approaches to social issues, or informing public debate and policymaking. Lower self‐citation (compared to some other altmetric measures such as tweets and the fact that blogging involves generating content (i.e. an intellectual process give them an advantage for altmetrics. However, limitations and contextual issues such as disciplinary differences and low uptake of altmetrics, in general, in scholarly communication should not be ignored when using blogs as a data source for altmetrics.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiríosa Foundation, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    This study explored registered psychiatric nurses\\' (RPNs\\') interactions and level of empathy towards service users with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A qualitative approach was used, and 17 RPNs were interviewed using a semistructured interview schedule incorporating the "staff-patient interaction response scale" (SPIRS). Four themes emerged following data analysis: "challenging and difficult," "manipulative, destructive and threatening behaviour," "preying on the vulnerable resulting in splitting staff and other service users," and "boundaries and structure." Additionally, low levels of empathy were evident in the majority of participants\\' responses to the SPIRS. The findings provide further insight on nurses\\' empathy responses and views on caring for service users with BPD and further evidence for the need for training and education for nurses in the care of service users diagnosed with BPD.

  12. Analysis of the project synthesis goal cluster orientation and inquiry emphasis of elementary science textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. An inquiry classification scheme was used for the remaining segment. Four questions were answered: (1) To what extent do elementary science textbooks focus on each Project Synthesis goal cluster? (2) In which part of the text is such information found? (3) To what extent are the activities and experiments merely verifications of information already introduced in the text? (4) If inquiry is present in an activity, then what is the level of such inquiry?Eleven science textbook series, which comprise approximately 90 percent of the national market, were selected for analysis. Two units, one primary (K-3) and one intermediate (4-6), were selected for analysis by first identifying units common to most series, then randomly selecting one primary and one intermediate unit for analysis.Each randomly selected unit was carefully read, using the sentence as the unit of analysis. Each declarative and interrogative sentence in the body of the text was classified as: (1) academic; (2) personal; (3) career; or (4) societal in its focus. Each illustration, except those used in evaluation items, was similarly classified. Each activity/experiment and each miscellaneous sentence in end-of-chapter segments labelled review, summary, evaluation, etc., were similarly classified. Finally, each activity/experiment, as a whole, was categorized according to a four-category inquiry scheme (confirmation, structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry).In general, results of the analysis are: (1) most text prose focuses on academic science; (2) most remaining text prose focuses on the personal goal cluster; (3) the career and societal goal clusters receive only minor attention; (4) text illustrations exhibit a pattern similar to text prose; (5) text activities/experiments are academic in orientation

  13. ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ DECISION MAKING TO SOLVE SCIENCE REASONING TEST OF TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE STUDY (TIMSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Novianawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine students’ decision making strategy to answer TIMSS science reasoning test in cognitive reasoning domain. This research is quantitative descriptive research. The result shows that students tend to use compensatory strategy for decision making in solving multiple-choice questions and use rational category to answer essay questions. The result shows that more than half of students have been able to answer the questions TIMSS science tests correctly.

  14. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Attitude Scale of Constructivist Approach for Science Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Evrekli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Underlining the importance of teachers for the constructivist approach, the present study attempts to develop “Attitude Scale of Construc¬tivist Approach for Science Teachers (ASCAST”. The pre-applications of the scale were administered to a total of 210 science teachers; however, the data obtained from 5 teachers were excluded from the analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the pre-applications, it was found that the scale could have a single factor structure, which was tested using the confir¬matory factor analysis. As a result of the initial confirmatory factor analysis, the values of fit were examined and found to be low. Subsequently, by exam¬ining the modification indices, error covariance was added between items 23 and 24 and the model was tested once again. The added error covariance led to a significant improvement in the model, producing values of fit suitable for limit values. Thus, it was concluded that the scale could be employed with a single factor. The explained variance value for the scale developed with a sin¬gle factor structure was calculated to be 50.43% and its reliability was found to be .93. The results obtained suggest that the scale possesses reliable-valid characteristics and could be used in further studies.

  15. Conference Essay: Interiors and Exteriors in Discourse Analysis and the Sociology of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following report summarizes the discussions and a number of the central substantive points put forward by the participants of the Franco-German workshop—held in Paris during the summer of 2005—on recent developments and future perspectives of discourse related research in France and Germany. Discourse analysis in France can be traced back to structuralist theorizing as it has developed inside linguistics since SAUSSURE and further elaborated by theorists such as FOUCAULT, DERRIDA, ALTHUSSER and LACAN. Currently, the field is characterized by well established linguistic research networks and methodologies. Discourse analysis in Germany, in contrast, gained academic status only in the 1990s, and this was the case mainly in social science disciplines. Against this background, the workshop not only shed light on the respective underlying assumptions of German qualitative social science and the "French School" of discourse analysis, it also theoretically located and methodologically systematized the existed "pool of tools." The workshop thereby helped to clarify the contours of the field of discourse analysis from the perspectives of the respective target groups on both sides of the Rhine. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701222

  16. Concept Analysis and the Advance of Nursing Knowledge: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Beth L; Jacelon, Cynthia S; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2018-04-24

    Despite an overwhelming increase in the number of concept analyses published since the early 1970s, there are significant limitations to the impact of this work in promoting progress in nursing science. We conducted an extensive review of concept analyses published between 1972 and 2017 to identify patterns in analysis and followed this with exploration of an exemplar related to the concept of normalization to demonstrate the capabilities of analysis for promoting concept development and progress. Scoping review of peer-reviewed literature published in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in which the terms "concept analysis," "concept clarification," and "concept derivation" appeared in any part of the reference. The original search returned 3,489 articles. This initial pool was refined to a final sample of 958 articles published in 223 journals and addressing 604 concepts. A review of citations of the original analysis of the concept of normalization resulted in 75 articles selected for closer examination of the process of concept development. Review showed a clear pattern of repetition of analysis of the same concept, growth in number of published analyses, preponderance of first authors with master's degrees, and 43 distinct descriptions of methods. Review of the 75 citations to the normalization analysis identified multiple ways concept analysis can inform subsequent research and theory development. Conceptual work needs to move beyond the level of "concept analysis" involving clear linkage to the resolution of problems in the discipline. Conceptual work is an important component of progress in the knowledge base of a discipline, and more effective use of concept development activities are needed to maximize the potential of this important work. It is important to the discipline that we facilitate progress in nursing science on a theoretical and conceptual level as a part of cohesive and systematic development of the discipline

  17. Quality in environmental science for policy: Assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, Laura; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete notions of uncertainty leading to different and incompatible uncertainty classifications. One of the most salient shortcomings of present-day practice is that most of these classifications focus on quantifying uncertainty while ignoring the qualitative aspects that tend to be decisive in the interface between science and policy. Consequently, the current practices of uncertainty analysis contribute to increasing the perceived precision of scientific knowledge, but do not adequately address its lack of socio-political relevance. The 'positivistic' uncertainty analysis models (like those that dominate the fields of climate change modelling and nuclear or chemical risk assessment) have little social relevance, as they do not influence negotiations between stakeholders. From the perspective of the science-policy interface, the current practices of uncertainty analysis are incomplete and incorrectly focused. We argue that although scientific knowledge produced and used in a context of political decision-making embodies traditional scientific characteristics, it also holds additional properties linked to its influence on social, political, and economic relations. Therefore, the significance of uncertainty cannot be assessed based on quality criteria that refer to the scientific content only; uncertainty must also include quality criteria specific to the properties and roles of this scientific knowledge within political, social, and economic contexts and processes. We propose a conceptual framework designed to account for such substantive, contextual, and procedural criteria of knowledge quality. At the same time, the proposed framework includes and synthesizes the various

  18. Computer analysis of digital sky surveys using citizen science and manual classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuminski, Evan; Shamir, Lior

    2015-01-01

    As current and future digital sky surveys such as SDSS, LSST, DES, Pan-STARRS and Gaia create increasingly massive databases containing millions of galaxies, there is a growing need to be able to efficiently analyze these data. An effective way to do this is through manual analysis, however, this may be insufficient considering the extremely vast pipelines of astronomical images generated by the present and future surveys. Some efforts have been made to use citizen science to classify galaxies by their morphology on a larger scale than individual or small groups of scientists can. While these citizen science efforts such as Zooniverse have helped obtain reasonably accurate morphological information about large numbers of galaxies, they cannot scale to provide complete analysis of billions of galaxy images that will be collected by future ventures such as LSST. Since current forms of manual classification cannot scale to the masses of data collected by digital sky surveys, it is clear that in order to keep up with the growing databases some form of automation of the data analysis will be required, and will work either independently or in combination with human analysis such as citizen science. Here we describe a computer vision method that can automatically analyze galaxy images and deduce galaxy morphology. Experiments using Galaxy Zoo 2 data show that the performance of the method increases as the degree of agreement between the citizen scientists gets higher, providing a cleaner dataset. For several morphological features, such as the spirality of the galaxy, the algorithm agreed with the citizen scientists on around 95% of the samples. However, the method failed to analyze some of the morphological features such as the number of spiral arms, and provided accuracy of just ~36%.

  19. Evaluation of Big Data Containers for Popular Storage, Retrieval, and Computation Primitives in Earth Science Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K.; Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Huang, T.; Duffy, D.; Yang, C. P.; Habermann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Data containers are infrastructures that facilitate storage, retrieval, and analysis of data sets. Big data applications in Earth Science require a mix of processing techniques, data sources and storage formats that are supported by different data containers. Some of the most popular data containers used in Earth Science studies are Hadoop, Spark, SciDB, AsterixDB, and RasDaMan. These containers optimize different aspects of the data processing pipeline and are, therefore, suitable for different types of applications. These containers are expected to undergo rapid evolution and the ability to re-test, as they evolve, is very important to ensure the containers are up to date and ready to be deployed to handle large volumes of observational data and model output. Our goal is to develop an evaluation plan for these containers to assess their suitability for Earth Science data processing needs. We have identified a selection of test cases that are relevant to most data processing exercises in Earth Science applications and we aim to evaluate these systems for optimal performance against each of these test cases. The use cases identified as part of this study are (i) data fetching, (ii) data preparation for multivariate analysis, (iii) data normalization, (iv) distance (kernel) computation, and (v) optimization. In this study we develop a set of metrics for performance evaluation, define the specifics of governance, and test the plan on current versions of the data containers. The test plan and the design mechanism are expandable to allow repeated testing with both new containers and upgraded versions of the ones mentioned above, so that we can gauge their utility as they evolve.

  20. NASA Life Sciences Data Repositories: Tools for Retrospective Analysis and Future Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Wear, M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Fitts, M.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle era into the next phase of space exploration, the need to ensure the capture, analysis, and application of its research and medical data is of greater urgency than at any other previous time. In this era of limited resources and challenging schedules, the Human Research Program (HRP) based at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) recognizes the need to extract the greatest possible amount of information from the data already captured, as well as focus current and future research funding on addressing the HRP goal to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. To this end, the Science Management Office and the Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch within the HRP and the Space Medicine Division have been working to make both research data and clinical data more accessible to the user community. The Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA), the research repository housing data and information regarding the physiologic effects of microgravity, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH-R), the clinical repository housing astronaut data, have joined forces to achieve this goal. The task of both repositories is to acquire, preserve, and distribute data and information both within the NASA community and to the science community at large. This is accomplished via the LSDA s public website (http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov), which allows access to experiment descriptions including hardware, datasets, key personnel, mission descriptions and a mechanism for researchers to request additional data, research and clinical, that is not accessible from the public website. This will result in making the work of NASA and its partners available to the wider sciences community, both domestic and international. The desired outcome is the use of these data for knowledge discovery, retrospective analysis, and planning of future

  1. Perfil socioeconômico, nutricional e de antioxidantes de jovens fumantes, do município de Viçosa-MG

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Ellencristina da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Com o objetivo de comparar o perfil socieconômico, nutricional e de antioxidantes de indivíduos jovens fumantes e não fumantes de Viçosa-MG, conduziu-se um estudo transversal controlado. Foram selecionados indivíduos fumantes e não fumantes de instituições de ensino da cidade de Viçosa-MG. Considerou-se como fumante o indivíduo que fumava pelo menos um cigarro diariamente, por pelo menos 30 dias antes do inicio do estudo, e não fumante o que nunca fumou e/ou não fumava esporadicamente. Os fum...

  2. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Elena

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  3. Perfil cualitativo de metabolitos secundarios en la fracción comestible de especies leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en un bosque semicaducifolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á Ojeda

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar cualitativamente el perfil de metabolitos secundarios de la fracción comestible de plantas leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en silvopastoreo, las cuales se encuentran en un bosque tropófilo semicaducifolio de Venezuela, se utilizaron 14 vacunos machos Brahman x Holstein de 390,4 ± 18,0 kg de PV. Estos fueron manejados en pastoreo continuo en una superficie de 81 ha, de las cuales 50 ha correspondían a un bosque semicaducifolio y el resto, a vegetación herbácea natural (Cynodon nlemfuensis, Sporobolus indicus, Axonopus sp., Mimosa pudica e Hyptis suaveolens. La composición de la biomasa leñosa seleccionada por los animales se estudió mediante la evaluación de los fragmentos epidérmicos presentes en las heces colectadas por vía transrectal, cada 15 días. A partir de estos resultados, se tomaron muestras de cinco plantas por especie leñosa, en los periodos seco y lluvioso. Se determinaron 15 grupos de metabolitos: alcaloides, á-aminos, carbohidratos solubles, cardenólidos, cianógenos, esteroles, fenoles totales, flavonoides, lectinas, mucílagos, quinonas, saponinas, taninos extractables (totales y condensados y terpenoides. La mayoría de la biomasa correspondió a especies de la familia Fabaceae, las cuales presentaron todos los metabolitos evaluados. En ambos periodos se detectaron niveles de esteroles, terpenoides, fenoles totales y taninos extractables que variaron desde leves hasta cuantiosos. Con independencia del periodo, el 66,7 % de las especies presentó entre 10-11 metabolitos secundarios en su biomasa comestible. Se recomienda realizar estudios para la cuantificación de los metabolitos secundarios presentes en plantas leñosas de valor forrajero, para este sistema silvopastoril

  4. The importance of neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TM) as a predictor of difficult intubation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Ezzat Abdel Naim; Sabah Abdel Raouf Mohamed; Sherif Mohamed Soaida; Haitham Hassan Awad Eltrabily

    2014-01-01

    Background: The trial to find a bedside examination that is helpful for foreseeing difficult intubation is quite inspiring. It was reported that thyromental distance (TM), body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC) and a Mallampati score >3 were the only helpful bedside test predictors. By using magnetic resonance imaging, it was established that more fat was present in areas around the collapsible parts of the pharynx in OSA patients. So distribution of fat may provide a better suggestio...

  5. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R; McArdle, Nigel

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Tertiary sleep clinic. There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices.

  6. Digital Stratigraphy: Contextual Analysis of File System Traces in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan

    2017-12-28

    This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  8. Academic writing in a corpus of 4th grade science notebooks: An analysis of student language use and adult expectations of the genres of school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinca, Alberto

    This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, 59.5% of 6511 nouns are references to physical materials, followed by references to

  9. Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Assessing the Severity of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yao Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent cardiovascular risk factor to which autonomic nervous dysfunction has been reported to be an important contributor. Ninety subjects recruited from the sleep center of a single medical center were divided into four groups: normal snoring subjects without OSA (apnea hypopnea index, AHI < 5, n = 11, mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 10, moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 24, and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 45. Demographic (i.e., age, gender, anthropometric (i.e., body mass index, neck circumference, and polysomnographic (PSG data were recorded and compared among the different groups. For each subject, R-R intervals (RRI from 10 segments of 10-minute electrocardiogram recordings during non-rapid eye movement sleep at stage N2 were acquired and analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV and sample entropy using multiscale entropy index (MEI that was divided into small scale (MEISS, scale 1–5 and large scale (MEILS, scale 6–10. Our results not only demonstrated that MEISS could successfully distinguish normal snoring subjects and those with mild OSA from those with moderate and severe disease, but also revealed good correlation between MEISS and AHI with Spearman correlation analysis (r = −0.684, p < 0.001. Therefore, using the two parameters of EEG and ECG, MEISS may serve as a simple preliminary screening tool for assessing the severity of OSA before proceeding to PSG analysis.

  10. Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Caitlin Rose

    The application and use of non-destructive portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a critical tool in the preservation and interpretation of cultural material. Portable XRF instrumentation produce elemental compositional data that is used to reconstruct current artifact composition, which can be related to materials and methods of manufacture, technological practice, as well as object condition and presence of corrosion surfaces. Portable XRF analysis is used to assess a variety of material classes utilized in artifact manufacture. The dissertation research is based on a series of three case studies that represent typical groups of material culture commonly encountered in conservation and conservation science research. Conservators and conservation scientists frequently undertake analysis and interpretation of disparate groups of materials. Often, these objects are tied together by research questions or themes directed by outside influences including preservation issues requiring action; curatorial research interests; museum exhibition programs; as well as many other cultural heritage stakeholders. To this end, both non-destructive and destructive tools that provide measurements of interest play critical roles in analysis. The case studies have been designed to answer common compositional questions relating to (a) bulk analysis of Chinese coins, (b) characterization of Southwestern ceramic colorants, and, (c) chemical examination of post-depositional manganese dioxide accretions occurring on archaeological ceramic materials. They evaluate the value of data produced using effectiveness of non-destructive portable XRF analysis for the interpretation of archaeological materials. The case studies provide a template for the development of conservation science research, predicated on object preservation, which produce meaningful data for the interpretation and conservation of the analyzed archaeological artifacts. Portable XRF provides useful data that is used to

  11. I am smart enough to study postsecondary science: a critical discourse analysis of latecomers' identity construction in an online forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Phoebe A.; Seiler, Gale

    2017-11-01

    Latecomers to science are students who take non-traditional routes into postsecondary science because they are initially missing prerequisites. Latecomers have a lower rate of persistence than traditional science students. This critical discourse analysis of an online forum thread uses Gee's toolkit to explore how latecomers, who have histories of not being recognized as smart enough to do science, find new ways to identify with science. Applying a theoretical lens in which identity is viewed as a process of continual negotiation, which is constrained and afforded by the resources of the relevant figured worlds, it is shown how four latecomers shared reinterpreted histories of being recognized as not smart enough to do science and in doing so, formed solidarity. As part of this process they co-produced a new cultural model in which the ability or inability to ask questions led respectively to success (good grades) or failure (low grades) in science. Used in conjunction with their solidarity, they were not only able to successfully position themselves in the elite figured world of science, but also to reify the result in a form that could potentially support future identification with science. Aspects of the online forum that supported the co-production are explored, including its ability to help students draw on resources from outside of the science program. The importance of encouraging students to discuss their struggles with science and the accompanying construction of solidarity is also discussed. This research is of particular interest to practitioners and researchers interested in supporting non-traditional science students such as latecomers, especially those wishing to move away from deficit views of these students and towards a more complex and agentic understanding of persistence and identity in science.

  12. Next-Generation Climate Modeling Science Challenges for Simulation, Workflow and Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D. M.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Bader, D. C.; Krishnan, H.; Leung, L. R.; Ringler, T.; Taylor, M.; Wehner, M. F.; Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    We will present two examples of current and future high-resolution climate-modeling research that are challenging existing simulation run-time I/O, model-data movement, storage and publishing, and analysis. In each case, we will consider lessons learned as current workflow systems are broken by these large-data science challenges, as well as strategies to repair or rebuild the systems. First we consider the science and workflow challenges to be posed by the CMIP6 multi-model HighResMIP, involving around a dozen modeling groups performing quarter-degree simulations, in 3-member ensembles for 100 years, with high-frequency (1-6 hourly) diagnostics, which is expected to generate over 4PB of data. An example of science derived from these experiments will be to study how resolution affects the ability of models to capture extreme-events such as hurricanes or atmospheric rivers. Expected methods to transfer (using parallel Globus) and analyze (using parallel "TECA" software tools) HighResMIP data for such feature-tracking by the DOE CASCADE project will be presented. A second example will be from the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project, which is currently addressing challenges involving multiple century-scale coupled high resolution (quarter-degree) climate simulations on DOE Leadership Class computers. ACME is anticipating production of over 5PB of data during the next 2 years of simulations, in order to investigate the drivers of water cycle changes, sea-level-rise, and carbon cycle evolution. The ACME workflow, from simulation to data transfer, storage, analysis and publication will be presented. Current and planned methods to accelerate the workflow, including implementing run-time diagnostics, and implementing server-side analysis to avoid moving large datasets will be presented.

  13. Effectiveness of various innovative learning methods in health science classrooms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A; Kasim, Rafa M

    2017-12-01

    This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of the available literature on the effectiveness of various forms of innovative small-group learning methods on student achievement in undergraduate college health science classrooms. The results of the analysis revealed that most of the primary studies supported the effectiveness of the small-group learning methods in improving students' academic achievement with an overall weighted average effect-size of 0.59 in standard deviation units favoring small-group learning methods. The subgroup analysis showed that the various forms of innovative and reform-based small-group learning interventions appeared to be significantly more effective for students in higher levels of college classes (sophomore, junior, and senior levels), students in other countries (non-U.S.) worldwide, students in groups of four or less, and students who choose their own group. The random-effects meta-regression results revealed that the effect sizes were influenced significantly by the instructional duration of the primary studies. This means that studies with longer hours of instruction yielded higher effect sizes and on average every 1 h increase in instruction, the predicted increase in effect size was 0.009 standard deviation units, which is considered as a small effect. These results may help health science and nursing educators by providing guidance in identifying the conditions under which various forms of innovative small-group learning pedagogies are collectively more effective than the traditional lecture-based teaching instruction.

  14. The Inspiring Science Education project and the resources for HEP analysis by university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassouliotis, Dimitris; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Vourakis, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The Inspiring Science Education outreach project has been running for more than two years, creating a large number of inquiry based educational resources for high-school teachers and students. Its goal is the promotion of science education in schools though new methods built on the inquiry based education techniques, involving large consortia of European partners and implementation of large-scale pilots in schools. Recent hands-on activities, developing and testing the above mentioned innovative applications are reviewed. In general, there is a lack for educational scenaria and laboratory courses earmarked for more advanced, namely university, students. At the University of Athens for the last four years, the HYPATIA on-line event analysis tool has been used as a lab course for fourth year undergraduate physics students, majoring in HEP. Up to now, the course was limited to visual inspection of a few tens of ATLAS events. Recently the course was enriched with additional analysis exercises, which involve large samples of events. The students through a user friendly interface can analyse the samples and optimize the cut selection in order to search for new physics. The implementation of this analysis is described

  15. Latent transition analysis of pre-service teachers' efficacy in mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth Kennedy

    This study modeled changes in pre-service teacher efficacy in mathematics and science over the course of the final year of teacher preparation using latent transition analysis (LTA), a longitudinal form of analysis that builds on two modeling traditions (latent class analysis (LCA) and auto-regressive modeling). Data were collected using the STEBI-B, MTEBI-r, and the ABNTMS instruments. The findings suggest that LTA is a viable technique for use in teacher efficacy research. Teacher efficacy is modeled as a construct with two dimensions: personal teaching efficacy (PTE) and outcome expectancy (OE). Findings suggest that the mathematics and science teaching efficacy (PTE) of pre-service teachers is a multi-class phenomena. The analyses revealed a four-class model of PTE at the beginning and end of the final year of teacher training. Results indicate that when pre-service teachers transition between classes, they tend to move from a lower efficacy class into a higher efficacy class. In addition, the findings suggest that time-varying variables (attitudes and beliefs) and time-invariant variables (previous coursework, previous experiences, and teacher perceptions) are statistically significant predictors of efficacy class membership. Further, analyses suggest that the measures used to assess outcome expectancy are not suitable for LCA and LTA procedures.

  16. Analysis of Science and Technology Trend Based on Word Usage in Digitized Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-03-01

    Throughout mankind's history, forecasting and predicting future has been a long-lasting interest to our society. Many fortune-tellers have tried to forecast the future by ``divine'' items. Sci-fi writers have also imagined what the future would look like. However most of them have been illogical and unscientific. Meanwhile, scientists have also attempted to discover future trend of science. Many researchers have used quantitative models to study how new ideas are used and spread. Besides the modeling works, in the early 21st century, the rise of data science has provided another prospect of forecasting future. However many studies have focused on very limited set of period or age, due to the limitations of dataset. Hence, many questions still remained unanswered. Fortunately, Google released a new dataset named ``Google N-Gram Dataset.'' This dataset provides us with 5 million words worth of literature dating from 1520 to 2008, and this is nearly 4% of publications ever printed. With this new time-varying dataset, we studied the spread and development of technologies by searching ``Science and Technology'' related words from 1800 to 2000. By statistical analysis, some general scaling laws were discovered. And finally, we determined factors that strongly affect the lifecycle of a word.

  17. Survival Analysis of Faculty Retention and Promotion in the Social Sciences by Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Box-Steffensmeier

    Full Text Available Recruitment and retention of talent is central to the research performance of universities. Existing research shows that, while men are more likely than women to be promoted at the different stages of the academic career, no such difference is found when it comes to faculty retention rates. Current research on faculty retention, however, focuses on careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM. We extend this line of inquiry to the social sciences.We follow 2,218 tenure-track assistant professors hired since 1990 in seven social science disciplines at nineteen U.S. universities from time of hire to time of departure. We also track their time to promotion to associate and full professor. Using survival analysis, we examine gender differences in time to departure and time to promotion. Our methods account for censoring and unobserved heterogeneity, as well as effect heterogeneity across disciplines and cohorts.We find no statistically significant differences between genders in faculty retention. However, we do find that men are more likely to be granted tenure than women. When it comes to promotion to full professor, the results are less conclusive, as the effect of gender is sensitive to model specification.The results corroborate previous findings about gender patterns in faculty retention and promotion. They suggest that advances have been made when it comes to gender equality in retention and promotion, but important differences still persist.

  18. A statistical analysis of Chinese traditional sports science master′s degree thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Wenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a statistical analysis of 367 sports science master′s degree thesis on Chinese traditional sport in the past five years,some conclusions can be drawn that the traditional national sports master's degree thesis should expand the theoretical depth; expand the scope of the study,in particular,focusing on some disappearing traditional national sports; regulate the types of research methods; strengthen the depth of data mining,correct thesis references. Thus can further clarify the laws of traditional sports graduate Thesis and provide references for postgraduate training.

  19. Enhancing measurement in science education research through Rasch analysis: Rationale and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Sjaastad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the basic rationale of Rasch theory and seven core properties of Rasch modeling; analyses of test targeting, person separation, person fit, item fit, differential item functioning, functioning of response categories and tests of unidimensionality. Illustrative examples are provided consecutively, drawing on Rasch analysis of data from a survey where students in the 9th grade responded to questions regarding their mathematics competence. The relationship between Rasch theory and classical test theory is commented on. Rasch theory provides science and mathematics education researchers with valuable tools to evaluate the psychometric quality of tests and questionnaires and support the development of these.

  20. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering ordinary differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world ODE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Ordinary Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-worldODE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce andextend the comp

  1. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering partial differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world PDE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-world PDE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce and extend the com

  2. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...... with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge...

  3. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge......Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...

  4. Role of spousal involvement in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool-Anwar S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the impact of spousal involvement on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence. The aim of this study was to determine whether spouse involvement affects adherence with CPAP therapy, and how this association varies with gender. Methods: 194 subjects recruited from Apnea Positive Pressure Long Term Efficacy Study (APPLES completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS. The majority of participants were Caucasian (83%, and males (73%, with mean age of 56 years, mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. & 62% had severe OSA. The DAS is a validated 32-item self-report instrument measuring dyadic consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, and affectional expression. A high score in the DAS is indicative of a person’s adjustment to the marriage. Additionally, questions related to spouse involvement with general health and CPAP use were asked. CPAP use was downloaded from the device and self-report, and compliance was defined as usage > 4 h per night. Results: There were no significant differences in overall marital quality between the compliant and noncompliant subjects. However, level of spousal involvement was associated with increased CPAP adherence at 6 months (p=0.01. After stratifying for gender these results were significant only among males (p=0.03. Three years after completing APPLES, level of spousal involvement was not associated with CPAP compliance even after gender stratification. Conclusion: Spousal involvement is important in determining CPAP compliance in males in the 1st 6 months after initiation of therapy but is not predictive of longer-term adherence. Involvement of the spouse should be considered an integral part of CPAP initiation procedures.

  5. Mapping Tropical Forest Mosaics with C- and L-band SAR: First Results from Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N.; Hensley, S.; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N.; Broadbent, E. N.; Ahmed, R.

    2016-12-01

    In tropical countries, economic incentives and improved infrastructure are creating forest mosaics where small-scale farming and industrial plantations are embedded within and potentially replacing native ecosystems. Practices such as agroforestry, slash-and-burn cultivation, and oil palm monocultures bring widely different impacts on carbon stocks. Characterizing these production systems is not only critical to ascribe deforestation to particular drivers, but also essential to understand the impact of macroeconomic scenarios, national policies, and land tenure schemes on carbon fluxes. The last decade has experienced a dramatic improvement in the extent and consistency of tree cover and gross deforestation products from optical imagery. At the same time, recent work shows that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can complement optical data and reveal structural types that cannot be easily resolved with reflectance measurements alone. While these results demonstrate the validity of sensor fusion methodologies, they typically rely on local classifications or even manual delineation and as such they cannot support large-scale investigations. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to exploit PolInSAR or multiple wavelengths that can provide critical information to resolve natural and anthropogenic land cover types. We report results from our research at Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula. This site is ideal for algorithm development as it includes a highly diverse tropical forest within Corcovado National Park, as well as agroforestry zones, mangroves, and palm plantations. We first integrate SAR backscatter and coherence data from NASA's L-band UAVSAR, JAXA's ALOS/PALSAR, and ESA's Sentinel to produce a map of structural types. Second, we assess whether coherence measurements and PolInSAR retrievals can be used to resolve forest stand differences at 30m resolution and disitinguish between primary and secondary forest sites.

  6. Student's Need Analysis for the Development of Chemistry Modules Based Guided Inquiry to Improve Science Process Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arantika

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science process skills (SPS are an important aspect of learning science. SPS help students to develop creativity in learning. Process skills such as observing, formulating questions, interpreting, experimenting, hypothesizing, applying concepts, and communicating. This study aims to analyze the need for development resources needs of science filled with science process skills. Requirement analysis of the development of teaching materials with the skill of the process of science needs to be done because the textbook is the reference a teacher in the class. The subjects matter of chemistry the study was three senior high schools in Sambas, West Borneo. Needs analysis conducted using a qualitative approach, in terms of needs in classroom learning and content of process skills on teaching materials. Data were collected by interviews and questionnaires were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that as many as 27 percents of students perceive the book used in learning has not yet trained the science process skills. As many as 73 percents of students perceive that they need instructional materials in the form of inquiry-based chemistry modules to improve science process skills. Modules are developed based guided inquiry for having guided inquiry learning stages that can practice students' science process skills.

  7. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Christopher D; Bratton, Daniel J; Craig, Sonya E; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2-4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2-4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2-4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months. Although, in general, early patterns of CPAP

  8. Composição florística de uma floresta estacional semidecidual montana no município de Viçosa-MG Floristic composition of a montane seasonal semideciduous tropical forest in Viçosa, MG, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira-Neto

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a composição florística arbórea da Mata da Silvicultura (20º45'S e 42º55'W, município de Viçosa, Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, com o intuito de avaliar sua similaridade com outras florestas. Para comparação florística foi utilizada a análise de agrupamentos pelo método de médias aritméticas não-ponderadas (UPGMA, a partir dos índices binários de similaridade de Sørensen entre as florestas comparadas. Foram relacionadas 154 espécies de 47 famílias botânicas para a Mata da Silvicultura. Esta mata mostrou-se mais similar às florestas semideciduais de altitude de Lavras (MG e de Atibaia (SP e menos similar às florestas submontanas e litorâneas. Estes resultados evidenciam uma importante influência das temperaturas na determinação do tipo florístico das florestas do Sudeste e Sul brasileiros.This study aims to investigate the floristic composition of the Silvicultura forest (20º45`S and 42º55´W by comparing it to other forest compositions. Thus, the cluster analysis method of unweighted pair-group using arithmetic averages (UPGMA was used, applying the Sørensen binary similarity index found among compared forests. A list of 154 species of 47 families was recorded. The Silvicultura forest is more similar to the montane semideciduous forests of Lavras and Atibaia, but less similar to submontane and coastal forests. These results show that temperature plays an important role in the floristic differentiation of the southern and southeastern Brazilian forest types.

  9. The All-Purpose Science Teacher: An Analysis of Loopholes in State Requirements for High School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The basic story line of the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) crisis is, at this point, well known. In an increasingly interdependent and technology-driven economy, America is falling behind. A substantial number of students cannot perform basic math. U.S. students lag behind peers in international comparisons of science…

  10. An Analysis of Change Mechanisms in Government Budgets on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies on policy changes have shown that there are limitations of incrementalism and that there no longer exists a general theory that can explain policy change. A number of studies have been conducted to examine policy changes in terms of drastic changes in budgets or policy agenda. According to the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), policy change is punctuated by long periods of stability, and large, but rare, changes due to shifts in society or the government. Although the reasons for these drastic changes are interpreted mainly from external events, the exact mechanisms of these changes are still not known. In this study, we assume that the punctuated budget changes are a result of not only external events but also the bureaucratic power of government departments. We attempt to identify the regularity of budget change pattern due to these internal characteristics (bureaucratic power). In order to understand budget changes caused by external events, especially for science and technology, the ARIMA-Intervention analysis was implemented. The results showed that the ARIMA-Intervention analysis explained the abrupt change in budget well. This means that a change in budget cannot be explained as incrementalism. Also, we analyzed the budget change kurtosis of government department along with various policy and organization types. Normally, a high kurtosis means there is a high probability of a punctuated equilibrium. The results show that science and technology agency as well as productive, delivery, and transfer agencies have a relatively high kurtosis.;

  11. Semantic Network Analysis on Terms related Mantle in Earth Science 2 Textbooks of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; reum Cho, Ah; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1 in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science I fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth ScienceⅠ, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  12. Citation Analysis for Biomedical and Health Sciences Journals Published in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juyeon; Chang, Hyejung; Kim, Jung A; Choi, Mona; Park, Ziyoung; Cho, Yoonhee; Lee, Eun-Gyu

    2017-07-01

    A citation analysis of biomedical and health sciences journals was conducted based on their enlistment in journal databases to identify the factors contributing to the citation metrics. Among the 1,219 academic journals managed by the National Center for Medical Information and Knowledge at the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 556 journals were included for analysis as of July 2016. The characteristics of the journals include history years, publication media, language, open-access policy as well as the status enlisted in international and domestic databases, such as Science Citation Index (SCI), Scopus, Medline, PubMed Central, Embase, and Korea Citation Index (KCI). Six bibliometric measures were collected from SCI, Scopus, and KCI as of 2015, the most recent disclosure year. Analyses of group differences and influential factors were conducted using t -tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and multiple regression. Journal characteristics, such as history years, publication media, and open-access policy, were not significant factors influencing global or domestical citation of the journals. However, global citations were higher for SCI and Medline enlisted journals than for their counterparts. Among KCI journals, the KCI impact factors of journals published in English only were lower. Efforts by journals to be enlisted in international databases, especially in SCI and Medline, are critical to enhance their global circulation. However, articles published in English only hinder the use of domestic researchers. Different strategies are required for enhancing international and domestic readerships.

  13. Analysis of human resources in science and technology in ICT companies–case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Horvat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates theories and findings of the level of tertiary educated workforce, the human resources in science and technology and skills that are desirable in employees from in the information and communication technologies (ICT sector. It is important to examine the real situation on the labor market in the ICT sector, which is often referred to as the key to overcoming the crisis and the future of national economy. Basic statistical elements, upon which to predict future demand for human resources in science and technology (HRST, are people who enter tertiary level of education (inputs or are already in the system (throughputs, but until graduation are not considered HRST’s (outputs. Analysis is based on a sample of 56 small companies in ICT sector in Croatia. This paper presents the overview of the situations of human resources in small companies ICT sector in Croatia. Existing literature on HRST, employee’s skills and ICT sector is reviewed in the light of this analysis, in order to better understand current employment structure and desirable competencies of future employees of small companies in the ICT sector in Croatia.

  14. Science on TeacherTube: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Teacher Produced Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Margaret (Marjee)

    Increased bandwidth, inexpensive video cameras and easy-to-use video editing software have made social media sites featuring user generated video (UGV) an increasingly popular vehicle for online communication. As such, UGV have come to play a role in education, both formal and informal, but there has been little research on this topic in scholarly literature. In this mixed-methods study, a content and discourse analysis are used to describe the most successful UGV in the science channel of an education-focused site called TeacherTube. The analysis finds that state achievement tests, and their focus on vocabulary and recall-level knowledge, drive much of the content found on TeacherTube.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Launch-Arrival Space Study: A Pork Chop Plot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Powell, Richard; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2006-01-01

    Launch-Arrival, or "pork chop", plot analysis can provide mission designers with valuable information and insight into a specific launch and arrival space selected for a mission. The study begins with the array of entry states for each pair of selected Earth launch and Mars arrival dates, and nominal entry, descent and landing trajectories are simulated for each pair. Parameters of interest, such as maximum heat rate, are plotted in launch-arrival space. The plots help to quickly identify launch and arrival regions that are not feasible under current constraints or technology and also provide information as to what technologies may need to be developed to reach a desired region. This paper provides a discussion of the development, application, and results of a pork chop plot analysis to the Mars Science Laboratory mission. This technique is easily applicable to other missions at Mars and other destinations.

  16. Análise hidrológica e socioambiental da bacia hidrográfica do córrego Romão dos Reis, Viçosa-MG The hydrographic watershed of Romão dos Reis stream, Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genice Vieira Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os aspectos hidrológico e socioeconômico da bacia hidrográfica do córrego Romão dos Reis, que se localiza no Município de Viçosa, na região da Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais. O estudo enfatizou o uso e ocupação da terra como fatores determinantes na análise da qualidade da água, além dos fatores físicos da bacia. Esta foi dividida em sub-bacias, o que possibilitou a escolha de locais representativos para coleta e análise de dados. Coletaram-se os dados referentes a vazão, qualidade da água, elevações, precipitação, uso do solo, tipo de solo e aspectos sociais e econômicos. Para a elaboração dos mapas, utilizou-se o modelo digitalizado, construído a partir de mosaicos e fotos aéreas da região, na escala de 1:30.000. As informações sobre o número de moradores e proprietários, assim como os seus respectivos sistemas de cultivos e ocupação na bacia, foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, visando melhor compreender a organização social e o manejo de uso da terra das propriedades. Foram apontados indicadores de degradação, assim como estratégias de manejo adequadas à melhoria ambiental, que venham contribuir e garantir a sustentabilidade da bacia.This study was carried out to analyze the hydrological and socioeconomic aspects in the hydrographic watershed of Romão dos Reis stream in Viçosa county, Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State. In this study, the land use and occupation are emphasized as determinant factors for analyzing water quality, besides physical factors. The watershed was divided into sub-watersheds enabling to choose the representative sites for data collection and analysis. Data on flow rate, water quality, relief, precipitation, landscape (top, hillside and terrace, soil type, social and economic aspects were collected. A digitalized model built from mosaics and aerial photos of the area at 1:30.000 scale was used to draw up

  17. Composição florística de dois trechos em diferentes etapas serais de uma floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Floristic composition of two sites different seral stages of semideciduous seasonal montane forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferreira Ribas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em dois trechos de floresta semidecídua, com diferentes estádios de sucessão secundária, localizada no município de Viçosa-MG, objetivando verificar variações qualitativas na composição florística. Foram demarcadas, em cada trecho, dez parcelas de 10 x 20 m, nas quais foram inventariados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com circunferência à altura de 130 cm do solo maior ou igual a 5 cm. A similaridade florística entre as parcelas foi avaliada por meio de análise de agrupamentos, utilizando o índice de Sørensen. Foram amostradas 67 espécies no trecho com 15 anos e 69 no trecho com 30 anos. Dentre as espécies exclusivas, 38 foram para o trecho com 15 anos e 40 para o trecho com 30 anos. As famílias Annonaceae, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae e Sapindaceae, com cinco, quatro e quatro espécies cada, respectivamente, e o gênero Nectandra, com duas espécies, foram os taxa mais bem representados no trecho com 15 anos. Por outro lado, as famílias Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae e Myrtaceae, com quatro, três e quatro espécies, respectivamente, e o gênero Ocotea, com três espécies, foram mais bem representados no trecho com 30 anos. A similaridade florística entre parcelas de um mesmo trecho foi considerada alta, tendo sido relacionada à proximidade espacial, o que implica históricos de perturbação e regeneração semelhantes, resultando, conseqüentemente, em composições florísticas mais similares e mesmo estádio de sucessão secundária.This study was carried out in two sites of a semideciduous forest, under different stages of secondary succession in Viçosa, MG to verify qualitative variations in floristic composition. In each site, ten plots of 10 m x 20 m were delimited, with all woody individuals with circumference at 130 cm height from the soil larger than or equal to 5 cm being listed. Floristic similarity among parcels was evaluated through clustering analysis, using the S

  18. Applications of modern statistical methods to analysis of data in physical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, James Eric

    Modern methods of statistical and computational analysis offer solutions to dilemmas confronting researchers in physical science. Although the ideas behind modern statistical and computational analysis methods were originally introduced in the 1970's, most scientists still rely on methods written during the early era of computing. These researchers, who analyze increasingly voluminous and multivariate data sets, need modern analysis methods to extract the best results from their studies. The first section of this work showcases applications of modern linear regression. Since the 1960's, many researchers in spectroscopy have used classical stepwise regression techniques to derive molecular constants. However, problems with thresholds of entry and exit for model variables plagues this analysis method. Other criticisms of this kind of stepwise procedure include its inefficient searching method, the order in which variables enter or leave the model and problems with overfitting data. We implement an information scoring technique that overcomes the assumptions inherent in the stepwise regression process to calculate molecular model parameters. We believe that this kind of information based model evaluation can be applied to more general analysis situations in physical science. The second section proposes new methods of multivariate cluster analysis. The K-means algorithm and the EM algorithm, introduced in the 1960's and 1970's respectively, formed the basis of multivariate cluster analysis methodology for many years. However, several shortcomings of these methods include strong dependence on initial seed values and inaccurate results when the data seriously depart from hypersphericity. We propose new cluster analysis methods based on genetic algorithms that overcomes the strong dependence on initial seed values. In addition, we propose a generalization of the Genetic K-means algorithm which can accurately identify clusters with complex hyperellipsoidal covariance

  19. Explore Earth Science Datasets for STEM with the NASA GES DISC Online Visualization and Analysis Tool, Giovanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Acker, J.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center(DISC) is one of twelve NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Data Centers that provide Earth science data, information, and services to users around the world including research and application scientists, students, citizen scientists, etc. The GESDISC is the home (archive) of remote sensing datasets for NASA Precipitation and Hydrology, Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics, etc. To facilitate Earth science data access, the GES DISC has been developing user-friendly data services for users at different levels in different countries. Among them, the Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni, http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users to explore satellite-based datasets using sophisticated analyses and visualization without downloading data and software, which is particularly suitable for novices (such as students) to use NASA datasets in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) activities. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce Giovanni along with examples for STEM activities.

  20. Analysis on the effectiveness of gifted education by studying perceptions of science gifted education recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Chul; Ryu, Chun-Ryol; Choi, Jinsu; Park, Kyeong-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The necessity of science gifted education is persistently emphasized in the aspect of developing individuals' potential abilities and enhancing national competitiveness. In the case of Korea, gifted education has been conducted on a national level ever since the country established legal and institutional strategies for gifted education in 2000. Even though 15 years has passed since a full-scale implementation of gifted education has started, there are few researches on the effectiveness of gifted education. Therefore, considering the splashdown effect, that a long period of time is needed to obtain reliable assessments on education effectiveness, this research surveyed gifted education recipients to study the effectiveness of gifted education. For this cause, we developed an questionnaire and conducted a survey of university students who had experience of receiving science gifted education. We deduced the following from the analysis. First, generally the recipients were satisfied with their gifted education experiences, but thought that not enough opportunities were provided on problem solving ability enhancement and career related aspects. Second, schools considered 'experiments' as the most effective teaching method, regardless to the stage of education. In addition, they perceived 'discussions and presentations' as effective education methods for elementary school students; 'theme investigating classes' for middle school students; and lectures for high school students. It could be seen that various experiences were held important for elementary school students and as students went into high school education, more emphasis was placed on the importance of understanding mathematical and scientific facts. Third, on gifted education teaching staffs, satisfaction of professionalism on specialities were high but satisfaction of variety of teaching methods were relatively low. In this research, to encourage science gifted students to meet their potentials, we propose

  1. Why Implementing History and Philosophy in School Science Education Is a Challenge: An Analysis of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2011-01-01

    Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order…

  2. A moderated mediated path analysis of factors influencing student performance on a standardized high-stakes science test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkey, Ramona K.

    Gender, ethnicity, family economic status, reading score, mathematics score, and number of science semesters successfully completed were examined for their contributory role to a student's science score on a high-stakes, high school exit examination. Path analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to quantify each variable's influence on science score. Gender, ethnicity, and family economic status were found to be moderators while reading proved to mediate within the model. The path model was created using a calibration sample and cross-validated using a hold-out validation sample. Bootstrapping was used to verify the goodness of fit of the model. A predictive equation explained 66% (R2 = .66) of the variance in observed TAKS science score.

  3. Analysis of Multiple Choice Tests Designed by Faculty Members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourmirza Kalhori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor Multiple choice tests are the most common objective tests in medical education which are used to assess the ind-ividual knowledge, recall, recognition and problem solving abilities. One of the testing components is the post-test analysis. This component includes; first, qualitative analysis of the taxonomy of questions based on the Bloom’s educational objectives and percentage of the questions with no structural problems; and second, the quantitative analysis of the reliability (KR-20 and indices of difficulty and differentiation (1. This descriptive-analytical study was aimed to qualitatively and quan-titatively investigate the multiple-choice tests of the faculty members at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2009-2010. The sample size comprised of 156 tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 software using t-test, chi-squared test, ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. The mean of reliability (KR-20, difficulty index, and discrimination index were 0.68 (± 0.31, 0.56 (± 0.15 and 0.21 (± 0.15, respectively, which were acceptable. The analysis of the tests at Mashad University of Medical Sciences indicated that the mean for the reliability of the tests was 0.72, and 52.2% of the tests had inappropriate difficulty index and 49.2% of the tests did not have acceptable differentiation index (2. Comparison of the tests at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for the fields of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, statistics and behavioral sciences courses at Malaysia Faculty of Medicine (3 and tests at Argentina Faculty of Medicine (4 showed that while difficulty index was acceptable in all three universities, but differentiation indices in Malaysia and Argentina Medical Faculties were higher than that in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The mean for the questions with no structural flaws in all tests, taxonomy I, taxonomy II, and taxonomy III were 73.88% (± 14.88, 34.65% (± 15.78, 41.34% (± 13

  4. Analysis of expert validation on developing integrated science worksheet to improve problem solving skills of natural science prospective teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, W.; Sudibyo, E.; Sari, D. A. P.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to develop student worksheets for higher education that apply integrated science learning in discussing issues about motion in humans. These worksheets will guide students to solve the problem about human movement. They must integrate their knowledge about biology, physics, and chemistry to solve the problem. The worksheet was validated by three experts in Natural Science Integrated Science, especially in Human Movement topic. The aspects of the validation were feasibility of the content, the construction, and the language. This research used the Likert scale to measure the validity of each aspect, which is 4.00 for very good validity criteria, 3.00 for good validity criteria, 2.00 for more or less validity criteria, and 1.00 for not good validity criteria. Data showed that the validity for each aspect were in the range of good validity and very good validity criteria (3.33 to 3.67 for the content aspect, 2.33 to 4.00 for the construction aspect, and 3.33 to 4.00 for language aspect). However, there was a part of construction aspect that needed to improve. Overall, this students’ worksheet can be applied in classroom after some revisions based on suggestions from the validators.

  5. Library and Information Science Research Areas: A Content Analysis of Articles from the Top 10 Journals 2007-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa

    2012-01-01

    The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and…

  6. Analysis of controversial items in the theoretical design of the undergraduate's thesis at the Cuban University of Informatics Sciences (UIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quintana Aput

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper encloses the analysis of some troubles related to the development of theoretical design concerning the undergraduate thesis at the Cuban University of Informatics Sciences (UIS. This analysis proves to be decisive due to the existing demand for improving professionals training in the fields of investigation related to computing world.

  7. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  8. Agricultural science in the wild: a social network analysis of farmer knowledge exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brennon A; Blair, Hugh T; Gray, David I; Kemp, Peter D; Kenyon, Paul R; Morris, Steve T; Sewell, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for theorizing

  9. Agricultural science in the wild: a social network analysis of farmer knowledge exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennon A Wood

    Full Text Available Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant

  10. Challenges of the science data processing, analysis and archiving approach in BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santa

    BepiColombo is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury. It comprises two separate orbiters: the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). After approximately 7.5 years of cruise, BepiColombo will arrive at Mercury in 2024 and will gather data during a 1-year nominal mission, with a possible 1-year extension. The approach selected for BepiColombo for the processing, analysis and archiving of the science data represents a significant change with respect to previous ESA planetary missions. Traditionally Instrument Teams are responsible for processing, analysing and preparing their science data for the long-term archive, however in BepiColombo, the Science Ground Segment (SGS), located in Madrid, Spain, will play a key role in these activities. Fundamental aspects of this approach include: the involvement of the SGS in the definition, development and operation of the instrument processing pipelines; the production of ready-to-archive science products compatible with NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) standards in all the processing steps; the joint development of a quick-look analysis system to monitor deviations between planned and executed observations to feed back the results into the different planning cycles when possible; and a mission archive providing access to the scientific products and to the operational data throughout the different phases of the mission (from the early development phase to the legacy phase). In order to achieve these goals, the SGS will need to overcome a number of challenges. The proposed approach requires a flexible infrastructure able to cope with a distributed data processing system, residing in different locations but designed as a single entity. For this, all aspects related to the integration of software developed by different Instrument Teams and the alignment of their development schedules will need to be

  11. A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Zika Virus Indexed in Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nasir

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spread of Zika virus is of great concern as it is recently becoming the third global infectious disease outburst after H1N1 flu and the Ebola virus infections. Centre for Disease Control (CDC categorized Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh as countries vulnerable to Zika Risk. Realizing health implications of this emerging epidemic, it is a dire need to build an all-inclusive view of the status of research on Zika virus disease, and a lucid picture of the research output and scientific collaborations in the field. Methods: All the articles published globally on Zika virus during 2008-2017 and documented in Web of Science were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Word Cloud tool. The data were extracted from all databases of the Web of Science, obtaining a total of 3384 articles for analysis. Results: 3384 records on Zika virus research were indexed in the Web of Science database during 2008-2017. The retrieved data indicate that over the past ten years, not much research has been done on this virus and the focus shifted to research on Zika in the last three years only and the number of researches increased from just 38 in 2015 to 1962 in 2017. Pakistan has a low share in global publications on Zika with a total number of 24 publications. “Honein Margaret” is considered the most active researcher in the field, by contributing to 80 articles. Most of the published research on Zika virus is from US (47.07%. Conclusion: When compared with other countries, the contribution of Pakistan is negligible with a global share of 0.71% on Zika virus. Serious focus on research is needed in this field realizing the severe medical, ethical, and economic implications of this emerging epidemic in Pakistan.

  12. Longitudinal Patent Analysis for Nanoscale Science and Engineering: Country, Institution and Technology Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zan; Chen Hsinchun; Yip, Alan; Ng, Gavin; Guo Fei; Chen Zhikai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and related areas have seen rapid growth in recent years. The speed and scope of development in the field have made it essential for researchers to be informed on the progress across different laboratories, companies, industries and countries. In this project, we experimented with several analysis and visualization techniques on NSE-related United States patent documents to support various knowledge tasks. This paper presents results on the basic analysis of nanotechnology patents between 1976 and 2002, content map analysis and citation network analysis. The data have been obtained on individual countries, institutions and technology fields. The top 10 countries with the largest number of nanotechnology patents are the United States, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Australia. The fastest growth in the last 5 years has been in chemical and pharmaceutical fields, followed by semiconductor devices. The results demonstrate potential of information-based discovery and visualization technologies to capture knowledge regarding nanotechnology performance, transfer of knowledge and trends of development through analyzing the patent documents

  13. Longitudinal Patent Analysis for Nanoscale Science and Engineering: Country, Institution and Technology Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zan; Chen, Hsinchun; Yip, Alan; Ng, Gavin; Guo, Fei; Chen, Zhi-Kai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and related areas have seen rapid growth in recent years. The speed and scope of development in the field have made it essential for researchers to be informed on the progress across different laboratories, companies, industries and countries. In this project, we experimented with several analysis and visualization techniques on NSE-related United States patent documents to support various knowledge tasks. This paper presents results on the basic analysis of nanotechnology patents between 1976 and 2002, content map analysis and citation network analysis. The data have been obtained on individual countries, institutions and technology fields. The top 10 countries with the largest number of nanotechnology patents are the United States, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Australia. The fastest growth in the last 5 years has been in chemical and pharmaceutical fields, followed by semiconductor devices. The results demonstrate potential of information-based discovery and visualization technologies to capture knowledge regarding nanotechnology performance, transfer of knowledge and trends of development through analyzing the patent documents.

  14. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  15. Therapies for children with cerebral palsy A Web of Science-based literature analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Mu; Na Li; Lijun Guan; Chunnan Wang; Shuyun Shang; Yan Wang

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To identify global research trends in three therapies for children with cerebral palsy.DATA RETRIEVAL:We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on therapies for children with cerebral palsy from 2002 to 2011 retrieved from Web of Science.SELECTION CRITERIA:Inclusion criteria:(a)peer-reviewed published articles on botulinum toxin,constraint-induced movement therapy,or acupuncture for children with cerebral palsy indexed in Web of Science;(b)original research articles,reviews,meeting abstracts,proceedings papers,book chapters,editorial material,and news items;and(c)publication between 2002 and 2011.Exclusion criteria:(a)articles that required manual searching or telephone access;(b)documents that were not published in the public domain;and(c)a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:(1)Number of publications on the three therapies;(2)annual publication output,distribution by journals,distribution by institution,and top-cited articles on botulinum toxin;(3)annual publication output,distribution by journal,distribution by institution,and top-cited articles on constraint-induced movement therapy;(4)annual publication,distribution by journal,distribution by institution,and top-cited articles on acupuncture.RESULTS:This analysis,based on Web of Science articles,identified several research trends in studies published over the past 10 years of three therapies for children with cerebral palsy.More articles on botulinum toxin for treating children with cerebral palsy were published than the articles regarding constraint-induced movement therapy or acupuncture.The numbers of publications increased over the 10-year study period.Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on neurology,such as Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology and Journal of Child Neurology.Research institutes publishing on botulinum toxin treatments for this population are mostly in the Netherlands,the United States of America,and Australia

  16. Material Science Image Analysis using Quant-CT in ImageJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Bianchi, Andrea G. C.; DeBianchi, Christina; Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-01-05

    We introduce a computational analysis workflow to access properties of solid objects using nondestructive imaging techniques that rely on X-ray imaging. The goal is to process and quantify structures from material science sample cross sections. The algorithms can differentiate the porous media (high density material) from the void (background, low density media) using a Boolean classifier, so that we can extract features, such as volume, surface area, granularity spectrum, porosity, among others. Our workflow, Quant-CT, leverages several algorithms from ImageJ, such as statistical region merging and 3D object counter. It also includes schemes for bilateral filtering that use a 3D kernel, for parallel processing of sub-stacks, and for handling over-segmentation using histogram similarities. The Quant-CT supports fast user interaction, providing the ability for the user to train the algorithm via subsamples to feed its core algorithms with automated parameterization. Quant-CT plugin is currently available for testing by personnel at the Advanced Light Source and Earth Sciences Divisions and Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), LBNL, as part of their research on porous materials. The goal is to understand the processes in fluid-rock systems for the geologic sequestration of CO2, and to develop technology for the safe storage of CO2 in deep subsurface rock formations. We describe our implementation, and demonstrate our plugin on porous material images. This paper targets end-users, with relevant information for developers to extend its current capabilities.

  17. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  18. Rethinking Approaches to Exploration and Analysis of Big Data in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. J.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing amounts of data available for exploration and analysis, there are increasing numbers of users that need information extracted from the data for very specific purposes. Many of the specific purposes may not have even been considered yet so how do computational and data scientists plan for this diverse and not well defined set of possible users? There are challenges to be considered in the computational architectures, as well as the organizational structures for the data to allow for the best possible exploration and analytical capabilities. Data analytics need to be a key component in thinking about the data structures and types of storage of these large amounts of data, coming from a variety of sensing platforms that may be space based, airborne, in situ and social media. How do we provide for better capabilities for exploration and anaylsis at the point of collection for real-time or near real-time requirements? This presentation will address some of the approaches being considered and the challenges the computational and data science communities are facing in collaboration with the Earth Science research and application communities.

  19. The materials science synchrotron beamline EDDI for energy-dispersive diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, Ch.; Denks, I.A.; Gibmeier, J.; Klaus, M.; Wagener, G.

    2007-01-01

    In April 2005 the materials science beamline EDDI (Energy Dispersive DIffraction) at the Berlin synchrotron storage ring BESSY started operation. The beamline is operated in the energy-dispersive mode of diffraction using the high energy white photon beam provided by a superconducting 7 T multipole wiggler. Starting from basic information on the beamline set-up, its measuring facilities and data processing concept, the wide range of applications for energy-dispersive diffraction is demonstrated by a series of examples coming from different fields in materials sciences. It will be shown, that the EDDI beamline is especially suitable for the investigation of structural properties and gradients in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. In particular, this concerns the analysis of multiaxial residual stress fields in the highly stressed surface zone of technical parts. The high photon flux further facilitates fast in situ experiments at room as well as high temperature to monitor for example the growth kinetics and reaction in thin film growth

  20. Systematic reviews in Library and Information Science: analysis and evaluation of the search process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Salvador-Oliván

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An essential component of a systematic review is the development and execution of a literature search to identify all available and relevant published studies. The main objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate whether the systematic reviews in Library and Information Science (LIS provide complete information on all the elements that make up the search process. Methods: A search was launched in WOS, Scopus, LISTA, Library Science Database, Medline databases and a wiki published from 2000 to February 2017, in order to find and identify systematic reviews. The search was designed to find those records whose titles included the words “systematic review” and/or “meta-analysis”. A list was created with the twelve items recommended from of the main publication guides, to assess the information degree on each of them. Results and conclusions: Most of the reviews in LIS are created by information professionals. From the 94 systematic reviews selected for analysis, it was found that only a 4.3% provided the complete reporting on the search method. The most frequently included item is the name of the database (95.6% and the least one is the name of the host (35.8%. It is necessary to improve and complete the information about the search processes in the complete reports from LIS systematic reviews for reproducibility, updating and quality assessment improvement.

  1. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-02-01

    Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a trend of growth of articles in the field of public health

  3. Diagnosis of health-related physical fitness in office workers of the Federal University of Viçosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Diniz da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral demands and the particularities of the activities performed by the employees from offices at the Federal University of Viçosa can offer a series of negative factors for health. The interface with the computer and task characteristics give a great body and also cognitive demands, that allied to several factors can represent the appearance or worsening repetitive lesions and/or work related problems in the skeletal muscle (Cumulative Trauma Disorders . This study aimed to diagnose the workers’ situation in relation to General Human Factors (GHF and level of Health-Related Fitness (HRFcomponents: cardiorrespiratory; flexibility; strength and percent of body fat. The sample was composed by 46 workers. For both sexes, the GHF variables of higher significance were: “posture perception”; “sensation of local pains and those from some movement or task” in the back, shoulders and arms areas. Referring to HRF, both sexes presented unsatisfactory levels for trunk-hip flexibility “ and great part of men were classified as” below average “ in the push-up test” which are risk factors for CTD. Significant portion of them presented high percent of body fat (25,0% or were “obese” (14,2%. In general terms of HFR, there should be interventions, such as physical activity and/or sports programs for this group of employees at this institution. It is suggested that actions should also be taken in the leisure activity offering, once it was shown that 39,2% of the men and 44,4% of the women have in TV their main leisure activity. RESUMO As exigências comportamentais e as particularidades das atividades desenvolvidas pelos funcionários de alguns setores caracterizados como escritórios da Universidade Federal de Viçosa podem estar potencializando uma série de fatores negativos para a saúde destes. A interface com o computador e a característica da tarefa levam a uma forte exigência física e também cognitiva, que aliadas a

  4. [Pierre Bourdieu and health: a sociological analysis of Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Miguel Angelo

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to highlight, illustrate, describe, and comment on the presence of the health category in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, by underlining the themes traditionally related to the sociology of the body. After a systematic analysis of his work in the sociology of medicine and health, the article also addresses the main vehicle for his line of thought, namely Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, viewed here as the prime channel for most of the research taking Bourdieu's "genetic structuralism" as the main theoretical reference. We analyze the articles published from 1975 to 2001, from the thematic and theoretical/conceptual perspective, by comparing the changes appearing in this journal in opposition to the model previously adopted by the Revue Française de Sociologie.

  5. Open science resources for the discovery and analysis of Tara Oceans data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesant, Stéphane; Not, Fabrice; Picheral, Marc; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Le Bescot, Noan; Gorsky, Gabriel; Iudicone, Daniele; Karsenti, Eric; Speich, Sabrina; Troublé, Romain; Dimier, Céline; Searson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Tara Oceans expedition (2009-2013) sampled contrasting ecosystems of the world oceans, collecting environmental data and plankton, from viruses to metazoans, for later analysis using modern sequencing and state-of-the-art imaging technologies. It surveyed 210 ecosystems in 20 biogeographic provinces, collecting over 35,000 samples of seawater and plankton. The interpretation of such an extensive collection of samples in their ecological context requires means to explore, assess and access raw and validated data sets. To address this challenge, the Tara Oceans Consortium offers open science resources, including the use of open access archives for nucleotides (ENA) and for environmental, biogeochemical, taxonomic and morphological data (PANGAEA), and the development of on line discovery tools and collaborative annotation tools for sequences and images. Here, we present an overview of Tara Oceans Data, and we provide detailed registries (data sets) of all campaigns (from port-to-port), stations and sampling events.

  6. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) as an adjunct to pharmacokinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, L E; Austin, K L

    1983-01-01

    Computer techniques for numerical analysis are well known to pharmacokineticists. Powerful techniques for data file management have been developed by social scientists but have, in general, been ignored by pharmacokineticists because of their apparent lack of ability to interface with pharmacokinetic programs. Extensive use has been made of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for its data handling capabilities, but at the same time, techniques have been developed within SPSS to interface with pharmacokinetic programs of the users' choice and to carry out a variety of user-defined pharmacokinetic tasks within SPSS commands, apart from the expected variety of statistical tasks. Because it is based on a ubiquitous package, this methodology has all of the benefits of excellent documentation, interchangeability between different types and sizes of machines and true portability of techniques and data files. An example is given of the total management of a pharmacokinetic study previously reported in the literature by the authors.

  7. Application of neutron activation analysis for determination of elements in field of public health science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Ikuyo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and application examples of this method to ensure safety of food and environment are explained. It consists of four chapters such as introduction, what is NAA, quality control of NAA, application examples of NAA for determination of the elements in the field of public health science. The quality control of NAA is carried out by using certified reference materials, identification of individual difference of sample, and homogeneity of samples. Some application examples of NAA for determination Cd in rice, Hg and As in fish, U in soil, food and aerosol, 128 I and 129 I in environment, Cs and 133 Cs in mushroom, the essential elements and trace elements in food are reported. Analytical results of elements in certified reference materials, content of elements in ashed samples (carrots and bamboo shoots), average use frequency of ingredients in a sample, and correlation between Cs and 137 Cs in mushroom are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. [Analysis of projects of schistosomiasis sponsored by National Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-di, Zhou; Liang, Shi; Xue-Dan, Ke; Jie, Wang

    2017-07-27

    To summarize the present development by analysis of projects in schistosomiasis funded by National Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Based on the ISIS database of NFSC, the projects in the studies of schistosomiasis from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed. The distributions of sponsored numbers, amounts, types, agencies, disciplines and changes in research topics by means of network profiles were described. During the study period, 198 projects were funded by NSFC totally with 76.05 million yuan in which the general and youth projects were main types. The main sponsored agencies were research institutes and medical colleges. The top three fields sponsored were medical pathogenic microbes and infection, veterinary and medical immunology. The funding on schistosomiasis researches has a downward trend, but studies are continuing in depth. In this situation, innovative and interdisciplinary researches need to be encouraged to promote the development of schistosomiasis.

  9. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet neet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  10. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  11. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David Juarez [Univ. of Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.

  12. Experimental Design and Bioinformatics Analysis for the Application of Metagenomics in Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-11-03

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have prompted the widespread application of metagenomics for the investigation of novel bioresources (e.g., industrial enzymes and bioactive molecules) and unknown biohazards (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes) in natural and engineered microbial systems across multiple disciplines. This review discusses the rigorous experimental design and sample preparation in the context of applying metagenomics in environmental sciences and biotechnology. Moreover, this review summarizes the principles, methodologies, and state-of-the-art bioinformatics procedures, tools and database resources for metagenomics applications and discusses two popular strategies (analysis of unassembled reads versus assembled contigs/draft genomes) for quantitative or qualitative insights of microbial community structure and functions. Overall, this review aims to facilitate more extensive application of metagenomics in the investigation of uncultured microorganisms, novel enzymes, microbe-environment interactions, and biohazards in biotechnological applications where microbial communities are engineered for bioenergy production, wastewater treatment, and bioremediation.

  13. Quasi-experimental Methods in Empirical Regional Science and Policy Analysis – Is there a Scope for Application?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Paloyo, Alfredo R.; Alecke, Björn

    Applied econometrics has recently emphasized the identification of causal parameters for policy analysis. This revolution has yet to fully propagate to the field of regional science. We examine the scope for application of the matching approach – part of the modern applied econometrics toolkit...... – in regional science and highlight special features of regional data that make such an application difficult. In particular, our analysis of the effect of regional subsidies on labor-productivity growth in Germany indicates that such policies are effective, but only up to a certain maximum treatment intensity...... to be interpreted with some caution. The matching approach nevertheless can be of great value for regional policy analysis and should be the subject of future research efforts in the field of empirical regional science....

  14. Learning geosciences from science fictions movies: A quantitative analysis of Pando-magnetism in Avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Hernandez, F.; Negredo, A. M.; Salguero, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many storylines presenting a geoscientific background are portrayed in science fiction movies. However, this background is often discussed only in qualitative terms in outreach books and forums. Here we report a mentoring experience of an end of degree project carried out in the fourth year of the degree in Physics in the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain). The supervisors intended to take advantage of the students' passion for science fiction movies to foster learning by assessing a robust, quantitative and critical analysis of the main geoscientific phenomena appearing in Avatar movie by James Cameron (2009). The student was supposed to consult abundant scientific literature. Much interest was paid to analyze the conditions for the levitation of Hallelujah floating mountains in Pandora, the imaginary satellite where the movie action takes place. Pandora was assumed to be an Earth-like astronomical object where the same physical laws as in the Earth could be applied. Hallelujah Mountains are made of unobtanium, an electrical superconductor at room-temperature and therefore diamagnetic material and they are assumed to be located over a magnetic field pole. The numerical values of the magnetic susceptibility and the required field to make the material levitate at the Pandora's gravity conditions were estimated. For this purpose, the magnetic susceptibility of the superconductor with the highest critical temperature existing today on Earth, the cuprate YBa2Cu3O7 was estimated. Results were compared with the magnetic susceptibility of two diamagnetic and abundant materials in the Earth's crust, namely quartz and calcite, and with the water susceptibility. The magnetic field required to levitate cuprates was almost 9 T, about six orders of magnitude higher than the Earth's magnetic field. On the basis of the quantitative analysis of magnetic and gravity field in Pandora, the student provided a list of suggestions to improve the scientific basis for futures

  15. [Various methods of dynamic functional analysis in human sciences and economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, J

    2006-01-01

    Including the temporal and developmental dimension into the measurement of human conduct is a fundamental concern for those who do research in natural surroundings. Observing an individual day after day may possibly give a more complete vision of how behavior works than measuring a group of individuals at a single time and analyzing the differences found among them. Unfortunately most of the tools allowing analyzing individual time series call for large numbers of repeated observations. Thus, practicable longitudinal research designs often do not involve either enough repeated measurements for traditional time series analyses nor either replicate enough individuals for traditional, large-sample analyses. Dynamic factor analysis is a rationale and procedure for both pooling relatively short time series information across limited numbers of participants and analyzing the pooled information for its dynamic, process-relevant elements. It is a merging of two important analytical tools - multivariate time series and the common factor model, from which it distinguishes itself mainly by the fact that in dynamic factor analysis, the values of the common factors can influence the values of the observed variables both concurrently and in delayed fashion. Dynamic factor analysis is actually a method which allows detecting structures in the time series as well as the relations between the series and the explanatory variables. We illustrate the different models used in psychology and social sciences, as well as in econometry and economics.

  16. Close Approach Prediction Analysis of the Earth Science Constellation with the Fengyun-1C Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Matthew; Rand, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Routine satellite operations for the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) include collision risk assessment between members of the constellation and other orbiting space objects. Each day, close approach predictions are generated by a U.S. Department of Defense Joint Space Operations Center Orbital Safety Analyst using the high accuracy Space Object Catalog maintained by the Air Force's 1" Space Control Squadron. Prediction results and other ancillary data such as state vector information are sent to NASAJGoddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Collision Risk Assessment analysis team for review. Collision analysis is performed and the GSFC team works with the ESC member missions to develop risk reduction strategies as necessary. This paper presents various close approach statistics for the ESC. The ESC missions have been affected by debris from the recent anti-satellite test which destroyed the Chinese Fengyun- 1 C satellite. The paper also presents the percentage of close approach events induced by the Fengyun-1C debris, and presents analysis results which predict the future effects on the ESC caused by this event. Specifically, the Fengyun-1C debris is propagated for twenty years using high-performance computing technology and close approach predictions are generated for the ESC. The percent increase in the total number of conjunction events is considered to be an estimate of the collision risk due to the Fengyun-1C break- UP.

  17. A highly rationalized procedure of neutron activation analysis for routine applications in dairy science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, K.; Wiechen, A.

    1976-01-01

    A rational procedure was developed for the multi-element analysis by neutron activation for applications in dairy science. The preparation of samples prior to irradiation consists of drying, weighing, and welding in quartz ampoules. The neutron flux, samples are exposed to during reactor irradiation , is determined by the mono-comparator technique for which the Co-content of a commercial aluminium foil was chosen as the flux monitor. Constancy of the Co-content and uncomplicated handling of the foil essentially simplify the determination of flux. The samples are irradiated for 72 h, dissolved in HNO 3 /H 2 SO 4 and measured in the liquid state after waiting times of 1-2, 4 and 8 weeks by a Ge(Li)-detector and a 4,096 channel spectrometer. The procedure was confirmed by investigations of the biological KALE standard and by participation in inter-comparisons of biological substances of the Analytical Quality Control Service of the IAEA for the analysis of the elements Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs. So a procedure was developed suitable for routine multi-element analysis of biologic samples by optimizing and rationalizing all analytical steps. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Floristic composition of natural regeneration of tree species in a mountain seasonal semideciduous florest fragment over an eigth year period, in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Pedro; Reis, Maria das Graças Ferreira; Reis, Geraldo Gonçalves dos; Pinheiro, Antonio Lelis; Silva, Crodoaldo Telmo da; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Rodrigues de

    2006-01-01

    A florística da regeneração natural foi estudada em 10 locais, com seis sub-parcelas em cada local, em 1992, 1995 e 2000, em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, em Viçosa, MG. A amostragem da classe 1 de tamanho de planta (até 1 m de altura), classe 2 (1-3 m de altura) e classe 3 (>3 m de altura e 3m and DBH < 5cm). A total of 4,149 individuals were sampled over the inventory period, comprising 42 families and 160 species, being 11.7 % pioneer, 62.1 % early secondary, and ...

  19. Class-first analysis in a continuum: an approach to the complexities of schools, society, and insurgent science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2010-06-01

    This essay addresses Katherine Richardson Bruna's paper: Mexican Immigrant Transnational Social Capital and Class Transformation: Examining the Role of Peer Mediation in Insurgent Science, through five main points . First, I offer a comparison between the traditional analysis of classism in Latin America and Richardson Bruna's call for a class-first analysis in the North American social sciences where there has been a tendency to obviate the specific examination of class relations and class issues. Secondly, I discuss that a class-first analysis solely cannot suffice to depict the complex dimensions in the relations of schools and society. Thus, I suggest a continuum in the class-first analysis. Third, I argue that social constructions surrounding issues of language, ethnicity, and gender necessarily intersect with issues of class and that, in fact, those other constructions offer compatible epistemologies that aid in representing the complexity of social and institutional practices in the capitalist society. Richardson Bruna's analysis of Augusto's interactions with his teacher and peers in the science class provides a fourth point of discussion in this essay. As a final point in my response I discuss Richardson Bruna's idea of making accessible class-first analysis knowledge to educators and especially to science teachers.

  20. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Jonathan; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology. pyunicorn is available online at https://github.com/pik-copan/pyunicorn. Reference: J.F. Donges, J. Heitzig, B. Beronov, M. Wiedermann, J. Runge, Q.-Y. Feng, L. Tupikina, V. Stolbova, R.V. Donner, N. Marwan, H.A. Dijkstra, and J. Kurths, Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package, Chaos 25, 113101 (2015), DOI: 10.1063/1.4934554, Preprint: arxiv.org:1507.01571 [physics.data-an].

  1. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  2. Integração na criação de frangos de corte na microrregião de Viçosa - MG: viabilidade econômica e análise de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Martins Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na microrregião de Viçosa - MG, a criação de frango de corte via contratos de integração com a PIF-PAF S/A Indústria e Comércio tornou-se fonte adicional de renda para as propriedades rurais de pequeno e médio porte. Assim, este trabalho visou verificar a viabilidade de contratos de integração nessa região; especificamente, pretendeu-se elaborar e analisar um projeto de implantação de um aviário, determinar a rentabilidade do investimento, mensurar os riscos da atividade sob o ponto de vista do integrado e auxiliar a tomada de decisão. Para isso, calcularam-se indicadores de viabilidade econômica do projeto, como Valor Presente Líquido, Taxa Interna de Retorno e Razão Benefício/Custo; além disso, foi feita uma análise de sensibilidade para posterior análise de risco. Os resultados apontaram para a viabilidade econômica do projeto; ademais constatou-se que a sua lucratividade é mais sensível aos componentes da receita do que dos custos, sendo o preço recebido por ave a variável de maior sensibilidade. Percebeu-se também que os contratos de integração não eliminam totalmente o risco da atividade e que a integradora transfere parte do risco de preços ao produtor.The chicken production in Viçosa area is done by integration agreement with Pif Paf Company and it is an important option for increasing the income of small farmers. The objective of this paper is to check the viability of integration agreements. A project of a plant for chicken production was drawn and observed in order to determine its profitability and risks, with the purpose of helping the decision making. The Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, Cost/Benefit Ratio, Risk Sensitivity and Risk Analysis were calculated. The results show that the project is feasible and the profitability is more sensitive to changes in production price than changes in production costs. This study also points out that the integration agreement does not eliminate the

  3. An Analysis of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carole K.; Shea, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) view inquiry-based science learning and teaching, and how the science methods course builds their confidence to teach inquiry science. Most PSETs think that inquiry is asking students questions rather than a formal set of pedagogical tools. In the present study, three groups of PSETs…

  4. Values Underpinning STEM Education in the USA: An Analysis of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Darren G.; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were designed to address poor science and math performance in United States schools by inculcating globally competitive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics literacies relevant to participation in future society. Considering the complex network of influences involved in the development of…

  5. Language in Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Physics Teachers' Use of and Beliefs about Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2012-01-01

    The world over, secondary school science is viewed mainly as a practical subject. This may be one reason why effectiveness of teaching approaches in science education has often been judged on the kinds of practical activity with which teachers and students engage. In addition to practical work, language--often written (as in science texts) or oral…

  6. Teaching and Learning Psychology through an Analysis of Social Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is designed to accompany an appearance by the author as a panelist during a session on science fiction and teaching methods at the I-CON 28 Science Fiction Convention held April 3-5, 2009, on Long Island (near New York City). The author describes how he employs social science fiction in an honors course at the university level to…

  7. An Analysis of Data Activities and Instructional Supports in Middle School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.; Baker, Katie; Junglen, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of science and math education is reasoning with data. Science textbooks are instructional tools that provide opportunities for learning science content (e.g. facts about force and motion) and process skills (e.g. data recording) that support and augment reasoning with data. In addition, the construction and design of textbooks…

  8. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  9. How the Environment Is Positioned in the "Next Generation Science Standards": A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Gregory J.; Henderson, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how the environment and environmental issues are conceptualized and positioned in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) to examine underlying assumptions about the environment. The NGSS are a recent set of science standards in the USA, organized and led by Achieve Inc., that propose science education…

  10. A Computational Study of Commonsense Science: An Exploration in the Automated Analysis of Clinical Interview Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research in the learning sciences has focused on students' commonsense science knowledge--the everyday knowledge of the natural world that is gained outside of formal instruction. Although researchers studying commonsense science have employed a variety of methods, 1-on-1 clinical interviews have played a unique role. The data…

  11. Determinação de resíduos de organoclorados em águas fluviais do município de Viçosa - MG Determination of organochlorinated present in river from the region of Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Chagas

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the contamination, by organochlorinated, of a drinking water source located in the region of Viçosa, MG, was evaluated. The identification and quantification of the analytes was carried out using a gas-chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector after liquid-liquid extraction and concentration. Four insecticides, Aldrin, Epoxy heptachloride, Endrin and op'- DDT were detected in concentrations that are higher than the safety limits established in the Brazilian legislation.

  12. Exploring the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms: A formative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Kay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study offers a formative analysis of the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Five reliable and valid measure of effectiveness were used to examine the impact of learning objects from the perspective of 262 students and 8 teachers (14 classrooms in science or mathematics. The results indicate that teachers typically spend 1-2 hours finding and preparing for learning-object based lesson plans that focus on the review of previous concepts. Both teachers and students are positive about the learning benefits, quality, and engagement value of learning objects, although teachers are more positive than students. Student performance increased significantly, over 40%, when learning objects were used in conjunction with a variety of teaching strategies. It is reasonable to conclude that learning objects have potential as a teaching tool in a middle school environment. L’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire : une analyse formative Résumé : Cette étude présente une analyse formative de l’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire. Cinq mesures de rendement fiables et valides ont été exploitées pour examiner l’effet des objets d’apprentissage selon 262 élèves et 8 enseignants (414 classes en science ou mathématiques. Les résultats indiquent que les enseignants passent typiquement 1-2 heures pour trouver des objets d’apprentissage et préparer les leçons associées qui seraient centrées sur la revue de concepts déjà vus en classe. Quoique les enseignants aient répondu de façon plus positive que les élèves, les deux groupes ont répondu positivement quant aux avantages au niveau de l’apprentissage, à la qualité ainsi qu’à la valeur motivationnelle des objets d’apprentissage. Le rendement des élèves aurait aussi augment

  13. Banco de sementes do solo de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Pinheiro Batista Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se quantitativa e qualitativamente a florística do banco de sementes do solo de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, no município de Viçosa, MG. No final da estação chuvosa (março/2004, foram coletadas duas amostras de solo de 20 x 15 cm, com 5 cm de profundidade, no centro de seis subparcelas contíguas de 10 x 20 m, em dez parcelas permanentes de 20 x 60 m, em dez locais, totalizando 120 amostras (3,6 m2. As amostras de solo foram colocadas em estruturas de sombreamento de 11,5 % e 60 %, e as sementes germinadas foram identificadas em graminóides, herbáceo-cipós, arbustivas e arbóreas. Foram registradas 3.416 sementes germinadas, sendo 30,2 % graminóides, 29,2 % herbáceo-cipós, 17,5 % arbustivas e 23,1 % arbóreas, estas duas últimas distribuídas em 17 famílias, 25 gêneros e 31 espécies. Melastomataceae, Cecropiaceae e Piperaceae contribuíram com 31,8 %, 10,0 % e 8,8 % do total de espécies, respectivamente, sendo que Miconia cinnamomifolia e Leandra purpurascens foram responsáveis por 59,3 % das sementes arbustivo-arbóreas germinadas. As pioneiras se destacaram com 61,3 % das espécies e 88,5 % das sementes germinadas. Não foram registradas espécies secundárias tardias. A densidade média de sementes germinadas para todos os hábitos e locais foi de 949 sementes/m2. O número de espécies e de sementes germinadas do grupo arbustivo-arbóreo diferiu significativamente pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis (P ≤ 0,05 entre os locais estudados. Esses resultados indicam que, no banco de sementes do solo, há predomínio de espécies pioneiras que são importantes para a sucessão em clareiras ou após o corte da floresta. Porém, esse estoque de sementes não é suficiente para a continuidade do processo de sucessão, que inclui o estabelecimento de maior proporção de espécies secundárias iniciais e tardias. Isso indica que há necessidade de um manejo adequado do banco de pl

  14. State of the science of maternal-infant bonding: a principle-based concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E

    2013-12-01

    to provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. after a brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) Maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioural or biological components was limited. (2) The concept is clearly operationalised in the affective domain. (3) Maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Murdelisest tegelaskõnest "Tõe ja õiguse" I osas / Dialect in the Speech of Characters in A. H. Tammsaare’s Truth and Justice Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mandri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel keskendub A. H. Tammsaare „Tõe ja õiguse“ pentaloogia I osas leiduvale murdelisele tegelaskõnele. Murdeline tegelaskõne on ilukirjanduslik võte, mis lähtub autori loomingulistest taotlustest ning on seega lahutamatu teose sisust. Keele- ja kirjandusteadust ühendades pakub artikkel seni puudu nud kontekstisidusa käsitluse „Tõe ja õiguse“ I osa tegelaskõnes kasutatud murdepärasuste omadustest ning funktsioonist teose sisu ja kompositsiooni toetamisel. Murdeline tegelaskõne osutab geograafiliselt kesk- ja läänemurde alale, iseloomustab tegelasi kui talurahva hulka kuulujaid, taotleb külaühiskonna realistlikku esitlust, toetab keeleliselt Vargamäe Ees- ja Tagapere ning vanade ja noorte vastandust.    SU M M A R Y   The use of language in Part I of A. H. Tammsaare’s five-volume novel Truth and Justice (Tõde ja Õigus has received quite a bit of scholarly attention. However, up till now there have been few treatments of dialect in characters’ speech that also take into account the coherence of context and the writer’s aesthetic goals. Features of dialect in characters’ speech have been noticed by many researchers, but they mostly limited themselves to giving descriptive accounts of dialect words. These earlier accounts often approached these passages as authentic specimens of dialect, and did not interpret them in context or as aspects of literary form. This article is based on the literary dialect theory of linguist and literary scholar Sumner Ives, who argues from the principle that dialect phenomena in literature cannot be studied as authentic specimens of dialect. In literature, when characters speak in dialect, this serves goals related to the content and composition of the work, and does not attempt to be a precise representation of real dialect speech. In this spirit, I will examine dialect in the characters’ speech in the first volume of Tammsaare’s cycle of novels Truth and Justice

  16. Scientometric analysis: A technical need for medical science researchers either as authors or as peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    The nature of performing a scientific research is a process that has several different components which consist of identifying the key research question(s), choices of scientific approach for the study and data collection, data analysis, and finally reporting on results. Generally, peer review is a series of procedures in the evaluation of a creative work or performance by other people, who work in the same or related field, with the aim of maintaining and improving the quality of work or performance in that field. The assessment of the achievement of every scientist, and thus indirectly determining his reputation in the scientific community of these publications, especially journals, is done through the so-called impact factor index. The impact factor predicts or estimates that how many annual citations article may receive after its publication. Evaluation of scientific productivity and assessment of the published articles of researchers and scientists can be made through the so-called H-index. The quality of published results of scientific work largely depends on knowledge sources that are used in the preparation, which means that it should be considered to serve the purpose and the very relevance of the information used. Scientometrics as a field of science covers all aforementioned issues, and scientometric analysis is obligatory for quality assessment of the scientific validity of published articles and other type of publications.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Of Optical Payload For Lasercomm Science (OPALS) sealed enclosure module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Zayas, Daniel; Turner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) using the commercial CFD package CFDesign has been performed at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in support of the Phaeton Early Career Hire Program's Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) mission. The OPALS project is one which involves an International Space Station payload that will be using forced convection cooling in a hermetically sealed enclosure at 1 atm of air to cool "off-the-shelf" vendor electronics. The CFD analysis was used to characterize the thermal and fluid flow environment within a complicated labyrinth of electronics boards, fans, instrumentation, harnessing, ductwork and heat exchanger fins. The paradigm of iteratively using CAD/CAE tools and CFD was followed in order to determine the optimum flow geometry and heat sink configuration to yield operational convective film coefficients and temperature survivability limits for the electronics payload. Results from this current CFD analysis and correlation of the CFD model against thermal test data will be presented. Lessons learned and coupled thermal / flow modeling strategies will be shared in this paper.

  18. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: ten years of applications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy B; Keisler, Jeffrey; Linkov, Igor

    2011-09-01

    Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) emerged as a formal methodology to face available technical information and stakeholder values to support decisions in many fields and can be especially valuable in environmental decision making. This study reviews environmental applications of MCDA. Over 300 papers published between 2000 and 2009 reporting MCDA applications in the environmental field were identified through a series of queries in the Web of Science database. The papers were classified by their environmental application area, decision or intervention type. In addition, the papers were also classified by the MCDA methods used in the analysis (analytic hierarchy process, multi-attribute utility theory, and outranking). The results suggest that there is a significant growth in environmental applications of MCDA over the last decade across all environmental application areas. Multiple MCDA tools have been successfully used for environmental applications. Even though the use of the specific methods and tools varies in different application areas and geographic regions, our review of a few papers where several methods were used in parallel with the same problem indicates that recommended course of action does not vary significantly with the method applied. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of CLIL on EAP Learners: Based on Sample Analysis of Doctoral Students of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhen Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Europe most studies of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL focus on language knowledge and language skills and most studies of CLIL are carried out in primary schools and secondary schools. As for the implementation of CLIL in China, most studies are done theoretically and are carried out among undergraduates. CLIL is mainly applied in the teaching and learning of general English rather than in the teaching and learning of English for Academic Purpose (EAP. In order to have a better understanding of the effect of CLIL on EAP learners, a sample analysis is undertaken among doctoral students of science. Two kinds of instruments are adopted in this paper to conduct both quantitative and qualitative study, including two questionnaires and a series of classroom observations. The study obtains the following findings: Firstly, as CLIL is effective due to its dual-focus, it is possible to implement CLIL in EAP teaching and learning. Secondly, class activities such as group work, pair work, class presentations as well as task-based course activities such as translation, paper writing, paper analysis and rewriting practice play an important role in motivating the participants to integrate discipline content and language. Besides, the four factors of CLIL which include content, communication, culture and cognition are attached great importance to by learners. Finally, the increasing ability to integrate content and language as well as the thinking patterns and cultural awareness in EAP writing greatly contributes to the participants’ further academic researches.

  1. Socio-epistemic analysis of scientific knowledge production in little science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pepe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes that drive knowledge production and dissemination in scientific environments are embedded within the social, technical, cultural and epistemic practices of the constituent research communities. This article presents a methodology to unpack specific social and epistemic dimensions of scientific knowledge production using, as a case study,  the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS, a National Science Foundation “little science” research center involved in theoretical and applied work in the field of wireless communication and sensor networks. By analysis of its scholarly record, I construct a social network of coauthorship, linking individuals that have coauthored scholarly artifacts (journal articles and conference papers, and an epistemic network of topic co-occurrence, linking concepts and knowledge constructs in the same scholarly artifacts. This article reports on ongoing work directed at the study of the emergence and evolution of these networks of scientific interaction. I present some preliminary results and introduce a socio-epistemic method for an historical analysis of network co-evolution. I outline a research design to support further investigations of knowledge production in scientific circles.

  2. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L.; Zhao, L.

    1997-12-01

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252 Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252 Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 10 11 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10 8 cm -2 s -1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥10 9 cm -2 s -1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252 Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  3. The SMART Theory and Modeling Team: An Integrated Element of Mission Development and Science Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, J.; Denton, Richard E.; Drake, J.; Gombosi, T.; Hoshino, M.; Matthaeus, B.; Sibeck, D.

    2005-01-01

    to SMART needs during mission development and science analysis. In this presentation, we will present an overview of SMART theory and modeling team activities. In particular, we will provide examples of science objectives derived from state-of-the art models, and of recent research results that continue to be utilized in SMART mission development.

  4. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: a bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette L; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

    2011-11-10

    While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  5. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  6. Bimbo or boffin? Women in science: an analysis of media representations and how female scientists negotiate cultural contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimba, Mwenya; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines the gendered representations of scientists in the UK media. Our analysis reveals the asymmetrical ways in which men and women working in science, engineering and technology are portrayed, in particular through the emphasis on women's appearance and a focus on their exceptional status. It also highlights the way female scientists may be used to "sex up" the discipline in the context of increasing concern about the (un)popularity of science. This media analysis is contextualized by drawing on data from 86 scientists examining how women themselves experience press and television coverage and address the cultural contradictions surrounding their role. The research highlights the challenges facing women working in these fields and the dilemmas for those seeking to develop a "human" face for science and promote a positive image for women.

  7. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients’ Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Safadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory. Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P<0.05. 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P=0.11. Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced.

  8. Sismos y lluvias, factores detonantes de deslizamientos de laderas en las regiones montañosas de Puebla, México

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    Oscar A. Cuanalo C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Puebla ubicado en el centro de la República Mexicana, se ve afectado por sismos producto de la actividad a lo largo del Cinturón Volcánico Mexicano que tienen impacto en el centro y sur del estado, además de lluvias intensas en las regiones montañosas ubicadas al Norte y Nororiente del mismo, originadas por los huracanes y tormentas tropicales procedentes del Golfo de México. El escenario anterior ofrece peculiaridades de tipo geomorfológico y meteorológico que han desencadenado deslizamientos de laderas, los cuales han causado considerables daños económicos y lamentables pérdidas humanas. En este artículo se describe brevemente las características geomorfológicas del estado de Puebla, considerando su clima, el cual tiene impacto en la meteorización de las rocas que conforman la región montañosa; además se incluye su historia sismológica en los últimos 100 años, para eventos mayores de 6° Richter, y las lluvias torrenciales de 1999 y 2005 que han desencadenado deslizamientos de laderas

  9. Dinámica del crecimiento del bosque húmedo tropical, 19 años después de la cosecha bajo cuatro sistemas de aprovechamiento forestal en la Península de Osa, Costa Rica Growth dynamics of tropical rainforest, 19 years after harvest under four forest harvesting systems in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

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    Ruperto Quesada Monge

    2012-11-01

    significativas (mortalidad: p=0,2412; reclutamiento: p=0,0675; recambio: p=0,1159. Las pruebas t apareadas mostraron que las tasas de mortalidad y reclutamiento son estadísticamente iguales dentro de cada aprovechamiento (SACB: p=0,4992; SATM: p=0,9238; SATT: p=0,9080; SABT: p=0,8065, lo que confirma el equilibrio dinámico en que se encuentran los bosques intervenidos en estudio.Within the project “Monitoring of forest ecosystems to strengthen conservation strategies and forest use: a contribution to Costa Rica carbon neutral initiative”, the dynamic growth of the tropical rainforest was studied, nineteen years after harvest under four systems of forest use.Through the measurement of all trees (d ≥ 10 cm, three revenue sites were botanically identified in the Peninsula de Osa (Estero Guerra, Dos Brazos de Río Rincón and Los Mogos. Four permanent sampling parcels (PPM of 1 HA were installed in 1990. At that time and subsequently, fifteen and nineteen years later (2007 and 2011, respectively, the status of the primary forest was examined after applying four logging systems: oxen harvesting system (SACB, improved harvesting system (SATM, traditional harvesting system (SATT and oxen-tractor system (SABT. The analysis of the forest dynamic was made based on growth, mortality, recruitment and replacement rate. The current annual increment (ICA average for the period under review ranged from 2,47 to 3,56 mm / year. Statistical analysis showed that the ICA value has a normal distribution and homoscedasticity and the analysis of variance indicated no significant differences between the ICA of each logging system (p = 0,3410. The average mortality rate of the four logging systems is 1,301%, the recruitment rate is 1,869%. The annual turnover rate is 0,569%. Statistical analysis found that mortality; recruitment and replacement rates show a normal distribution and homoscedasticity. On the other hand, analysis of variance showed that differences between the different logging

  10. Statistics for the dynamic analysis of scientometric data: The evolution of the sciences in terms of trajectories and regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    The gap in statistics between multi-variate and time-series analysis can be bridged by using entropy statistics and recent developments in multi-dimensional scaling. For explaining the evolution of the sciences as non-linear dynamics, the configurations among variables can be important in addition

  11. Identifying Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs: A Latent Class Analysis Approach to Analyzing Middle School Students' Science Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Julia; Ing, Marsha; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Brown, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    This study extends current research by organizing information about students' expectancy-value achievement motivation, in a way that helps parents and teachers identify specific entry points to encourage and support students' science aspirations. This study uses latent class analysis to describe underlying differences in ability beliefs, task…

  12. Exploring the Structure of Library and Information Science Web Space Based on Multivariate Analysis of Social Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soohyung; Kipp, Margaret E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the structure of Web space in the field of library and information science using multivariate analysis of social tags from the Website, Delicious.com. A few studies have examined mathematical modelling of tags, mainly examining tagging in terms of tripartite graphs, pattern tracing and descriptive statistics. This…

  13. RIMS: An Integrated Mapping and Analysis System with Applications to Earth Sciences and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, A. A.; Glidden, S.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    A web-based information and computational system for analysis of spatially distributed Earth system, climate, and hydrologic data have been developed. The System allows visualization, data exploration, querying, manipulation and arbitrary calculations with any loaded gridded or vector polygon dataset. The system's acronym, RIMS, stands for its core functionality as a Rapid Integrated Mapping System. The system can be deployed for a Global scale projects as well as for regional hydrology and climatology studies. In particular, the Water Systems Analysis Group of the University of New Hampshire developed the global and regional (Northern Eurasia, pan-Arctic) versions of the system with different map projections and specific data. The system has demonstrated its potential for applications in other fields of Earth sciences and education. The key Web server/client components of the framework include (a) a visualization engine built on Open Source libraries (GDAL, PROJ.4, etc.) that are utilized in a MapServer; (b) multi-level data querying tools built on XML server-client communication protocols that allow downloading map data on-the-fly to a client web browser; and (c) data manipulation and grid cell level calculation tools that mimic desktop GIS software functionality via a web interface. Server side data management of the system is designed around a simple database of dataset metadata facilitating mounting of new data to the system and maintaining existing data in an easy manner. RIMS contains "built-in" river network data that allows for query of upstream areas on-demand which can be used for spatial data aggregation and analysis of sub-basin areas. RIMS is an ongoing effort and currently being used to serve a number of websites hosting a suite of hydrologic, environmental and other GIS data.

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of IT-based Competency Questionnaire in Information Science & Knowledge Studies, Based on Job Market Analysis

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    Rahim Shahbazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present research is to evaluate the validity of an IT-based competency questionnaire in Information Science & Knowledge Studies. The Survey method has been used in the present research. A data collection tool has been a researcher-made questionnaire. Statistic samples, which are 315 people, have been chosen purposefully from among Iranian faculty members, Ph.D. students, and information center employees. The findings showed that by eliminating 17 items from the whole questionnaire and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the rest and rotating findings using the Varimax method, 8 Factors were revealed. The resulting components and also the items which had a high load factor with these components were considerably consistent with the classifications in the questionnaire and partly consistent with the findings of other researchers. 76 competency indicators (knowledge, skills, and attitudes were validated and grouped under 8 main categories: 1. “Computer Basics” 2. “Database Operating, Collection Development of Digital Resources, & Digital Library Management” 3. “Basics of Computer Networking” 4. “Basics of Programming & Database Designing” 5. “Web Designing & Web Content Analysis” 6. “Library Software & Computerized Organizing” 7. Archive of Digital Resources and 8. Attitudes.

  15. An analysis of interactions and outcomes associated with an online professional development course for science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, David Edward

    This mixed-methods study examined the interactions and learning outcomes of science teachers in an online graduate-level course on evolutionary biology intended to improve their content knowledge and science lesson planning. Discussion posts made by the teachers in this seven-week course were analyzed for cognitive presence using the Community of Inquiry framework. Compared to other studies examining cognitive presence, high levels of Integration level cognitive activity were observed (47% of total posts). This was most likely due to the design of the discussion prompts and expectations used to frame student participation. The questions were open-ended, and students were expected to use reference materials to construct their responses. During the course, 395 student posts contained statements that could be coded for scientific accuracy. Of these, 85% were coded as scientifically accurate. This reinforces reports from previous literature that the online environment is conducive to reflective and careful contributions by participants. As the course progressed, the number of faculty posts per discussion declined, while the number of student posts remained relatively constant. Student-to-student posts increased in frequency as faculty participation dropped. The number of student posts increased towards the end of each two-week discussion period, however the frequencies of posts with scientifically accurate statements and Integration level cognitive activity remained relatively constant over this same period. The increase in total posts was due to the increase in other types of communication in the discussions. Case study analysis was used to examine patterns of online behavior in three participants who achieved different course grades. A low-performing student had a pattern of intermittent activity, made low numbers of posts in each discussion, and had low percentages of posts that contained scientific statements or indicators of Integration level cognitive activity

  16. Ethnopharmacology—A Bibliometric Analysis of a Field of Research Meandering Between Medicine and Food Science?

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    Andy Wai Kan Yeung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research into bioactive natural products of medicinal plants has a long tradition, but ethnopharmacology as a well-defined field of research has a relatively short history, only dating back 50 years.Aims: With the fast development of this field and its global importance especially in the fast developing economies of Asia it is timely to assess the most influential articles (as measured by citations and to identify important drivers and research trends in this field.Methods: Scopus was searched to identify relevant articles which were assessed by all three authors. The 100 most cited articles were identified and analyzed. Bibliometric software (VOSviewer was utilized to supplement the analysis and to generate a term map that visualized the citation patterns of the 100 articles containing different terms.Results: Forty-four of the 100 articles are reviews. On average, each of the 100 articles had 632 citations and since publication was cited 43 times annually. The four core journals were Journal of Ethnopharmacology (n = 17, Food Chemistry (n = 7, Life Sciences (n = 5, and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (n = 4. Anti-oxidant effects appeared to be a recurring and highly cited topic, whereas the links into drug discovery and neuropharmacology seemed to be less strong. Numerous medicinal plants and functional foods were the foci of research, and the foci shifted when comparing pre-2000 and post-2000 publications (with the later involving a broader spectrum of plants and foods and a wider range of biological effects. Contributions largely came from Asia, and also from the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, besides Europe.Conclusion: We have identified and analyzed the 100 most-cited articles in ethnopharmacology. Within 50 years the field has gained a profile and while conventionally often linked to “traditional knowledge,” drug discovery and some areas of pharmacology, this analysis highlights its emerging importance in

  17. Ethnopharmacology-A Bibliometric Analysis of a Field of Research Meandering Between Medicine and Food Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Heinrich, Michael; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2018-01-01

    Background: The research into bioactive natural products of medicinal plants has a long tradition, but ethnopharmacology as a well-defined field of research has a relatively short history, only dating back 50 years. Aims: With the fast development of this field and its global importance especially in the fast developing economies of Asia it is timely to assess the most influential articles (as measured by citations) and to identify important drivers and research trends in this field. Methods: Scopus was searched to identify relevant articles which were assessed by all three authors. The 100 most cited articles were identified and analyzed. Bibliometric software (VOSviewer) was utilized to supplement the analysis and to generate a term map that visualized the citation patterns of the 100 articles containing different terms. Results: Forty-four of the 100 articles are reviews. On average, each of the 100 articles had 632 citations and since publication was cited 43 times annually. The four core journals were Journal of Ethnopharmacology ( n = 17), Food Chemistry ( n = 7), Life Sciences ( n = 5), and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ( n = 4). Anti-oxidant effects appeared to be a recurring and highly cited topic, whereas the links into drug discovery and neuropharmacology seemed to be less strong. Numerous medicinal plants and functional foods were the foci of research, and the foci shifted when comparing pre-2000 and post-2000 publications (with the later involving a broader spectrum of plants and foods and a wider range of biological effects). Contributions largely came from Asia, and also from the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, besides Europe. Conclusion: We have identified and analyzed the 100 most-cited articles in ethnopharmacology. Within 50 years the field has gained a profile and while conventionally often linked to "traditional knowledge," drug discovery and some areas of pharmacology, this analysis highlights its emerging importance in the context

  18. Didactic implications of the history of science in Physics Education: a literature review through discursive textual analysis

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    Edmundo Rodrigues Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a literature review of the educational implications of the history of science in the teaching of Physics in the period 2010 to 2014. The technique used to analyze the data was the discursive textual analysis with the categories defined a priori. These categories include different teaching strategies for the teaching of history of science in Physics classes such as the use of primary or original sources, historical case studies, science through drama activities, historical experiments, biographies and /or autobiographies of scientists and the content analysis of the history of science present in textbooks. The result showed that 36 articles of 1659 available in journals use these teaching strategies. The results of the interpretative step consisted in the production of six metatexts in which two learning objectives were identified: the first one is related to physical concepts and the second one in aspects related to understanding the Nature of Science. The evaluation tools used by the authors to assess the students’ knowledge were identified in our corpus too.

  19. Virtual tool mark generation for efficient striation analysis in forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, Laura [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences report called for investigation into the scienti c basis behind tool mark comparisons (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). Answering this call, Chumbley et al. (2010) attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that tool marks are unique to a single tool. They developed a statistical algorithm that could, in most cases, discern matching and non-matching tool marks made at di erent angles by sequentially numbered screwdriver tips. Moreover, in the cases where the algorithm misinterpreted a pair of marks, an experienced forensics examiner could discern the correct outcome. While this research served to con rm the basic assumptions behind tool mark analysis, it also suggested that statistical analysis software could help to reduce the examiner's workload. This led to a new tool mark analysis approach, introduced in this thesis, that relies on 3D scans of screwdriver tip and marked plate surfaces at the micrometer scale from an optical microscope. These scans are carefully cleaned to remove noise from the data acquisition process and assigned a coordinate system that mathematically de nes angles and twists in a natural way. The marking process is then simulated by using a 3D graphics software package to impart rotations to the tip and take the projection of the tip's geometry in the direction of tool travel. The edge of this projection, retrieved from the 3D graphics software, becomes a virtual tool mark. Using this method, virtual marks are made at increments of 5 and compared to a scan of the evidence mark. The previously developed statistical package from Chumbley et al. (2010) performs the comparison, comparing the similarity of the geometry of both marks to the similarity that would occur due to random chance. The resulting statistical measure of the likelihood of the match informs the examiner of the angle of the best matching virtual mark, allowing the examiner to focus his/her mark analysis on a smaller range of angles

  20. The review of the modeling methods and numerical analysis software for nanotechnology in material science

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    SMIRNOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high demand for building materials with universal set of roperties which extend their application area the research efforts are focusing on nanotechnology in material science. The rational combination of theoretical studies, mathematical modeling and simulation can favour reduced resource and time consumption when nanomodified materials are being developed. The development of composite material is based on the principles of system analysis which provides for the necessity of criteria determination and further classification of modeling methods. In this work the criteria of spatial scale, dominant type of interaction and heterogeneity are used for such classification. The presented classification became a framework for analysis of methods and software which can be applied to the development of building materials. For each of selected spatial levels - from atomistic one to macrostructural level of constructional coarsegrained composite – existing theories, modeling algorithms and tools have been considered. At the level of macrostructure which is formed under influence of gravity and exterior forces one can apply probabilistic and geometrical methods to study obtained structure. The existing models are suitable for packing density analysis and solution of percolation problems at the macroscopic level, but there are still no software tools which could be applied in nanotechnology to carry out systematic investigations. At the microstructure level it’s possible to use particle method along with probabilistic and statistical methods to explore structure formation but available software tools are partially suitable for numerical analysis of microstructure models. Therefore, modeling of the microstructure is rather complicated; the model has to include potential of pairwise interaction. After the model has been constructed and parameters of pairwise potential have been determined, many software packages for solution of ordinary