WorldWideScience

Sample records for science advanced scientific

  1. Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing in Plasma Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William

    2005-03-01

    Advanced computing is generally recognized to be an increasingly vital tool for accelerating progress in scientific research during the 21st Century. For example, the Department of Energy's ``Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing'' (SciDAC) Program was motivated in large measure by the fact that formidable scientific challenges in its research portfolio could best be addressed by utilizing the combination of the rapid advances in super-computing technology together with the emergence of effective new algorithms and computational methodologies. The imperative is to translate such progress into corresponding increases in the performance of the scientific codes used to model complex physical systems such as those encountered in high temperature plasma research. If properly validated against experimental measurements and analytic benchmarks, these codes can provide reliable predictive capability for the behavior of a broad range of complex natural and engineered systems. This talk reviews recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations with some illustrative examples taken from the plasma science applications area. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by the combination of access to powerful new computational resources together with innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning a huge range in time and space scales. In particular, the plasma science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations

  2. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  3. National facility for advanced computational science: A sustainable path to scientific discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst; Kramer, William; Saphir, William; Shalf, John; Bailey, David; Oliker, Leonid; Banda, Michael; McCurdy, C. William; Hules, John; Canning, Andrew; Day, Marc; Colella, Philip; Serafini, David; Wehner, Michael; Nugent, Peter

    2004-04-02

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) proposes to create a National Facility for Advanced Computational Science (NFACS) and to establish a new partnership between the American computer industry and a national consortium of laboratories, universities, and computing facilities. NFACS will provide leadership-class scientific computing capability to scientists and engineers nationwide, independent of their institutional affiliation or source of funding. This partnership will bring into existence a new class of computational capability in the United States that is optimal for science and will create a sustainable path towards petaflops performance.

  4. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored by Advanced Scientific Computing Research, September 27-29, 2016, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almgren, Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeMar, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vetter, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bernholdt, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bethel, Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bosilca, George [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cappello, Frank [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gamblin, Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, Judy [Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hollingsworth, Jeffrey K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); McInnes, Lois Curfman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, Shirley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moreland, Ken [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roser, Rob [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shende, Sameer [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Shipman, Galen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    The widespread use of computing in the American economy would not be possible without a thoughtful, exploratory research and development (R&D) community pushing the performance edge of operating systems, computer languages, and software libraries. These are the tools and building blocks — the hammers, chisels, bricks, and mortar — of the smartphone, the cloud, and the computing services on which we rely. Engineers and scientists need ever-more specialized computing tools to discover new material properties for manufacturing, make energy generation safer and more efficient, and provide insight into the fundamentals of the universe, for example. The research division of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing and Research (ASCR Research) ensures that these tools and building blocks are being developed and honed to meet the extreme needs of modern science. See also http://exascaleage.org/ascr/ for additional information.

  5. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  6. Community Science: creating equitable partnerships for the advancement of scientific knowledge for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. S.; Gehrke, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    In a historical moment where the legitimacy of science is being questioned, it is essential to make science more accessible to the public. Active participation increases the legitimacy of projects within communities (Sidaway 2009). Creating collaborations in research strengthens not only the work by adding new dimensions, but also the social capital of communities through increased knowledge, connections, and decision making power. In this talk, Lewis will discuss how engagement at different stages of the scientific process is possible, and how researchers can actively develop opportunities that are open and inviting. Genuine co-production in research pushes scientists to work in new ways, and with people from different backgrounds, expertise, and lived experiences. This approach requires a flexible and dynamic balance of learning, sharing, and creating for all parties involved to ensure more meaningful and equitable participation. For example, in community science such as that by Public Lab, the community is at the center of scientific exploration. The research is place-based and is grounded in the desired outcomes of community members. Researchers are able to see themselves as active participants in this work alongside community members. Participating in active listening, developing plans together, and using a shared language built through learning can be helpful tools in all co-production processes. Generating knowledge is powerful. Through genuine collaboration and co-creation, science becomes more relevant. When community members are equitable stakeholders in the scientific process, they are better able to engage and advocate for the changes they want to see in their communities. Through this talk, session attendees will learn about practices that promote equitable participation in science, and hear examples of how the community science process engages people in both the knowledge production, and in the application of science.

  7. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC): Advancing the frontiers of computational science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, J. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).

  8. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Scientific Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Three)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, S.; Geipele, I.; Kauskale, L.; Zeltins, N.; Staube, T.; Pudzis, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present scientific paper is the third part and continuation of the indepth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part three determines the crucial scientific indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nanofield in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

  9. Science Fiction & Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerneda, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    The term "science fiction" has become synonymous, in the media at least, for any discovery in science too incredible or unexpected for the nonscientist to imagine. One of the most common classroom uses of science fiction is for students to pick out flaws in science fiction movies or television shows. Unfortunately, this approach can result in…

  10. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  11. Advances in the material science of concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ideker, Jason H; Radlinska, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    ... Committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The session focused on material science aspects of concrete with an emphasis placed on advances in understanding the fundamental scientific topics of cement-based materials, as well as the crucial...

  12. Crosscut report: Exascale Requirements Reviews, March 9–10, 2017 – Tysons Corner, Virginia. An Office of Science review sponsored by: Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility; Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet

    2018-01-22

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE SC) is the delivery of scientific discoveries and major scientific tools to transform our understanding of nature and to advance the energy, economic, and national security missions of the United States. To achieve these goals in today’s world requires investments in not only the traditional scientific endeavors of theory and experiment, but also in computational science and the facilities that support large-scale simulation and data analysis. The Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program addresses these challenges in the Office of Science. ASCR’s mission is to discover, develop, and deploy computational and networking capabilities to analyze, model, simulate, and predict complex phenomena important to DOE. ASCR supports research in computational science, three high-performance computing (HPC) facilities — the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Leadership Computing Facilities at Argonne (ALCF) and Oak Ridge (OLCF) National Laboratories — and the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) at Berkeley Lab. ASCR is guided by science needs as it develops research programs, computers, and networks at the leading edge of technologies. As we approach the era of exascale computing, technology changes are creating challenges for science programs in SC for those who need to use high performance computing and data systems effectively. Numerous significant modifications to today’s tools and techniques will be needed to realize the full potential of emerging computing systems and other novel computing architectures. To assess these needs and challenges, ASCR held a series of Exascale Requirements Reviews in 2015–2017, one with each of the six SC program offices,1 and a subsequent Crosscut Review that sought to integrate the findings from each. Participants at the reviews were drawn from the communities of leading domain

  13. Science communication at scientific societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, Jeanne

    2017-10-01

    Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gaming science: the "Gamification" of scientific thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

    2013-09-09

    Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

  15. Gaming Science: The Gamification of Scientific Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley eMorris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

  16. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damevski, Kostadin [Virginia State Univ., Petersburg, VA (United States)

    2009-03-30

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discover through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedened computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative hig-performance scientific computing.

  17. Learning Science and English: How School Reform Advances Scientific Learning for Limited English Proficient Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Minicucci, Catherine

    1996-01-01

    This article presents findings from the School Reform and Student Diversity Study, a 4-year project to locate and analyze schools offering exemplary science and mathematics programs to middle school students with limited proficiency in English. In contrast to the vast majority of schools, the four schools described in this article give these students access to stimulating science and mathematics curricula by instructing them either in the students' primary language or in English using shelter...

  18. Fusion connection: contributions to industry, defense, and basic science resulting from scientific advances made in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, T.; Woo, J.; Temkin, R.

    1985-10-01

    Fusion research has led to significant contributions in many different areas of industry, defense, and basic science. This diversity is represented visually in the introductory figure which shows both a radio galaxy, and a microchip produced by plasma etching. Some of these spin-off technologies are discussed

  19. Scientific Communication and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    Communication is an important part of scientific practice and, arguably, may be seen as constitutive to scientific knowledge. Yet, often scientific communication gets cursory treatment in science studies as well as in science education. In Nature of Science (NOS), for example, communication is rarely mentioned explicitly, even though, as will be…

  20. Basic Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences, November 3-5, 2015, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windus, Theresa [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Banda, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Devereaux, Thomas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); White, Julia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baruah, Tunna [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Benali, Anouar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Borland, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brabec, Jiri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carter, Emily [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ceperley, David [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chan, Maria [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chelikowsky, James [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Chen, Jackie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Clark, Aurora [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Darancet, Pierre [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); DeJong, Wibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deslippe, Jack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dixon, David [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Donatelli, Jeffrey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunning, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez-Serra, Marivi [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Freericks, James [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Gagliardi, Laura [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Garrett, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gordon, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Govind, Niri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gray, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gull, Emanuel [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gygi, Francois [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Hexemer, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Isborn, Christine [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States); Jarrell, Mark [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kent, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Klippenstein, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krishnamurthy, Hulikal [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Dinesh [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lena, Charles [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Li, Xiaosong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Maier, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markland, Thomas [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Millis, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mundy, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nakano, Aiichiro [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Niklasson, A.M.N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Thanos [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Pandolfi, Ron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parkinson, Dula [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pask, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Perazzo, Amedeo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rehr, John [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rousseau, Roger [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenter, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Selloni, Annabella [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sethian, Jamie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Siepmann, Ilja [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Slipchenko, Lyudmila [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sternberg, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stevens, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Summers, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sumpter, Bobby [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sushko, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thayer, Jana [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Toby, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valeev, Edward [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Vashishta, Priya [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Venkatakrishnan, V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Computers have revolutionized every aspect of our lives. Yet in science, the most tantalizing applications of computing lie just beyond our reach. The current quest to build an exascale computer with one thousand times the capability of today’s fastest machines (and more than a million times that of a laptop) will take researchers over the next horizon. The field of materials, chemical reactions, and compounds is inherently complex. Imagine millions of new materials with new functionalities waiting to be discovered — while researchers also seek to extend those materials that are known to a dizzying number of new forms. We could translate massive amounts of data from high precision experiments into new understanding through data mining and analysis. We could have at our disposal the ability to predict the properties of these materials, to follow their transformations during reactions on an atom-by-atom basis, and to discover completely new chemical pathways or physical states of matter. Extending these predictions from the nanoscale to the mesoscale, from the ultrafast world of reactions to long-time simulations to predict the lifetime performance of materials, and to the discovery of new materials and processes will have a profound impact on energy technology. In addition, discovery of new materials is vital to move computing beyond Moore’s law. To realize this vision, more than hardware is needed. New algorithms to take advantage of the increase in computing power, new programming paradigms, and new ways of mining massive data sets are needed as well. This report summarizes the opportunities and the requisite computing ecosystem needed to realize the potential before us. In addition to pursuing new and more complete physical models and theoretical frameworks, this review found that the following broadly grouped areas relevant to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) would directly affect the Basic Energy

  1. OPENING REMARKS: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2006 and Denver. I share greetings from the new Undersecretary for Energy, Ray Orbach. Five years ago SciDAC was launched as an experiment in computational science. The goal was to form partnerships among science applications, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians to take advantage of the potential of emerging terascale computers. This experiment has been a resounding success. SciDAC has emerged as a powerful concept for addressing some of the biggest challenges facing our world. As significant as these successes were, I believe there is also significance in the teams that achieved them. In addition to their scientific aims these teams have advanced the overall field of computational science and set the stage for even larger accomplishments as we look ahead to SciDAC-2. I am sure that many of you are expecting to hear about the results of our current solicitation for SciDAC-2. I’m afraid we are not quite ready to make that announcement. Decisions are still being made and we will announce the results later this summer. Nearly 250 unique proposals were received and evaluated, involving literally thousands of researchers, postdocs, and students. These collectively requested more than five times our expected budget. This response is a testament to the success of SciDAC in the community. In SciDAC-2 our budget has been increased to about 70 million for FY 2007 and our partnerships have expanded to include the Environment and National Security missions of the Department. The National Science Foundation has also joined as a partner. These new partnerships are expected to expand the application space of SciDAC, and broaden the impact and visibility of the program. We have, with our recent solicitation, expanded to turbulence, computational biology, and groundwater reactive modeling and simulation. We are currently talking with the Department’s applied energy programs about risk assessment, optimization of complex systems - such

  2. Popularization of science and scientific journalism: possibilities of scientific literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Augusto Barros Façanha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evidences the intersection between science education and communication in the perspective of the popularization of sciences based on the evidence produced in a specific column of a large circulation newspaper of the city of Teresina / PI. The discussions were based on the analysis of content carried out in the context of science classes in a school of basic education with elementary students, where journalistic texts were used with diverse themes that involved science and daily life in order to understand the interpretation of texts And the relationship with the context of scientific dissemination and citizenship. The analysis of the content was used and the answers were stratified into categories of conceptual nature and application of the themes. The analyses show that the texts of scientific dissemination have a contribution in relation to the popularization of Sciences, fomentation to the debate in the classroom, didactic increment in the classes of sciences, in spite of their insertion still incipient in the context of science education. However, the results of the research denote the difficulty faced by the students in understanding the text of dissemination in their conceptual comprehension and resolution of daily problems, as well as the distance between the context of the sciences in their theoretical scope and their presentation in everyday situations, Despite this, the texts of divulgation corroborated as an important way of real insertion in the process of scientific literacy and promotion of citizenship.

  3. Advanced Excel for scientific data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    De Levie, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Excel is by far the most widely distributed data analysis software but few users are aware of its full powers. Advanced Excel For Scientific Data Analysis takes off from where most books dealing with scientific applications of Excel end. It focuses on three areas-least squares, Fourier transformation, and digital simulation-and illustrates these with extensive examples, often taken from the literature. It also includes and describes a number of sample macros and functions to facilitate common data analysis tasks. These macros and functions are provided in uncompiled, computer-readable, easily

  4. Impact of scientific and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, I F; Dalessandri, D; Johnson, L A; Tucker, A; Walmsley, A D

    2018-03-01

    Advancements in research and technology are transforming our world. The dental profession is changing too, in the light of scientific discoveries that are advancing biological technology-from new biomaterials to unravelling the genetic make-up of the human being. As health professionals, we embrace a model of continuous quality improvement and lifelong learning. Our pedagogical approach to incorporating the plethora of scientific-technological advancements calls for us to shift our paradigm from emphasis on skill acquisition to knowledge application. The 2017 ADEE/ADEA workshop provided a forum to explore and discuss strategies to ensure faculty, students and, ultimately, patients are best positioned to exploit the opportunities that arise from integrating new technological advances and research outcomes. Participants discussed methods of incorporating the impact of new technologies and research findings into the education of our dental students. This report serves as a signpost of the way forward and how to promote incorporation of research and technology advances and lifelong learning into the dental education curriculum. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Scientific opportunities at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Advaned Light Source (ALS) is a national used facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with a projected completion date of September 1992, the ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in eleven long straight sections. It will also have up to 48 bending-magnet ports. Scientific opportunities in materials science, surface science, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, life science, and other fields are reflected in Letters of Interest received for the establishment of beamlines. (orig.)

  6. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics

  7. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Katie

    This dissertation investigates the implementation issues and the educational opportunities associated with "taking the practice turn" in science education. This pedagogical shift focuses instructional experiences on engaging students in the epistemic practices of science both to learn the core ideas of the disciplines, as well as to gain an understanding of and personal connection to the scientific enterprise. In Chapter 2, I examine the teacher-researcher co-design collaboration that supported the classroom implementation of a year-long, project-based biology curriculum that was under development. This study explores the dilemmas that arose when teachers implemented a new intervention and how the dilemmas arose and were managed throughout the collaboration of researchers and teachers and between the teachers. In the design-based research of Chapter 3, I demonstrate how students' engagement in epistemic practices in contemporary science investigations supported their conceptual development about genetics. The analysis shows how this involved a complex interaction between the scientific, school and community practices in students' lives and how through varied participation in the practices students come to write about and recognize how contemporary investigations can give them leverage for science-based action outside of the school setting. Finally, Chapter 4 explores the characteristics of learning environments for supporting the development of scientific practice-linked identities. Specific features of the learning environment---access to the intellectual work of the domain, authentic roles and accountability, space to make meaningful contributions in relation to personal interests, and practice-linked identity resources that arose from interactions in the learning setting---supported learners in stabilizing practice-linked science identities through their engagement in contemporary scientific practices. This set of studies shows that providing students with the

  8. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  9. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Frances M.; Benson, Jeff; Thelen, Mary Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  10. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  11. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  12. Scientific misconduct: also an issue in nursing science?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierz, K.; Gennaro, S.; Dierickx, K.; Achterberg, T. van; Morin, K.H.; Geest, S. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Scientific misconduct (SMC) is an increasing concern in nursing science. This article discusses the prevalence of SMC, risk factors and correlates of scientific misconduct in nursing science, and highlights interventional approaches to foster good scientific conduct. METHODS: Using the

  13. Gaming science: the “Gamification” of scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J.; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:24058354

  14. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  15. Emerging Nanophotonic Applications Explored with Advanced Scientific Parallel Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang

    The domain of nanoscale optical science and technology is a combination of the classical world of electromagnetics and the quantum mechanical regime of atoms and molecules. Recent advancements in fabrication technology allows the optical structures to be scaled down to nanoscale size or even to the atomic level, which are far smaller than the wavelength they are designed for. These nanostructures can have unique, controllable, and tunable optical properties and their interactions with quantum materials can have important near-field and far-field optical response. Undoubtedly, these optical properties can have many important applications, ranging from the efficient and tunable light sources, detectors, filters, modulators, high-speed all-optical switches; to the next-generation classical and quantum computation, and biophotonic medical sensors. This emerging research of nanoscience, known as nanophotonics, is a highly interdisciplinary field requiring expertise in materials science, physics, electrical engineering, and scientific computing, modeling and simulation. It has also become an important research field for investigating the science and engineering of light-matter interactions that take place on wavelength and subwavelength scales where the nature of the nanostructured matter controls the interactions. In addition, the fast advancements in the computing capabilities, such as parallel computing, also become as a critical element for investigating advanced nanophotonic devices. This role has taken on even greater urgency with the scale-down of device dimensions, and the design for these devices require extensive memory and extremely long core hours. Thus distributed computing platforms associated with parallel computing are required for faster designs processes. Scientific parallel computing constructs mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques, and uses the computing machines to analyze and solve otherwise intractable scientific challenges. In

  16. Advancing Water Science through Improved Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. J.; Miles, B.; Rai, A.; Ahalt, S.; Band, L. E.; Minsker, B.; Palmer, M.; Williams, M. R.; Idaszak, R.; Whitton, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major scientific advances are needed to help address impacts of climate change and increasing human-mediated environmental modification on the water cycle at global and local scales. However, such advances within the water sciences are limited in part by inadequate information infrastructures. For example, cyberinfrastructure (CI) includes the integrated computer hardware, software, networks, sensors, data, and human capital that enable scientific workflows to be carried out within and among individual research efforts and across varied disciplines. A coordinated transformation of existing CI and development of new CI could accelerate the productivity of water science by enabling greater discovery, access, and interoperability of data and models, and by freeing scientists to do science rather than create and manage technological tools. To elucidate specific ways in which improved CI could advance water science, three challenges confronting the water science community were evaluated: 1) How does ecohydrologic patch structure affect nitrogen transport and fate in watersheds?, 2) How can human-modified environments emulate natural water and nutrient cycling to enhance both human and ecosystem well-being?, 3) How do changes in climate affect water availability to support biodiversity and human needs? We assessed the approaches used by researchers to address components of these challenges, identified barriers imposed by limitations of current CI, and interviewed leaders in various water science subdisciplines to determine the most recent CI tools employed. Our preliminary findings revealed four areas where CI improvements are likely to stimulate scientific advances: 1) sensor networks, 2) data quality assurance/quality control, 3) data and modeling standards, 4) high performance computing. In addition, the full potential of a re-envisioned water science CI cannot be realized without a substantial training component. In light of these findings, we suggest that CI

  17. Center for Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadin, Damevski [Virginia State Univ., Petersburg, VA (United States)

    2015-01-25

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)1 tackles these these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  18. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Consolidated Progress Report July 2006 - March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, D E; McInnes, L C; Govindaraju, M; Bramley, R; Epperly, T; Kohl, J A; Nieplocha, J; Armstrong, R; Shasharina, S; Sussman, A L; Sottile, M; Damevski, K

    2009-04-14

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  19. Think Scientifically: Science Hidden in a Storybook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norden, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory's Think Scientifically (TS) program links literacy and science in the elementary classroom through an engaging storybook format and hands-on, inquiry based activities. TS consists of three illustrated storybooks, each addressing a different solar science concept. Accompanying each book is a hands-on science lesson plan that emphasizes the concepts addressed in the book, as well as math, reading, and language arts activities. Written by teachers, the books are designed to be extremely user-friendly and easy to implement in classroom instruction. The objectives of the program are: (1) to increase time spent on science in elementary school classrooms, (2) to assist educators in implementing hands-on science activities that reinforce concepts from the book, (3) to increase teacher capacity and comfort in teaching solar concepts, (4) to increase student awareness and interest in solar topics, especially students in under-served and under-represented communities. Our program meets these objectives through the National Science Standards-based content delivered in each story, the activities provided in the books, and the accompanying training that teachers are offered through the program.; ;

  20. Scientific opportunities with advanced facilities for neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.; Emery, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    The present report documents deliberations of a large group of experts in neutron scattering and fundamental physics on the need for new neutron sources of greater intensity and more sophisticated instrumentation than those currently available. An additional aspect of the Workshop was a comparison between steady-state (reactor) and pulsed (spallation) sources. The main conclusions were: (1) the case for a new higher flux neutron source is extremely strong and such a facility will lead to qualitatively new advances in condensed matter science and fundamental physics; (2) to a large extent the future needs of the scientific community could be met with either a 5 x 10 15 n cm -2 s -1 steady state source or a 10 17 n cm -2 s -1 peak flux spallation source; and (3) the findings of this Workshop are consistent with the recommendations of the Major Materials Facilities Committee

  1. Fusion Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences, January 27-29, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Choong-Seock [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Andre, R. [TRANSP Group, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bernholdt, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bonoli, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyd, Iain [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cary, John R. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, Yang [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curreli, Davide [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ernst, Darin R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hager, Robert [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hakim, Ammar [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hassanein, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hatch, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Held, E. D. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Howard, Nathan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Izzo, Valerie A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jardin, Steve [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Jenkins, T. G. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Jenko, Frank [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kemp, Andreas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); King, Jacob [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Kritz, Arnold [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Krstic, Predrag [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Kruger, Scott E. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Kurtz, Rick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nandipati, Giridhar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Parker, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pigarov, Alex Y. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Poli, Francesca [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Pueschel, M. J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rafiq, Tariq [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rübel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sizyuk, Valeryi A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Smithe, D. N. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Turner, Miles [Dublin City University, Leinster (Ireland); Umansky, Maxim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Verboncoeur, John [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Vincenti, Henri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Voter, Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Weixing [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wright, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yuan, X. [TRANSP Group, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range of fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see http://exascaleage.org/fes/ for more information.

  2. Nuclear Physics Exascale Requirements Review: An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Nuclear Physics, June 15 - 17, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Savage, Martin J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Rotman, Lauren [Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ayyad, Yassid [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Bass, Steffen A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Bazin, Daniel [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Boehnlein, Amber [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Bollen, Georg [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Facility for Rare Isotope Beams; Broussard, Leah J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Calder, Alan [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Couch, Sean [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Couture, Aaron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cromaz, Mario [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Detmold, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Detwiler, Jason [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Duan, Huaiyu [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Robert [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Engel, Jonathan [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fryer, Chris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fuller, George M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Gandolfi, Stefano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gavalian, Gagik [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Georgobiani, Dali [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gyurjyan, Vardan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Heyes, Graham [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hix, W. Ralph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); ito, Mark [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Jansen, Gustav [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Richard [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Joo, Balint [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kaczmarek, Olaf [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany); Kasen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kostin, Mikhail [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurth, Thorsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center; Lauret, Jerome [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lawrence, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Huey-Wen [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lin, Meifeng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mantica, Paul [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Maris, Peter [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Messer, Bronson [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mittig, Wolfgang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Mosby, Shea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukherjee, Swagato [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nam, Hai Ah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); navratil, Petr [Tri-Univ. Meson Facility (TRIUMF), Vancouver, BC (Canada); Nazarewicz, Witek [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Donnell, Tommy [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Pellemoine, Frederique [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Facility for Rare Isotope Beams; Petreczky, Peter [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pieper, Steven C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pinkenburg, Christopher H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Plaster, Brad [Univ. of Kent,Canterbury (United Kingdom); Porter, R. Jefferson [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Facility for Rare Isotope Beams; Pratt, Scott [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Purschke, Martin L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Qiang, Ji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quaglioni, Sofia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Schenke, Bjorn [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Schlichting, Soren [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schunck, Nicolas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steinbrecher, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strickland, Michael [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Terzic, Balsa [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Varner, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vary, James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Wild, Stefan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Winter, Frank [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zegers, Remco [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhang, He [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ziegler, Veronique [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zingale, Michael [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Imagine being able to predict — with unprecedented accuracy and precision — the structure of the proton and neutron, and the forces between them, directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons, and then using this information in calculations of the structure and reactions of atomic nuclei and of the properties of dense neutron stars (NSs). Also imagine discovering new and exotic states of matter, and new laws of nature, by being able to collect more experimental data than we dream possible today, analyzing it in real time to feed back into an experiment, and curating the data with full tracking capabilities and with fully distributed data mining capabilities. Making this vision a reality would improve basic scientific understanding, enabling us to precisely calculate, for example, the spectrum of gravity waves emitted during NS coalescence, and would have important societal applications in nuclear energy research, stockpile stewardship, and other areas. This review presents the components and characteristics of the exascale computing ecosystems necessary to realize this vision.

  3. Nuclear Physics Exascale Requirements Review: An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Nuclear Physics, June 15 - 17, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Joseph; Savage, Martin J.; Gerber, Richard; Antypas, Katie; Bard, Deborah; Coffey, Richard; Dart, Eli; Dosanjh, Sudip; Hack, James; Monga, Inder; Papka, Michael E.; Riley, Katherine; Rotman, Lauren; Straatsma, Tjerk; Wells, Jack; Avakian, Harut; Ayyad, Yassid; Bazin, Daniel; Bollen, Georg; Calder, Alan; Couch, Sean; Couture, Aaron; Cromaz, Mario; Detmold, William; Detwiler, Jason; Duan, Huaiyu; Edwards, Robert; Engel, Jonathan; Fryer, Chris; Fuller, George M.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Gavalian, Gagik; Georgobiani, Dali; Gupta, Rajan; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hausmann, Marc; Heyes, Graham; Hix, W. Ralph; Ito, Mark; Jansen, Gustav; Jones, Richard; Joo, Balint; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Kasen, Dan; Kostin, Mikhail; Kurth, Thorsten; Lawrence, David; Lin, Huey-Wen; Lin, Meifeng; Mantica, Paul; Maris, Peter; Messer, Bronson; Mittig, Wolfgang; Mosby, Shea; Mukherjee, Swagato; Nam, Hai Ah; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witek; Ng, Esmond; O'Donnell, Tommy; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pellemoine, Frederique; Pieper, Steven C.; Pinkenburg, Christopher H.; Plaster, Brad; Porter, R. Jefferson; Portillo, Mauricio; Purschke, Martin L.; Qiang, Ji; Quaglioni, Sofia; Richards, David; Roblin, Yves; Schenke, Bjorn; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schlichting, Soren; Schunck, Nicolas; Steinbrecher, Patrick; Strickland, Michael; Syritsyn, Sergey; Terzic, Balsa; Varner, Robert; Vary, James; Wild, Stefan; Winter, Frank; Zegers, Remco; Zhang, He; Ziegler, Veronique; Zingale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Imagine being able to predict - with unprecedented accuracy and precision - the structure of the proton and neutron, and the forces between them, directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons, and then using this information in calculations of the structure and reactions of atomic nuclei and of the properties of dense neutron stars (NSs). Also imagine discovering new and exotic states of matter, and new laws of nature, by being able to collect more experimental data than we dream possible today, analyzing it in real time to feed back into an experiment, and curating the data with full tracking capabilities and with fully distributed data mining capabilities. Making this vision a reality would improve basic scientific understanding, enabling us to precisely calculate, for example, the spectrum of gravity waves emitted during NS coalescence, and would have important societal applications in nuclear energy research, stockpile stewardship, and other areas. This review presents the components and characteristics of the exascale computing ecosystems necessary to realize this vision.

  4. Earth, soil and environmental science research facility at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. II. Scientific program and experimental instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.; Eng., P.J.; Jaski, Y.R.; Lazaraz, N.; Pluth, J.; Murray, P.; Rarback, H.; Rivers, M. [CARS, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The GSECARS (APS sector 13) scientific program will provide fundamental new information on the deep structure and composition of the Earth and other planets, the formation of economic mineral deposits, the cycles and fate of toxic metals in the environment, and the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and disease in plants. In the four experimental stations (2 per beamline), scientists will have access to three main x-ray techniques: diffraction (microcrystal, powder, diamond anvil cell, and large volume press), fluorescence microprobe, and spectroscopy (conventional, microbeam, liquid and solid surfaces). The high pressure facilities will be capable of x-ray crystallography at P{approx_gt}360 GPa and T{approximately}6000 K with the diamond anvil cell and P{approximately}25 GPa and T{approximately}2500{degree}C with the large volume press. Diffractometers will allow study of 1 micrometer crystals and micro-powders. The microprobe (1 micrometer focused beam) will be capable of chemical analyses in the sub-ppm range using wavelength and energy dispersive detectors. Spectroscopy instrumentation will be available for XANES and EXAFS with microbeams as well as high sensitivity conventional XAS and studies of liquid and solid interfaces. Visiting scientists will be able to setup, calibrate, and test experiments in off-line laboratories with equipment such as micromanipulators, optical microscopes, clean bench, glove boxes, high powered optical and Raman spectrometers. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Taking a Scientific Approach to Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, S.

    2011-09-01

    It is now well-documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory science courses often fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, these same courses have been found to teach students things we don't intend. Building on a tradition of research, the physics and astronomy education research communities have been investigating the effects of educational reforms at the undergraduate level for decades. Both within these scientific communities and in the fields of education, cognitive science, psychology, and other social sciences, we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students. This presentation will discuss a variety of effective classroom practices, (with an emphasis on peer instruction, "clickers," and small group activities), the surrounding educational structures, and examine assessments which indicate when and why these do (and sometimes do not) work. After a broad survey of education research, we will look at some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments within this field that are being conducted at the University of Colorado. Throughout, we will consider research and practices that can be of value in both physics and astronomy classes, as well as applications to teaching in a variety of environments.

  6. High Energy Physics Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and High Energy Physics, June 10-12, 2015, Bethesda, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Tim [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Almgren, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Amundson, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bailey, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bloom, Ken [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Bockelman, Brian [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Borgland, Anders [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Borrill, Julian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Boughezal, Radja [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Cowan, Benjamin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frontiere, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fuess, Stuart [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ge, Lixin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gnedin, Nick [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gutsche, Oliver [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Han, T. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ko, Kwok [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kononenko, Oleksiy [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LeCompte, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Li, Zheng [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lukic, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mori, Warren [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ng, Cho-Kuen [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nugent, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oleynik, Gene [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); O’Shea, Brian [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Petravick, Donald [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications; Petriello, Frank J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pope, Adrian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Power, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qiang, Ji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Rizzo, Thomas Gerard [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ryne, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schram, Malachi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spentzouris, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Toussaint, Doug [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Vay, Jean Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viren, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wuerthwein, Frank [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Xiao, Liling [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) convened a programmatic Exascale Requirements Review on June 10–12, 2015, in Bethesda, Maryland. This report summarizes the findings, results, and recommendations derived from that meeting. The high-level findings and observations are as follows. Larger, more capable computing and data facilities are needed to support HEP science goals in all three frontiers: Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic. The expected scale of the demand at the 2025 timescale is at least two orders of magnitude — and in some cases greater — than that available currently. The growth rate of data produced by simulations is overwhelming the current ability of both facilities and researchers to store and analyze it. Additional resources and new techniques for data analysis are urgently needed. Data rates and volumes from experimental facilities are also straining the current HEP infrastructure in its ability to store and analyze large and complex data volumes. Appropriately configured leadership-class facilities can play a transformational role in enabling scientific discovery from these datasets. A close integration of high-performance computing (HPC) simulation and data analysis will greatly aid in interpreting the results of HEP experiments. Such an integration will minimize data movement and facilitate interdependent workflows. Long-range planning between HEP and ASCR will be required to meet HEP’s research needs. To best use ASCR HPC resources, the experimental HEP program needs (1) an established, long-term plan for access to ASCR computational and data resources, (2) the ability to map workflows to HPC resources, (3) the ability for ASCR facilities to accommodate workflows run by collaborations potentially comprising thousands of individual members, (4) to transition codes to the next-generation HPC platforms that will be available at ASCR

  7. Scientific Advances in Thoracic Oncology 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soo, Ross A.; Stone, Emily C. A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Jett, James R.; Field, John K.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Mulshine, James L.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Bubendorf, Lukas; Dacic, Sanja; Rami-Porta, Ramon; Detterbeck, Frank C.; Lim, Eric; Asamura, Hisao; Donington, Jessica; Wakelee, Heather A.; Wu, Yi-Long; Higgins, Kristin; Senan, Suresh; Solomon, Benjamin; Kim, Dong-Wan; Johnson, Melissa; Yang, James C. H.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Shaw, Alice T.; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Costa, Daniel B.; Patel, Jyoti D.; Horn, Leora; Gettinger, Scott; Peters, Solange; Wynes, Murry W.; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Rudin, Charles M.; Tsao, Anne; Baas, Paul; Kelly, Ronan J.; Leighl, Natasha B.; Scagliotti, Giorgio V.; Gandara, David R.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Spigel, David R.

    Lung cancer care is rapidly changing with advances in genomic testing, the development of next-generation targeted kinase inhibitors, and the continued broad study of immunotherapy in new settings and potential combinations. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer and the Journal

  8. Making Sense of Scientific Biographies: Scientific Achievement, Nature of Science, and Storylines in College Students' Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the educative value of scientific biographies will be explored, especially for non-science major college students. During the "Scientist's life and thought" course, 66 college students read nine scientific biographies including five biologists, covering the canonical scientific achievements in Western scientific history.…

  9. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  10. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  11. Advances and challenges in computational plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W M; Chan, V S

    2005-01-01

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This

  12. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research, addressing the full cleanup life-cycle, offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing (1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, (2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, (3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, and (4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes. Over the last 3 years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has experienced a fundamental shift in philosophy. The mission focus of driving to closure has been replaced by one of enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation. Resolving new challenges, such as the disposition of DOE spent nuclear fuel, have been added to EM's responsibilities. In addition, the schedules for addressing several elements of the cleanup mission have been extended. As a result, EM's mission is no longer focused only on driving the current baselines to closure. Meeting the mission will require fundamental advances over at least a 30-year window if not longer as new challenges are added. The

  13. Advancing Water Science through Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As water scientists, we are increasingly handling larger and larger datasets with many variables, making it easy to lose ourselves in the details. Advanced data visualization will play an increasingly significant role in propelling the development of water science in research, economy, policy and education. It can enable analysis within research and further data scientists' understanding of behavior and processes and can potentially affect how the public, whom we often want to inform, understands our work. Unfortunately for water scientists, data visualization is approached in an ad hoc manner when a more formal methodology or understanding could potentially significantly improve both research within the academy and outreach to the public. Firstly to broaden and deepen scientific understanding, data visualization can allow for more analyzed targets to be processed simultaneously and can represent the variables effectively, finding patterns, trends and relationships; thus it can even explores the new research direction or branch of water science. Depending on visualization, we can detect and separate the pivotal and trivial influential factors more clearly to assume and abstract the original complex target system. Providing direct visual perception of the differences between observation data and prediction results of models, data visualization allows researchers to quickly examine the quality of models in water science. Secondly data visualization can also improve public awareness and perhaps influence behavior. Offering decision makers clearer perspectives of potential profits of water, data visualization can amplify the economic value of water science and also increase relevant employment rates. Providing policymakers compelling visuals of the role of water for social and natural systems, data visualization can advance the water management and legislation of water conservation. By building the publics' own data visualization through apps and games about water

  14. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  15. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers’ Scientific Literacy and Self-Efficacy in Teaching Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Al Sultan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many educators and educational institutions worldwide have agreed that the main goal of science education is to produce a scientifically literate community. Science teachers are key to the achievement of scientific literacy at all levels of education because of the essential role they play in preparing scientifically literate individuals. Studies show that pre-service elementary teachers need to build more confidence in teaching science and scientific literacy during their teacher education programs in order for them to successfully teach science knowledge to their students. Therefore, the purpose of this study is threefold. First, pre-service elementary teachers' scientific literacy levels were examined. Second, pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs were measured by distinguishing between their personal and subject-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Third, the extent to which pre-service elementary teachers' scientific literacy levels and self-efficacy levels are related was investigated. Participants were 49 pre-service elementary teachers registered in two science methods courses (introductory and advanced at a mid-sized university in the United States. Quantitative data were collected using the Test of Basic Scientific Literacy, the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-Preservice, and Beliefs about Teaching. Results showed that participants had a satisfactory level of scientific literacy. However, pre-service teachers had borderline scores on the Nature of Science scale. Regarding self-efficacy, findings showed that both groups had the highest self-efficacy in teaching biology and the lowest in teaching physics. Participants in the advanced science methods course exhibited a moderate preexisting positive relationship between scientific literacy and subject-specific self-efficacy in teaching science.

  16. A "Semantic" View of Scientific Models for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I inspect a "semantic" view of scientific models taken from contemporary philosophy of science-I draw upon the so-called "semanticist family", which frontally challenges the received, syntactic conception of scientific theories. I argue that a semantic view may be of use both for science education in the…

  17. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Frances M.; Allen, Todd R.; Benson, Jeff B.; Cole, James I.; Thelen, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the United States Department of Energy designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory, as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer's physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, and obtained access to additional PIE equipment. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program enables and facilitates user access to several university and national laboratories. So far, seven universities and one national laboratory have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these universities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user's technical needs. Universities and laboratories included in the ATR NSUF partnership program are as follows: (1) Nuclear Services Laboratories at North Carolina State University; (2) PULSTAR Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University; (3) Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator) at the University of Michigan; (4) Irradiated Materials at the University of Michigan; (5) Harry Reid Center Radiochemistry Laboratories at University of Nevada, Las Vegas; (6) Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; (7) Tandem Accelerator Ion Beam. (1.7 MV terminal voltage tandem ion accelerator) at the University of Wisconsin

  18. Science games and the development of scientific possible selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Margaret E.; Miller, Leslie M.; Wang, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Serious scientific games, especially those that include a virtual apprenticeship component, provide players with realistic experiences in science. This article discusses how science games can influence learning about science and the development of science-oriented possible selves through repeated practice in professional play and through social influences (e.g., peer groups). We first review the theory of possible selves (Markus and Nurius 1986) and discuss the potential of serious scientific games for influencing the development of scientific possible selves. As part of our review, we present a forensic game that inspired our work. Next we present a measure of scientific possible selves and assess its reliability and validity with a sample of middle-school students ( N = 374). We conclude by discussing the promise of science games and the development of scientific possible selves on both the individual and group levels as a means of inspiring STEM careers among adolescents.

  19. IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Nuno; Monteiro, Mário

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences entitled "Asteroseismology and Exoplanets: Listening to the Stars and Searching for New Worlds". The school addressed the topics at the forefront of scientific research being conducted in the fields of asteroseismology and exoplanetary science, two fields of modern astrophysics that share many synergies and resources. These proceedings comprise the contributions from 18 invited lecturers, including both monographic presentations and a number of hands-on tutorials.

  20. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Subcommittee Report on Scientific and Technical Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, Tony [eScience Institute, University of Washington; Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Borgman, Christine [University of California, Los Angeles; Cartaro, Concetta [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Luce, Richard [University of Oklahoma; Arjun, Shankar [CADES, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Trefethen, Anne [University of Oxford; Wade, Alex [Microsoft Research, Microsoft Corporation; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2015-09-04

    The Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged to form a standing subcommittee to review the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and to begin by assessing the quality and effectiveness of OSTI’s recent and current products and services and to comment on its mission and future directions in the rapidly changing environment for scientific publication and data. The Committee met with OSTI staff and reviewed available products, services and other materials. This report summaries their initial findings and recommendations.

  1. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Undergraduate honors students' images of science: Nature of scientific work and scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.

    This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS

  3. Fostering Scientific Literacy and Critical Thinking in Elementary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rui Marques; Tenreiro-Vieira, Celina

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literacy (SL) and critical thinking (CT) are key components of science education aiming to prepare students to think and to function as responsible citizens in a world increasingly affected by science and technology (S&T). Therefore, students should be given opportunities in their science classes to be engaged in learning…

  4. Analyzing the Scientific Evolution of Social Work Using Science Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ma Angeles; Cobo, Manuel Jesús; Herrera, Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the first science mapping analysis of the social work field, which shows its conceptual structure and scientific evolution. Methods: Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool, a bibliometric science mapping tool based on co-word analysis and h-index, is applied using a sample of 18,794 research articles published from…

  5. Support Science by Publishing in Scientific Society Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D; Johnston, Mark; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-09-26

    Scientific societies provide numerous services to the scientific enterprise, including convening meetings, publishing journals, developing scientific programs, advocating for science, promoting education, providing cohesion and direction for the discipline, and more. For most scientific societies, publishing provides revenues that support these important activities. In recent decades, the proportion of papers on microbiology published in scientific society journals has declined. This is largely due to two competing pressures: authors' drive to publish in "glam journals"-those with high journal impact factors-and the availability of "mega journals," which offer speedy publication of articles regardless of their potential impact. The decline in submissions to scientific society journals and the lack of enthusiasm on the part of many scientists to publish in them should be matters of serious concern to all scientists because they impact the service that scientific societies can provide to their members and to science. Copyright © 2017 Schloss et al.

  6. Scientism and Scientific Thinking. A Note on Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparatou, Renia

    2017-11-01

    The move from respecting science to scientism, i.e., the idealization of science and scientific method, is simple: We go from acknowledging the sciences as fruitful human activities to oversimplifying the ways they work, and accepting a fuzzy belief that Science and Scientific Method, will give us a direct pathway to the true making of the world, all included. The idealization of science is partly the reason why we feel we need to impose the so-called scientific terminologies and methodologies to all aspects of our lives, education too. Under this rationale, educational policies today prioritize science, not only in curriculum design, but also as a method for educational practice. One might expect that, under the scientistic rationale, science education would thrive. Contrariwise, I will argue that scientism disallows science education to give an accurate image of the sciences. More importantly, I suggest that scientism prevents one of science education's most crucial goals: help students think. Many of my arguments will borrow the findings and insights of science education research. In the last part of this paper, I will turn to some of the most influential science education research proposals and comment on their limits. If I am right, and science education today does not satisfy our most important reasons for teaching science, perhaps we should change not just our teaching strategies, but also our scientistic rationale. But that may be a difficult task.

  7. Clinical caring science as a scientific discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Arman, Maria; Lindström, Unni Å

    2017-09-01

    Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts. The academic subject contains a concept order with ethos concepts, core and basic concepts and practice concepts that unites systematic caring science with clinical caring science. In accordance with a hermeneutic tradition, the idea of the caring act is based on the degree to which the theory base is hermeneutically appropriated by the caregiver. The better the ethos, essential concepts and theories are understood, the better the caring act can be understood. In order to understand the concept order related to clinical caring science, an example is given from an ongoing project in a disaster context. The concept order is an appropriate way of making sense of the essence of clinical caring science. The idea of the concept order is that concepts on all levels need to be united with each other. A research project in clinical caring science can start anywhere on the concept order, either in ethos, core concepts, basic concepts, practice concepts or in concrete clinical phenomena, as long as no parts are locked out of the concept order as an entity. If, for example, research on patient participation as a phenomenon is not related to core and basic concepts, there is a risqué that the research becomes meaningless. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. The Need for More Scientific Approaches to Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two possible goals for public science communication are: a) improving the public's in-depth understanding of the scientific subject; and b) fostering the public's belief that scientific efforts make a better world. Although (a) is often a natural target when scientists try to communicate their subject, the importance of (b) is underscored by the NSF, who investigated the "cultural authority of science" to understand science's role in policymaking. Surveys consistently find that there is a huge divergence between "knowledge" and "admiration" of science in society because science literacy has very little to do with public perception of science. However, even if both goals could be achieved, it doesn't necessarily mean that the general public will act on scientific advice. Different parts of society have different criteria for reaching judgments about how to act in their best interests. This makes the study of science communication important when controversies arise requiring public engagement. Climate change, sustainability, and water crises are only a few examples of such controversial subjects. Science communication can be designed carefully to sponsor dialogue and participation, to overcome perceptual obstacles, and to engage with stakeholders and the wider public. This study reviews work in social science that tries to answer: When is science communication necessary? What is involved in science communication? What is the role of media in effective science communication? It also reviews common recommendations for improved public engagement by scientists and science organizations. As part of this effort, I will present some portions of my science films. I will conclude with suggestions on what scientific institutions can focus on to build trust, relationships, and participation across segments of the public. Keywords: informal learning, popular science, climate change, water crisis, science communication, science films, science policy.

  9. Editor's Note: SCIENTIFIC "AGENDA" OF DATA SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    For over 40 years, CODATA has been the leading international organization concerned with improving the quality, accessibility, and usability of scientific data. The Information Revolution has provided unprecedented opportunity to ensure that scientific data are fully integrated in the fundamental workings and decision making of our society. Further, these data care critical to improving every aspect of society. In this essay, I describe how data plays these roles and outline an opportunity fo...

  10. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements: ASCR Network Requirements Review Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Canon, Shane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dattoria, Vince [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Goodwin, Dave [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Lee, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hicks, Susan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holohan, Ed [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Klasky, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lauzon, Carolyn [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Rogers, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  11. Popularity and Relevance of Science Education and Scientific Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Wolfgang; Blonder, Ron; Bolte, Claus

    2008-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from 8 European nations has successfully applied to the EU commission for funding the PARSEL (Popularity and Relevance in Science Education for Scientific Literacy) project, which aims at raising the popularity and relevance of science teaching and enhancing students...... of a range of personal and social skills (including cognitive skills associated with investigatory scientific problem solving and socio-scientific decision making) and clarify the relevancy of science education for the 21st century. This symposium will introduce and discuss the project PARSEL ideas within...

  12. Advancing the Science of Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk‐Krzesinski, Holly J.; Börner, Katy; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M.; Hall, Kara L.; Keyton, Joann; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William; Uzzi, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The First Annual International Science of Team Science (SciTS) Conference was held in Chicago, IL April 22–24, 2010. This article presents a summary of the Conference proceedings. Clin Trans Sci 2010; Volume 3: 263–266. PMID:20973925

  13. Open Science: Dimensions to a new scientific practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Silva de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The practices of e-science and the use and reuse of scientific data have constituted a new scientific work that leads to the reflection on new regulatory, legal, institutional and technological frameworks for open science. Objective: This study shows the following research question: which dimensions provide sustainability for the formulation of a policy geared to open science and its practices in the Brazilian context? The aim of this study is to discuss the dimensions that support transversely the formulation of a policy for open science and its scientific practices. Methodology:Theoretically, the study is guided by the fourth scientific paradigm grounded in the e-Science. The methodology is supported by Bufrem’s studies (2013, which propose an alternative and multidimensional model for analysis and discussion of scientific research. Technically, the literature review and documentary survey were the methods used on the Data Lifecycle scientific model, laws and international agreements.For this study purpose, five dimensions were proposed, namely: epistemological, political, ethical-legal-cultural, morphological, and technological. Results: This studyunderstands that these dimensions substantiate an information policy or the development of minimum guidelines for the open science agenda in Brazil. Conclusions: The dimensions put away the reductionist perspective on survey data and they conducted the study for the multi-dimensional and multi-relational vision of open science.

  14. Advancing nuclear technology and research. The advanced test reactor national scientific user facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Jeff B; Marshall, Frances M [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Allen, Todd R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world's premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. Cost free access to the ATR, INL post irradiation examination facilities, and partner facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to United States Department of Energy. To increase overall research capability, ATR NSUF seeks to form strategic partnerships with university facilities that add significant nuclear research capability to the ATR NSUF and are accessible to all ATR NSUF users. (author)

  15. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Poloski, A.P.; Vienna, J.D.; Moyer, B.A.; Hobbs, D.; Wilmarth, B.; McIlwain, M.; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, S.; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research addressing the full cleanup life-cycle offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing 1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, 2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, 3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, and 4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes. Over the last 3 years, DoE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has experienced a fundamental shift in philosophy. The mission focus of driving to closure has been replaced by one of enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation. Resolving new challenges, such as the disposition of DOE spent nuclear fuel, have been added to EM's responsibilities. In addition, the schedules for addressing several elements of the cleanup mission have been extended. As a result, EM's mission is no longer focused only on driving the current baselines to closure. Meeting the mission will require fundamental advances over at least a 30-year window if not longer as new challenges are added. The overall

  16. IMPACT OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC WORLDVIEW ON MAN: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    outlines, therefore, the impact of science on man has moved in three stages: Physical .... of appreciation, understanding and action proper to the scientific mind. It refers ...... This has excluded chain reactions of the warheads that will follow not ...

  17. Collaborative e-Science Experiments and Scientific Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloum, A.; Inda, M.A.; Vasunin, D.; Korkhov, V.; Zhao, Z.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.M.; Bubak, M.; Hertzberger, L.O.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in Internet and grid technologies have greatly enhanced scientific experiments' life cycle. In addition to compute- and data-intensive tasks, large-scale collaborations involving geographically distributed scientists and e-infrastructure are now possible. Scientific workflows, which

  18. Science Teaching as Educational Interrogation of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginev, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    The main argument of this article is that science teaching based on a pedagogy of questions is to be modeled on a hermeneutic conception of scientific research as a process of the constitution of texts. This process is spelled out in terms of hermeneutic phenomenology. A text constituted by scientific practices is at once united by a hermeneutic…

  19. Agriscience Student Engagement in Scientific Inquiry: Representations of Scientific Processes and Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Julie R; Dolan, Erin L; Glasson, George E

    2010-01-01

    Students' experiences with science integrated into agriscience courses contribute to their developing epistemologies of science. The purpose of this case study was to gain insight into the implementation of scientific inquiry in an agriscience classroom. Also of interest was how the tenets of the nature of science were reflected in the students' experiments. Participants included an agriscience teacher and her fifteen students who were conducting plant experiments to gain insight into the role of a gene disabled by scientists. Data sources included classroom observations, conversations with students, face-to-face interviews with the teacher, and students' work. Analysis of the data indicated that the teacher viewed scientific inquiry as a mechanical process with little emphasis on the reasoning that typifies scientific inquiry. Students' participation in their experiments also centered on the procedural aspects of inquiry with little attention to scientific reasoning. There was no explicit attention to the nature of science during the experiments, but the practice implied correct, incorrect, and underdeveloped conceptions of the nature of science. Evidence from the study suggests a need for collaboration between agriscience and science teacher educators to design and conduct professional development focused on scientific inquiry and nature of science for preservice and practicing teachers.

  20. Scientific production of medical sciences universities in north of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamian, Hasan; Firooz, Mousa Yamin; Vahedi, Mohammad; Aligolbandi, Kobra

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. The study of the scientific evidence citation production by famous databases of the world is one of the important indicators to evaluate and rank the universities. The study at investigating the scientific production of Northern Iran Medical Sciences Universities in Scopus from 2005 through 2010. This survey used scientometrics technique. The samples under studies were the scientific products of four northern Iran Medical universities. Viewpoints quantity of the Scientific Products Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences stands first and of Babol University of Medical Sciences ranks the end, but from the viewpoints of quality of scientific products of considering the H-Index and the number of cited papers the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences is a head from the other universities under study. From the viewpoints of subject of the papers, the highest scientific products belonged to the faculty of Pharmacy affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medial Sciences, but the three other universities for the genetics and biochemistry. Results showed that the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences as compared to the other understudies universities ranks higher for the number of articles, cited articles, number of hard work authors and H-Index of Scopus database from 2005 through 2010.

  1. Advanced in Computer Science and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Neil; Park, James; CSA 2013

    2014-01-01

    The theme of CSA is focused on the various aspects of computer science and its applications for advances in computer science and its applications and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of computer science and its applications. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in computer science and its applications.

  2. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  3. Designing Science Games and Science Toys from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 21 pre-service science teachers attending the faculty of education of a university in Turkey. The study aims to evaluate pre-service science teachers' science games and science toy designs in terms of scientific creativity. Participants were given a four-week period to design science games or…

  4. The role by scientific publications in science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabbri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In their contributions to this special issue, the British science writer Jon Turney and the American scholar Bruce Lewenstein discuss the validity of the book as a means for science communication in the era of the Internet, whereas the article by Vittorio Bo deals with scientific publishing in a broader sense.

  5. Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 8. Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method. Classics Volume 21 Issue 8 August 2016 pp 749-763. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/08/0749-0763. Abstract ...

  6. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Scientific Values: Ethical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vedamurthy

    Science has many applied ... activities pursued by the Fellows not only involve conducting research and publishing its results, but ... See for example, the announcements on “ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human .... therefore it is important for the selection committee members to study each case carefully.

  7. Scientific Inquiry in Health Sciences Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    inquiry or critical thinking. Discussion: The value of this study is that it might enable educational developers to give junior faculty better guidance on teaching and specific feedback on their teaching portfolio in particular in regards to the design of learning activities that might use scientific...... in terms of a more systematic approach to higher-level thinking. Thus although participants cited one or more constructivist educational theorists, they did not express a well-articulated notion of inquiry and they provided limited concrete examples on how to design a conducive learning environment around...... inquiry as means and end in higher education....

  8. Advances in Computer Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012)

    2012-01-01

    This book includes the proceedings of the second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012), which was held during January 13-14, 2012 in Sanya, China. The papers in these proceedings of CES 2012 focus on the researchers’ advanced works in their fields of Computer Science and Engineering mainly organized in four topics, (1) Software Engineering, (2) Intelligent Computing, (3) Computer Networks, and (4) Artificial Intelligence Software.

  9. An open science cloud for scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bob

    2016-04-01

    The Helix Nebula initiative was presented at EGU 2013 (http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-1510-2.pdf) and has continued to expand with more research organisations, providers and services. The hybrid cloud model deployed by Helix Nebula has grown to become a viable approach for provisioning ICT services for research communities from both public and commercial service providers (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.16001). The relevance of this approach for all those communities facing societal challenges in explained in a recent EIROforum publication (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.34264). This presentation will describe how this model brings together a range of stakeholders to implement a common platform for data intensive services that builds upon existing public funded e-infrastructures and commercial cloud services to promote open science. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high-level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that will ensure a European Open Science Cloud can innovate, grow and be sustained beyond the current project cycles is described.

  10. Advancing the science of Forest Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs; Carl C. Trettin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has...

  11. Report on the scientifical feasibility of advanced separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The advanced separation process Purex has been retained for the recovery of neptunium, technetium and iodine from high level and long lived radioactive wastes. Complementary solvent extraction processes will be used for the recovery of americium, curium and cesium from the high activity effluents of the spent fuel reprocessing treatment. This document presents the researches carried out to demonstrate the scientifical feasibility of the advanced separation processes: the adaptation of the Purex process would allow the recovery of 99% of the neptunium, while the association of the Diamex and Sanex (low acidity variant) processes, or the Paladin concept (single cycle with selective de-extraction of actinides) make it possible the recovery of 99.8% of the actinides III (americium and curium) with a high lanthanides decontamination factor (greater than 150). The feasibility of the americium/curium separation is demonstrated with the Sesame process (extraction of americium IV after electrolytic oxidation). Iodine is today recovered at about 99% with the Purex process and the dissolved fraction of technetium is also recovered at 99% using an adaptation of the Purex process. The non-dissolved fraction is retained by intermetallic compounds in dissolution residues. Cesium is separable from other fission products with recovery levels greater than 99.9% thanks to the use of functionalized calixarenes. The scientifical feasibility of advanced separation is thus demonstrated. (J.S.)

  12. Advancing Research on Undergraduate Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susan Rundell

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…

  13. Advances in welding science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based design of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic applied sciences. A series of international conferences and other publications have covered the issues, current trends and directions in welding science and technology. In the last few decades, major progress has been made in (i) understanding physical processes in welding, (ii) characterization of microstructure and properties, and (iii) intelligent control and automation of welding. This paper describes some of these developments

  14. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  15. Telling Lives in Science: Essays on Scientific Biography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This collection of ten essays by historians of science, several of them biographers, is concerned with the role of scientific biography in forming conceptions of science and scientists. The essays include studies of the biographies of individual scientists, assessments of the aims and style of scientific portraits in different historical contexts, examinations of changing biographical interpretations of scientists, and much discussion of the methodological issues involved in the writing of scientific biographies. Many historians consider biography to be an ambiguous genre, its appeal based on nostalgia rather than history, with a focus on personality rather than historical context, but the biographer can reply that scientific biography reveals the practice of science at its most fundamental level. Indeed, scientific biography has provided a powerful medium in which public conceptions of science have been established. Einstein observed that 'the essential being of a man of my type lies in what he thinks and how he thinks', and his Autobiographical Notes suppress personality in favour of physics. But the biographer may see matters differently, and wish to integrate the public and the private life of the scientist. In their substantial introduction the editors discuss these and other problems, and the book is directed to the professional concerns of historians of science. While there is little here on the history of physics, Geoffrey Cantor's essay on public images of Faraday as constructed in popular biographies, a discussion of conflicting portraits of Faraday as romantic genius or hard-working slogger, may interest readers of this journal. (book review)

  16. Assessing mathematics within advanced school science qualifications

    OpenAIRE

    McAlinden, Mary; Noyes, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Following sustained discussion regarding the relationship between advanced mathematics and science learning in England, the government has pursued a reform agenda in which mathematics is embedded in national, high stakes A-level science qualifications and their assessments for 18-year-olds. For example, A-level Chemistry must incorporate the assessment of relevant mathematics for at least 20% of the qualification. Other sciences have different mandated percentages. This embedding policy is ru...

  17. Biological and Environmental Research Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Biological and Environmental Research, March 28-31, 2016, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bader, David C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aluru, Srinivas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Aprá, Edoardo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Azad, Ariful [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bates, Susan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Blaby, Ian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaby-Haas, Crysten [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bonneau, Rich [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States); Bowen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bradford, Mark A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Brodie, Eoin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, James (Ben) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buluc, Aydin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bernholdt, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bylaska, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Calvin, Kate [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cannon, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheung, Margaret [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chowdhary, Kenny [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Colella, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Collins, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Compo, Gil [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Crowley, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Debusschere, Bert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); D’Imperio, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dror, Ron [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Evans, Katherine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Friedberg, Iddo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Fyke, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Zheng [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Georganas, Evangelos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Giraldo, Frank [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Gnanakaran, Gnana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Govind, Niri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Grandy, Stuart [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Gustafson, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hammond, Glenn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hargrove, William [USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C. (United States); Heroux, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Forrest [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hofmeyr, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jackson, Charles [Univ. of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Jacob, Rob [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jacobson, Dan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobson, Matt [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jain, Chirag [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Johansen, Hans [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Johnson, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, Andy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, Phil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kalyanaraman, Ananth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Kang, Senghwa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); King, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Koanantakool, Penporn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kopera, Michal [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Kotamarthi, Rao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xiaolin [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Link, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Loew, Leslie [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Luke, Edward [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ma, Hsi -Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Maranas, Costas [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Martin, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McInnes, Lois Curfman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mills, Richard [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Molins Rafa, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mostafavi, Sara [Center for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moulton, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mourao, Zenaida [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Najm, Habib [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ng, Bernard [Center for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norman, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oh, Sang -Yun [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Chongle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pass, Rebecca [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pau, George S. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Petridis, Loukas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Prakash, Giri [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Randall, David [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Renslow, Ryan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Riihimaki, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roberts, Andrew [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Rokhsar, Dan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ruebel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Salinger, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scheibe, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schulz, Roland [Intel, Mountain View, CA (United States); Sivaraman, Chitra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sreepathi, Sarat [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Steefel, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Talbot, Jenifer [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Tantillo, D. J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tartakovsky, Alex [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taylor, Ronald [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Urban, Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valiev, Marat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Wagner, Allon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, Haruko [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wieder, Will [NCAR/Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Wiley, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Worley, Pat [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yelick, Kathy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yoo, Shinjae [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yosef, Niri [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Understanding the fundamentals of genomic systems or the processes governing impactful weather patterns are examples of the types of simulation and modeling performed on the most advanced computing resources in America. High-performance computing and computational science together provide a necessary platform for the mission science conducted by the Biological and Environmental Research (BER) office at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report reviews BER’s computing needs and their importance for solving some of the toughest problems in BER’s portfolio. BER’s impact on science has been transformative. Mapping the human genome, including the U.S.-supported international Human Genome Project that DOE began in 1987, initiated the era of modern biotechnology and genomics-based systems biology. And since the 1950s, BER has been a core contributor to atmospheric, environmental, and climate science research, beginning with atmospheric circulation studies that were the forerunners of modern Earth system models (ESMs) and by pioneering the implementation of climate codes onto high-performance computers. See http://exascaleage.org/ber/ for more information.

  18. From Islamicizing the Sciences to Strategizing for Muslims’ Scientific Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFIU IBRAHIM ADEBAYO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At inception, science and religion were seen as poles apart and so science was vehemently kicked against by religious leaders. Islam later came to bridge the gap between religion and science only to be later hijacked by the Western world and so science was rewritten from a purely materialist point of view; hence, experts in modern science became over-confident and arrogant to have relegated religion to the lowest ebb and looked down upon any knowledge which could not be scientifically proved. However attempts are being made to reconcile religion and science by Muslim reformers. These attempts are not without their shortcomings, hence the need for Islamization of the sciences for them to conform to the Islamic principle of unity of knowledge. However, the present researcher feels that there should be a step forward from the contemporary approaches to Islamicizing the sciences in form of colouring the Western scientific discoveries Islam, to making their own scientific breakthroughs, the type which immortalized Muslim scientists of the Islam’s golden ages. Without this, Muslims will continue to be mere consumers of the Western products. The strategy for the Ummah to achieve this is suggested in this paper.

  19. Flipped Classrooms for Advanced Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2015-12-01

    This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will conclude with an explanation of flipped classes as well as how they may be a solution to the reform challenges teachers are experiencing as they seek to incorporate more inquiry-based activities.

  20. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Yoshio; Kamimura, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 2 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into four parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of categorical frameworks that are widely used to represent data types in computer science. This text then provides an algorithm for generating vertices of a smoothed polygonal line from the vertices of a digital curve or polygonal curve whose position contains a certain amount of error. O

  1. Making graduate research in science education more scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Harry

    2016-02-01

    It is expected that research conducted by graduate students in science education provide research findings which can be utilized as evidence based foundations for making decisions to improve science education practices in schools. However, lack of credibility of research become one of the factors cause idleness of thesis and dissertation in the context of education improvement. Credibility of a research is constructed by its scientificness. As a result, enhancement of scientific characters of graduate research needs to be done to close the gap between research and practice. A number of guiding principles underlie educational researchs as a scientific inquiry are explored and applied in this paper to identify common shortages of some thesis and dissertation manuscripts on science education reviewed in last two years.

  2. Scientific Collaboration and Coauthors in Life Science Journal Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-hsiu Fu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common to conduct collaborative research in science and technology. In particular, the development of big science, Internet, and globalization facilitated the scientific collaboration. This study used two databases, Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports as data sources. From the analysis of 320 papers in 16 journals in life sciences, the results showed that there is no significant correlation between the impact factor of journals and the number of authors. Moreover, there is no correlation of authors and the cited times, either. The number of authors and cited times in most papers are under 10 persons and 25 times, respectively.[Article content in Chinese

  3. The Scientific Theory Profile: A Philosophy of Science Model for Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Cathleen

    The model developed for use with science teachers--called the Scientific Theory Profile--consists of placing three well-known philosophers of science on a grid, with the x-axis being their methods for judging theories (rational vs. natural) and the y-axis being their views on scientific theories representing the Truth versus mere models of what…

  4. Open Access to Scientific Data: Promoting Science and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Hua Xu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the science and technology infrastructure platform of China, the Ministry of Science and Technology launched the Scientific Data Sharing Program in 2002. Twenty-four government agencies now participate in the Program. After five years of hard work, great progress has been achieved in the policy and legal framework, data standards, pilot projects, and international cooperation. By the end of 2005, one-third of the existing public-interest and basic scientific databases in China had been integrated and upgraded. By 2020, China is expected to build a more user-friendly scientific data management and sharing system, with 80 percent of scientific data available to the general public. In order to realize this objective, the emphases of the project are to perfect the policy and legislation system, improve the quality of data resources, expand and establish national scientific data centers, and strengthen international cooperation. It is believed that with the opening up of access to scientific data in China, the Program will play a bigger role in promoting science and national innovation.

  5. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Collaboration Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, H; Stoitsov, M; Nazarewicz, W; Hagen, G; Kortelainen, M; Pei, J C; Bulgac, A; Maris, P; Vary, J P; Roche, K J; Schunck, N; Thompson, I; Wild, S M

    2012-01-01

    The demands of cutting-edge science are driving the need for larger and faster computing resources. With the rapidly growing scale of computing systems and the prospect of technologically disruptive architectures to meet these needs, scientists face the challenge of effectively using complex computational resources to advance scientific discovery. Multi-disciplinary collaborating networks of researchers with diverse scientific backgrounds are needed to address these complex challenges. The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper describes UNEDF and identifies attributes that classify it as a successful computational collaboration. We illustrate significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integrative solutions using the most reliable theoretical approaches, most advanced algorithms, and leadership-class computational resources.

  6. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eFernandez-Moure

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Born out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies have all seen successes under this paradigm yet today it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increase, and financial support declines, clinician protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time and resource consuming translational research to focus on publication generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science have surged, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient.

  7. Performance evaluation of scientific programs on advanced architecture computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.W.; Messina, P.; Baille, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Recently a number of advanced architecture machines have become commercially available. These new machines promise better cost-performance then traditional computers, and some of them have the potential of competing with current supercomputers, such as the Cray X/MP, in terms of maximum performance. This paper describes an on-going project to evaluate a broad range of advanced architecture computers using a number of complete scientific application programs. The computers to be evaluated include distributed- memory machines such as the NCUBE, INTEL and Caltech/JPL hypercubes, and the MEIKO computing surface, shared-memory, bus architecture machines such as the Sequent Balance and the Alliant, very long instruction word machines such as the Multiflow Trace 7/200 computer, traditional supercomputers such as the Cray X.MP and Cray-2, and SIMD machines such as the Connection Machine. Currently 11 application codes from a number of scientific disciplines have been selected, although it is not intended to run all codes on all machines. Results are presented for two of the codes (QCD and missile tracking), and future work is proposed

  8. Methodological Advances in Bibliometric Mapping of Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBibliometric mapping of science is concerned with quantitative methods for visually representing scientific literature based on bibliographic data. Since the first pioneering efforts in the 1970s, a large number of methods and techniques for bibliometric mapping have been proposed and

  9. Popularizing Natural Sciences by Means of Scientific Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cápay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Science popularization is demanding from the financial as well as the time point of view. It is necessary to find the premises that would be easily available to general public. Another important step is to promote the event so that it would attract the audience. The preparation of scientific experiments itself also requires some financial resources. If we want to take advantage of these resources in the most useful and effective way, we have to find answers to the question: “What, where and how do we want to popularise?” In the paper, we describe one-day project aimed to popularization of scientific fields carried out by eight departments of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra. The project was named Scientific Fair – Science you can see, hear and experience. Its main goal was to present seven scientific fields - Physics, Informatics, Mathematics, Geography, Ecology, Chemistry and Biology. Popularization was carried out as experimental interactive activities unveiling the undisclosed corners of science. Their aim was to inspire the audience, arouse their interest in science and motivate the participants to cognitive activities. We introduce the idea of the project in detail concentrating mainly on informatics realized by the Department of Informatics.

  10. Advances in welding science - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Babu, S.S.; DebRoy, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes

  11. Innovation in Citizen Science – Perspectives on Science-Policy Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is growing as a field of research with contributions from diverse disciplines, promoting innovation in science, society, and policy. Inter- and transdisciplinary discussions and critical analyses are needed to use the current momentum to evaluate, demonstrate, and build on the advances that have been made in the past few years. This paper synthesizes results of discussions at the first international citizen science conference of the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA in 2016 in Berlin, Germany, and distills major points of the discourse into key recommendations. To enhance innovation in science, citizen science needs to clearly demonstrate its scientific benefit, branch out across disciplines, and foster active networking and new formats of collaboration, including true co-design with participants. For fostering policy advances, it is important to embrace opportunities for policy-relevant monitoring and policy development and to work with science funders to find adequate avenues and evaluation tools to support citizen science. From a society angle it is crucial to engage with societal actors in various formats that suit participants and to evaluate two-way learning outcomes as well as to develop the transformative role of science communication. We hope that these key perspectives will promote citizen science progress at the science-society-policy interface.

  12. National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization at UNAM - Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad; Varela, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) joined the family of Universities and Research Centers where advanced visualization and computing plays a key role to promote and advance missions in research, education, community outreach, as well as business-oriented consulting. This initiative provides access to a great variety of advanced hardware and software resources and offers a range of consulting services that spans a variety of areas related to scientific visualization, among which are: neuroanatomy, embryonic development, genome related studies, geosciences, geography, physics and mathematics related disciplines. The National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization delivers services through three main infrastructure environments: the 3D fully immersive display system Cave, the high resolution parallel visualization system Powerwall, the high resolution spherical displays Earth Simulator. The entire visualization infrastructure is interconnected to a high-performance-computing-cluster (HPCC) called ADA in honor to Ada Lovelace, considered to be the first computer programmer. The Cave is an extra large 3.6m wide room with projected images on the front, left and right, as well as floor walls. Specialized crystal eyes LCD-shutter glasses provide a strong stereo depth perception, and a variety of tracking devices allow software to track the position of a user's hand, head and wand. The Powerwall is designed to bring large amounts of complex data together through parallel computing for team interaction and collaboration. This system is composed by 24 (6x4) high-resolution ultra-thin (2 mm) bezel monitors connected to a high-performance GPU cluster. The Earth Simulator is a large (60") high-resolution spherical display used for global-scale data visualization like geophysical, meteorological, climate and ecology data. The HPCC-ADA, is a 1000+ computing core system, which offers parallel computing resources to applications that requires

  13. The socializing workshop and the scientific appraisal in pedagogical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos, Eneida Catalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of the authors' experiences as agents of the process of Ph. D. formative process in Pedagogical Sciences leads them to propose The Socialization Workshop, as a valid alternative for scientific valuation of pedagogical investigations, supported in the epistemic nature of this science, as well as the author’s previous contributions about epistemic communication. The definition of The Socialization Workshop, its rationale and corresponding methodological stages are presented.

  14. Scientific Literacy and Student Attitudes: Perspectives from PISA 2006 science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger; McCrae, Barry

    2011-01-01

    International assessments provide important knowledge about science education and help inform decisions about policies, programmes, and practices in participating countries. In 2006, science was the primary domain for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), supported by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). Compared to the school curriculum orientation of Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), PISA provides a perspective that emphasises the application of knowledge to science and technology-related life situations. The orientation of PISA includes both knowledge and attitudes as these contribute to students' competencies that are central to scientific literacy. In addition to students' knowledge and competencies, the 2006 PISA survey gathered data on students' interest in science, support for scientific enquiry, and responsibility towards resources and environments. The survey used both a non-contextualised student questionnaire and contextualised questions. The latter is an innovative approach which embedded attitudinal questions at the conclusion of about two-thirds of the test units. The results presented in this article make connections between students' attitudes and interests in science and scientific literacy.

  15. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  16. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  17. Advanced statistical methods in data science

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiahua; Lu, Xuewen; Yi, Grace; Yu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This book gathers invited presentations from the 2nd Symposium of the ICSA- CANADA Chapter held at the University of Calgary from August 4-6, 2015. The aim of this Symposium was to promote advanced statistical methods in big-data sciences and to allow researchers to exchange ideas on statistics and data science and to embraces the challenges and opportunities of statistics and data science in the modern world. It addresses diverse themes in advanced statistical analysis in big-data sciences, including methods for administrative data analysis, survival data analysis, missing data analysis, high-dimensional and genetic data analysis, longitudinal and functional data analysis, the design and analysis of studies with response-dependent and multi-phase designs, time series and robust statistics, statistical inference based on likelihood, empirical likelihood and estimating functions. The editorial group selected 14 high-quality presentations from this successful symposium and invited the presenters to prepare a fu...

  18. Cross-disciplinary Science and the Structure of Scientific Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    of science, focusing on the synchronic structure of scientific perspectives across disciplines and not on the diachronic, historical structure of shifting perspectives within single disciplines that has been widely discussed since Kuhn and Feyerabend. We show what kinds of cross-disciplinary disagreement...

  19. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hikita, Teruo; Kakuda, Hiroyasu

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the historical survey of programming languages for vector/parallel computers in Japan and describes compiling methods for supercomputers in Japan. This text then explains the model of a Japanese software factory, which is presented by the logical configuration that has been satisfied by

  20. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kakuda, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Yoshio

    1992-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 3 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into two parts encompassing 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the development of a system of writing tools called SUIKOU that analyzes a machine-readable Japanese document textually. This text then presents the conditioned attribute grammars (CAGs) and a system for evaluating them that can be applied to natural-language processing. Other chapters c

  1. Telling Lives in Science: Essays on Scientific Biography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Peter

    1997-09-01

    This collection of ten essays by historians of science, several of them biographers, is concerned with the role of scientific biography in forming conceptions of science and scientists. The essays include studies of the biographies of individual scientists, assessments of the aims and style of scientific portraits in different historical contexts, examinations of changing biographical interpretations of scientists, and much discussion of the methodological issues involved in the writing of scientific biographies. Many historians consider biography to be an ambiguous genre, its appeal based on nostalgia rather than history, with a focus on personality rather than historical context, but the biographer can reply that scientific biography reveals the practice of science at its most fundamental level. Indeed, scientific biography has provided a powerful medium in which public conceptions of science have been established. Einstein observed that 'the essential being of a man of my type lies in what he thinks and how he thinks', and his Autobiographical Notes suppress personality in favour of physics. But the biographer may see matters differently, and wish to integrate the public and the private life of the scientist. In their substantial introduction the editors discuss these and other problems, and the book is directed to the professional concerns of historians of science. While there is little here on the history of physics, Geoffrey Cantor's essay on public images of Faraday as constructed in popular biographies, a discussion of conflicting portraits of Faraday as romantic genius or hard-working slogger, may interest readers of this journal. (book review)

  2. Studying Students' Science Literacy: Non-Scientific Beliefs and Science Literacy Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have been conducting a study of university students' science literacy for the past 24 years. Based on the work of the National Science Board's ongoing national survey of the US public, we have administered the same survey to undergraduate science students at the University of Arizona almost every year since 1989. Results have shown relatively little change in students' overall science literacy, descriptions of science, and knowledge of basic science topics for almost a quarter of a century despite an increase in education interventions, the rise of the internet, and increased access to knowledge. Several trends do exist in students' science literacy and descriptions of science. Students who exhibit beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon (e.g., lucky numbers, creationism) consistently have lower science literacy scores and less correct descriptions of scientific phenomenon. Although not surprising, our results support ongoing efforts to help students generate evidence based thinking.

  3. Scientific production of Sports Science in Iran: A Scientometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminifirouz, Masoud

    2014-06-01

    Physical education and sports science is one of the branches of humanities. The purpose of this study is determining the quantitative and qualitative rate of progress in scientific Production of Iran's researcher in Web of Science. Research Methods is Scientometric survey and Statistical Society Includes 233 Documents From 1993 to 2012 are indexed in ISI. Results showed that the time of this study, Iranian researchers' published 233 documents in this base during this period of time which has been cited 1106(4.76 times on average). The H- index has also been 17. Iran's most scientific productions in sports science realm was indexed in 2010 with 57 documents and the least in 2000. By considering the numbers of citations and the obtained H- index, it can be said that the quality of Iranian's articles is rather acceptable but in comparison to prestigious universities and large number of professors and university students in this field, the quantity of outputted articles is very low.

  4. Legal and scientific scrutiny of forensic 'sciences' and 'experts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, H.O.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Traditional areas of forensic science, such as, handwriting and fingerprint examinations and the newer sciences such as molecular biology are increasingly being scrutinized and challenged by the legal and scientific communities. These older forensic disciplines are targets for critics and skeptics as they are not founded on the traditional sciences but have rather an empirical basis and are supported by what may be considered quasi-validated data. This paper discusses in broad terms the basis of these legal and scientific attitudes and the various solutions to overcoming these negative perceptions. Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976; German physicist) 'An Expert is someone who knows some of the worst mistakes that can be made in his subject and who manages to avoid them'. (author)

  5. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of advanced reactor concepts. This book discusses the advances in various areas of general applicability, including modern perturbation theory, optimal control theory, and industrial application of ionizing radiations.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the technology of sodium-cooled fast breeder power reactors and gas-cooled power reactors. This text then examines the key role of reactor safety in the development of fast breeder reactors. Other chapt

  6. Scientific capabilities of the advanced light source for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation light source and is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility. Currently, the ALS has approximately forty-five operational beamlines spanning a spectrum of scientific disciplines, and provides scientific opportunities for more than 2 000 users a year. Access to the resources of the ALS is through a competitive proposal mechanism within the general user program. Several ALS beamlines are currently being employed for a range of radioactive materials investigations. These experiments are reviewed individually relying on a graded hazard approach implemented by the ALS in conjunction with the LBNL Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH and S) Radiation Protection Program. The ALS provides radiological work authorization and radiological control technician support and assistance for accepted user experimental programs. LBNL has several radioactive laboratory facilities located near the ALS that provide support for ALS users performing experiments with radioactive materials. The capabilities of the ALS beamlines for investigating radioactive materials are given and examples of several past studies are summarised. (author)

  7. The importance of scientific papers publication: An approach to Animal Science Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno do Amaral Crispim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific production, among the various university activities, deserve outstanding importance because it is through them that the knowledge produced in the university is diffused and democratized to the community/society. Thus, information and/or alternatives for many problems solution are raised, discussed and put into practice within the university that are to be used as future basis for the integrated and sustainable development of a community or region. Scientific writing is also the mirror of teacher and student performance in the inseparable activities of teaching, research and extension, translating the institutional force of own production. Increasingly, academic institutions understand the importance of their scientific production. And to the same disclosure is necessary to practice the scientific writing, which enables academic growth, professional development and growing within a institution. The activities in research fulfill the basic function of the University, such as knowledge generating institution, to meet the everyday demands of the society. According to the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC in 2013, Brazil is responsible for 2,7% of world scientific output, but still occupies the 58th place among the most innovative countries in the world. Demonstrating that we must strive so we can achieve the best places in the world rankings for the production of knowledge and Science The scientific production in the field of Animal Science is of great importance for improvement in logistics, efficiency and quality of local animal production. Based on this, research related to the area provide meaningful informations to management and production, genetic characterization of native and exotic breeds, thereby contributing significantly to increase production efficiency to farmers. Therefore, scientific production within the academic environment is essential and the existence of efficient dissemination teams so that

  8. Advanced Methodologies for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, N. E.; Feigelson, E.; Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Most of NASA's commitment to computational space science involves the organization and processing of Big Data from space-based satellites, and the calculations of advanced physical models based on these datasets. But considerable thought is also needed on what computations are needed. The science questions addressed by space data are so diverse and complex that traditional analysis procedures are often inadequate. The knowledge and skills of the statistician, applied mathematician, and algorithmic computer scientist must be incorporated into programs that currently emphasize engineering and physical science. NASA's culture and administrative mechanisms take full cognizance that major advances in space science are driven by improvements in instrumentation. But it is less well recognized that new instruments and science questions give rise to new challenges in the treatment of satellite data after it is telemetered to the ground. These issues might be divided into two stages: data reduction through software pipelines developed within NASA mission centers; and science analysis that is performed by hundreds of space scientists dispersed through NASA, U.S. universities, and abroad. Both stages benefit from the latest statistical and computational methods; in some cases, the science result is completely inaccessible using traditional procedures. This paper will review the current state of NASA and present example applications using modern methodologies.

  9. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  10. Science and society: The benefits of scientific collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The guest speaker at the next Science and Society symposium is no stranger to CERN. He is, in fact, Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith, Director General of CERN from 1994 to 1998. His topic is one with which he is particularly familiar, having "lived" it throughout his time at CERN: international scientific collaboration and its advantages. International scientific collaboration is essential in a wide range of areas and for a large number of reasons: scientific problems have no frontiers; certain subjects are so complex that they require the expertise of numerous countries; certain types of research, such as that carried out at CERN, cannot be pursued by one nation on its own. However, scientific collaboration is not only beneficial to science itself. This is the point Chris Llewellyn Smith intends to demonstrate in his address. Scientific collaboration can help to build bridges between societies and act as a spur to the development of certain countries. It can even help to diminish conflicts in certain cases. The his...

  11. Advances and Challenges in Computational Plasma Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Chan, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically-confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper with illustrative examples chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and other topics. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology

  12. Trend Analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Production in Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRUCOLO, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of scientific information volume and diversity brings new challenges in order to understand the reasons, the process and the real essence that propel this growth. This information can be used as the basis for the development of strategies and public politics to improve the education and innovation services. Trend analysis is one of the steps in this way. In this work, trend analysis of Brazilian scientific production of graduate programs in the computer science area is made to identify the main subjects being studied by these programs in general and individual ways.

  13. Teaching Science in Light of World View: The Effect of Contextualized Instruction on the Scientific Compatibility of Religious College Students' World Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossard, Paula Rae

    2009-01-01

    Authors of recent science reform documents promote the goal of scientific literacy for all Americans (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989, 1993). Some students, however, feel apprehensive about learning science due to perceptions that science is antagonistic to their world views (Alters, 2005; Esbenshade, 1993). This study…

  14. Science and the media alternative routes in scientific communication

    CERN Document Server

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    1998-01-01

    In the days of global warming and BSE, science is increasingly a public issue. This book provides a theoretical framework which allows us to understand why and how scientists address the general public. The author develops the argument that turning to the public is not simply a response to inaccurate reporting by journalists or to public curiosity, nor a wish to gain recognition and additional funding. Rather, it is a tactic to which the scientific community are pushed by certain "internal" crisis situations. Bucchi examines three cases of scientists turning to the public: the cold fusion case, the COBE/Big Bang issue and Louis Pasteur's public demonstration of the anthrax vaccine, a historical case of "public science." Finally, Bucchi presents his unique model of communications between science and the public, carried out through the media. This is a thoughtful and wide-ranging treatment of complex contemporary issues, touching upon the history and sociology of science, communication and media studies. Bucchi...

  15. FINANCING OF SCIENCE ADVANCEMENT IN UKRAINE: EXISTENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR SOLUTIONFINANCING OF SCIENCE ADVANCEMENT IN UKRAINE: EXISTENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bogolib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Science plays an important role of development of national economies of developed countries. Postindustrial society, society of knowledge is a society where scientific discoveries, scientific research results ensure economic growth, economic stability, economic exuberance. In such a society not goods, not movable and real property and not natural resources, including power, put together the main society wealth, but scientific discoveries, new knowledge. Countries, which gain primary income from scientific discoveries and high technologies, are prosperous in the modern world. The purpose of study. A solution of science problems in the modern world should become an important direction of a state’s attention to providing national security. Weakening of academic and technological as well as technological potential of the country, research reduction, mass closure of research institutes and centres, several-ford reduction in the volume of funding of science, outflow of specialists and intellectual property abroad for the last three years menace Ukraine with a loss of advanced positions in the world, degradation of knowledge-intensive industries, strengthening of external technological dependence and undermining of its defensive capacity. Such a situation predetermined the topic of our research, its main purpose – identification of problems of science financing and determination of ways to solve them. Research methods. When writing the article, a set of methods and approaches was used that allowed realizing a conceptual unity of the research. Dialectical, system, structural methods are used for the analysis of financing of the science advancement in Ukraine, existent problems of the science financing are generalized with the help of comparative and factorial methods; ways for improving financing of the science advancement are determined by using methods of scientific abstraction, synthesis, functional analysis. The results of the study. In Ukraine

  16. This view of science: Stephen Jay Gould as historian of science and scientific historian, popular scientist and scientific popularizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Michael B

    2002-08-01

    Science historian Ronald Numbers once remarked that the two most influential historians of science of the 20th century were Thomas Kuhn and Stephen Jay Gould. All historians are deeply familiar with Kuhn's work and influence, and most know of the remarkable impact Gould has had on evolutionary theory through both his professional and popular works. But little attention has been paid to the depth, scope, and importance of Gould's rôle as historian and philosopher of science, and his use of popular science exposition to reinforce old knowledge and generate new. This paper presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of their subject matter (Evolutionary Theory, History and Philosophy of Science, Natural History, Paleontology/Geology, Social Science/Commentary), and thematic dichotomies (Theory-Data, Time's Arrow-Time's Cycle, Adaptationism- Nonadaptationalism, Punctuationism-Gradualism, Contingency-Necessity). Special emphasis is placed on the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary theory (and vice versa), and how his philosophy of science has influenced both his evolutionary theory and his historiography. That philosophy can best be summed up in a quotation from Charles Darwin, frequently cited by Gould: 'All observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service'. Gould followed Darwin's advice throughout his career, including his extensive writings on the history and philosophy of science.

  17. The advanced test reactor national scientific user facility advancing nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.R.; Thelen, M.C.; Meyer, M.K.; Marshall, F.M.; Foster, J.; Benson, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  18. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.R.; Benson, J.B.; Foster, J.A.; Marshall, F.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Thelen, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  19. Supporting Scientific Research with the Energy Sciences Network

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet  helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...

  20. Team Structure and Scientific Impact of "Big Science" Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn; Jeppesen, Jacob

    This paper summarizes preliminary results from a project studying how the organizational and cognitive features of research carried out in a Large Scale Research Facility (LSRF) affect scientific impact. The study is based on exhaustive bibliometric mapping of the scientific publications...... of the Neutron Science Department of Oak Ridge National Laboratories in 2006-2009. Given the collaborative nature of research carried out at LSRFs, it is important to understand how its organization affects scientific impact. Diversity of teams along the institutional and cognitive dimensions affects both...... opportunities for combination of knowledge and coordination costs. The way specific collaborative configurations strike this trade-offs between these opportunities and costs have notable effects on research performance. The findings of the paper show that i.) scientists combining affiliations to both...

  1. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vershigora Valery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE groupallatra-science.org, last accessed 10 April 2016., offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  2. Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project: Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeff; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rosea; Holecamp, Kara; Owen, Carolyn; Nicholson, Lamar; Dartez, Deanna

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project's verification,and validation process. The topics include: 1) What is Verification and Validation? 2) Why Verification and Validation? 3) Background; 4) ESE Data Purchas Validation Process; 5) Data Validation System and Ingest Queue; 6) Shipment Verification; 7) Tracking and Metrics; 8) Validation of Contract Specifications; 9) Earth Watch Data Validation; 10) Validation of Vertical Accuracy; and 11) Results of Vertical Accuracy Assessment.

  3. [Internationalism and science. Social and scientific bases of the European information science movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olague de Ros, G; Menendez Navarro, A; Medina Domenech, R M; Astrain Gallart, M

    1997-01-01

    As part of a continuing line of research on scientific documentation we propose in this article a novel approach to the study of the European information science movement at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. We suggest that this movement took place within the context of increasing internationalism of scientific endeavours, a process which was paralleled by the standardization of units, weight and measures for the different sciences. We investigate problems arising from scientific communication in connection with other aspects apparently unrelated to Information Science. Specifically, we refer to conflicts between nationalism and colonialism; concordance and discord between science policy and the corporate interests of nonscientific associations; higher educational policy; the professionalization of sciences; and the economic interests at stake as a consequence of the use of different information models.

  4. Field Science--the Nature and Utility of Scientific Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2015-09-08

    Fields are the fundamental sociological units of science. Despite their importance, relatively little has been written about their emergence, composition, structure, and function in the scientific enterprise. This essay considers the nature of fields and their important role in maintaining information and providing normative standards for scientific work. We suggest that fields arise naturally as a consequence of increasing information and scientific specialization. New fields tend to emerge as research communities grow, which may reflect biologically determined optima for the size of human groups. The benefits of fields include the organization of scientists with similar interests into communities that collectively define the next important problems to pursue. In the discipline of microbiology, fields are often organized on the basis of phylogenetic differences between microorganisms being studied. Although fields are essential to the proper functioning of science, their emergence can restrict access by outsiders and sustain dogmas that hinder progress. We suggest mechanisms to improve the functioning of scientific fields and to promote interdisciplinary interaction between fields. Copyright © 2015 Casadevall and Fang.

  5. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1970-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 5 presents the underlying principles and theory, as well as the practical applications of the advances in the nuclear field. This book reviews the specialized applications to such fields as space propulsion.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the design and objective of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide fast flux irradiation testing facilities. This text then examines the problem in the design of nuclear reactors, which is the analysis of the spatial and temporal behavior of the neutron and temperature dist

  6. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 3 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book presents the advances in the atomic energy field.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the use of pulsed neutron sources for the determination of the thermalization and diffusion properties of moderating as well as multiplying media. This text then examines the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic circuitry and its components. Other chapters consider radiation effects in various inorganic solids, with empha

  7. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 9 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the possible consequences of a large-scale release of radioactivity from a nuclear reactor in the event of a serious accident. This text then discusses the extension of conventional perturbation techniques to multidimensional systems and to high-order approximations of the Boltzmann equation.

  8. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 7 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of irradiation-induced void swelling in austenitic stainless steels. This text then examines the importance of various transport processes for fission product redistribution, which depends on the diffusion data, the vaporization properties, and the solubility in the fuel matrix. Other chapters co

  9. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 6 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear steam generator, oscillations, fast reactor fuel, gas centrifuge, thermal transport system, and fuel cycle.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the high standards of technical safety for Europe's first nuclear-propelled merchant ship. This text then examines the state of knowledge concerning qualitative results on the behavior of the solutions of the nonlinear poin

  10. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Subcommittee (ASCAC) Report: Top Ten Exascale Research Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert [University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute; Ang, James [Sandia National Laboratories; Bergman, Keren [Columbia University; Borkar, Shekhar [Intel; Carlson, William [Institute for Defense Analyses; Carrington, Laura [University of California, San Diego; Chiu, George [IBM; Colwell, Robert [DARPA; Dally, William [NVIDIA; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Geist, Al [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Haring, Rud [IBM; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Hoisie, Adolfy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Klein, Dean Micron; Kogge, Peter [University of Notre Dame; Lethin, Richard [Reservoir Labs; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Schreiber, Robert [Hewlett Packard; Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sterling, Thomas [Indiana University; Stevens, Rick [Argonne National Laboratory; Bashor, Jon [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Brightwell, Ron [Sandia National Laboratories; Coteus, Paul [IBM; Debenedictus, Erik [Sandia National Laboratories; Hiller, Jon [Science and Technology Associates; Kim, K. H. [IBM; Langston, Harper [Reservoir Labs; Murphy, Richard Micron; Webster, Clayton [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Wild, Stefan [Argonne National Laboratory; Grider, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Rob [Argonne National Laboratory; Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory; Laros III, James [Sandia National Laboratories

    2014-02-10

    Exascale computing systems are essential for the scientific fields that will transform the 21st century global economy, including energy, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and materials science. Progress in these fields is predicated on the ability to perform advanced scientific and engineering simulations, and analyze the deluge of data. On July 29, 2013, ASCAC was charged by Patricia Dehmer, the Acting Director of the Office of Science, to assemble a subcommittee to provide advice on exascale computing. This subcommittee was directed to return a list of no more than ten technical approaches (hardware and software) that will enable the development of a system that achieves the Department's goals for exascale computing. Numerous reports over the past few years have documented the technical challenges and the non¬-viability of simply scaling existing computer designs to reach exascale. The technical challenges revolve around energy consumption, memory performance, resilience, extreme concurrency, and big data. Drawing from these reports and more recent experience, this ASCAC subcommittee has identified the top ten computing technology advancements that are critical to making a capable, economically viable, exascale system.

  11. Scientific Productivity of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Vatankhah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays the scientific research outputs indexed in international databases are used in the bibliometric rankings of researchers, departments and universities. Measuring the impact and value of scientific publications is used by policy makers to distribute the research funds in way that support high quality research projects. Materials and Methods: In this scientometric study, SCOPUS citation database was used to evaluate the scientific research productivity of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZAUMS over the period of 1976-2011. We retrieved the number of publications and citations of researchers, academic groups, and university and calculated their h-index scores. The affiliation varieties were used by researchers to address the university and different spellings of authors names were determind.Results: The results showed that scientific productivity of ZAUMS has been improved so that it’s h-index increased from 1 in 2000 to 19 over the period of the study.Conclusion: Total number of 504 publications were indexed in SCOPUS in the forms of original article, review article, conference paper, letter, editorial, and note. Most of the publications were in the form of research article (91.2%. There was a significant coorelation between the number of publications, citation rates and h-index scores. Departments of biochemistry and infectious disease ranked first on the basis of producing the most scientific output of the university.

  12. Writing poetry through the eyes of science a teacher's guide to scientific literacy and poetic response

    CERN Document Server

    Gorrell, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Writing Poetry Through the Eyes of Science: A Teacher's Guide to Scientific Literacy and Poetic Response presents a unique and effective interdisciplinary approach to teaching science poems and science poetry writing in secondary English and science classrooms.

  13. Reflective scientific sense-making dialogue in two languages: The science in the dialogue and the dialogue in the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Doris

    2004-11-01

    In this paper I focus on the transition from everyday to scientific ways of reasoning, and on the intertwined roles of meaning-making dialogue and science content as they contribute to scientific literacy. I refer to views of science, and how scientific understanding is advanced dialogically, by Hurd (Science Education, 1998, 82, 402-416), Brown (The Journal of Learning Sciences, 1992, 2(2), 141-178), Bruner (Acts of Meaning, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), Roth (In J. Brophy (Ed.), Social Constructivist Teaching: Affordances and Constraints (Advances in Research on Teaching Series, Vol. 9), New York: Elsevier/JAI, 2003), and Wells (Dialogic Inquiry: Towards a Sociocultural Practice and Theory of Education, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999). I argue that family collaborative dialogues in nonschool settings can be the foundations for scientific ways of thinking. I focus on the particular reflective family dialogues at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, when family members remembered and synthesized essential biological themes, centering on adaptation, from one visit to the next, in both Spanish and English. My approach is informed by sociocultural theory, with emphasis on the negotiations of meaning in the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978), as learners engage in joint productive activity (Tharp & Gallimore, Rousing Minds to Life: Teaching, Learning and Schooling in Social Context, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988). Over the past decades, researchers have discovered that observing social activity, conversation, and meaning-making in informal settings (Crowley & Callanan, 1997; Guberman, 2002; Rogoff, 2001; Vasquez, Pease-Alvarez, & Shannon, Pushing Boundaries: Language and Culture in a Mexicano Community, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994) has much to teach us regarding learning in general. To date there has been little research with Spanish-speaking families in informal learning settings and virtually none that

  14. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Evans, Katherine J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caldwell, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Charles [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Kerstin, Van Dam [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Daniel F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ostrouchov, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tuminaro, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Paul [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Wild, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report presents results from the DOE-sponsored workshop titled, ``Advancing X-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science Workshop,'' known as AXICCS, held on September 12--13, 2016 in Rockville, MD. The workshop brought together experts in climate science, computational climate science, computer science, and mathematics to discuss interesting but unsolved science questions regarding climate modeling and simulation, promoted collaboration among the diverse scientists in attendance, and brainstormed about possible tools and capabilities that could be developed to help address them. Emerged from discussions at the workshop were several research opportunities that the group felt could advance climate science significantly. These include (1) process-resolving models to provide insight into important processes and features of interest and inform the development of advanced physical parameterizations, (2) a community effort to develop and provide integrated model credibility, (3) including, organizing, and managing increasingly connected model components that increase model fidelity yet complexity, and (4) treating Earth system models as one interconnected organism without numerical or data based boundaries that limit interactions. The group also identified several cross-cutting advances in mathematics, computer science, and computational science that would be needed to enable one or more of these big ideas. It is critical to address the need for organized, verified, and optimized software, which enables the models to grow and continue to provide solutions in which the community can have confidence. Effectively utilizing the newest computer hardware enables simulation efficiency and the ability to handle output from increasingly complex and detailed models. This will be accomplished through hierarchical multiscale algorithms in tandem with new strategies for data handling, analysis, and storage. These big ideas and cross-cutting technologies for

  15. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, E.; Evans, K.; Caldwell, P.; Hoffman, F.; Jackson, C.; Van Dam, K.; Leung, R.; Martin, D.; Ostrouchov, G.; Tuminaro, R.; Ullrich, P.; Wild, S.; Williams, S.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents results from the DOE-sponsored workshop titled, Advancing X-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science Workshop,'' known as AXICCS, held on September 12--13, 2016 in Rockville, MD. The workshop brought together experts in climate science, computational climate science, computer science, and mathematics to discuss interesting but unsolved science questions regarding climate modeling and simulation, promoted collaboration among the diverse scientists in attendance, and brainstormed about possible tools and capabilities that could be developed to help address them. Emerged from discussions at the workshop were several research opportunities that the group felt could advance climate science significantly. These include (1) process-resolving models to provide insight into important processes and features of interest and inform the development of advanced physical parameterizations, (2) a community effort to develop and provide integrated model credibility, (3) including, organizing, and managing increasingly connected model components that increase model fidelity yet complexity, and (4) treating Earth system models as one interconnected organism without numerical or data based boundaries that limit interactions. The group also identified several cross-cutting advances in mathematics, computer science, and computational science that would be needed to enable one or more of these big ideas. It is critical to address the need for organized, verified, and optimized software, which enables the models to grow and continue to provide solutions in which the community can have confidence. Effectively utilizing the newest computer hardware enables simulation efficiency and the ability to handle output from increasingly complex and detailed models. This will be accomplished through hierarchical multiscale algorithms in tandem with new strategies for data handling, analysis, and storage. These big ideas and cross-cutting technologies for enabling

  16. Red Science: China's Scientific Capital and the Future of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Salazar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS produces the scientific and technological breakthroughs that place China among the major players in scientific innovation. However, the control that the Chinese government exerts over the Academy and the tradition of guanxi among its members prevent the CAS from take-off and securing a free environment to conduct original research. The article assesses the economic logic of scientific control and its effects within the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The paper’s aim is to derive to what extent the CAS will remain as China’s main provider of scientific innovation. The “national innovation systems” approach and the cultural traditions rooted in Confucianism are revised in detail to provide an accurate perspective. The paper concludes that the CAS’ international reputation as a center of scientific and technological innovation might be at stake unless the Chinese government makes some critical reforms.

  17. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  18. Zebrafish in Brazilian Science: Scientific Production, Impact, and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheno, Ediane Maria; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Calabró, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    By means of scientometric indicators, this study investigated the characteristics of scientific production and research collaboration involving zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Brazilian Science indexed by the Web of Science (WoS). Citation data were collected from the WoS and data regarding Impact Factor (IF) were gathered from journals in the Journal Citation Reports. Collaboration was evaluated according to coauthorship data, creating representative nets with VOSviewer. Zebrafish has attained remarkable importance as an experimental model organism in recent years and an increase in scientific production with zebrafish is observed in Brazil and around the world. The citation impact of the worldwide scientific production is superior when compared to the Brazilian scientific production. However, the citation impact of the Brazilian scientific production is consistently increasing. Brazil does not follow the international trends with regard to publication research fields. The state of Rio Grande do Sul has the greatest number of articles and the institution with the largest number of publications is Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Journals' average IF is higher in Brazilian publications with international coauthorship, and around 90% of articles are collaborative. The Brazilian institutions presenting the greatest number of collaborations are Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rio Grande, and Universidade de São Paulo. These data indicate that Brazilian research using zebrafish presents a growth in terms of number of publications, citation impact, and collaborative work.

  19. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  1. Advances in Meteoroid and Meteor Science

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M; Llorca, J; Janches, D

    2008-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of articles that summarize the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid and related fields presented at the Meteoroids 2007 conference held at the impressive CosmoCaixa Science Museum in Barcelona, Spain. The conference took place between the 11th and the 15th of June and was organized by the Institute of Space Sciences (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) and the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC). Researchers in meteor science and supporting fields representing more than 20 countries participated at this international conference. The papers contained in this volume underwent the rigorous refereeing process, and they are good examples of the continuous progress being made in this research field. Technological advances in meteor and metoroid detection, the ever-increasing sophistication of computer modeling, and the proliferation of autonomous monitoring stations continue to create new niches for exciting research on meteoroids and their parent bo...

  2. Advanced I/O for large-scale scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasky, Scott; Schwan, Karsten; Oldfield, Ron A.; Lofstead, Gerald F. II

    2010-01-01

    As scientific simulations scale to use petascale machines and beyond, the data volumes generated pose a dual problem. First, with increasing machine sizes, the careful tuning of IO routines becomes more and more important to keep the time spent in IO acceptable. It is not uncommon, for instance, to have 20% of an application's runtime spent performing IO in a 'tuned' system. Careful management of the IO routines can move that to 5% or even less in some cases. Second, the data volumes are so large, on the order of 10s to 100s of TB, that trying to discover the scientifically valid contributions requires assistance at runtime to both organize and annotate the data. Waiting for offline processing is not feasible due both to the impact on the IO system and the time required. To reduce this load and improve the ability of scientists to use the large amounts of data being produced, new techniques for data management are required. First, there is a need for techniques for efficient movement of data from the compute space to storage. These techniques should understand the underlying system infrastructure and adapt to changing system conditions. Technologies include aggregation networks, data staging nodes for a closer parity to the IO subsystem, and autonomic IO routines that can detect system bottlenecks and choose different approaches, such as splitting the output into multiple targets, staggering output processes. Such methods must be end-to-end, meaning that even with properly managed asynchronous techniques, it is still essential to properly manage the later synchronous interaction with the storage system to maintain acceptable performance. Second, for the data being generated, annotations and other metadata must be incorporated to help the scientist understand output data for the simulation run as a whole, to select data and data features without concern for what files or other storage technologies were employed. All of these features should be attained while

  3. Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Neff, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Over its more than thirty-year history, the Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (ATI) program within the Division of Astronomical Sciences has provided grants to support the development and deployment of detectors and instrumentation for ground-based astronomy. This program has enabled scientific advances in diverse fields from solar physics to exoplanets to cosmology. ATI has provided instrumentation for both small and large observatories from radio through visible wavebands. It has played a role in the early development of major initiatives such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Technology development for astronomy unfolds over a longer period than the lifetime of a single grant. This review will consider ATI from an historical perspective to assess its impact on astronomy.

  4. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge via Critical Thinking: A Philosophical Approach to Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap between the facts learned in a science course and the higher-cognitive skills of analysis and evaluation necessary for students to secure scientific knowledge and scientific habits of mind. Teaching science is not just about how we do science (i.e., focusing on just "accumulating undigested facts and scientific definitions and…

  5. Molecular Science Computing Facility Scientific Challenges: Linking Across Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the evolving science drivers for performing environmental molecular research at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and to provide guidance associated with the next-generation high-performance computing center that must be developed at EMSL's Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in order to address this critical research. The MSCF is the pre-eminent computing facility?supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER)?tailored to provide the fastest time-to-solution for current computational challenges in chemistry and biology, as well as providing the means for broad research in the molecular and environmental sciences. The MSCF provides integral resources and expertise to emerging EMSL Scientific Grand Challenges and Collaborative Access Teams that are designed to leverage the multiple integrated research capabilities of EMSL, thereby creating a synergy between computation and experiment to address environmental molecular science challenges critical to DOE and the nation.

  6. Reading for tracing evidence: developing scientific knowledge through science text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probosari, R. M.; Widyastuti, F.; Sajidan, S.; Suranto, S.; Prayitno, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate students’ learning progression on reading activity, science concept comprehension and how they imply it in scientific communication in the classroom. Fifty-nine biology education students participated in this study. This classroom research was developed to portray students’ reading activity, factors affecting reading comprehension, and the development of reading motivation. Qualitative analysis was used to describe the whole activities, involve the instruction, process and the product of reading activity. The result concluded that each student has their own way in interpreting the information from scientific text, but generally, they can filter and apply it in their argument as a part of reasoning and evidence. The findings can be used to direct reading activity to the goal of inquiry in order to support the nature of reading as evidence.

  7. Demystifying Scientific Data ­ Using Earth Science to Teach the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiff, P. J.; Santos, E. A.; Erickson, P. J.; Niell, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    The collection of large quantities of data and their subsequent analyses are important components of any scientific process, particularly at research institutes such as MIT's Haystack Observatory, where the collection and analyses of data is crucial to research efforts. Likewise, a recent study on science education concluded that students should be introduced to analyzing evidence and hypotheses, to critical thinking - including appropriate skepticism, to quantitative reasoning and the ability to make reasonable estimates, and to the role of uncertainty and error in science. In order to achieve this goal with grades 9-12 students and their instructors, we developed lesson plans and activities based on atmospheric science and geodetic research at Haystack Observatory. From the complex steps of experimental design, measurement, and data analysis, students and teachers will gain insight into the scientific research processes as they exist today. The use of these space weather and geodesy activities in classrooms will be discussed. Space Weather: After decades of data collection with multiple variables, space weather is about as complex an area of investigation as possible. Far from the passive relationship between the Sun and Earth often taught in the early grades, or the beautiful auroras discussed in high school, there are complex and powerful interactions between the Sun and Earth. In spite of these complexities, high school students can learn about space weather and the repercussions on our communication and power technologies. Starting from lessons on the basic method of observing space weather with incoherent scatter radar, and progressing to the use of simplified data sets, students will discover how space weather affects Earth over solar cycles and how severe solar activity is measured and affects the Earth over shorter time spans. They will see that even from complex, seemingly ambiguous data with many variables and unknowns, scientists can gain valuable

  8. How Historical Experiments Can Improve Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: The Cases of Boiling Water and Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2011-01-01

    I advance some novel arguments for the use of historical experiments in science education. After distinguishing three different types of historical experiments and their general purposes, I define "complementary experiments", which can recover lost scientific knowledge and extend what has been recovered. Complementary experiments can help science…

  9. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  10. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1975-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 8 discusses the development of nuclear power in several countries throughout the world. This book discusses the world's largest program of land-based electricity production in the United States.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the phenomenon of quasi-exponential behavior by examining two mathematical models of the neutron field. This text then discusses the finite element method, which is a method for obtaining approximate solutions to integral or differential equations. Other chapters consider the status of

  11. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear power stations, graft polymerization, diffusion in uranium alloys, and conventional power plants.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the three stages of the operation of a power plant, either nuclear or conventionally fueled. This text then examines the major problems that face the successful development of commercial nuclear power plants. Other chapters consider

  12. Scientific conference at the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybakova, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Review of reports at the scientific conference of the department of biomedical sciences of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, held in April, 1997, on the topic of Novel techniques in biomedical studied. Attention was paid to the creation and uses of rapid diagnosis instruments in micro devices, to the development of electron-photon, immuno enzyme and radionuclide techniques and their realization in automatic special equipment. Delay of native industry in creation of scientific-capacious highly efficient products, especially in the field of radiodiagnosis and instruments for laboratory studies was marked

  13. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. STATE INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTIVITY OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Karacic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available State investment in service activities of the public sector, as well as the financial returns analyzed from the aspect of service effectiveness and utilization of public goods, can be considered as one of the most significant dilemmas, especially in the field of education. When analyzing state investments, through investment in education and development of the university, we can conclude that state investments in scientific productivity of universities fall into one of the main future frameworks of measurability of universities efficiency. This criterion cannot be taken as the most important since universities are fundamentally divided into teaching and research activities. However, the concept of determination of the productivity of universities, from the aspect of the scientific activities of the teaching staff, has an increasingly important role due to the specified global criteria and conditions for career advancement of the teaching staff and positioning of the university in the education market. This paper intends to give the overview of the current situation of universities in Croatia, as well as the trends that would point out state role in financing of universities and indicate coherent criteria regarding the financing of scientific productivity of teaching stuff.

  15. (Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James P

    2016-09-01

    On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  16. Nuclear science and society: social inclusion through scientific education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Denise S.

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a web-based educational project focused on the potential value of Information and Communication Technology to enhance communication and education on nuclear science throughout Brazil. The project is designed to provide trustworthy information about the beneficial uses of nuclear technology, educating children and teenagers, as well as their parents and teachers, demystifying paradigms and combating misinformation. Making use of a range of interactive activities, the website presents short courses and curiosities, with different themes that comprise the several aspects of the beneficial applications of nuclear science. The intention of the many interactive activities is to encourage research and to enhance learning opportunities through a self-learning universe where the target public is introduced to the basic concepts of nuclear physics, such as nuclides and isotopes, atomic interactions, radioactive decay, biological effects of radiation, nuclear fusion, nuclear fission, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, radioactive dating methods and natural occurring radiation, among other ideas and concepts in nuclear physics. Democratization of scientific education can inspire new thoughts, stimulate development and encourage scientific and technological researches.

  17. Scientific Management as part of the curriculum of Pedagogical Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Margarita López Ruiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Psychology and Pedagogy carer is developed in pedagogical sciences Cuban universities and the plan of the teaching learning process is organized on disciplines, subjects and activities from the working practice are distributed during the five years of the career which guarantee the fulfilment of the objectives in the professional qualification degree. Scientific educational management is included as part of the curriculum of this specialty in Pedagogical Universities. Scientific educational management has a great importance in the existence of state who is worried for the preparation and training of pedagogical specialists to whom ethics becomes a daily practice in their jobs in a society in which the formation and development of Cuban citizens is carried out by social programs encouraged by the government. The growing of this specialist is supported on the existence of a government that is interested on teaching, innovate and develop human beings by means of putting into practice social and cultural activities. The main goal of this article is to exemplify how to organize the contents of scientific educational management and the way of planning the teaching learning process to better future Cuban teacher trainers and managers.

  18. Aims of advanced photon science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Research Center (APRC) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is pursing the research and development of advanced photon sources such as a compact, ultra-short, high intensity laser, x-ray laser, and a superconducting linac-based free electron laser (FEL) and their applications. These compact and high-intensity lasers have various capabilities of producing radiations with distinguishing characteristics of ultra-short pulse, high coherence, etc. Hence, they can provide novel means of research in the field of nuclear energy applications and industrial and medical technologies. It is important for us to promote these researches on these high-intensity laser applications comprehensively and effectively under the collaborations with nationwide universities and industry. From this point of view it is expected that the APRC plays a role as a COE for these researches. Through these research activities for development of high-intensity lasers and their applications, we will develop ''photon science and technology'' as a leading key technology in the 21st century and contribute the development of science and technology including nuclear energy technology and production of new industries. (author)

  19. The methodological foundations of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in the field of physical education and sports and related sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of scientific knowledge in physical education and sport in contiguous scientific directions are considered. The advanced studies of leading specialists in area of physical education and sport are analysed. It is rotined that on the modern stage scientific developments in area of physical education and sport attained a level, when can be utillized in fundamental and applied sciences. Scientific researches in area of physical education and sport to the application scientific areas, such as pedagogics, psychology, design, programming et al are related. One of examples of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in area of physical education and sport there is theoretical conception of individualization of preparation of sportsmen.

  20. WHY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF A LECTURER IS THE «LAME HORSE» OF MODERN SCIENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Belyaeva

    2015-01-01

    postnonclassical – individualized, wherein the subject possesses own way of thinking, own language; as it allows to create new knowledge. However, occurrence of such researcher is complicated by many obstacles. The author introduces the concept of «scientific logistics», i.e. scientific advancement of research results in virtual and real-life spaces in order to gain a dividend in material or symbolic form. When scientific logistics from a subsidiary position is moved to the center of academic life «logistics turn point» in science occurs. The meaning of learning is changing. Now it is more about search of potential consumers of the information then search of the truth. Scientific logistics measured in scientometric quantitative indexes and in their income as a calculated direct commercial effect performs the image function for a research, providing improved individual and corporate status. At the same time, these changes can turn into the veiled substitution of true scientific creativity, its transformation into formal manufacture of «a pseudoscientific spam». Practical significance. The research implementations can be useful for conceptual foresight of possible ways of improving scientific research at university, including possibility of making a new working agreement – «and effective contract», grounding its alleged advantages and objective limits on the way of increasing efforts and productivity of scientific research.

  1. A science confidence gap: Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Peter; de Koster, Willem; van der Waal, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    Following up on suggestions that attitudes toward science are multi-dimensional, we analyze nationally representative survey data collected in the United States in 2014 ( N = 2006), and demonstrate the existence of a science confidence gap: some people place great trust in scientific methods and principles, but simultaneously distrust scientific institutions. This science confidence gap is strongly associated with level of education: it is larger among the less educated than among the more educated. We investigate explanations for these educational differences. Whereas hypotheses deduced from reflexive-modernization theory do not pass the test, those derived from theorizing on the role of anomie are corroborated. The less educated are more anomic (they have more modernity-induced cultural discontents), which not only underlies their distrust in scientific institutions, but also fuels their trust in scientific methods and principles. This explains why this science confidence gap is most pronounced among the less educated.

  2. Recent Advances in Hyporheic Zone Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone exists beneath and adjacent to streams and rivers where surface water and groundwater interact. It provides unique habitat for aquatic organisms, can buffer surface water temperatures, and can be highly reactive, processing nutrients and improving water quality. The hyporheic zone is the subject of considerable research and the past year in WRR witnessed important conceptual advances. A key focus was rigorous evaluation of mixing between surface water and groundwater that occurs within hyporheic sediments. Field observations indicate that greater mixing occurs in the hyporheic zone than in deeper groundwater, and this distinction has been explored by recent numerical modeling studies, but more research is needed to fully understand the causes. A commentary this year in WRR proposed that hyporheic mixing is enhanced by a combination of fluctuating boundary conditions and multiscale physical and chemical spatial heterogeneity but confirmation is left to future research. This year also witnessed the boundaries of knowledge pushed back in a number of other key areas. Field quantification of hyporheic exchange and reactions benefited from advances including the use and interpretation of high frequency nutrient sensors, actively heater fiber optic sensors, isotope tracers, and geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity imaging. Conceptual advances were made in understanding the effects of unsteady environmental conditions (e.g., tides and storms) and preferential flow on hyporheic processes. Finally, hyporheic science is being brought increasingly to bear on applied issues such as informing nutrient removal crediting for stream restoration practices, for example in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  3. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Hobbs, David T.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.; Mcilwain, Michael; Moyer, Bruce A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Subramanian, K.; Vienna, John D.; Wilmarth, B.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as contracting strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term, specific clean-up goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research focused on the full cleanup life-cycle offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing (1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, (2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, (3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, (4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes.

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Science: A Dialectic of Scientific Fame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Gregory J

    2016-11-01

    In this article, I argue that scientific fame and impact exists on a continuum from the mundane to the transformative/revolutionary. Ideally, one achieves fame and impact in science by synthesizing two extreme career prototypes: intrinsic and extrinsic research. The former is guided by interest, curiosity, passion, gut, and intuition for important untapped topics. The latter is guided by money, grants, and/or what is being published in top-tier journals. Assessment of fame and impact in science ultimately rests on productivity (publication) and some variation of its impact (citations). In addition to those traditional measures of impact, there are some relatively new metrics (e.g., the h index and altmetrics). If psychology is to achieve consensual cumulative progress and better rates of replication, I propose that upcoming psychologists would do well to understand that success is not equal to fame and that individual career success is not necessarily the same as disciplinary success. Finally, if one is to have a successful and perhaps even famous career in psychological science, a good strategy would be to synthesize intrinsic and extrinsic motives for one's research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Computer simulation, rhetoric, and the scientific imagination how virtual evidence shapes science in the making and in the news

    CERN Document Server

    Roundtree, Aimee Kendall

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations help advance climatology, astrophysics, and other scientific disciplines. They are also at the crux of several high-profile cases of science in the news. How do simulation scientists, with little or no direct observations, make decisions about what to represent? What is the nature of simulated evidence, and how do we evaluate its strength? Aimee Kendall Roundtree suggests answers in Computer Simulation, Rhetoric, and the Scientific Imagination. She interprets simulations in the sciences by uncovering the argumentative strategies that underpin the production and disseminati

  6. Accelerating Science to Action: NGOs Catalyzing Scientific Research using Philanthropic/Corporate Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2017-12-01

    While government funding of scientific research has been the bedrock of scientific advances in the US, it is seldom quick or directly responsive to societal needs. If we are to effectively respond to the increasingly urgent needs for new science to address the environmental and social challenges faced by humanity and the environment we need to deploy new scientific models to augment government-centric approaches. The Environmental Defense Fund has developed an approach that accelerates the development and uptake of new science in pursuit of science-based policy to fill the gap while government research efforts are initiated. We utilized this approach in developing the data necessary to quantify methane emissions from the oil and gas supply chain. This effort was based on five key principles: studies led by an academic researchers; deployment of multiple methods whenever possible (e.g. top-down and bottom-up); all data made public (identity but not location masked when possible); external scientific review; results released in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The research to quantify methane emissions involved > 150 scientists from 40 institutions, resulting in 35 papers published over four years. In addition to the research community companies operating along the oil and gas value chain participated by providing access to sites/vehicles and funding for a portion of the academic research. The bulk of funding came from philanthropic sources. Overall the use of this alternative research/funding model allowed for the more rapid development of a robust body of policy-relevant knowledge that addressed an issue of high societal interest/value.

  7. Addressing the dynamics of science in curricular reform for scientific literacy: Towards authentic science education in the case of genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Science education reform must anticipate the scientific literacy required by the next generation of citizens. Particularly, this counts for rapidly emerging and evolving scientific disciplines such as genomics. Taking this discipline as a case, such anticipation is becoming increasingly problematic

  8. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Scientific Literacy and Self-Efficacy in Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sultan, Adam; Henson, Harvey, Jr.; Fadde, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Many educators and educational institutions worldwide have agreed that the main goal of science education is to produce a scientifically literate community. Science teachers are key to the achievement of scientific literacy at all levels of education because of the essential role they play in preparing scientifically literate individuals. Studies…

  9. Changes in Participants' Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs during an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C. Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science projects provide non-scientists with opportunities to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on how participation in citizen science projects may affect their scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers'…

  10. Historical and social contexts for scientific writing and use of passive voice: Toward an undergraduate science literacy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dan Xiong

    The passive voice is a major stylistic feature of modern scientific discourse, but such a feature did not dominate scientific writing until the 1890s. It has its roots in the philosophical thoughts of experimental science of Francis Bacon and his followers such as Thomas Sprat and John Locke. In the early seventeenth century. Bacon called for a new science that emphasized collective knowledge of nature. Such a science was a cooperative and public enterprise in which scientists should work as a group to advance knowledge of nature. When science was moving gradually toward a public enterprise from the early seventeenth century, the passive voice gradually replaced the active voice in science writing as a dominant stylistic feature. The passive voice in scientific writing is thus historically and socially conditioned. Scientists take advantage of the linguistic functions of the passive voice to serve their rhetorical and pragmatic purposes such as presenting experiments as they are for others to reproduce and verify the results. It embodies two major conventions of scientific communities: (1) science is a public enterprise and (2) it is also a cooperative venture. Other conventions are related to these two: the collective authority of an scientific community is above the personal authority of any one individual scientist; science is not an infallible force, so any research result needs to be verified by a scientific community before it becomes knowledge; scientists use passive voice to approach their writing to make it appear as if it were objective; and science is a human profession. Therefore, we need to teach science students to use the passive voice, and more importantly, why and when to use it. We should emphasize writing practice to have students' see that they use passives rhetorically to present experimental processes, materials and methods.

  11. 'Bio-corrosion 2012' - From advanced techniques towards scientific perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, Damien; Neumann, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    The annual European corrosion congress EUROCORR 2012, September 9 to 13, 2012 in Istanbul (Turkey) had organized a larger session on 'microbial corrosion', with the aim at bringing the more technical aspects and the results of the various groups in the BIOCOR network, to the attention of the larger scientific community. The three days of the session had been co-organized by Turid Liegen, head of the Working Party of the European Federation of Corrosion on microbial corrosion (EFC WP 10) and Regine Basseguy, leader of the European program BIOCOR ITN; the session included 27 oral presentations and 10 posters. The session on industrial and technical approaches of bio-corrosion phenomena demonstrated impressively the results on improved scientific analysis, more detailed mechanisms as well as future perspectives. The great resonance of the session led the organizers to the idea of gathering the main contributions in a special issue of a multidisciplinary bioelectrochemical journal. Alain Bergel, Associate Editor of the interdisciplinary journal Bioelectrochemistry, proposed to document in this journal, the results and discussions on 'Technical Biocorrosion' thereby providing a document for strengthening the scientific basis of this economically so important field. The ambitious aim of this special issue includes drawing the attention of 'traditional biological electrochemistry' to the scientific and technical aspects of bio-corrosion in general. (authors)

  12. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Catherine Thelen; Todd R. Allen

    2011-05-01

    This is the 2010 ATR National Scientific User Facility Annual Report. This report provides an overview of the program for 2010, along with individual project reports from each of the university principal investigators. The report also describes the capabilities offered to university researchers here at INL and at the ATR NSUF partner facilities.

  13. Final Scientific Report - Wireless and Sensing Solutions Advancing Industrial Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budampati, Rama; McBrady, Adam; Nusseibeh, Fouad

    2009-09-28

    The project team's goal for the Wireless and Sensing Solution Advancing Industrial Efficiency award (DE-FC36-04GO14002) was to develop, demonstrate, and test a number of leading edge technologies that could enable the emergence of wireless sensor and sampling systems for the industrial market space. This effort combined initiatives in advanced sensor development, configurable sampling and deployment platforms, and robust wireless communications to address critical obstacles in enabling enhanced industrial efficiency.

  14. What can cognitive science tell us about scientific revolutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bird

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions is notable for the readiness with which it drew on the results of cognitive psychology. These naturalistic elements were not well received and Kuhn did not subsequently develop them in his pub- lished work. Nonetheless, in a philosophical climate more receptive to naturalism, we are able to give a more positive evaluation of Kuhn’s proposals. Recently, philosophers such as Nersessian, Nickles, Andersen, Barker, and Chen have used the results of work on case-based reasoning, analogical thinking, dynamic frames, and the like to illuminate and develop various aspects of Kuhn’s thought in Structure. In particular this work aims to give depth to the Kuhnian concepts of a paradigm and incommensurability. I review this work and identify two broad strands of research. One emphasizes work on concepts; the other focusses on cognitive habits. After contrasting these, I argue that the conceptual strand fails to be a complete account of scientific revolutions. We need a broad approach that draws on a variety of resources in psychology and cognitive science.

  15. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  16. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  17. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate......, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect......) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; (2) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; (3) supporting transdisciplinary research; and (4) supporting education and outreach efforts....

  18. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  19. Open Science: Open source licenses in scientific research

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the validity of OSS (open source software) licenses for scientific, as opposed to creative works. It draws on examples of OSS licenses to consider their suitability for the scientific community and scientific research.

  20. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  1. Pre-Service Science Teachers in Xinjiang "Scientific Inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry is one of the science curriculum content, "Scientific inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge is the face of scientific inquiry and teachers - of course pedagogical content knowledge and scientific inquiry a teaching practice with more direct expertise. Pre-service teacher training phase of acquisition of knowledge is…

  2. A science confidence gap : Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, P.H.J.; De Koster, W.; van der Waal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Following up on suggestions that attitudes toward science are multi-dimensional, we analyze nationally representative survey data collected in the United States in 2014 (N = 2006), and demonstrate the existence of a science confidence gap: some people place great trust in scientific methods and

  3. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  4. Thai Pre-Service Science Teachers' Struggles in Using Socio-Scientific Issues (SSIs) during Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    In educational reform, teaching through socio-scientific issues (SSIs) is considered the best way to promote scientific literacy for citizenship as the goal of science teaching. To bring SSIs into the science classroom, Thai pre-service science teachers (PSTs) are expected to understand the concept of SSI-based teaching and to use it effectively…

  5. Understanding and Affecting Science Teacher Candidates' Scientific Reasoning in Introductory Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Richard; Cormier, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on a content course for science immersion teacher candidates that emphasized authentic practice of science and thinking scientifically in the context of introductory astrophysics. We explore how 122 science teacher candidates spanning three cohorts did and did not reason scientifically and how this evolved in our program. Our…

  6. Advancing prion science: guidance for the National Prion Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erdtmann, Rick; Sivitz, Laura

    2004-01-01

    In Advancing Prion Science , the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Assessment of Relevant Science recommends priorities for research and investment to the Department of Defenseâ...

  7. Referesher Course on Recent Advances in Chemical Science and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Referesher Course on Recent Advances in Chemical Science and Its Technological Applications. Information and Announcements Volume 15 Issue 9 September 2010 pp 860-861 ...

  8. First 3 years of operation of RIACS (Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science) (1983-1985)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The focus of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) is to explore matches between advanced computing architectures and the processes of scientific research. An architecture evaluation of the MIT static dataflow machine, specification of a graphical language for expressing distributed computations, and specification of an expert system for aiding in grid generation for two-dimensional flow problems was initiated. Research projects for 1984 and 1985 are summarized.

  9. Increasing Scientific Literacy about Global Climate Change through a Laboratory-Based Feminist Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Linda A.; Brenner, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    The authors have developed and implemented a novel general education science course that examines scientific knowledge, laboratory experimentation, and science-related public policy through the lens of feminist science studies. They argue that this approach to teaching general science education is useful for improving science literacy. Goals for…

  10. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in the Development of National Science' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in the Development of National Science'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  11. Scientific data management in the environmental molecular sciences laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, P.R.; Keller, T.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is currently under construction at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This laboratory will be used for molecular and environmental sciences research to identify comprehensive solutions to DOE`s environmental problems. Major facilities within the EMSL include the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF), a laser-surface dynamics laboratory, a high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratory, and a mass spectrometry laboratory. The EMSL is scheduled to open early in 1997 and will house about 260 resident and visiting scientists. It is anticipated that at least six (6) terabytes of data will be archived in the first year of operation. An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) and a mass storage system will be integrated to provide an intelligent, automated mechanism to manage data. The resulting system, called the DataBase Computer System (DBCS), will provide total scientific data management capabilities to EMSL users. A prototype mass storage system based on the National Storage Laboratory`s (NSL) UniTree has been procured and is in limited use. This system consists of two independent hierarchies of storage devices. One hierarchy of lower capacity, slower speed devices provides support for smaller files transferred over the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) network. Also part of the system is a second hierarchy of higher capacity, higher speed devices that will be used to support high performance clients (e.g., a large scale parallel processor). The ObjectStore OODBMS will be used to manage metadata for archived datasets, maintain relationships between archived datasets, and -hold small, duplicate subsets of archived datasets (i.e., derivative data). The interim system is called DBCS, Phase 0 (DBCS-0). The production system for the EMSL, DBCS Phase 1 (DBCS-1), will be procured and installed in the summer of 1996.

  12. Data management, code deployment, and scientific visualization to enhance scientific discovery in fusion research through advanced computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Finkelstein, A.; Foster, I.T.; Fredian, T.W.; Greenwald, M.J.; Hansen, C.D.; Johnson, C.R.; Keahey, K.; Klasky, S.A.; Li, K.; McCune, D.C.; Peng, Q.; Stevens, R.; Thompson, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term vision of the Fusion Collaboratory described in this paper is to transform fusion research and accelerate scientific understanding and innovation so as to revolutionize the design of a fusion energy source. The Collaboratory will create and deploy collaborative software tools that will enable more efficient utilization of existing experimental facilities and more effective integration of experiment, theory, and modeling. The computer science research necessary to create the Collaboratory is centered on three activities: security, remote and distributed computing, and scientific visualization. It is anticipated that the presently envisioned Fusion Collaboratory software tools will require 3 years to complete

  13. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, Nora [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  14. The Polaris Project: Undergraduate Research Catalyzing Advances in Arctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, J. D.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Mann, P. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Frey, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    With guidance and sufficient resources, undergraduates can drive the exploration of new research directions, lead high impact scientific products, and effectively communicate the value of science to the public. As mentors, we must recognize the strong contribution undergraduates make to the advancement of scientific understanding and their unique ability and desire to be transdisciplinary and to translate ideas into action. Our job is to be sure students have the resources and tools to successfully explore questions that they care about, not to provide or lead them towards answers we already have. The central goal of the Polaris Project is to advance understanding of climate change in the Arctic through an integrated research, training, and outreach program that has at its heart a research expedition for undergraduates to a remote field station in the Arctic. Our integrative approach to training provides undergraduates with strong intellectual development and they bring fresh perspectives, creativity, and a unique willingness to take risks on new ideas that have an energizing effect on research and outreach. Since the projects inception in summer 2008, we have had >90 undergraduates participate in high-impact field expeditions and outreach activities. Over the years, we have also been fortunate enough to attract an ethnically, racially, and culturally diverse group of students, including students from Puerto Rico, Hispanic-, African- and Native-Americans, members of the LGBT community, and first-generation college students. Most of these students have since pursued graduate degrees in ecology, and many have received NSF fellowships and Fulbright scholarships. One of our major goals is to increase the diversity of the scientific community, and we have been successful in our short-term goal of recruiting and retaining a diverse group of students. The goal of this presentation is to provide a description of the mentoring model at the heart of the Polaris Project

  15. 77 FR 12823 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Early Career technical talks Summary of Applied Math and Computer Science Workshops ASCR's new SBIR... least 5 business days prior to the meeting. Reasonable provision will be made to include the scheduled... the orderly conduct of business. Public comment will follow the 10-minute rule. Minutes: The minutes...

  16. Final Report for 'Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software is to fundamentally changing the way scientific software is developed and used by bringing component-based software development technologies to high-performance scientific and engineering computing. The role of Tech-X work in TASCS project is to provide an outreach to accelerator physics and fusion applications by introducing TASCS tools into applications, testing tools in the applications and modifying the tools to be more usable.

  17. Associations among attitudes, perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupation and students' scientific competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and a Likert scale questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students' general interest of science, their parents' occupations and perceived difficulty of science significantly associated with their scientific competencies. However, there was no gender gap in terms of scientific competencies.

  18. Science as a Common Language in a Globalised World - Scientific Collaboration Promoting Progress, Building Bridges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2003-01-01

    International scientific collaboration and co-operation can accelerate the progress of science, help build bridges between diverse societies, and foster the development of science and technology in non-industrialised countries. This is possible because science is a common language (although the progress of science is often influenced by non-scientific factors). I shall describe examples of the role that scientific collaboration can play in bridge building and in conflict resolution. I shall then present a proposal for "Bridge Building Fellowships" which would contribute to strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries by helping to stem the brain drain and providing a basis for collaborations with scientists in industrialised countries.

  19. Science Gone Wild: Using Scientific Rhetoric To Silence Orderly Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, D. M.; Pileggi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our study focuses on a conflict concerning public land management practices in a designated wilderness area involving a private business, Drakes Bay Oyster Company (DBOC), and the National Park Service (NPS) at Point Reyes National Seashore. This conflict was in part fueled by scientific disagreements concerning the effects the oyster operation had on the local seal population. The National Park Service testified on this issue in a public hearing and published two peer reviewed papers, as well as a number of planning documents including a formal Environmental Impact Statement. All interventions asserted the incompatibility of the oyster operation with a wilderness designation. As these documents were made public, they were contested by independent scientists acting on behalf of the oyster company, who publicized their views through several self-produced live presentations to the community, film and videos as well as numerous editorials and opinion pieces published in the local, regional and national press. This activity, which was amplified with letters to the editor, was also punctuated by two reviews conducted by the National Academy of Science and another conducted by the Marine Mammal Commission which unsuccessfully attempted to settle the disagreements by convening a moderated panel of scientists. To understand the nature of this controversy, we analyzed the use of a key argument in the debate, the alleged effect of the oyster operation on the seal colony. Specifically, we scrutinized its content and coherence over time as well as the communication tactics used to broadcast it to show how scientific discourse was deployed to create the illusion of misconduct, which was detrimental to an amiable resolution to this conflict but was also poised to serve as an argument in future land management settings.

  20. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  1. Convergence of advances in genomics, team science, and repositories as drivers of progress in psychiatric genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Thomas; Senthil, Geetha; Addington, Anjené M

    2015-01-01

    After many years of unfilled promise, psychiatric genetics has seen an unprecedented number of successes in recent years. We hypothesize that the field has reached an inflection point through a confluence of four key developments: advances in genomics; the orientation of the scientific community around large collaborative team science projects; the development of sample and data repositories; and a policy framework for sharing and accessing these resources. We discuss these domains and their effect on scientific progress and provide a perspective on why we think this is only the beginning of a new era in scientific discovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Learning by doing? Prospective elementary teachers' developing understandings of scientific inquiry and science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla

    This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.

  3. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume II: Life Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussi, Rolf; Gschwend, Beatrice [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The existing activities of the Department of Life Sciences have grown out of the specific know how and the unique experimental possibilities available at PSI. Primarily, these have been and are complex facilities for using particle beams (protons, neutrons) on the one hand and know how in the production, handling and chemistry of radionuclides on the other. The common theme of the department has thus been the study and use of various types of radiation in therapy and diagnostics of human disease and in particular of cancer. The four units active in this area are: The major activity in the Radiation Medicine unit is Proton Therapy, which aims to further develop and optimise the world-wide unique spot scanning facility for irradiating malignant tumours with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues, including the established OPTIS program for the treatment of eye tumours. The Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science represents a joint activity of PSI with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) and the University of Zurich. Its major goals are the development of novel tumour targeted radioconjugates for cancer diagnosis and therapy and the production and evaluation of new PET (positron emission tomography) radiotracers for various applications in neuro physiology and drug development. The Institute of Medical Radiobiology analyses questions of the molecular biology of DNA repair. It is a joint activity of PSI and the University of Zurich. The Structural Biology unit is currently being established. A strong in-house research activity in macromolecular crystallography will complement the more user-oriented protein crystallography beam line, which is being built at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In particular, tumour targeting by molecular vehicles and DNA repair are areas where structural information can provide important insights. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided.

  4. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume II: Life Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussi, Rolf; Gschwend, Beatrice [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The existing activities of the Department of Life Sciences have grown out of the specific know-how and the unique experimental possibilities available at PSI. Primarily, these have been and are complex facilities for using particle beams (protons, neutrons) on the one hand and know-how in the production, handling and chemistry of radionuclides on the other. The common theme of the department has thus been the study and use of various types of radiation in therapy and diagnostics of human disease and in particular of cancer. The four units active in this area are: The major activity in the Radiation Medicine unit is Proton Therapy, which aims to further develop and optimise the world-wide unique spot scanning facility for irradiating malignant tumours with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues, including the established OPTIS program for the treatment of eye tumours. The Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science represents a joint activity of PSI with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) and the University of Zurich. Its major goals are the development of novel tumour targeted radioconjugates for cancer diagnosis and therapy and the production and evaluation of new PET (positron emission tomography) radiotracers for various applications in neuro physiology and drug development. The Institute of Medical Radiobiology analyses questions of the molecular biology of DNA repair. It is a joint activity of PSI and the University of Zurich. The newly established Structural Biology group is still in the build-up phase. A strong in-house research activity in macromolecular crystallography will complement the more user-oriented protein crystallography beam line, which is being built at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In particular, tumour targeting by molecular vehicles and DNA repair are areas where structural information can provide important insights. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000

  5. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume II: Life Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaussi, Rolf; Gschwend, Beatrice

    2000-01-01

    The existing activities of the Department of Life Sciences have grown out of the specific know how and the unique experimental possibilities available at PSI. Primarily, these have been and are complex facilities for using particle beams (protons, neutrons) on the one hand and know how in the production, handling and chemistry of radionuclides on the other. The common theme of the department has thus been the study and use of various types of radiation in therapy and diagnostics of human disease and in particular of cancer. The four units active in this area are: The major activity in the Radiation Medicine unit is Proton Therapy, which aims to further develop and optimise the world-wide unique spot scanning facility for irradiating malignant tumours with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues, including the established OPTIS program for the treatment of eye tumours. The Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science represents a joint activity of PSI with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) and the University of Zurich. Its major goals are the development of novel tumour targeted radioconjugates for cancer diagnosis and therapy and the production and evaluation of new PET (positron emission tomography) radiotracers for various applications in neuro physiology and drug development. The Institute of Medical Radiobiology analyses questions of the molecular biology of DNA repair. It is a joint activity of PSI and the University of Zurich. The Structural Biology unit is currently being established. A strong in-house research activity in macromolecular crystallography will complement the more user-oriented protein crystallography beam line, which is being built at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In particular, tumour targeting by molecular vehicles and DNA repair are areas where structural information can provide important insights. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided

  6. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume II: Life Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaussi, Rolf; Gschwend, Beatrice

    2001-01-01

    The existing activities of the Department of Life Sciences have grown out of the specific know-how and the unique experimental possibilities available at PSI. Primarily, these have been and are complex facilities for using particle beams (protons, neutrons) on the one hand and know-how in the production, handling and chemistry of radionuclides on the other. The common theme of the department has thus been the study and use of various types of radiation in therapy and diagnostics of human disease and in particular of cancer. The four units active in this area are: The major activity in the Radiation Medicine unit is Proton Therapy, which aims to further develop and optimise the world-wide unique spot scanning facility for irradiating malignant tumours with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues, including the established OPTIS program for the treatment of eye tumours. The Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science represents a joint activity of PSI with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) and the University of Zurich. Its major goals are the development of novel tumour targeted radioconjugates for cancer diagnosis and therapy and the production and evaluation of new PET (positron emission tomography) radiotracers for various applications in neuro physiology and drug development. The Institute of Medical Radiobiology analyses questions of the molecular biology of DNA repair. It is a joint activity of PSI and the University of Zurich. The newly established Structural Biology group is still in the build-up phase. A strong in-house research activity in macromolecular crystallography will complement the more user-oriented protein crystallography beam line, which is being built at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In particular, tumour targeting by molecular vehicles and DNA repair are areas where structural information can provide important insights. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000

  7. jsGraph and jsNMR—Advanced Scientific Charting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Pellet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The jsGraph library is a versatile javascript library that allows advanced charting to be rendered interactively in web browsers without relying on server-side image processing. jsGraph is released under the MIT license and is free of charge. While being highly customizable through an intuitive javascript API, jsGraph is optimized to render a large quantity of data in a short amount of time. jsGraphs can display line, scatter, contour or zone series. Examples can be consulted on the project home page [1]. Customization of the chart, its axis and its series is achieved through simple but comprehensive JSON configurations.

  8. Proceedings 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter and of the Scientific Conference Advanced Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2015-01-01

    The 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 24-26 June, 2015 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The Scientific Conference the Advanced Fast Reactors was part of the 21 st International Conference on APCOM 2015. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Advanced fast reactors; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; interdisciplinary physics of condensed matter; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Fifty seven contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  9. Advanced Science for Kids: Multicultural Assessment and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettac, Teresa; Huckabee, Colleen; Musser, Louise; Patton, Paulette; Yates, Joyce

    1997-01-01

    Describes Advanced Science for Kids (ASK), a multicultural approach to assessment and programming for a middle school advanced science program. ASK is designed to provide alternative approaches to identification and assessment, facilitate authentic instruction and assessment, and provide minority students with academic and social support as they…

  10. Realism without truth: a review of Giere's science without laws and scientific perspectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2009-05-01

    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action-as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science.

  11. Advancing the scientific basis of trivalent actinide-lanthanide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    For advanced fuel cycles designed to support transmutation of transplutonium actinides, several options have been demonstrated for process-scale aqueous separations for U, Np, Pu management and for partitioning of trivalent actinides and fission product lanthanides away from other fission products. The more difficult mutual separation of Am/Cm from La-Tb remains the subject of considerable fundamental and applied research. The chemical separations literature teaches that the most productive alternatives to pursue are those based on ligand donor atoms less electronegative than O, specifically N- and S-containing complexants and chloride ion (Cl - ). These 'soft-donor' atoms have exhibited usable selectivity in their bonding interactions with trivalent actinides relative to lanthanides. In this report, selected features of soft donor reagent design, characterization and application development will be discussed. The roles of thiocyanate, aminopoly-carboxylic acids and lactate in separation processes are detailed. (authors)

  12. The Effectiveness of Data Science as a Means to Achieve Proficiency in Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccucci, Wendy; Tamarkin, Dawn; Jones, Kiku

    2015-01-01

    Data Science courses are becoming more prevalent in recent years. Increasingly more universities are offering individual courses and majors in the field of Data Science. This study evaluates data science education as a means to become proficient in scientific literacy. The results demonstrate how the educational goals of a Data Science course meet…

  13. Advancing data management and analysis in different scientific disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Prabhune, A.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Streit, A.

    2017-10-01

    Over the past several years, rapid growth of data has affected many fields of science. This has often resulted in the need for overhauling or exchanging the tools and approaches in the disciplines’ data life cycles. However, this allows the application of new data analysis methods and facilitates improved data sharing. The project Large-Scale Data Management and Analysis (LSDMA) of the German Helmholtz Association has been addressing both specific and generic requirements in its data life cycle successfully since 2012. Its data scientists work together with researchers from the fields such as climatology, energy and neuroscience to improve the community-specific data life cycles, in several cases even all stages of the data life cycle, i.e. from data acquisition to data archival. LSDMA scientists also study methods and tools that are of importance to many communities, e.g. data repositories and authentication and authorization infrastructure.

  14. Informal Science Educators' Views about Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Publications such as "Surrounded by science: Learning science in informal environments" [Fenichel, M., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2010). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press] and "Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits" [National Research Council. (2009). Washington, DC: National…

  15. IAEA scientific forum 2005. Nuclear science: Physics helping the world. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Scientific forum held during the 49th Regular Session of the IAEA General Conference covered the following topics: meeting energy needs, developing advanced materials and technologies, advancing radiation medicine and supporting nuclear safety. This publication contains 23 individual papers presented at the scientific forum. Each of the papers was indexed separately

  16. IAEA scientific forum 2005. Nuclear science: Physics helping the world. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Scientific forum held during the 49th Regular Session of the IAEA General Conference covered the following topics: meeting energy needs, developing advanced materials and technologies, advancing radiation medicine and supporting nuclear safety. This publication contains 13 individual papers presented at the scientific forum. Each of the papers was indexed separately

  17. Communication, interventions, and scientific advances in autism: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza, Danielle C; DeLuke, Susan V; Batista, Myra; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Christodulu, Kristin V; Frye, Cheryl A

    2010-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect approximately 1 in 150 children across the U.S., and are characterized by abnormal social actions, language difficulties, repetitive or restrictive behaviors, and special interests. ASD include autism (autistic disorder), Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS or atypical autism). High-functioning individuals may communicate with moderate-to-high language skills, although difficulties in social skills may result in communication deficits. Low-functioning individuals may have severe deficiencies in language, resulting in poor communication between the individual and others. Behavioral intervention programs have been developed for ASD, and are frequently adjusted to accommodate specific individual needs. Many of these programs are school-based and aim to support the child in the development of their skills, for use outside the classroom with family and friends. Strides are being made in understanding the factors contributing to the development of ASD, particularly the genetic contributions that may underlie these disorders. Mutant mouse models provide powerful research tools to investigate the genetic factors associated with ASD and its co-morbid disorders. In support, the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain incorporates ASD-like social and communication deficits and high levels of repetitive behaviors. This commentary briefly reviews the reciprocal relationship between observations made during evidence-based behavioral interventions of high- versus low-functioning children with ASD and the accumulating body of research in autism, including animal studies and basic research models. This reciprocity is one of the hallmarks of the scientific method, such that research may inform behavioral treatments, and observations made during treatment may inform subsequent research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A bird's-eye view of scientific trading: Dependency relations among fields of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, E.; Ding, Y.; Cronin, B.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    We use a trading metaphor to study knowledge transfer in the sciences as well as the social sciences. The metaphor comprises four dimensions: (a) Discipline Self-dependence, (b) Knowledge Exports/Imports, (c) Scientific Trading Dynamics, and (d) Scientific Trading Impact. This framework is applied

  19. The Relationship in Biology between the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kerstin; Specht, Christiane; Urhahne, Detlef; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Informed understandings of nature of science and scientific inquiry are generally accepted goals of biology education. This article points out central features of scientific inquiry with relation to biology and the nature of science in general terms and focuses on the relationship of students' inquiry skills in biology and their beliefs on the…

  20. Improving Scientific Voice in the Science Communication Center at UT Knoxville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Many science students believe that scientific writing is most impressive (and most professionally acceptable) when impersonal, dense, complex, and packed with jargon. In particular, they have the idea that legitimate scientific writing must suppress the subjectivity of the human voice. But science students can mature into excellent writers whose…

  1. What Constitutes Science and Scientific Evidence: Roles of Null Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We briefly discuss the philosophical basis of science, causality, and scientific evidence, by introducing the hidden but most fundamental principle of science: the similarity principle. The principle's use in scientific discovery is illustrated with Simpson's paradox and other examples. In discussing the value of null hypothesis statistical…

  2. Scientific program of the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1991-10-01

    Construction of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is nearing completion, with operation as a US Department of Energy national user facility scheduled to begin in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports, the ALS will be a third-generation source of soft x-ray and ultraviolet (collectively, the XUV) synchrotron radiation. Experimental facilities (insertion devices, beamlines, and end stations) will be developed and operated by participating research teams working with the ALS staff. The ability to exploit the high spectral brightness of the ALS was the main criterion for PRT selection. In the XUV spectral regions served by the ALS, a major benefit of high brightness will be the ability to achieve spatial resolution in the neighborhood of 200 angstroms in x-ray microscopy and holography and in spatially resolved spectroscopy. Other beneficiaries of high brightness include very-high-resolution spectroscopy, spectroscopy of dilute species, diffraction from very small samples, and time-resolved spectroscopy and diffraction

  3. Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques.Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David M. Hamby, PhD

    2006-01-01

    Final report describing NEER research on Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques. The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of which was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work and that digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector

  4. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume II: Life Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussi, R; Gschwend, B [eds.

    2002-03-01

    a procedure developed in this laboratory. In vivo molecular imaging methods have important applications in disease diagnosis, in drug development and, increasingly, in monitoring the expression of genes introduced through gene therapy vectors. The PET tracer group of the Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science has successfully started operation of the new HIDAC camera, which is optimally suited to study new tracers during their development in small animals. Presently, the major efforts are in developing tracers for imaging glutamatergic and nicotinergic receptors of the brain as well as for amyloid plaques, the characteristic markers of Alzheimer disease. In the division of radiation medicine 27 patients have been treated on the Spot Scanning Gantry in this fifth beam period. In the OPTIS program, nearly 200 patients were treated for ocular tumours in 2001. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  5. Integrating Bioethics in Sciences’ curricula using values in science and socio-scientific issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The  The main objective of the present work is selection of ethical issues that should be addressed with first year undergraduate and K-12 students. Since K-12 Sciences’ curriculum, in Portugal, does not include bioethics content in any discipline explicitly, teachers need to make an effort to include it. Some online materials are available to use in high school classes and will be discussed. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting the discussion of bioethics issues in accordance to UNESCO Bioethics Core Curriculum already adopted by twenty universities throughout the world (Darwish 2015. Some of the issues that are addressed are: ecology and environment ethics, infectious diseases and vaccination, water for all, intellectual property, genomes and patents, biotechnological advances (genetic modified organisms and synthesis of genomes, future generations, climate hanges and natural resources, biomedical advances and human rights, authorship and contributions in scientific publications, and biobanks. In conclusion, this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by K-12 teachers, of active inquiry strategies, using features of science such as values and socio-scientific issues, and focused on the discussion of concrete ethical issues facing humanity. It also constitutes a proposal of integrating Bioethics in undergraduate sciences’ curricula.

  6. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on 'Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing' held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to (1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; (2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; (3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and (4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  7. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on "Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing" held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to 1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; 2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; 3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and 4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  8. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  9. Social justice pedagogies and scientific knowledge: Remaking citizenship in the non-science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Jane L.

    This dissertation contributes to efforts to rethink the meanings of democracy, scientific literacy, and non-scientist citizenship in the United States. Beginning with questions that emerged from action research and exploring the socio-political forces that shape educational practices, it shows why non-science educators who teach for social justice must first recognize formal science education as a primary site of training for (future) non-scientist citizens and then prepare to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship offered by formal science education. This model of citizenship defines (and limits) appropriate behavior for non-scientist citizens as acquiescing to the authority of science and the state by actively demarcating science from non-science, experts from non-experts, and the rational from the irrational. To question scientific authority is to be scientifically illiterate. This vision of 'acquiescent democracy' seeks to end challenges to the authority of science and the state by ensuring that scientific knowledge is privileged in all personal and public decision-making practices, producing a situation in which it becomes natural for non-scientist citizens to enroll scientific knowledge to naturalize oppression within our schools and society. It suggests that feminist and equity-oriented science educators, by themselves, are unable or unwilling to challenge certain assumptions in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship. Therefore, it is the responsibility of non-science educators who teach for social justice to articulate oppositional models of non-scientist citizenship and democracy in their classrooms and to challenge the naturalized authority of scientific knowledge in all aspects of our lives. It demonstrates how research in the field of Science & Technology Studies can serve as one resource in our efforts to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship and to support a model of

  10. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  11. Scientific and technological information: analysis of periodic publications of information science

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Cintya do Nascimento Vasconcelos; Gabriela Belmont de Farias

    2017-01-01

    The research analyzes the articles published in national scientific journals of the area of Information Science, classified with Qualis A1, having as parameter the term "scientific and technological information". It presents concepts about scientific and technological information and the processes that involve its uses, as well as scientific communication, information flows and sources of information. The methodology used is a descriptive study with a quantitative-qualitative approach, using ...

  12. Analysis According to Certain Variables of Scientific Literacy among Gifted Students That Participate in Scientific Activities at Science and Art Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömek, Emre; Yagiz, Dursun; Kurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze scientific literacy levels relevant to science and technology classes among gifted students that participate in scientific activities at science and art centers. This study investigated whether there was a significant difference in scientific literacy levels among gifted students according to the areas of…

  13. Pre-service Science Teachers’ Self-efficacy Beliefs to Teach Socio-scientific Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muğaloğlu, Ebru Z.; Küçük, Zerrin Doğança; Güven, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine self-efficacy of pre-service science teachers to teach socio-scientific issues (SSI). Twenty-three senior pre-service science teachers participated in the study. Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) was modified with an emphasis on SSI rather than scientific issues. The modified STEBI was applied to the participants before and after the intervention. As for the six-week intervention, three modules, which focused on understanding nature of SSI, teachin...

  14. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  15. TerraFERMA: Harnessing Advanced Computational Libraries in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; van Keken, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many important problems in Earth sciences can be described by non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. These "multi-physics" problems include thermo-chemical convection in Earth and planetary interiors, interactions of fluids and magmas with the Earth's mantle and crust and coupled flow of water and ice. These problems are of interest to a large community of researchers but are complicated to model and understand. Much of this complexity stems from the nature of multi-physics where small changes in the coupling between variables or constitutive relations can lead to radical changes in behavior, which in turn affect critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in understanding such coupled systems requires a computational framework where multi-physics problems can be described at a high-level while maintaining the flexibility to easily modify the solution algorithm. Fortunately, recent advances in computational science provide a basis for implementing such a framework. Here we present the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler (TerraFERMA), which leverages several advanced open-source libraries for core functionality. FEniCS (fenicsproject.org) provides a high level language for describing the weak forms of coupled systems of equations, and an automatic code generator that produces finite element assembly code. PETSc (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) provides a wide range of scalable linear and non-linear solvers that can be composed into effective multi-physics preconditioners. SPuD (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud) is an application neutral options system that provides both human and machine-readable interfaces based on a single xml schema. Our software integrates these libraries and provides the user with a framework for exploring multi-physics problems. A single options file fully describes the problem, including all equations, coefficients and solver options. Custom compiled applications are

  16. Teaching the Scientific Method in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Many undergraduates can tell you what the scientific method means but just a little probing reveals a rather shallow understanding as well as a number of misconceptions about the method. The purpose of this paper is to indicate why such misconceptions occur and to point out some implications and suggestions for teaching the scientific method in…

  17. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Colloids Experiment is being conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). Work to date will be discussed and future plans and opportunities will be highlighted. The LMM is a microscope facility designed to allow scientists to process, manipulate, and characterize colloidal samples in micro-gravity where the absence of gravitational settling and particle jamming enables scientists to study such things as:a.The role that disordered and ordered-packing of spheres play in the phase diagram and equation of state of hard sphere systems,b.crystal nucleation and growth, growth instabilities, and the glass transition, c.gelation and phase separation of colloid polymer mixtures,d.crystallization of colloidal binary alloys,e.competition between crystallization and phase separation,f.effects of anisotropy and specific interactions on packing, aggregation, frustration and crystallization,g.effects of specific reversible and irreversible interactions mediated in the first case by hybridization of complementary DNA strands attached to separate colloidal particles,h.Lock and key interactions between colloids with dimples and spheres which match the size and shape of the dimples,i.finding the phase diagrams of isotropic and interacting particles,j.new techniques for complex self-assembly including scenarios for self-replication, k.critical Casimir forces,l.biology (real and model systems) in microgravity,m.etc. By adding additional microscopy capabilities to the existing LMM, NASA will increase the tools available for scientists that fly experiments on the ISS enabling scientists to observe directly what is happening at the particle level. Presently, theories are needed to bridge the gap between what is being observed (at a macroscopic level when photographing samples) with what is happening at a particle (or microscopic) level. What is happening at a microscopic level will be directly

  18. Reorienting Esthetic Knowing as an Appropriate "Object" of Scientific Inquiry to Advance Understanding of a Critical Pattern of Nursing Knowledge in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Miriam; Elias, Dina

    The esthetic pattern of knowing is critical for nursing practice, yet remains weakly defined and understood. This gap has arguably relegated esthetic knowing to an "ineffable" creativity that resists transparency and understanding, which is a barrier to articulating its value for nursing and its importance in producing beneficial health outcomes. Current philosophy of science developments are synthesized to argue that esthetic knowing is an appropriate "object" of scientific inquiry. Examples of empirical scholarship that can be conceived as scientific inquiry into manifestations of esthetic knowing are highlighted. A program of research is outlined to advance a science of esthetic knowing.

  19. How social science should complement scientific discovery: lessons from nanoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, David M.

    2018-05-01

    This article examines the state of social science of science, particularly nanoscience. It reviews what has been done and offers a series of constructive criticisms. It examines some of the problems associated with experts and expertise and itemizes challenges we confront dealing with them. It presages some of the social science research work that we may consider to embrace in the future.

  20. Scientific visualization as an expressive medium for project science inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Douglas Norman

    Scientists' external representations can help science education by providing powerful tools for students' inquiry. Scientific visualization is particularly well suited for this as it uses color patterns, rather than algebraic notation. Nonetheless, visualization must be adapted so it better fits with students' interests, goals, and abilities. I describe how visualization was adapted for students' expressive use and provide a case study where students successfully used visualization. The design process began with scientists' tools, data sets, and activities which were then adapted for students' use. I describe the design through scenarios where students create and analyze visualizations and present the software's functionality through visualization's sub-representations of data; color; scale, resolution, and projection; and examining the relationships between visualizations. I evaluate these designs through a "hot-house" study where a small group of students used visualization under near ideal circumstances for two weeks. Using videotapes of group interactions, software logs, and students' work I examine their representational and inquiry strategies. These inquiries were successful in that the group pursued their interest in world hunger by creating a visualization of daily per capita calorie consumption. Through creating the visualization the students engage in a process of meaning making where they interweave their prior experiences and beliefs with the representations they are using. This interweaving and other processes of collaborative visualization are shown when the students (a) computed values, (b) created a new color scheme, (c) cooperated to create the visualization, and (d) presented their work to other students. I also discuss problems that arose when students (a) used units without considering their meaning, (b) chose inappropriate comparisons in case-based reasoning, (c) did not participate equally during group work, (d) were confused about additive

  1. Scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry: Revealing a private side of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Rebecca R.

    Science educators, philosophers, and pre-service teachers have contributed to conceptualizing inquiry but missing from the inquiry forum is an in-depth research study concerning science faculty conceptions of scientific inquiry. The science education literature has tended to focus on certain aspects of doing, teaching, and understanding scientific inquiry without linking these concepts. As a result, conceptions of scientific inquiry have been disjointed and are seemingly unrelated. Furthermore, confusion surrounding the meaning of inquiry has been identified as a reason teachers are not using inquiry in instruction (Welch et al., 1981). Part of the confusion surrounding scientific inquiry is it has been defined differently depending on the context (Colburn, 2000; Lederman, 1998; Shymansky & Yore, 1980; Wilson & Koran, 1976). This lack of a common conception of scientific inquiry is the reason for the timely nature of this research. The result of scientific journeys is not to arrive at a stopping point or the final destination, but to refuel with questions to drive the pursuit of knowledge. A three-member research team conducted Interviews with science faculty members using a semi-structured interview protocol designed to probe the subject's conceptions of scientific inquiry. The participants represented a total of 52 science faculty members from nine science departments (anthropology, biology, chemistry, geology, geography, school of health, physical education and recreation (HPER), medical sciences, physics, and school of environmental science) at a large mid-western research university. The method of analysis used by the team was grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990; Glaser & Strauss, 1967), in which case the frequency of concepts, patterns, and themes were coded to categorize scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry. The results from this study address the following components: understanding and doing scientific inquiry, attributes of scientists engaged

  2. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.

  3. [Recent developments on the scientific research in optometry and visual science in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jia

    2010-10-01

    The current text reviewed the situation of the scientific research in the field of Optometry and visual sciences in the recent 5 to 6 years in our country. It showed the advancement and achievement in the myopic fundamental research and the application research of visual science. In addition, it also analyzed the guidance of research in solving the clinical visual issues and the significance of community service of research in eye care in public. This text indicated by the concrete current situation and the result data of research that the biology and optics, the double property of the eye endowed the distinguished feature to the research in Ophthalmology and Optometry, and that the cross cooperation of multidisciplinary promoted the innovation in the fields of Optometry and visual research. In future, the fields of Optometry and visual science in China will face up to more and more anticipations of the original and systematic research. The prophylaxis and treatment of myopia would be still a long-term and rough exploration theme in these fields.

  4. American Association for the Advancement of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lecture: Richard Harris on Challenges of Replication in Science Elect a Strong Leadership for AAAS: Deadline Ends Soon! Elect a Strong ... 20140730_leadership-seminar_teaser.jpg 13 Nov 2017 Leadership Seminar in Science & Technology Policy... REGISTER event-featured-twothird_Default_200x200. ...

  5. A Study on the Evaluation of Science Projects of Primary School Students Based on Scientific Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Sema Nur; Ozer, Dilek Zeren; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2013-01-01

    This study re-evaluated 454 science projects that were prepared by primary school students between 2007 and 2011 within the scope of Science Projects Event for Primary School Students. Also, submitted to TUBITAK BIDEB Bursa regional science board by MNE regional work groups in accordance with scientific research methods and techniques, including…

  6. Instrumentation for Scientific Computing in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    include Security Classification) Instrumentation for scientific computing in neural networks, information science, artificial intelligence, and...instrumentation grant to purchase equipment for support of research in neural networks, information science, artificail intellignece , and applied mathematics...in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics Contract AFOSR 86-0282 Principal Investigator: Stephen

  7. Problems in the Science and Mathematics of 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan B. Whiting

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994 was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century. However, in his most famous work 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery' he displays troubling misunderstandings of science and mathematics at a basic level. These call into question his conclusions concerning the philosophy of science. Quanta 2012; 1: 13–18.

  8. Scientific Analogies and Their Use in Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Nahum

    Analogy in science knew its successes and failures, as illustrated by examples from the eighteenth-century physics. At times, some scientists abstained from using a certain analogy on the ground that it had not yet been demonstrated. Several false discoveries in the 18th and early 19th centuries appeared to support their caution. It is now clear that such a position reflected a methodological confusion that resulted from a failure to distinguish between particular and general analogies. Considering analogy as a hierarchical structure provides a new insight into "testing an analogy". While warning science teachers of dangers associated with use of analogy, historical cases and their analysis provided here may encourage them to use analogy more extensively while avoiding misconceptions. An argument is made that the history of science may be a better guide than philosophy of science and cognitive psychology when it concerns the role of analogy in science and in teaching science for understanding.

  9. New Sensors for In-Pile Temperature Detection at the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Daw, J.E.; Condie, K.G.; Wilkins, S. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. As a user facility, the ATR is supporting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, as they conduct basic and applied nuclear research and development to advance the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the strategy for determining what instrumentation is needed and the program for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available and under development for in-pile detection of temperature at various irradiation locations in the ATR.

  10. New languages for the spreading of scientific knowledge: broadening the dialog between science and society (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Pereira Cavalcanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is by far the most intensely used communication tool of today and the main channel of interaction in the globalized world. This technology has opened up a whole new area for the interaction of knowledge: cyberspace, where information is always present and continuously changing. The interactivity that characterizes the virtual media together with the interactive modules developed by science centers and museums make the Internet a whole new space for the popularization of science. In order to stimulate dialog between science and society, Espaço Ciência Viva has decided to employ the Internet to divulge and to popularize scientific knowledge by bringing debates about the advances of science to the daily lives of people. To this end, its website was remodeled, which led to an increase of up to 600% in the number of visitors.

  11. CONCERNING THE ADVANCED SCIENCE IN HIGH PERFORMANCE SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagea Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advanced sciences are based on the most recent huge increasing of technology and on interdisciplinary commencement of great interest topics, as top sport is considering. The main problem in top sport seems to be the obtaining high sport’s performance in as short as possible time, having great efficiency and minimum risks.The cell-engineering domain, in which the author of this paper has a modest contribution, is a means of genetic control for human performance, including sport, gene expression, molecular interactions within the cell, intracellular signalling, cell mechanics and motility etc.The domain of Psyche, of controlling feelings and manifestations, is also, on the focus of top sport interest, especially for the reason that, from inside of this domain, is feasible to accede at the biological reserves unavoidable in normal conditions, but avoidable in emergency or surviving situations. The new knowledge about energetic metabolism, about the rotation of ATP molecules, or coming out from scientifically experiments of association of nutrients or of reconsidering the recovery stimulants after effort, are providing, also, very useful information for top sport practitioners.It is not to disregard the contribution of the new information about the human physical limits, biomechanics, tactics of doing and controls the physical effort by means of sensorial biofeedback or theperformance’s advantages coming from new high-minded techniques and materials of sport accessories

  12. Explicitly Targeting Pre-Service Teacher Scientific Reasoning Abilities and Understanding of Nature of Science through an Introductory Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kathleen; Schen, Melissa; Bao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Development of a scientifically literate citizenry has become a national focus and highlights the need for K-12 students to develop a solid foundation of scientific reasoning abilities and an understanding of nature of science, along with appropriate content knowledge. This implies that teachers must also be competent in these areas; but…

  13. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Advanced Quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2016-10-10

    Sponsored by Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Indian National ... brief statement (between 250 and 500 words) as to why they think the Course will help to improve their classroom ... Last date for receipt of applications: October 10, 2016.

  14. Advancing sustainability science in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burns, MER

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available sources of knowledge. A response to this situation has seen the emergence of 'sustainability science’, which aims to overcome divisions between knowledge sources of various forms, including the social and natural sciences and alternative epistemologies...

  15. Semantic integration of scientific publications and research data: proposal of model of expanded publication for the area of nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Luana Farias

    2014-01-01

    This research takes place under the conditions of an arising scientific paradigm, known as e-Science or 4 th Scientific Paradigm. This new way of doing science is characterized by intensive use of computer networks, distributed digital repositories and by extraordinary generation of research data, which is a consequence of the heavy use of information and simulation technologies and advancing of scientific instrumentation. The information environment that is established as a result of these transformations significantly impacts the patterns of scientific communication, especially regarding to cooperative research, the sharing and reuse of information resources and ways to communicate and to disseminate research results. In order to create a context for their field of study, the thesis contributes to delineate new and renewed concepts for Information Science such as e-Science, curation of research data, complex digital objects, data repository, CRIS (Current Research Information System Model ) and others key infrastructures for the management of research and also of new conceptions of academic and scientific publications. The research is based on two assumptions: first raises the need for a model of scientific publication that would reflect the new standard for generating scientific knowledge characterized by data richness, and being able to integrate these data to publications; the second highlights that this can be performed according to the technological possibilities and standards arising from the Semantic Web. These two assumptions embody the formulation of the hypothesis raised by this thesis: a scientific publication can be enriched and be closer to new ways of generating knowledge, which characterizes contemporary science, if it is configured according to a model that links through semantic relations the research data and datasets to conventional publication. The method adopted was the deductive one, starting from general concepts of Information Science

  16. Scientific Playworlds: a Model of Teaching Science in Play-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2017-09-01

    Eminent scientists, like Einstein, worked with theoretical contradiction, thought experiments, mental models and visualisation—all characteristics of children's play. Supporting children's play is a strength of early childhood teachers. Promising research shows a link between imagination in science and imagination in play. A case study of 3 preschool teachers and 26 children (3.6-5.9 years; mean age of 4.6 years) over 6 weeks was undertaken, generating 59.6 h of digital observations and 788 photographs of play practices. The research sought to understand (1) how imaginative play promotes scientific learning and (2) examined how teachers engaged children in scientific play. Although play pedagogy is a strength of early childhood teachers, it was found that transforming imaginary situations into scientific narratives requires different pedagogical characteristics. The study found that the building of collective scientific narratives alongside of discourses of wondering were key determinants of science learning in play-based settings. Specifically, the pedagogical principles of using a cultural device that mirrors the science experiences, creating imaginary scientific situations, collectively building scientific problem situations, and imagining the relations between observable contexts and non-observable concepts, changed everyday practices into a scientific narrative and engagement. It is argued that these unique pedagogical characteristics promote scientific narratives in play-based settings. An approach, named as Scientific Playworlds, is presented as a possible model for teaching science in play-based settings.

  17. Changes in Students' Views about Nature of Scientific Inquiry at a Science Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, G.; Metin, D.; Capkinoglu, E.; Cetin, P. S.; Eroglu Dogan, E.; Schwartz, R.

    2017-12-01

    Although nature of science (NOS) and nature of scientific inquiry (NOSI) are related to each other, they are differentiated as NOS is being more related to the product of scientific inquiry (SI) which is scientific knowledge whereas NOSI is more related to the process of SI (Schwartz et al. 2008). Lederman et al. (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51, 65-8, 2014) determined eight NOSI aspects for K-16 context. In this study, a science camp was conducted to teach scientific inquiry (SI) and NOSI to 24 6th and 7th graders (16 girls and 8 boys). The core of the program was guided inquiry in nature. The children working in small groups under guidance of science advisors conducted four guided-inquiries in the nature in morning sessions on nearby plants, animals, water, and soil. NOSI aspects were made explicit during and at the end of each inquiry session. Views about scientific inquiry (VASI) (Lederman et al. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51, 65-8, 2014) questionnaire was applied as pre- and post-test. The results of the study showed that children developed in all eight NOSI aspects, but higher developments were observed in "scientific investigations all begin with a question" and "there is no single scientific method," and "explanations are developed from data and what is already known" aspects. It was concluded that the science camp program was effective in teaching NOSI.

  18. NT10: recent advances in carbon nanotube science and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2010-08-24

    A review of recent advances in carbon nanotube science and applications is presented in terms of what was learned at the NT10 11th International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes held in Montreal, Canada, June 29-July 2, 2010.

  19. Exploring a Century of Advancements in the Science of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P. Karen; Knight, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    The past century has yielded a plethora of advancements in the science of learning, from expansions in the theoretical frames that undergird education research to cultural and contextual considerations in educational practice. The overarching purpose of this chapter is to explore and document the growth and development of the science of learning…

  20. Assessing the impact participation in science journalism activities has on scientific literacy among high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cathy

    As part of the National Science Foundation Science Literacy through Science Journalism (SciJourn) research and development initiative (http://www.scijourn.org ; Polman, Saul, Newman, and Farrar, 2008) a quasi-experimental design was used to investigate what impact incorporating science journalism activities had on students' scientific literacy. Over the course of a school year students participated in a variety of activities culminating in the production of science news articles for Scijourner, a regional print and online high school science news magazine. Participating teachers and SciJourn team members collaboratively developed activities focused on five aspects of scientific literacy: placing information into context, recognizing relevance, evaluating factual accuracy, use of multiple credible sources and information seeking processes. This study details the development process for the Scientific Literacy Assessment (SLA) including validity and reliability studies, evaluates student scientific literacy using the SLA, examines student SLA responses to provide a description of high school students' scientific literacy, and outlines implications of the findings in relation to the National Research Council's A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012) and classroom science teaching practices. Scientifically literate adults acting as experts in the assessment development phase informed the creation of a scoring guide that was used to analyze student responses. Experts tended to draw on both their understanding of science concepts and life experiences to formulate answers; paying close attention to scientific factual inaccuracies, sources of information, how new information fit into their view of science and society as well as targeted strategies for information seeking. Novices (i.e., students), in contrast, tended to ignore factual inaccuracies, showed little understanding about source credibility and suggested

  1. Survey of trained scientific women power | Women in Science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Women in Science Panel (WiS) of Indian Academy of Sciences has ... of women scientists in India from various sectors mentioned above and find ... may be, because they have seen few role models of their gender in such establishment.

  2. REALISM WITHOUT TRUTH: A REVIEW OF GIERE'S SCIENCE WITHOUT LAWS AND SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action—as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science. PMID:19949495

  3. Scientific entrepreneurship in the materials and life science industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglasan, Jose Amado; Anderson, Darren J; Thomas, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Scientists constantly generate great ideas in the laboratory and, as most of us were meant to believe, we should publish or perish. After all, what use is a great scientific idea if it is not shared with the rest of the scientific community? What some scientists forget is that a good idea can be worth something - sometimes it can be worth a lot (of money)! What do you do if you believe that your idea has some commercial potential? How do you turn this idea into a business? This chapter gives the aspiring scientific entrepreneur some (hopefully) valuable advice on topics like choosing the right people for your management team, determining inventorship of the technology and ownership shares in the new company, protecting your intellectual property, and others; finally, it describes some of the various pitfalls you may encounter when commercializing an early stage technology and instructions on how to avoid them.

  4. Perspectives of the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: a study of Education Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Meglhioratti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Science Teaching emphasizes the importance of researches in Epistemology and History of Science and also covers social aspects of the scientific construction, there are still relatively very few studies which are systematically based on perspectives from the Sociology of Science or from the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In this article, it has been outlined a brief history of the sociological perspectives of scientific knowledge, characterizing them as differentiationist, antidifferentiationist and tranversalist. Then, a bibliographical study was developed in journals Qualis A1 and A2 in the area of “Teaching” of CAPES, with emphasis in Science Teaching, from 2007 to 2016, aiming to understand how the sociological perspectives are present in science education. The search for articles which articulate sociological aspects and Science Education was done through use of search engines emerging from the accomplished historic, among them: Sociology of Science, Sociology of Scientific Knowledge, Ethnography, Laboratory Studies, Strong Program, Scientific Fields, Scientific Ethos, Actor-Network Theory, Social and Technical Networks, Latour, Bloor, Merton and Bourdieu. Through this research, we have identified 46 articles which have approaches with the subject. The articles were investigated by Content Analysis and were organized in the units of analysis: 1 Foundations of the sociology of knowledge; 2 Scientific Ethos; 3 Science Working System; 4 Sociogenesis of knowledge; 5 Strong Program of Sociology of Knowledge; 6 Laboratory studies and scientific practice; 7 Actor-Network Theory; 8 Bourdieusian Rationale; 9 Non-Bourdieusian tranversalist approaches; 10 Notes regarding the Sociology of Science. The units of analysis with the greatest number of articles were "Laboratory Studies and Scientific Practice" and "Actor-Network Theory", both closer to an antidifferentiationist perspective of the sociology of science, in which

  5. International Scientific School of Excellence Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Joint Institute has long been called a "Scientific School of Excellence". Many scientists and engineers from the Member States were trained in this school. The careers of many outstanding scientists are associated with it. This role of JINR is determined by its founding principles and by the scientific schools of D.I.Blokhintsev, N.N.Bogolyubov, G.N.Flerov, I.M.Frank, H.Hulubei, L.Infeld, G.Nadzhakov, H.Niewodniczanski, B.M.Pontecorvo, V.I.Veksler and other outstanding physicists.

  6. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  7. Proceedings of the 1st symposium on advanced science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The 1st symposium on advanced science research was held in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, on 23-24 March, 1995, under the auspices of JAERI. Two hundred and sixty scientists attended the symposium; over 40% of the attendants were from universities and laboratories outside JAERI. This proceedings consists of 6 oral presentations of the research activities in the Advanced Science Research Center, 70 poster presentations on the field of basic science from both the inside and outside of JAERI and 2 panel discussions on the actinide physics and biocrystallography. (author)

  8. Intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform advanced architectures and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybinski, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgodka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    This book is a selection of results obtained within two years of research per- formed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform.This book is a continuation and extension of the ideas presented in “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” published as volume 390 in the same series in 2012. It is based on the SYNAT 2012 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering.  

  9. Does the public communication of science influence scientific vocation? Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekolschik, Gabriel; Draghi, Cecilia; Adaszko, Dan; Gallardo, Susana

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if public communication of science and technology (PCST) has any influence on people's decision to become dedicated to scientific research. For this reason, a national survey involving 852 researchers from all disciplines was conducted in Argentina. The results showed that the factors affecting scientific vocation are many, and that, regardless of differences in gender, age or discipline, the greatest influence on the decision to go into scientific research is exerted by teachers. The analysis also demonstrated that different manifestations of PCST (science books, press articles, audiovisual material, and activities such as visits to science museums) play a significant role in awakening the vocation for science. From these results it may be stated that PCST--in addition to its function of informing and forming citizens--exerts a significant influence in fostering scientific vocation.

  10. The Crop Journal: A new scientific journal for the global crop science community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wan

    2013-10-01

    articles on developments in both techniques and discovery in related fields. This first issue of The Crop Journal gives an idea of how the editors intend to contribute their efforts to increase knowledge and the means to obtain “good crops”. The editorial panel, selected worldwide, brings an impressive range and depth of expertise to the journal, and each member has agreed to become actively involved in guiding its development and ensuring its interaction with the wider community of crop scientists. Through the journal, we would like to support the rapidly developing scientific field, and make results accessible to all interested people. It is the wish of the Editors that the new journal will be read by agricultural scientists all over the world. Research workers can be assured that their contributions will receive prompt and careful attention and will be considered in order of receipt. It is with great pleasure that we publish the first issue of The Crop Journal. Since the success of the new journal depends entirely on the support of the crop science community it will serve, we therefore invite you to join us in making The Crop Journal an objective, advanced, open and successful journal. We look forward to receiving your reactions and advices, together with your support for the journal. May The Crop Journal find conditions favorable to its growth!

  11. Scientific Literacy Matters: Using Literature to Meet Next Generation Science Standards and 21st Century Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tomovic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literacy matters. It matters because it is vitally important to the education and development of America’s children, tomorrow's workforce, and the keepers of our future. If the future of American individual decision making, engagement in civic and cultural affairs, and valuable contributions to economic development is to be protected, it is critical that American students become more scientifically literate than they are today. Today, most Americans, including students, are considered scientifically illiterate. Recognizing the need to develop and enhance scientific literacy (also known as science literacy, science educators have worked diligently at developing new science standards, new approaches to science teaching, and new techniques aimed at engaging students in the practice of science. In this article, the use of literature is discussed as one method to augment or supplement the teaching of science. In the context of making a literature selection, a new conceptual approach is proposed that includes attention to meeting the Next Generation Science Standards while being responsive to the importance of 21st Century Skills. Additionally, a Literary Assessment Tool is shared that demonstrates how science educators can evaluate a literary selection in terms of how well it will help them to enhance scientific literacy.

  12. The Science of AIDS. Readings from Scientific American Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of scientific articles on the subject of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) covers many facets of the physical and social aspects of the disease. Technical articles deal with the molecular and cellular biology of AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The national and international epidemiology of AIDS and HIV are…

  13. Doing science: how to get credit for your scientific work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudri, Daan; Bjerg, Anders; Saad, Neil; Jacinto, Tiago; Chalmers, James; Hardavella, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    Everyone deserves to be acknowledged for their efforts and contributions to a shared goal, and getting credit for your scientific work should be part of a natural process and should be fair and straightforward. However, credit cannot be objectively measured despite it having a big influence and, unfortunately, getting appropriate credit can occasionally be both complicated and challenging.

  14. Crayfish Behavior: Observing Arthropods to Learn about Science & Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a set of animal behavior investigations in which students will practice scientific inquiry as they observe crayfish, ask questions, and discuss territoriality, social interactions, and other behaviors. In doing this, they hone their skills of observation, learn to record and analyze data, control for variables, write hypotheses, make…

  15. What's Wrong with Talking about the Scientific Revolution? Applying Lessons from History of Science to Applied Fields of Science Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, the 'Scientific Revolution' has arguably occupied centre stage in most Westerners', and many non-Westerners', conceptions of science history. Yet among history of science specialists that position has been profoundly contested. Most radically, historians Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams in 1993 proposed to…

  16. Materials science at an Advanced Hadron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.

    1988-01-01

    The uses of neutron scattering as a probe for condensed matter phenomena are described briefly and some arguments are given to justify the community's desire for more powerful neutron sources. Appropriate design parameters for a neutron source at an Advanced Hadron Facility are presented, and such a source is compared with other existing and planned spallation neutron sources. 5 refs

  17. From Scientific Innovation to Popularization of Science: a Theoretical Model TOC \\o "1-5" \\h \\z of Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Medvedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Science communication is process of promotion of scientific ideas from a scientist through scientific community to muss public. Now this research area attracts a lot of attention from scientists. At the same time science communication suffers from the lack of theoretical framework, which can integrate it. In this article we try to contribute to the further theoretical integration of this area. Here we discuss a model of motion and transformation of ideas from the moment of their generation to the time of their appearance in public movies and literature. The model consists of 5 elements: phase of a scientist (generation of ideas; phase of scientific community (promotion of the ideas among scientists; phase of interested groups (communication with business and government, education of future scientists; phase of popular science (promotion of ideas into mass culture; phase of fiction (subject of communication becomes not scientific knowledge, but myth about science. Each phase is conceived as equal in value stage of existence of scientific ideas. There is a consistent interaction between all phases. The ideas can flow sequentially through all five phases. But independent communication among separate stages is also possible. Furthermore, the ideas can flow in both directions from scientific community to public and visa verse. As a result, scientific communication becomes a real dialogue with equal partners.

  18. Discussion of nuclear science and technology information base on serving our company scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhong; Liu Wenbin

    2010-01-01

    In the eleventh five-year, our company scientific research have a long way to go and preparatory work of commercial reprocessing has startup under digital information society. Fundamental change of existing content, model of nuclear science and technology information occurred to fit for new situation and new environment, and in order to service for our company scientific research. In this paper, we discuss the development of new services that fits for our company science and technology information. (authors)

  19. Guiding students towards sensemaking: teacher questions focused on integrating scientific practices with science content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2017-10-01

    Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.

  20. Science Teaching Attitudes and Scientific Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers of Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Sezen Camci

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine science teaching attitudes and scientific attitudes of pre-service teachers of gifted students due to gender and grade level and also correlation among these variables. It is a survey study that the group is 82 students attending Gifted Education undergraduate level. Data is gathered by Scientific Attitude…

  1. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  2. Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 and Scientific Literacy: A Perspective for Science Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the idea of scientific literacy as defined in PISA, discusses relevant results of PISA, and clarifies meaningful relationships between PISA data and scientific competencies of U.S. students. Finally, the author includes insights and recommendations for contemporary leadership in science education. (Contains 8 tables and 1…

  3. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perception of the Principles of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Sendil; Kaymakci, Güliz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study employing the survey method is to determine the pre-service science teachers' perceptions of the principles of scientific research and to investigate the effects of gender, grade level and the state of following scientific publications on their perceptions. The sampling of the current research is comprised of 125…

  4. Perspectives on open science and scientific data sharing : An interdisciplinary workshop”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destro Bisol, G.; Anagnostou, P.; Capocasa, M.; Bencivelli, S.; Cerroni, A.; Contreras, J.; Enke, N.; Fantini, B.; Greco, P.; Heeney, C.; Luzi, D.; Manghi, P.; Mascalzoni, D.; Molloy, J.; Parenti, F.; Wicherts, J.M.; Boulton, G.

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Open Science and Open Data from a broad perspective. This is the idea behind “Scientific data sharing: an interdisciplinary workshop”, an initiative designed to foster dialogue between scholars from different scientific domains which was organized by the Istituto Italiano di Antropologia

  5. Preaching to the Scientifically Converted: Evaluating Inclusivity in Science Festival Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eric B.; Jensen, Eric A.; Verbeke, Monae

    2018-01-01

    Scientific institutions are increasingly embracing values of inclusivity and public engagement, but how do these two dimensions intersect? Science festivals have rapidly expanded in recent years as an outgrowth of these values, aiming to engage and educate the public about scientific topics and research. While resources invested in public…

  6. Improving Science Student Teachers' Self-Perceptions of Fluency with Innovative Technologies and Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Küçük, Zeynel; Artun, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of "Environmental Chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) self-perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (InT) and scientific inquiry abilities. The study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68…

  7. Scientific Caricatures in the Earth Science Classroom: An Alternative Assessment for Meaningful Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Archive-based, historical research of materials produced during the Golden Age of Geology (1788-1840) uncovered scientific caricatures (SCs) which may serve as a unique form of knowledge representation for students today. SCs played important roles in the past, stimulating critical inquiry among early geologists and fueling debates that addressed key theoretical issues. When historical SCs were utilized in a large-enrollment college Earth History course, student response was positive. Therefore, we offered SCs as an optional assessment tool. Paired t-tests that compared individual students’ performances with the SC option, as well as without the SC option, showed a significant positive difference favoring scientific caricatures ( α = 0.05). Content analysis of anonymous student survey responses revealed three consistent findings: (a) students enjoyed expressing science content correctly but creatively through SCs, (b) development of SCs required deeper knowledge integration and understanding of the content than conventional test items, and (c) students appreciated having SC item options on their examinations, whether or not they took advantage of them. We think that incorporation of SCs during assessment may effectively expand the variety of methods for probing understanding, thereby increasing the mode validity of current geoscience tests.

  8. Science journalists learn of scientific renaissance at Doha conference

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2011-01-01

    Last week, over 700 science journalists from around the world made their way to Doha, Qatar, for the World Conference of Science Journalists. This meeting takes place every two years, and is the largest gathering of science writers in the world. Established in the early 1990s, this is the first time that a Middle Eastern country has hosted the conference, and it was quite an eye opener.   American-Egyptian Nobel Prize winner Ahmed Zewail delivers a keynote address at the World Conference of Science Journalists. Firstly, the large number of participants shows clearly that reports of the demise of science journalism seem to have been widely exaggerated. But it’s not only the number or participants that’s impressive: it’s also where they came from. Thanks in part to grants from the Qatar Foundation, 90 countries were represented with around 50% of participants coming from the developing world. One real eye-opener was the state of science in the Middle East. Originally s...

  9. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications of nuclear technologies. (1) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Okuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the first issue showing their overview and introduction of continuum simulation methods. Finite element method as their applications is also reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Scientific literacy of adult participants in an online citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles Aaron

    Citizen Science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. Scientific results from these projects have been well documented. However, there is limited research about how these projects affect their volunteer participants. In this study, I investigate how participation in an online, collaborative astronomical citizen science project can be associated with the scientific literacy of its participants. Scientific literacy is measured through three elements: attitude towards science, belief in the nature of science and competencies associated with learning science. The first two elements are measured through a pre-test given to 1,385 participants when they join the project and a post-test given six months later to 125 participants. Attitude towards science was measured using nine Likert-items custom designed for this project and beliefs in the nature of science were measured using a modified version of the Nature of Science Knowledge scale. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Competencies are measured through analysis of discourse occurring in online asynchronous discussion forums using the Community of Inquiry framework, which describes three types of presence in the online forums: cognitive, social and teaching. Results show that overall attitudes did not change, p = .225. However, there was significant change towards attitudes about science in the news (positive) and scientific self efficacy (negative), p impact on some aspects of scientific literacy. Using the Rasch Model allowed us to uncover effects that may have otherwise been hidden. Future projects may want to include social interactivity between participants and also make participants specifically aware of how they are contributing to the entire scientific process.

  11. A New Approach in Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for High-Performance Scientific Data Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-01-28

    Scientific applications already generate many terabytes and even petabytes of data from supercomputer runs and large-scale experiments. The need for transferring data chunks of ever-increasing sizes through the network shows no sign of abating. Hence, we need high-bandwidth high speed networks such as ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Network reservation systems, i.e. ESnet's OSCARS (On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System) establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. OSCARS checks network availability and capacity for the specified period of time, and allocates requested bandwidth for that user if it is available. If the requested reservation cannot be granted, no further suggestion is returned back to the user. Further, there is no possibility from the users view-point to make an optimal choice. We report a new algorithm, where the user specifies the total volume that needs to be transferred, a maximum bandwidth that he/she can use, and a desired time period within which the transfer should be done. The algorithm can find alternate allocation possibilities, including earliest time for completion, or shortest transfer duration - leaving the choice to the user. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks, and a new polynomial algorithm to find possible reservation options according to given constraints. We have implemented our algorithm for testing and incorporation into a future version of ESnet?s OSCARS. Our approach provides a basis for provisioning end-to-end high performance data transfers over storage and network resources.

  12. An advanced material science payload for GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, R.; Wallin, S.; Loeth, K.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to study solidification of different compositions of lead-tin. The weight of the material is quite high: 8 kilograms. Nearly 10% of the payload is sample weight. The dendritic growth and the effect of the absence of natural convection are of particular interest. The results from the flight processed samples will be compared with results from Earth processed samples in order to investigate the influence of the natural convection on the solidification process. The power systems, heat storage and rejection, and mechanical support are discussed in relationship to the scientific requirements.

  13. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  14. 78 FR 59018 - Notification of a Closed Meeting of the Science Advisory Board's Scientific and Technological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9901-32-OA] Notification of a Closed Meeting of the Science... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA), Science Advisory... contributions in the advancement of science and technology through their research and development activities, as...

  15. Advances in Computer Science and Education

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    CSE2011 is an integrated conference concentration its focus on computer science and education. In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about computer science and education of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful

  16. STATE INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTIVITY OF UNIVERSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Domagoj Karacic; Ivan Miskulin; Hrvoje Serdarusic

    2016-01-01

    State investment in service activities of the public sector, as well as the financial returns analyzed from the aspect of service effectiveness and utilization of public goods, can be considered as one of the most significant dilemmas, especially in the field of education. When analyzing state investments, through investment in education and development of the university, we can conclude that state investments in scientific productivity of universities fall into one of the main future framewo...

  17. Science and sociability: women as audience at the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1831-1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, Rebekah; Withers, Charles W J

    2008-03-01

    This essay recovers the experiences of women at the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) from its founding in 1831 to the end of the Victorian era. It aims to add to research on women in science by reconsidering the traditional role of women as consumers rather than producers of knowledge and to that on science popularization by focusing on audience experience rather than on the aims and strategies of popularizers. The essay argues that, in various ways, the ubiquitous and visible female audience came to define the BAAS audience and "the public" for science more generally. The women who swelled the BAAS audiences were accepted as a social element within the meetings even as they were regarded critically as scientific participants. Portrayed as passive and nonscientific, women allowed the male scientific elites to distance themselves from their audiences. Arguing from diary and other evidence, we present examples that complicate existing notions of audiences for science as necessarily active.

  18. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.

  19. Advancing Geospatial Technologies in Science and Social Science: A Case Study in Collaborative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N. A.; Morris, J. N.; Simms, M. L.; Metoyer, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Advancing Geospatial Skills in Science and Social Sciences (AGSSS) program, funded by NSF, provides middle and high school teacher-partners with access to graduate student scientists for classroom collaboration and curriculum adaptation to incorporate and advance skills in spatial thinking. AGSSS Fellows aid in the delivery of geospatially-enhanced activities utilizing technology such as geographic information systems, remote sensing, and virtual globes. The partnership also provides advanced professional development for both participating teachers and fellows. The AGSSS program is mutually beneficial to all parties involved. This successful collaboration of scientists, teachers, and students results in greater understanding and enthusiasm for the use of spatial thinking strategies and geospatial technologies. In addition, the partnership produces measurable improvements in student efficacy and attitudes toward processes of spatial thinking. The teacher partner training and classroom resources provided by AGSSS will continue the integration of geospatial activities into the curriculum after the project concludes. Time and resources are the main costs in implementing this partnership. Graduate fellows invest considerable time and energy, outside of academic responsibilities, to develop materials for the classroom. Fellows are required to be available during K-12 school hours, which necessitates forethought in scheduling other graduate duties. However, the benefits far outweigh the costs. Graduate fellows gain experience in working in classrooms. In exchange, students gain exposure to working scientists and their research. This affords graduate fellows the opportunity to hone their communication skills, and specifically allows them to address the issue of translating technical information for a novice audience. Teacher-partners and students benefit by having scientific expertise readily available. In summation, these experiences result in changes in teacher

  20. [Scientific advice by the national and European approval authorities concerning advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Nils; Schüssler-Lenz, Martina; Ziegele, Bettina; Reinhardt, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The aim of scientific advice is to support pharmaceutical developers in regulatory and scientific questions, thus facilitating the development of safe and efficacious new medicinal products. Recent years have shown that the development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in particular needs a high degree of regulatory support. On one hand, this is related to the complexity and heterogeneity of this group of medicinal products and on the other hand due to the fact that mainly academic research institutions and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are developing ATMPs. These often have limited regulatory experience and resources. In 2009 the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) initiated the Innovation Office as a contact point for applicants developing ATMPs. The mandate of the Innovation Office is to provide support on regulatory questions and to coordinate national scientific advice meetings concerning ATMPs for every phase in drug development and especially with view to the preparation of clinical trial applications. On the European level, the Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) offers scientific advice. This article describes the concepts of national and EMA scientific advice concerning ATMPs and summarizes the experience of the last six years.

  1. Under-Representation of Women in Science: From Educational, Feminist and Scientific Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarseke, Gulnar

    2018-01-01

    The article aims to explore the main reasons why women are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects and careers. The article critically analyzes three approaches: educational, feminist, and scientific. This work highlights that the subject "gender and science" has been looked at for at least…

  2. Teaching with Socio-Scientific Issues in Physical Science: Teacher and Students' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) are recommended by many science educators worldwide for learners to acquire first hand experience to apply what they learned in class. This investigated experiences of teacher-researcher and students in using SSI in Physical Science, Second Semester, School Year 2012-2013. Latest and controversial news articles on…

  3. The role by scientific publications in science communication (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabbri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In their contributions to this special issue, the British science writer Jon Turney and the American scholar Bruce Lewenstein discuss the validity of the book as a means for science communication in the era of the Internet, whereas the article by Vittorio Bo deals with scientific publishing in a broader sense.

  4. Physical Sciences Preservice Teachers' Religious and Scientific Views Regarding the Origin of the Universe and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores final-year physical sciences preservice teachers' religious and scientific views regarding the origin of the universe and life. Data was obtained from 10 preservice teachers from individual in-depth interviews conducted at the end of the Science Method module. Their viewpoints were analyzed using coding, sorting, and…

  5. USGS Science Data Catalog - Open Data Advances or Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, M. T.; Hutchison, V.; Zolly, L.; Wheeler, B.; Latysh, N.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.; Shrestha, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) White House Open Data Policies (2013) have required Federal agencies to establish formal catalogues of their science data holdings and make these data easily available on Web sites, portals, and applications. As an organization, the USGS has historically excelled at making its data holdings freely available on its various Web sites (i.e., National, Scientific Programs, or local Science Center). In response to these requirements, the USGS Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries program, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE), and a number of other USGS organizations, established the Science Data Catalog (http://data.usgs.gov) cyberinfrastructure, content management processes/tools, and supporting policies. The USGS Science Data Catalog led the charge at USGS to improve the robustness of existing/future metadata collections; streamline and develop sustainable publishing to external aggregators (i.e., data.gov); and provide leadership to the U.S. Department of Interior in emerging Open Data policies, techniques, and systems. The session will discuss the current successes, challenges, and movement toward meeting these Open Data policies for USGS scientific data holdings. A retrospective look at the last year of implementation of these efforts within USGS will occur to determine whether these Open Data Policies are improving data access or limiting data availability. To learn more about the USGS Science Data Catalog, visit us at http://data.usgs.gov/info/about.html

  6. Technical advances in rhinologic basic science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; Turner, Justin H; Lane, Andrew P

    2009-10-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is the single most common self-reported chronic health condition in the United States and is estimated to affect 16% of the adult population annually. Despite the prevalence of this disease, there still exists an incomplete understanding of CRS pathophysiology. In this review, the authors highlight technological advances in rhinology: real-time polymerase chain reaction, epithelial cell culture, flow cytometry, genomics/single-nucleotide polymorphism detection, microarrays, and genetic/nongenetic animal models of sinusitis. The purpose of this review is to describe these methodologies and their contributions toward achieving a better understanding of CRS.

  7. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (4) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Okita, Taira

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the fourth issue showing the overview of scientific computational methods with the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Simulation methods on physical radiation effects on materials are reviewed based on the process such as binary collision approximation, molecular dynamics, kinematic Monte Carlo method, reaction rate method and dislocation dynamics. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Enhancing the Scientific Process with Artificial Intelligence: Forest Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Daniel L. Schmoldt; H. Michael Rauscher

    1991-01-01

    Forestry, as a science, is a process for investigating nature. It consists of repeatedly cycling through a number of steps, including identifying knowledge gaps, creating knowledge to fill them, and organizing, evaluating, and delivering this knowledge. Much of this effort is directed toward creating abstract models of natural phenomena. The cognitive techniques of AI...

  9. Science, democracy and emerging threats to scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Stephan M

    2012-08-23

    Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system) and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes?

  10. Science, democracy and emerging threats to scientific progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system) and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes? PMID:22916710

  11. Science, democracy and emerging threats to scientific progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Stephan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes?

  12. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  13. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kamimura, Tsutomu

    1994-01-01

    This serial is a translation of the original works within the Japan Society of Software Science and Technology. A key source of information for computer scientists in the U.S., the serial explores the major areas of research in software and technology in Japan. These volumes are intended to promote worldwide exchange of ideas among professionals.This volume includes original research contributions in such areas as Augmented Language Logic (ALL), distributed C language, Smalltalk 80, and TAMPOPO-an evolutionary learning machine based on the principles of Realtime Minimum Skyline Detection.

  14. Perspectives on Open Science and scientific data sharing:an interdisciplinary workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Anagnostou, Paolo; Capocasa, Marco; Bencivelli, Silvia; Cerroni, Andrea; Contreras, Jorge; Enke, Neela; Fantini, Bernardino; Greco, Pietro; Heeney, Catherine; Luzi, Daniela; Manghi, Paolo; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Molloy, Jennifer; Parenti, Fabio; Wicherts, Jelte; Boulton, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Open Science and Open Data from a broad perspective. This is the idea behind "Scientific data sharing: an interdisciplinary workshop", an initiative designed to foster dialogue between scholars from different scientific domains which was organized by the Istituto Italiano di Antropologia in Anagni, Italy, 2-4 September 2013.We here report summaries of the presentations and discussions at the meeting. They deal with four sets of issues: (i) setting a common framework, a general discussion of open data principles, values and opportunities; (ii) insights into scientific practices, a view of the way in which the open data movement is developing in a variety of scientific domains (biology, psychology, epidemiology and archaeology); (iii) a case study of human genomics, which was a trail-blazer in data sharing, and which encapsulates the tension that can occur between large-scale data sharing and one of the boundaries of openness, the protection of individual data; (iv) open science and the public, based on a round table discussion about the public communication of science and the societal implications of open science. There were three proposals for the planning of further interdisciplinary initiatives on open science. Firstly, there is a need to integrate top-down initiatives by governments, institutions and journals with bottom-up approaches from the scientific community. Secondly, more should be done to popularize the societal benefits of open science, not only in providing the evidence needed by citizens to draw their own conclusions on scientific issues that are of concern to them, but also explaining the direct benefits of data sharing in areas such as the control of infectious disease. Finally, introducing arguments from social sciences and humanities in the educational dissemination of open data may help students become more profoundly engaged with Open Science and look at science from a broader perspective.

  15. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  16. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  17. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  18. Social sciences, scientific research, higher education and social developments - An Albanian inside of dialectics and structured scientific research, in social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kallçiu

    2013-01-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  19. A former Romanian scientific society: The Society of Physical sciences (1890-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IAVORENCIUC GEORGE ANDREI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Society of Physical sciences (phisycs, chemistry and mineralogy has been an important Romanian scientific society since its establishment, in 1890 until the middle of the twentieth century. This paper seeks to provide an analysis of its activity in the first two decades of existence, a less studied period, namely how its enterprises contributed to the dissemination and spread of the latest scientific ideas within Romania’s culture. The society was founded at the initiative of some of the most proeminent Romanian scientists of that period and, until the end of the nineteenth century, it expanded its sphere of activity by including sections on mathemathics and natural history. Therefore, its activity, exemplified by public conferences, presentation of members’ personal scientific endeavors, intellectual debates or scientific missions, reflected the general development of physical sciences in Romania in that epoch. This research is based mostly on a close scrutiny of society’s scientific journal.

  20. The ADVANCE Program: Targeting the Increase in the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperanca, S.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of NSF's ADVANCE Program is to help increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. The Program tries to address this under representation by focusing on support for men and women with three approaches: institutional (Institutional Transformation), grass-root (Leadership), and individual (Fellows) support. The ADVANCE Program alternates with a round of Institutional and Leadership awards in one year and a Fellows competition the next. Since its inception in 2001, NSF has had two competitive rounds for each of the three award types and will have spent approximately 75 M\\ by the end of the next fiscal year (2004). The first and second ADVANCE Institutional Transformation competitions (FY 2001 and 2003) received over 70 proposals each. These awards are for multi-year support in the amount of 3-4M\\ each. Details and access to the websites for the ADVANCE programs of each institution can be found in NSF's ADVANCE webpage at http://nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/advance/itwebsites.htm. The number of proposals submitted for the Leadership awards competition dropped from 35 in 2001 to 26 in 2003, despite an increase in the allowed award size for the second round. In terms of projected goals, this part of ADVANCE is perhaps the most eclectic. Some Leadership awards were made to professional societies to work specifically with their respective scientific communities in identifying needs that might be peculiar to a field of science. In the first round of the Leadership awards, PI Mary-Anne Holmes of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and collaborators received a grant to work with the Association of Women Geoscientists to determine the current status of women geoscientists in the US. These grantees hope to disseminate the information gathered under this award broadly in order to educate women students and faculty on strategies to

  1. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

    2015-01-01

    In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

  2. Teaching and Learning Scientific Literacy and Citizenship in Partnership with Schools and Science Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry; Quistgaard, Nana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring together research on learning and teaching in science – especially for scientific literacy and citizenship – with new insights into museum didactics in order to inform innovative ways of creating museum exhibits and visits and develop new ways of linking formal...... and informal learning environments. Knowledge from different domains that have evolved substantially over the past few decades is brought together with the intention of setting up some relatively concrete guidelines for arranging visits to science museums. First we examine new understandings of science...... learning in relation to the questions of why young people should learn science and what kind of science they should learn. We touch upon issues of scientific literacy and citizenship, dialogical processes, the nature of science, and inquiry-based teaching among others. Secondly, we relate our reflections...

  3. Open science: policy implications for the evolving phenomenon of user-led scientific innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Stodden

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From contributions of astronomy data and DNA sequences to disease treatment research, scientific activity by non-scientists is a real and emergent phenomenon, and raising policy questions. This involvement in science can be understood as an issue of access to publications, code, and data that facilitates public engagement in the research process, thus appropriate policy to support the associated welfare enhancing benefits is essential. Current legal barriers to citizen participation can be alleviated by scientists’ use of the “Reproducible Research Standard,” thus making the literature, data, and code associated with scientific results accessible. The enterprise of science is undergoing deep and fundamental changes, particularly in how scientists obtain results and share their work: the promise of open research dissemination held by the Internet is gradually being fulfilled by scientists. Contributions to science from beyond the ivory tower are forcing a rethinking of traditional models of knowledge generation, evaluation, and communication. The notion of a scientific “peer” is blurred with the advent of lay contributions to science raising questions regarding the concepts of peer-review and recognition. New collaborative models are emerging around both open scientific software and the generation of scientific discoveries that bear a similarity to open innovation models in other settings. Public engagement in science can be understood as an issue of access to knowledge for public involvement in the research process, facilitated by appropriate policy to support the welfare enhancing benefits deriving from citizen-science.

  4. Integrating scientific data for drug discovery and development using the Life Sciences Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ernst R; Hughes, James B; Stephens, Susie M; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Bishop, Richard W

    2009-06-01

    There are many daunting challenges for companies who wish to bring novel drugs to market. The information complexity around potential drug targets has increased greatly with the introduction of microarrays, high-throughput screening and other technological advances over the past decade, but has not yet fundamentally increased our understanding of how to modify a disease with pharmaceuticals. Further, the bar has been raised in getting a successful drug to market as just being new is no longer enough: the drug must demonstrate improved performance compared with the ever increasing generic pharmacopeia to gain support from payers and government authorities. In addition, partly as a consequence of a climate of concern regarding the safety of drugs, regulatory authorities have approved fewer new molecular entities compared to historical norms over the past few years. To overcome these challenges, the pharmaceutical industry must fully embrace information technology to bring better understood compounds to market. An important first step in addressing an unmet medical need is in understanding the disease and identifying the physiological target(s) to be modulated by the drug. Deciding which targets to pursue for a given disease requires a multidisciplinary effort that integrates heterogeneous data from many sources, including genetic variations of populations, changes in gene expression and biochemical assays. The Life Science Grid was developed to provide a flexible framework to integrate such diverse biological, chemical and disease information to help scientists make better-informed decisions. The Life Science Grid has been used to rapidly and effectively integrate scientific information in the pharmaceutical industry and has been placed in the open source community to foster collaboration in the life sciences community.

  5. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  6. Advances in brazing science, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Brazing processes offer enhanced control, adaptability and cost-efficiency in the joining of materials. Unsurprisingly, this has lead to great interest and investment in the area. Drawing on important research in the field, Advances in brazing provides a clear guide to the principles, materials, methods and key applications of brazing. Part one introduces the fundamentals of brazing, including molten metal wetting processes, strength and margins of safety of brazed joints, and modeling of associated physical phenomena. Part two goes on to consider specific materials, such as super alloys, filler metals for high temperature brazing, diamonds and cubic boron nitride, and varied ceramics and intermetallics. The brazing of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals is also explored before applications of brazing and brazed materials are discussed in part three. Brazing of cutting materials, use of coating techniques, and metal-nonmetal brazing for electrical, packaging and structural applications are reviewed, alon...

  7. How new concepts become universal scientific approaches: insights from citation network analysis of agent-based complex systems science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenot, Christian E

    2018-03-14

    Progress in understanding and managing complex systems comprised of decision-making agents, such as cells, organisms, ecosystems or societies, is-like many scientific endeavours-limited by disciplinary boundaries. These boundaries, however, are moving and can actively be made porous or even disappear. To study this process, I advanced an original bibliometric approach based on network analysis to track and understand the development of the model-based science of agent-based complex systems (ACS). I analysed research citations between the two communities devoted to ACS research, namely agent-based (ABM) and individual-based modelling (IBM). Both terms refer to the same approach, yet the former is preferred in engineering and social sciences, while the latter prevails in natural sciences. This situation provided a unique case study for grasping how a new concept evolves distinctly across scientific domains and how to foster convergence into a universal scientific approach. The present analysis based on novel hetero-citation metrics revealed the historical development of ABM and IBM, confirmed their past disjointedness, and detected their progressive merger. The separation between these synonymous disciplines had silently opposed the free flow of knowledge among ACS practitioners and thereby hindered the transfer of methodological advances and the emergence of general systems theories. A surprisingly small number of key publications sparked the ongoing fusion between ABM and IBM research. Beside reviews raising awareness of broad-spectrum issues, generic protocols for model formulation and boundary-transcending inference strategies were critical means of science integration. Accessible broad-spectrum software similarly contributed to this change. From the modelling viewpoint, the discovery of the unification of ABM and IBM demonstrates that a wide variety of systems substantiate the premise of ACS research that microscale behaviours of agents and system-level dynamics

  8. Advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations: The contributions of nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Patricia A

    Nursing science has a critical role to inform practice, promote health, and improve the lives of individuals across the lifespan who face the challenges of advanced cardiorespiratory disease. Since 1997, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) has focused attention on the importance of palliative and end-of-life care for advanced heart failure and advanced pulmonary disease through the publication of multiple funding opportunity announcements and by supporting a cadre of nurse scientists that will continue to address new priorities and future directions for advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Invention of science a new history of the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wootton, David

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...

  10. Emerging scientific advances: how do they enter dental curricula and the profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Charles F

    2005-10-01

    What is meant by emerging scientific advances? In brief, this terminology is equivalent to new research findings, however, the term "research" is often associated with scientific investigations that have very limited direct clinical relevance. Unfortunately, basic dental research and dental clinical practice have, in many instances, been considered to have nonoverlapping spheres of existence. The existence of mutually exclusive domains is rapidly changing with considerable translational activities between basic research investigation and clinical application developing. There is a growing emphasis at a national level for the importance of moving basic biomedical research laboratory findings into clinical patient-related applications to realize improvements in health based on the research findings. Ultimately, new approaches to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease will be available and represent the translation of the best scientific evidence into clinical applications. It is critical at this time to prepare our dental graduates to be members of the dental profession who will understand the implications that new scientific advances will have on their approach to patient care. The patterns and practices of oral health care delivery will undergo major changes during the careers of our new dental graduates. They need to be prepared to respond to these changes to the benefit of their patients.

  11. Automated sensor networks to advance ocean science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.; Orcutt, J. A.; Arrott, M.; Vernon, F. L.; Peach, C. L.; Meisinger, M.; Krueger, I.; Kleinert, J.; Chao, Y.; Chien, S.; Thompson, D. R.; Chave, A. D.; Balasuriya, A.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation has funded the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), which over the next five years will deploy infrastructure to expand scientist’s ability to remotely study the ocean. The deployed infrastructure will be linked by a robust cyberinfrastructure (CI) that will integrate marine observatories into a coherent system-of-systems. OOI is committed to engaging the ocean sciences community during the construction pahse. For the CI, this is being enabled by using a “spiral design strategy” allowing for input throughout the construction phase. In Fall 2009, the OOI CI development team used an existing ocean observing network in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) to test OOI CI software. The objective of this CI test was to aggregate data from ships, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), shore-based radars, and satellites and make it available to five different data-assimilating ocean forecast models. Scientists used these multi-model forecasts to automate future glider missions in order to demonstrate the feasibility of two-way interactivity between the sensor web and predictive models. The CI software coordinated and prioritized the shared resources that allowed for the semi-automated reconfiguration of assett-tasking, and thus enabled an autonomous execution of observation plans for the fixed and mobile observation platforms. Efforts were coordinated through a web portal that provided an access point for the observational data and model forecasts. Researchers could use the CI software in tandem with the web data portal to assess the performance of individual numerical model results, or multi-model ensembles, through real-time comparisons with satellite, shore-based radar, and in situ robotic measurements. The resulting sensor net will enable a new means to explore and study the world’s oceans by providing scientists a responsive network in the world’s oceans that can be accessed via any wireless network.

  12. First COSTECH scientific and technological conference: Science and technology for growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognised worldwide that science and technology is central to creating wealth and improving the quality of life. Indeed, the main difference between the developed countries and developing countries is the level of science, technology and innovative developments and applications. It is therefore necessary to undertake deliberate efforts to ensure that science science and technology is adequately and effectively applied if sustainable national economic development is to be achieved. Recognizing the role of Science and Technology in social economic development of the nation, the government of the URT has provided an enabling environment for the application of Science and Technology in its endeavour to bring about the desired national advancements. (author)

  13. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  14. Advanced Information Technology Investments at the NASA Earth Science Technology Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Seablom, M. S.; Moe, K.

    2012-12-01

    -based systems, increase the accessibility and utility of science data, and to enable new observation measurements and information products. We will discuss the ESTO investment strategy for information technology development, the methods used to assess stakeholder needs and technology advancements, and technology partnerships to enhance the infusion for the resulting technology. We also describe specific investments and their potential impact on enabling NASA missions and scientific discovery. [1] "Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey", 2012: National Academies Press, http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13405 [2] "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space", 2010: NASA Tech Memo, http://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2010/07/01/Climate_Architecture_Final.pdf

  15. The pedagogical possibilities in the education of scientific research methodology in information science and the scientific objects of this field: durkheim approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco das Chagas de Souza

    2003-01-01

    This article results of bibliographical, exploratory and qualitative research. Its argues that three approaches are gifts in the educational process of discipline of the Scientific Research Methodology in Information Science. They are the social facts of the Information Science, the types of the research and the social theory. It sees that the pedagogical possibilities of the education of Scientific Methodology in Information Science are related with the practical one of the writing which dep...

  16. Scientific Discovery through Citizen Science via Popular Amateur Astrophotography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Allen, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Can popular astrophotography stimulate real astronomical discovery? Perhaps surprisingly, in some cases, the answer is yes. Several examples are given using the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) site as an example venue. One reason is angular -- popular wide and deep images sometimes complement professional images which typically span a more narrow field. Another reason is temporal -- an amateur is at the right place and time to take a unique and illuminating image. Additionally, popular venues can be informational -- alerting professionals to cutting-edge amateur astrophotography about which they might not have known previously. Methods of further encouraging this unusual brand of citizen science are considered.

  17. Decision science: a scientific approach to enhance public health budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Fos, Peter J; Smith, Torney; Riley, Michael; Kramarz, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of resources for public health programming is a complicated and daunting responsibility. Financial decision-making processes within public health agencies are especially difficult when not supported with techniques for prioritizing and ranking alternatives. This article presents a case study of a decision analysis software model that was applied to the process of identifying funding priorities for public health services in the Spokane Regional Health District. Results on the use of this decision support system provide insights into how decision science models, which have been used for decades in business and industry, can be successfully applied to public health budgeting as a means of strengthening agency financial management processes.

  18. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  19. Frames of scientific evidence: How journalists represent the (un)certainty of molecular medicine in science television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhrmann, Georg; Guenther, Lars; Kessler, Sabrina Heike; Milde, Jutta

    2015-08-01

    For laypeople, media coverage of science on television is a gateway to scientific issues. Defining scientific evidence is central to the field of science, but there are still questions if news coverage of science represents scientific research findings as certain or uncertain. The framing approach is a suitable framework to classify different media representations; it is applied here to investigate the frames of scientific evidence in film clips (n=207) taken from science television programs. Molecular medicine is the domain of interest for this analysis, due to its high proportion of uncertain and conflicting research findings and risks. The results indicate that television clips vary in their coverage of scientific evidence of molecular medicine. Four frames were found: Scientific Uncertainty and Controversy, Scientifically Certain Data, Everyday Medical Risks, and Conflicting Scientific Evidence. They differ in their way of framing scientific evidence and risks of molecular medicine. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Whose Science and Whose Religion? Reflections on the Relations between Scientific and Religious Worldviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennan, Stuart

    2009-06-01

    Arguments about the relationship between science and religion often proceed by identifying a set of essential characteristics of scientific and religious worldviews and arguing on the basis of these characteristics for claims about a relationship of conflict or compatibility between them. Such a strategy is doomed to failure because science, to some extent, and religion, to a much larger extent, are cultural phenomena that are too diverse in their expressions to be characterized in terms of a unified worldview. In this paper I follow a different strategy. Having offered a loose characterization of the nature of science, I pose five questions about specific areas where religious and scientific worldviews may conflict—questions about the nature of faith, the belief in a God or Gods, the authority of sacred texts, the relationship between scientific and religious conceptions of the mind/soul, and the relationship between scientific and religious understandings of moral behavior. My review of these questions will show that they cannot be answered unequivocally because there is no agreement amongst religious believers as to the meaning of important religious concepts. Thus, whether scientific and religious worldviews conflict depends essentially upon whose science and whose religion one is considering. In closing, I consider the implications of this conundrum for science education.

  1. Climate change as seen by science and scientific dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The climate change approach by two daily newspapers and two weekly magazines in 2006 and 2007, and this theme perception by opinion-makers, constitute the major target of this work. A survey was conducted with subscribers to Folha de S. Paulo and O Estado de S. Paulo newspapers, Veja and Epoca magazines, with their journalists, as well as with climate change scientists. The survey showed that is equally high the public interest in general science subjects and in specific environmental themes. In the analyzed periodicals, some incorrect technical concepts were detected and the press coverage focused, mainly, on research into climate change impacts. Energy security, another factor strongly related to climate, was explored by the research to evaluate public view of a relation between climate change and nuclear energy. A parallel may be made between climate change and nuclear catastrophe, present in the popular imaginary, since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Considering the science role in general, it is essential to highlight the fact that the state of the art research should not be dissociated from efficient and effective communication, able to mobilize citizens and touch decision-makers. Although the dialogue between scientists and the public was considered, traditionally, as related to separated fields of awareness, it may be achieved and the media has a fundamental role in this process. (author)

  2. Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sobh, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2011). The contents of this book are a set of rigorously reviewed, world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of  Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.

  3. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capabilities for serving science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of research on potential science applications of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. Discussed here are: (1) general research on communications related issues; (2) a survey of science-related activities and programs in the local area; (3) interviews of selected scientists and associated telecommunications support personnel whose projects have communications requirements; (4) analysis of linkages between ACTS functionality and science user communications activities and modes of operation; and (5) an analysis of survey results and the projection of conclusions to a national scale.

  4. Citizen Science in Planetary Sciences: Intersection of Scientific Research and Amateur Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2014-11-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON in 2013. Following the success of the professional-amateur astronomer collaboration in scientific research via social media, it is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers:(1) the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals, that canbe galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns;(2) assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign;(3) provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise;(4) immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members;(5) provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to helpstrategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit.In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been initiated: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/SidingSpring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), target for ESA/Rosetta mission. The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns of current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The

  5. Science and Scientific Curiosity in Pre-school—The teacher's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Kesner Baruch, Yael; Mevarech, Zemira

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, early science education is well-accepted by researchers, education professionals and policy makers. Overall, teachers' attitudes and conceptions toward the science subject domain and science education influence their ways of teaching and engagement. However, there is a lack of research regarding factors that affect this engagement in pre-school years. The main assumption of this study is that teachers' attitudes regarding science in pre-school can shape children's engagement in science and develop their scientific curiosity. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are to investigate the attitudes of pre-school teachers toward engaging in science and to explore their views about the nature of curiosity: who is a curious child and how can a child's natural curiosity be fostered? An extensive survey was conducted among 146 pre-school teachers by employing both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results indicate that most of the participants believe that scientific education should begin in early childhood; very young children can investigate and take part in a process of inquiry; and scientific activities in pre-school can influence children's long-term attitudes toward science. Despite these views, most participants felt they did not possess sufficient scientific knowledge. Furthermore, participants expressed diverse opinions when asked to identify what constitutes curiosity, how the curious child can be identified and how a child's curiosity can be fostered. The research findings carry significant implications regarding how to implement scientific activities in pre-school, and how to encourage pre-school teachers to engage children in scientific activities in a way that will nurture their natural curiosity.

  6. Scientific culture in Colombia. A proposal of an indicator system for science technology and innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Martinez, C.I.; Alfonso, W.H

    2016-07-01

    In last decades, scientific culture has become a key element of Governance of Science, Technology and Innovation in the countries where it is important to determine measurement to analysis trends on scientific culture. Research questions that guide this paper are the following: i. What are information needs on scientific culture in Colombia?; ii. How can be measured scientific culture?; iii. What is the adequate structure for indicators of scientific culture?. In order to answer these questions, a mix of methodologies is used. First, we review the literature on scientific culture and indicators related to this topic. Second, we made a series of interviews with staff members of Colciencias to determine requirements of measurement on scientific culture. Third, with this information, we built an information matrix to prioritise information and determine indicators with respective metrics, and sources according to relevance and cost-effectiveness of estimation. Fourth, from indicators formulated and an indicator system is proposed determining for every dimension of scientific culture indicators related to inputs, process, and outputs designed indicator sheets that includes definition, objective, sources aggregation levels, time series, and calculation methods for indicators proposed. This study achieves formulate an indicator system from the definition of scientific culture a and its dimension proposing around 60 indicators through a multidimensional model that integrates different elements of scientific culture such as the individual and society establishing indicators to measure inputs, process and outputs in general form and specific initiatives for Colciencias. (Author)

  7. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  8. Using children's literature to enhance views of nature of science and scientific attitude in fourth graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Kathryn Walker

    This project was an effort to study the effect of integrating children's trade books into the fourth grade science curriculum on the students' views of the nature of science and their scientific attitude. The effect on the students' reading and language achievement, and science content knowledge was also analyzed. This was done by comparing the nature of science views and scientific attitudes, reading and language achievement scores, and the science grades of the treatment group, prior to and immediately following the intervention period, with the control group which did not participate in the integration of children's books. The science teacher's views on the nature of science and her attitude towards teaching science were also evaluated prior to and after the intervention. The selected trade books were evaluated for their coverage of nature of science aspects. Three intact classes of fourth grade students from a local elementary school were involved in the study along with their science and reading teacher. Two of the classes made up the experimental group and the remaining class served as the control group. All students were assessed prior to the intervention phase on their views of the nature of science and scientific attitudes. The experimental group was engaged in reading selected science trade books during their science class and study hall over a semester period. The results of the study showed a significant difference in the groups' initial reading and language achievement, which may have affected the lack of an effect from the intervention. The instrument selected to assess the student's views on the nature of science and scientific attitude (SAI II) was not reliable with this group. There was no significant difference on the students' science content knowledge as measured by their semester grade averages. The results from the teacher's response on the STAS II did indicate slight changes on her views on the nature of science. Sixty-nine of the eighty

  9. Cosmetic mesotherapy: between scientific evidence, science fiction, and lucrative business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Dibo, Saad A

    2008-11-01

    Mesotherapy, originally conceived in Europe, is a minimally invasive technique that consists of the intra- or subcutaneous injection of variable mixtures of natural plant extracts, homeopathic agents, pharmaceuticals, vitamins, and other bioactive substances in microscopic quantities through dermal multipunctures. Its application in cosmetic medicine and surgery is gaining in popularity and acceptance and is rapidly growing in profile at an alarming rate. Despite their attraction as purported rejuvenating and ''fat-dissolving'' injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous, making mesotherapy vulnerable to criticism by the generally more skeptical medical community. The technique is shrouded in mystery and the controversy surrounding it pertains to its efficacy and potential adverse effects that are subject of much concern. As with any new technology, it is important to assess the benefits, safety, experience, and standardization of mesotherapy. More studies are necessary before it can be advocated as a safe and effective treatment for body contouring and facial rejuvenation. Although the claims made about mesotherapy may be hard to believe at face value, we must be cautious about rejecting new ideas. Just as absence of proof is not proof of absence, lack of scientific validation is not proof that it does not work.

  10. Discursive geographies in science: space, identity, and scientific discourse among indigenous women in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2008-09-01

    Despite completing undergraduate degrees in the life sciences, few Indigenous women choose to pursue careers in scientific research. To help us understand how American Indian students engage with science, this ethnographic research describes (1) how four Navajo women identified with science, and (2) the narratives they offered when we discussed their experiences with scientific discourse. Using intensive case studies to describe the experiences of these women, my research focused on their final year of undergraduate study in the life sciences at a university in southwestern US. I point to the processes by which the participants align themselves with ideas, practices, groups, or people in science. As each participant recounted her experiences with scientific discourse, they recreated for me a discursive geography of their lives on the reservation, at home, at community colleges (in some cases), and on the university campus. In the construction and analysis of the narratives for this research, mapping this geography was critical to understanding each participant's discursive relationship with science. In these discursive spaces, I observed productive "locations of possibility" in which students and their instructors: valued connected knowing; acknowledged each other's history, culture, and knowledge; began to speak to each other subject-to-subject; and challenged normative views of schooling. I argue that this space, as a location of possibility, has the power to transform the crushing impersonalized schooling that often characterizes "rigorous" scientific programs in a research institution.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume II: Life Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, Beatrice; Jaussi, Rolf [eds.

    1999-09-01

    The Department of Life Sciences, is aiming to perform high quality research in biosciences focused primarily on oncology and in close interaction with the technical facilities at PSI e.g. proton therapy, SINQ, SLS, and the national and international bioscience community. Within this department, the Division of Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Treatment is responsible for the radiological safety of the personnel, the installations and the environment at PSI, and it is charged with dismantling obsolete nuclear installations at PSI. The principal research and development activities of this division concern novel methods for neutron dosimetry, and the study of presence and pathways of natural and man made radioactivity in humans and in the environment. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume II: Life Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschwend, Beatrice; Jaussi, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Life Sciences, is aiming to perform high quality research in biosciences focused primarily on oncology and in close interaction with the technical facilities at PSI e.g. proton therapy, SINQ, SLS, and the national and international bioscience community. Within this department, the Division of Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Treatment is responsible for the radiological safety of the personnel, the installations and the environment at PSI, and it is charged with dismantling obsolete nuclear installations at PSI. The principal research and development activities of this division concern novel methods for neutron dosimetry, and the study of presence and pathways of natural and man made radioactivity in humans and in the environment. (author)

  13. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  14. The transnational circulation of scientific ideas: importing behavioralism in European political science (1950-1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncourt, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to deepen our understanding of the transatlantic circulation of scientific ideas during the Cold War by looking at the importation of behavioralism in European political science. It analyses the social, institutional, and intellectual dynamics that led to the creation, in 1970, of a transnational organization that aimed to promote behavioralism in Europe: the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). Using qualitative material drawn from archives and interviews, the study shows that the creation of the ECPR was the joint product of academic, scientific, and political rivalries. It argues that the founding of the organization served a purpose for several agents (chiefly, academic entrepreneurs and philanthropic foundations) who pursued different strategies in different social fields in the context of the Cold War. More broadly, it suggests that the postwar development of the social sciences and the circulation of scientific ideas are best accounted for by mapping sociological interactions between scientific fields and neighboring social spheres. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Women in global science advancing academic careers through international collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Zippel, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Scientific and engineering research is increasingly global, and international collaboration can be essential to academic success. Yet even as administrators and policymakers extol the benefits of global science, few recognize the diversity of international research collaborations and their participants, or take gendered inequalities into account. Women in Global Science is the first book to consider systematically the challenges and opportunities that the globalization of scientific work brings to U.S. academics, especially for women faculty. Kathrin Zippel looks to the STEM fields as a case study, where gendered cultures and structures in academia have contributed to an underrepresentation of women. While some have approached underrepresentation as a national concern with a national solution, Zippel highlights how gender relations are reconfigured in global academia. For U.S. women in particular, international collaboration offers opportunities to step outside of exclusionary networks at home. International ...

  16. Synergy between scientific advancement and technological innovation, illustrated by a mechanism-based model characterizing sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Ng, Chee M; List, James F; Pfister, Marc

    2010-09-01

    Advances in experimental medicine and technological innovation during the past century have brought tremendous progress in modern medicine and generated an ever-increasing amount of data from bench and bedside. The desire to extend scientific knowledge motivates effective data integration. Technological innovation makes this possible, which in turn accelerates the advancement in science. This mutually beneficial interaction is illustrated by the development of an expanded mechanism-based model for understanding a novel mechanism, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 SGLT2 inhibition for potential treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Outline of scientific and research activities of the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, G.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of scientific and research activities carried out in the departments of the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The first section lists the principal results achieved in the course of the 6th Five-Year Plan in Physical Electronics, Solid State Engineering, Materials Structure and Properties, Nuclear Physics, Theory and Technology of Nuclear Reactors, Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry. The second part gives a summary of scientific and research work carried out in the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering in the 7th Five-Year Plan in all branches of science represented. The Faculty's achievements in international scientific cooperation are assessed. (author)

  18. Non-proliferation and advances in nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    So far, the non-proliferation treaty (NPT) has concentrated on safeguard regimes based on technologies relating to the production of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors, and on their potential diversion for use in nuclear weapons. As nuclear science advances, however, nuclear technology both peaceful and for weapons will change, and for the NPT to remain relevant, it must reflect these changes. At this juncture, when the NPT is coming up for review in a year's time, it is important for physicists to take a fresh look at recent advances in nuclear science, and inform the policy-makers and the public at large about their potential for impacting nuclear technology in the future. In this article a few such advances are highlighted and their implications for the NPT are considered. (author). 4 refs

  19. Proceedings of the meeting and scientific presentations on basic science research and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Slamet Santosa; Darsono; Syarip; Agus Taftazani; Samin; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwi Biyantoro; Herry Poernomo; Prajitno; Tjipto Sujitno; Gede Sutresna W; Djoko Slamet Pujorahardjo; Budi Setiawan; Bambang Siswanto; Endro Kismolo; Jumari

    2016-08-01

    The Proceedings of the Meeting and Scientific Presentations on Basic Science Research and Nuclear Technology by Center for Accelerator Science and Technology in Yogyakarta with the theme of Universities and research and development institutions synergy in the development of basic science and nuclear technology held on Surakarta 9 August 2016. This seminar is an annual routine activities of Center for Accelerator Science and Technology for exchange research result among University and BATAN researcher for using nuclear technology. The proceeding consist of 3 article from keynotes’ speaker and 37 articles from BATAN participant as well as outside which have been indexed separately. (MPN)

  20. Interview with Warren Wiscombe on scientific programing and his contributions to atmospheric science tool making

    OpenAIRE

    Flatau, Piotr J.

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2013 I talked with Warren Wiscombe about his contributions to scientific computer programming, atmospheric science and radiative transfer. Our conversation is divided into three parts related to light scattering, radiative transfer and his general thoughts about scientific programming. There are some reflections on how radiative transfer parameterizations gradually sneaked in to modern climate and atmospheric Global Circulation Models. Why some software programs such as light sca...

  1. Supporting Reform-Oriented Secondary Science Teaching through the Use of a Framework to Analyze Construction of Scientific Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Gail; Parker, Joyce M.; Kaldaras, Leonora

    2016-01-01

    The Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) call for a different approach to learning science. They promote three-dimensional (3D) learning that blends disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts and scientific practices. In this study, we examined explanations constructed by secondary science teacher candidates (TCs) as a scientific practice…

  2. The Integration of HIV and AIDS as a Socio-Scientific Issue in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Eugenie; Mnguni, Lindelani

    2015-01-01

    The potential of science to transform lives has been highlighted by a number of scholars. This means that critical socio-scientific issues (SSIs) must be integrated into science curricula. Development of context-specific scientific knowledge and twenty-first-century learning skills in science education could be used to address SSIs such as…

  3. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  4. Citizen Science as a Tool for Scientific Research and Societal Benefit at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Amy

    2018-01-01

    NASA's strategic goals include advancing knowledge and opportunity in space and improving life on Earth. We support these goals through extensive programs in space and Earth science research accomplished via space-based missions and research funding. NASA's "system" is configured to conduct science using (1) in-house personnel and (2) grants, contracts, and agreements with external entities (academia, industry, international space agencies.

  5. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  6. Scientific Participation at the Poles: K-12 Teachers in Polar Science for Careers and Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, S.; Warburton, J.

    2012-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded program in which K-12 teachers participate in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. PolarTREC highlights the importance of involving teachers in scientific research in regards to their careers as educators and their ability to engage students in the direct experience of science. To date, PolarTREC has placed over 90 teachers with research teams in the Arctic and Antarctic. Published results of our program evaluation quantify the effect of the field experience on the teachers' use of the real scientific process in the classroom, the improvement in science content taught in classrooms, and the use of non-fiction texts (real data and science papers) as primary learning tools for students. Teachers and students both report an increase of STEM literacy in the classroom content, confidence in science education, as well as a markedly broadened outlook of science as essential to their future. Research conducted with science teams affirms that they are achieving broader impacts when PolarTREC teachers are involved in their expeditions. Additionally, they reported that these teachers making vital contributions to the success of the scientific project.

  7. Pre-service elementary teachers' understanding of scientific inquiry and its role in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroglu, Esra

    The purpose of this research was to explore pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry within the context of their elementary science teaching and learning. More specifically, the study examined 24 pre-service elementary teachers' emerging understanding of (1) the nature of science and scientific inquiry; (2) the "place" of scientific inquiry in school science; and (3) the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students within an inquiry-based learning environment. Data sources consisted primarily of student-generated artifacts collected throughout the semester, including pre/post-philosophy statements and text-based materials collected from electronic dialogue journals. Individual data sources were open-coded to identify concepts and categories expressed by students. Cross-comparisons were conducted and patterns were identified. Assertions were formed with these patterns. Findings are hopeful in that they suggest pre-service teachers can develop a more contemporary view of scientific inquiry when immersed in a context that promotes this perspective. Not surprisingly, however, the prospective teachers encountered a number of barriers when attempting to translate their emerging ideas into practice. More research is needed to determine which teacher preparation experiences are most powerful in supporting pre-service teachers as they construct a framework for science teaching and learning that includes scientific inquiry as a central component.

  8. Changes in Participants’ Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs During an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p self-efficacy (negative change, p scale did not change much and this change was not related to any of our recorded project activity variables. The interviews suggest that the social aspect of the project is important to participants and the change in self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.

  9. "It's Still Science but Not Like Normal Science": Girls' Responses to the Teaching of Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues, which are often controversial, involve the use of science and are of interest to society, raising ethical and moral dilemmas. Examples of these issues could include genetic technology or air pollution. Following a curriculum reform in England in 2006, socioscientific issues now have a heightened presence in the 14-16…

  10. Publishing and the advancement of science from selfish genes to Galileo's finger

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Popular science books, selling in their thousands - even millions - help us appreciate breakthroughs in understanding the natural world, while highlighting the cultural importance of scientific knowledge. Textbooks bring these same advances to students; the scientists of tomorrow. But how do these books come about? And why are some of them so spectacularly successful? This is the first ever insider's account of science publishing, written by an editor intimately involved in the publication of some of the most famous bestsellers in the field. Michael Rodgers reveals the stories behind these extraordinary books, providing a behind-the-scenes view of the world of books, authors and ideas. These vivid and engaging narratives illuminate not only the challenges of writing about science, but also how publishing itself works and the creative collaboration between authors and editors that lies at its heart. The book (like many of those it describes) is intended for a wide readership. It will interest people in publish...

  11. English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

    2014-12-01

    To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

  12. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  13. Analysis of the Financial Support by the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports to Croatian Scientific Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, B.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (MSES provides financial support for publishing scientific and scientific/professional journals . The journals should satisfy the following conditions: regular publishing, coherence with the “Notes for editing primary scientific publications”, inclusion in at least one international bibliographic database relevant for the specific scientific field, review procedure, existence of a web page with at least basic information about the journal and a table of contents of the latest issue. The MSES also provides financial help for publishing journals dedicated to promoting science, which is awarded by special decision of the Commission for publishing.2In the year 2007, the MSES financially supported 220 Croatian scientific, scientific/professional journals, and journals for the promotion of science from the fields of humanities, natural, technical, biotechnical, social, biomedical and health care sciences with 15 million Croatian kunas in total.5 More than 50 % of the supported journals are from humanities and social sciences, while only 20 of the titles (9 % belong to biotechnical journals (Fig. 1. Distribution of financial support by scientific fields is similar (Fig. 2. The average financial support is HRK 68,181.82 per journal.The highest average amount per journal is given to journals from biomedical and health care sciences (HRK 83,758.42, while the lowest support is given to humanities journals (HRK54,138.20 (Fig. 3.If we divide the amount of MSES financial support in 2007 into 5 classes, each class being HRK 50,000 , it is obvious that the majority of journals (122 titles or 55.45 % was supported with less than HRK 50,000; about a quarter of the journals with an amount between HRK 50,000 and HRK 100,000; and 11 journals with more than HRK 200,000 (Fig. 4.In order to compare the criteria for scientific advancement (papers published in journals covered by Thomson Scientific databases is given

  14. Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA: structure, scientific advances and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moraes Arraut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to create the necessary scientific knowledge for Brazil to understand and deal with the causes and consequences of climate change, the federal government created, in 2007, the Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA. Rede CLIMA needs to discuss issues, pose questions, develop methodologies and technological products, find answers, and suggest solutions that are relevant to society. In its first phase, it focused mainly on providing infrastructure and consolidating the sub-networks. Several scientific advances were also achieved, a selection of which are presented in sections focusing on climate modelling, agriculture, energy and water, human development and mobility, biodiversity and ecosystem services, and human health. Now, in its second phase, the objective is to straighten collaboration between sub-networks by means of interdisciplinary projects. It is argued that in order to succeed the Network needs to foster research whose merit is measured not exclusively by academic production.

  15. The 'credibility paradox' in China's science communication: Views from scientific practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to increasing debates on China's rising status as a global scientific power, issues of China's science communication remain under-explored. Based on 21 in-depth interviews in three cities, this article examines Chinese scientists' accounts of the entangled web of influence which conditions the process of how scientific knowledge achieves (or fails to achieve) its civic authority. A main finding of this study is a 'credibility paradox' as a result of the over-politicisation of science and science communication in China. Respondents report that an absence of visible institutional endorsements renders them more public credibility and better communication outcomes. Thus, instead of exploiting formal channels of science communication, scientists interviewed were more keen to act as 'informal risk communicators' in grassroots and private events. Chinese scientists' perspectives on how to earn public support of their research sheds light on the nature and impact of a 'civic epistemology' in an authoritarian state. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Rhetoric of Popular Science Texts. "Scientific American" Magazine as Typical Example

    OpenAIRE

    Lichański, Jakub Z.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the relationship between rhetoric and popular science texts. Scientific American magazine is taken as an example. In conclusion, the author suggests that the rhetoric of popular science texts rests on the presentation of the problem, avoiding controversy in the presentation of research issues, avoiding modal forms, the use of multiple elements of visual rhetoric. This article contains brief historical information about the development of...

  17. Scientific literacy: Role of natural history studies in constructing understanding of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Martha Victoria Rosett

    2002-01-01

    Scientific literacy is a central goal of science education. One purpose of this investigation was to reevaluate the definition of 'scientific literacy.' Another purpose was to develop and implement new curriculum involving natural history experiments with insects, with the goal of allowing students opportunities to construct an understanding of the nature of science, a crucial aspect of scientific literacy. This investigation was a qualitative case study. Methods of data collection included direct observations, analysis of sketches and written products created by students and class-room teachers, and analysis of audio tapes. Major findings include: (1) Scientific literacy is generally defined by lists of factual information which students are expected to master. When asked to evaluate their knowledge of selected items on a list published in a science education reform curriculum guide, 15 practicing scientists reported lack of familiarity or comprehension with many items, with the exception of items within their areas of specialization. (2) Genuine natural history experiments using insects can be incorporated into the existing school schedule and need not require any increase in the budget for science materials. (3) Students as young as first through third grade can learn the manual techniques and conceptual skills necessary for designing and conducting original natural history experiments, including manipulating the insects, making accurate sketches, developing test able hypotheses, recording data, and drawing conclusions from their data. Students were generally enthusiastic both about working with live insects and also conducting genuine science experiments. (4) Girls appear both positive and engaged with natural history activities and may be more likely than boys to follow through on designing, conducting, and reporting on independent experiments. The results imply that a valid definition of scientific literacy should be based on the ability to acquire scientific

  18. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Report: Exascale Computing Initiative Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Daniel [University of Iowa; Berzins, Martin [University of Utah; Pennington, Robert; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Taylor, Valerie [Texas A& M University

    2015-08-01

    On November 19, 2014, the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged with reviewing the Department of Energy’s conceptual design for the Exascale Computing Initiative (ECI). In particular, this included assessing whether there are significant gaps in the ECI plan or areas that need to be given priority or extra management attention. Given the breadth and depth of previous reviews of the technical challenges inherent in exascale system design and deployment, the subcommittee focused its assessment on organizational and management issues, considering technical issues only as they informed organizational or management priorities and structures. This report presents the observations and recommendations of the subcommittee.

  19. Nuclear science: Physics helping the world. Introductory statement to the Scientific Forum, 27 September 2005, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article is the opening address by the Director General of the IAEA to the 8th Scientific Forum, a venue that has become one of the highlights of our annual General Conference. 2005 has been declared the World Year of Physics, in part to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's three groundbreaking papers - on the theory of relativity, the photoelectric effect, and the theory of Brownian motion. It is important to consider that many of the benefits of technology we enjoy today would have been considered near-magic only a few generations ago - and the pace of discovery is not slowing down. Given that physics is at the core of nearly all nuclear science and technology benefits, it seemed appropriate to examine, at this year's Scientific Forum, a number of the contributions that continued advances in nuclear physics are making towards sustainable development. The resulting Forum agenda is built around four such topics: Meeting Energy Needs, Developing Advanced Materials and Technologies, Advancing Radiation Medicine and Supporting Nuclear Safety

  20. Advancing Ocean Science Through Coordination, Community Building, and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benway, H. M.

    2016-02-01

    The US Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program (www.us-ocb.org) is a dynamic network of scientists working across disciplines to understand the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle and how marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are responding to environmental change. The OCB Project Office, which is based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), serves as a central information hub for this network, bringing different scientific disciplines together and cultivating partnerships with complementary US and international programs to address high-priority research questions. The OCB Project Office plays multiple important support roles, such as hosting and co-sponsoring workshops, short courses, working groups, and synthesis activities on emerging research issues; engaging with relevant national and international science planning initiatives; and developing education and outreach activities and products with the goal of promoting ocean carbon science to broader audiences. Current scientific focus areas of OCB include ocean observations (shipboard, autonomous, satellite, etc.); changing ocean chemistry (acidification, expanding low-oxygen conditions, etc.); ocean carbon uptake and storage; estuarine and coastal carbon cycling; biological pump and associated biological and biogeochemical processes and carbon fluxes; and marine ecosystem response to environmental and evolutionary changes, including physiological and molecular-level responses of individual organisms, as well as shifts in community structure and function. OCB is a bottom-up organization that responds to the continually evolving priorities and needs of its network and engages marine scientists at all career stages. The scientific leadership of OCB includes a scientific steering committee and subcommittees on ocean time-series, ocean acidification, and ocean fertilization. This presentation will highlight recent OCB activities and products of interest to the ocean science community.

  1. Developing android-based science instructional media to improve scientific literacy of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, I. I.; Jumadi; Wilujeng; Senam

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study are: to develop android-based science instructional media and to reveal the characteristic, the quality, and the effectiveness of android-based science instructional media with global warming topic to increase junior high school students’ scientific literacy. This study is a development research. The instructional media were reviewed by a media expert, a material expert, science teachers, peer reviewers, and students. The data was collected using media evaluation questionnaires. The results of the study showed that: (1) the android-based science instructional media has characteristics including interesting visualization, easy to use, flexible, and practical, (2) the android-based science instructional media was appropriate for teaching, in terms of material evaluation aspects, media evaluation aspects, and based on student test results, and (3) the android-based science instructional media can effectively used for teaching.

  2. Science teacher candidates' perceptions about roles and nature of scientific models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez Turkoglu, Ayse; Oztekin, Ceren

    2016-05-01

    Background: Scientific models have important roles in science and science education. For scientists, they provide a means for generating new knowledge or function as an accessible summary of scientific studies. In science education, on the other hand, they are accessible representations of abstract concepts, and are also organizational frameworks to teach and learn inaccessible facts. As being indispensable parts of learning and doing science, use of scientific models in science classes should be reinforced. At this point, uncovering pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) understandings of scientific models are of great importance since they will design and conduct teaching situations for their students. Purpose: The study aimed to provide an answer to the research question: What understandings do PSTs possess about scientific models? Sample: The sample of the study consisted of 14 PSTs enrolled in an Elementary Science Education program in a public university in Ankara, Turkey. Design and methods: Data were collected by using an open-item instrument and semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed by using qualitative data analysis methods. Results: Findings showed that PSTs held fragmented views of models by having informed views in some aspects while having naïve views on others. That is, although they displayed a constructivist orientation by acknowledging the presence of multiple models for the same phenomenon depending on scientists' perspectives or creativity involved in the production of scientific knowledge, PSTs also expressed logical positivist views by believing that models should be close to the real phenomena that they represent. Findings further revealed that PSTs generally conceptualized models' materialistic uses, yet they did not think much about their theoretical and conceptual uses. It was observed that roles like reifying and visualizing were overestimated and models were dominantly characterized as three-dimensional representations

  3. Secrets of the Sediments: Using ANDRILL's Scientific Adventure on Ice to Transfer Climate Change Science to K-12 Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, L. T.; Dahlman, L.; Frisch-Gleason, R.; Harwood, D.; Pound, K.; Rack, F.; Riesselman, C.; Trummel, E.; Tuzzi, E.; Winter, D.

    2008-12-01

    Antarctica's harsh environment and the compelling story of living and working there, provides the backdrop for hooking the interest of young learners on science research and the nature of science. By using the adventure stories of today's researcher-explorers, teachers accompanying the ANDRILL team have taken the technical science of drilling rock cores to understand the history of climate change and the advance and retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet, and translated it for non-technical audiences from K-12 school children, to adult community groups. In order to understand the important issues surrounding global climate change, members of the public need access to accurate and relevant information, high quality educational materials, and a variety of learning opportunities in different learning environments. By taking lessons learned from early virtual polar adventure learning expeditions like Will Steger's Trans-Antarctic Expedition, coupled with educators-in-the-field programs like TEA (Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic), ARMADA and Polar Trec, ANDRILL's Education and Outreach Program has evolved into successful and far-reaching integrated education projects including 1) the ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators) Program, 2) Climate Change Student Summits, 3) the development of Flexhibit (flexible exhibit) teaching resources, 4) virtual online learning communities, and 5) partnering young researchers with teachers and classrooms. Formal evaluations indicate lasting interest in science studies on the part of students and an increase in teachers' scientific background knowledge.

  4. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  5. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nico, Peter; A; Anastasio, Cort; Dodge, Cleveland; Fendorf, Scott; Francis, A.J.; Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Tomutsa, Liviu; Tufano, Kate; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Werner, Michelle; Williams, Ken

    2006-04-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has a variety of capabilities that are applicable to very different types of environmental systems. Shown are the basic descriptions of four of the approximately 35 beam lines at the ALS. The complimentary capabilities of these four beam lines allow for investigations that range from a spatial scale of a few nanometers to several millimeters. The Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source seeks to promote and assist environmental research, particularly on the four beam lines described in this report. Several short examples of the types of research conducted on these beam lines are also described.

  6. The history of science as oxymoron: from scientific exceptionalism to episcience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Ken

    2013-03-01

    This essay argues that historians of science who seek to embody our oxymoronic self-description must confront both contradictory terms that define our common enterprise--that is, both "history" and "science." On the history/methods side, it suggests that we embrace the heterogeneity of our institutional arrangements and repudiate the homogeneous disciplinary model sometimes advocated by Thomas Kuhn and followed by art history. This implies that rather than treating the history of science as an end in itself, we consider it a means to a variety of historical ends. think of ourselves as a tool-making community, and jettison moralistic assertions of scientific exceptionalism. To do so, this essay argues--on the science/subject side--that xe rebrand the subject of our historical inquiry as "episcience," a neologism that stands in relation to "science" as the new field of epigenetics does to the old genetics. Episcience encompasses both the material activities of the relevant sciences and their "surround" (environment, milieu, Umgebung) to reframe knowledge making to include the material processes that put science "in play" and make its findings matter beyond science. The essay concludes that "the history of science" is an oxymoron that makes sense to the extent that its practitioners acknowledge that the history of science is important not just because science is important, but because its history is.

  7. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (3) Introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the third issue showing the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Spectral methods and multi-interface calculation methods in fluid dynamics are reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Helping Students Move from Coding to Publishing - Teaching Scientific Communication to Science Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, R.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    To help young scientists succeed in our field we should not only model scientific methods and inquiry, but also train them in the art of scientific writing - after all, poorly written proposals, reports or journal articles can be a show stopper for any researcher. Research internships are an effective place to provide such training, because they offer a unique opportunity to integrate writing with the process of conducting original research. This presentation will describe how scientific communication is integrated into the SOARS program. Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) is an undergraduate-to graduate bridge program that broadens participation in the geosciences. SOARS aims to foster the next generation of leaders in the atmospheric and related sciences by helping students develop investigative expertise complemented by leadership and communication skills. Each summer, interns (called protégés) attend a weekly seminar designed to help them learn scientific writing and communication skills. The workshop is organized around the sections of a scientific paper. Workshop topics include reading and citing scientific literature, writing an introduction, preparing a compelling abstract, discussing results, designing effective figures, and writing illuminating conclusions. In addition, protégés develop the skills required to communicate their research to both scientists and non-scientists through the use of posters, presentations and informal 'elevator' speeches. Writing and communication mentors guide protégés in applying the ideas from the workshop to the protégés' required summer scientific paper, poster and presentation, while a strong peer-review component of the program gives the protégés a taste of analyzing, critiquing and collaborating within a scientific forum. This presentation will provide practical tips and lessons learned from over ten years of scientific communications workshops within the SOARS program

  9. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  10. Engaging Pre-Service Teachers to Teach Science Contextually with Scientific Approach Instructional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantini, E.; Kurniasari, I.; Fauziah, A. N. M.; Prastowo, T.; Kholiq, A.; Rosdiana, L.

    2018-01-01

    Contextual teaching and learning/CTL presents new concepts in real-life experiences and situations where students can find out the meaningful relationship between abstract ideas and practical applications. Implementing contextual teaching by using scientific approach will foster teachers to find the constructive ways of delivering and organizing science content. This research developed an instructional video that represented a modeling of using a scientific approach in CTL. The aim of this research are to engage pre-service teachers in learning how to teach CTL and to show how pre-service teachers’ responses about learning how to teach CTL using an instructional video. The subjects of this research were ten pre-service teachers in Department of Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia. All subjects observed the instructional video which demonstrated contextual teaching and learning combined with the scientific approach as they completed a worksheet to analyze the video content. The results showed that pre-service teachers could learn to teach contextually as well as applying the scientific approach in science classroom through a modeling in the instructional video. They also responded that the instructional video could help them to learn to teach each component contextual teaching as well as scientific approach.

  11. Effects of Outdoor School Ground Lessons on Students' Science Process Skills and Scientific Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kan Lin; Siew, Nyet Moi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of outdoor school ground lessons on Year Five students' science process skills and scientific curiosity. A quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The participants in the study were divided into two groups, one subjected to the experimental treatment, defined as…

  12. Analysis of scientific production archival science in brazil: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro Gouveia de Medeiros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: review of the literature resulting from bibliographic survey about the scientific literature of archives in Brazil. Objective: to identify aspects of scientific literature of archival science, through bibliographical research, that aims to introduce the features of the archival science in Brazil. Methodology: Brazilian sites, databases and reference services were used as sources to identify 523 references. 15 texts were selected and analyzed with respect to authorship, affiliation, publication year, publication type, type and size of sources used, methodology, geographical range, results, among other aspects. Results: the scientific articles were the main object of study; the book was the most cited channel; the journal Arquivo & Administração and Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa em Ciência da Informação have importance on the national scene; Rio de Janeiro is the geographic region with greater production; There has been growth in the number of works since the 2007 and increased collaboration. Conclusions: the interest in Archival Science literature is increasing significantly; there was diversification of the publishing channels, mainly works of events and articles since 2013; the Archival Science is consolidating in Brazil with an increasing production, collaboration and interest in its scientific literature.

  13. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  14. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  15. Developing instruments concerning scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.

  16. The Role of Emotional Factors in Building Public Scientific Literacy and Engagement with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the database from an extensive international study on 15-year-old students (N = 8,815) to analyze the relationship between emotional factors and students' scientific literacy and explore the potential link between the emotions of the students and subsequent public engagement with science. The results revealed that students'…

  17. Scientific Reasoning and Its Relationship with Problem Solving: The Case of Upper Primary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamali, Mahmoud A.; Daher, Wajeeh M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of scientific reasoning of upper primary stage (grades 4-7) science teachers based on their use of a problem-solving strategy. The study sample (N = 138; 32 % male and 68 % female) was randomly selected using stratified sampling from an original population of 437 upper primary school teachers. The…

  18. Science Learning with Information Technologies as a Tool for "Scientific Thinking" in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Eugeny; Bogun, Vitali

    2011-01-01

    New methodologies in science (or mathematics) learning process and scientific thinking in the classroom activity of engineer students with ICT (information and communication technology), including graphic calculator are presented: visual modelling with ICT, action research with graphic calculator, insight in classroom and communications and…

  19. A Flexible e-Learning Resource Promoting the Critical Reading of Scientific Papers for Science Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchford, Julie; Corradi, Hazel; Day, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    An important aim of undergraduate science education is to develop student skills in reading and evaluating research papers. We have designed, developed, and implemented an on-line interactive resource entitled "Evaluating Scientific Research literature" (ESRL) aimed at students from the first 2 years of the undergraduate program. In this…

  20. Enhancing Students' NOS Views and Science Knowledge Using Facebook-Based Scientific News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Yu; Wu, Hui-Ling; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lin, Yu-Ren

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how the different discussion approaches in Facebook influenced students' scientific knowledge acquisition and the nature of science (NOS) views. Two eighth- and two ninth-grade classes in a Taiwanese junior high school participated in the study. In two of the classes students engaged in synchronous discussion, and in the…

  1. The Status of Science Education in Illinois Scientific Literacy Target Schools, K-6, 1994. A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finson, Kevin D.; Beaver, John B.

    The Illinois State Board of Education's Scientific Literacy Project provided extra funds to certain schools with the intent of creating demonstration schools useful as models for other schools to improve their science education programs. The study described in this document examined the impact of these funds on the target schools and attempted to…

  2. The Relationships among Adult Affective Factors, Engagement in Science, and Scientific Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among adult affective factors, engagement in science, and scientific competencies. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to select 504 participants between the ages of 18 and 70 years. Data were collected through individual face-to-face interviews. The results of hierarchical regression…

  3. Learning Scientific Reasoning Skills May Be Key to Retention in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.; Neeley, Shannon; Hatch, Jordan B.; Piorczynski, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The United States produces too few Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) graduates to meet demand. We investigated scientific reasoning ability as a possible factor in STEM retention. To do this, we classified students in introductory biology courses at a large private university as either declared STEM or non-STEM majors and…

  4. Science Information Programs: The Argentine Telex Network for Scientific and Technical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This document reports on two projects jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (USA) and the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (ARGENTINA). The first is the creation of a telex network for scientific libraries and documentation centers in Argentina, designed to improve access to, and delivery…

  5. Learning about the Nature of Science Using Newspaper Articles with Scientific Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carmona, Antonio; Acevedo Díaz, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study aiming at assessing the efficacy of reading newspaper articles with scientific content in order to incorporate nature of science (NOS) aspects in initial primary teacher education. To this aim, a short teaching intervention based on newspaper articles was planned and performed under regular class conditions. First,…

  6. Continuous Enhancement of Science Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Scientific Lecturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Maria-Manuel; Duarte, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    Due to their importance in transmitting knowledge, teachers can play a crucial role in students' scientific literacy acquisition and motivation to respond to ongoing and future economic and societal challenges. However, to conduct this task effectively, teachers need to continuously improve their knowledge, and for that, a periodic update is mandatory for actualization of scientific knowledge and skills. This work is based on the outcomes of an educational study implemented with science teachers from Portuguese Basic and Secondary schools. We evaluated the effectiveness of a training activity consisting of lectures covering environmental and health sciences conducted by scientists/academic teachers. The outcomes of this educational study were evaluated using a survey with several questions about environmental and health scientific topics. Responses to the survey were analyzed before and after the implementation of the scientific lectures. Our results showed that Basic and Secondary schools teachers' knowledge was greatly improved after the lectures. The teachers under training felt that these scientific lectures have positively impacted their current knowledge and awareness on several up-to-date scientific topics, as well as their teaching methods. This study emphasizes the importance of continuing teacher education concerning knowledge and awareness about health and environmental education.

  7. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Preserve and present reliable scientific data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Vallat, C.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A.; Rios, C.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.

    2018-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is undergoing a significant refactoring of all its components to improve the services provided to the scientific community and the public. The PSA supports ESA's missions exploring the Solar System by archiving scientific peer-reviewed observations as well as engineering data sets. This includes the Giotto, SMART-1, Huygens, Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta, Exomars 2016, Exomars RSP, BepiColombo, and JUICE missions. The PSA is offering a newly designed graphical user interface which is simultaneously meant to maximize the interaction with scientific observations and also minimise the efforts needed to download these scientific observations. The PSA still offers the same services as before (i.e., FTP, documentation, helpdesk, etc.). In addition, it will support the two formats of the Planetary Data System (i.e., PDS3 and PDS4), as well as providing new ways for searching the data products with specific metadata and geometrical parameters. As well as enhanced services, the PSA will also provide new services to improve the visualisation of data products and scientific content (e.g., spectra, etc.). Together with improved access to the spacecraft engineering data sets, the PSA will provide easier access to scientific data products that will help to maximize the science return of ESA's space missions.

  8. Analysis of Scientific Production in Food Science from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Bote, Vicente P; Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Food Science is an active discipline in scientific research. The improvements in Food Technology constitute a challenge for society to eradicate hunger, while achieving food safety. This work analyses the scientific production in Food Science of the 25 countries with the greatest output in this subject area in the period 2003 to 2013. The growth of China's production was striking, with the country becoming top-ranked by the end of the period. Some developing countries (such as Nigeria) achieved a major increase in production but reducing their proportion of scientific collaboration and their works' impact. There appear to be 2 international collaboration networks that get good results--one European and the other Pacific. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Advancing Pre-college Science and Mathematics Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Rick [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    With support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, and General Atomics, an educational and outreach program primarily for grades G6-G13 was developed using the basic science of plasma and fusion as the content foundation. The program period was 1994 - 2015 and provided many students and teachers unique experiences such as a visit to the DIII-D National Fusion Facility to tour the nation’s premiere tokamak facility or to interact with interesting and informative demonstration equipment and have the opportunity to increase their understanding of a wide range of scientific content, including states of matter, the electromagnetic spectrum, radiation & radioactivity, and much more. Engaging activities were developed for classroom-size audiences, many made by teachers in Build-it Day workshops. Scientist and engineer team members visited classrooms, participated in science expositions, held workshops, produced informational handouts in paper, video, online, and gaming-CD format. Participants could interact with team members from different institutions and countries and gain a wider view of the world of science and engineering educational and career possibilities. In addition, multiple science stage shows were presented to audiences of up to 700 persons in a formal theatre setting over a several day period at Science & Technology Education Partnership (STEP) Conferences. Annually repeated participation by team members in various classroom and public venue events allowed for the development of excellent interactive skills when working with students, teachers, and educational administrative staff members. We believe this program has had a positive impact in science understanding and the role of the Department of Energy in fusion research on thousands of students, teachers, and members of the general public through various interactive venues.

  10. Scientific reasoning during adolescence: The influence of instruction in science knowledge and reasoning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, M. C.; Clement, C.; Pulos, S.; Sullivan, P.

    The mechanism linking instruction in scientific topics and instruction in logical reasoning strategies is not well understood. This study assesses the role of science topic instruction combined with logical reasoning strategy instruction in teaching adolescent students about blood pressure problems. Logical reasoning instruction for this study emphasizes the controlling-variables strategy. Science topic instruction emphasizes variables affecting blood pressure. Subjects receiving logical reasoning instruction link their knowledge of blood pressure variables to their knowledge of controlling variables more effectively than those receiving science topic instruction alone - their specific responses show how they attempt to integrate their understanding.Received: 15 April 1988

  11. The biology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: scientific advances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T; Fontana, Margherita; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andréa; Ando, Masatoshi; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Bayne, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    Scientific advances in cariology in the past 150 years have led to the understanding that dental caries is a chronic, dietomicrobial, site-specific disease caused by a shift from protective factors favoring tooth remineralization to destructive factors leading to demineralization. Epidemiologic data indicate that caries has changed in the last century; it now is distributed unequally in the U.S. population. People who are minorities, homeless, migrants, children with disabilities and of lower socioeconomic status suffer from the highest prevalence and severity of dental caries. Scientific advances have led to improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries, but there is a need for new diagnostic tools and treatment methods. and Future management of dental caries requires early detection and risk assessment if the profession is to achieve timely and cost-effective prevention and treatment for those who need it most. Dental professionals look forward to the day when people of all ages and backgrounds view dental caries as a disease of the past.

  12. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  13. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  14. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  15. Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, Alex J.

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Dragt of the University of Maryland is one of the Institutional Principal Investigators for the SciDAC Accelerator Modeling Project Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology whose principal investigators are Dr. Kwok Ko (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and Dr. Robert Ryne (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). This report covers the activities of Dr. Dragt while at Berkeley during spring 2002 and at Maryland during fall 2003

  16. The Development of a Scientific Motive: How Preschool Science and Home Play Reciprocally Contribute to Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Judith; Fleer, Marilyn

    2017-07-01

    There are a growing number of studies that have examined science learning for preschool children. Some research has looked into children's home experiences and some has focused on transition, practices, routines, and traditions in preschool contexts. However, little attention has been directed to the relationship between children's learning experiences at preschool and at home, and how this relationship can assist in the development of science concepts relevant to everyday life. In drawing upon Hedegaard's (Learning and child development, 2002) cultural-historical conception of motives and Vygotsky's (The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: problems of general psychology, 1987) theory of everyday and scientific concept formation, the study reported in this paper examines one child, Jimmy (4.2 years), and his learning experiences at home and at preschool. Data gathering featured the video recording of 4 weeks of Jimmy's learning in play at home and at preschool (38.5 h), parent questionnaire and interviews, and researcher and family gathered video observations of home play with his parents (3.5 h). Findings show how a scientific motive develops through playful everyday learning moments at home and at preschool when scientific play narratives and resources are aligned. The study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the science learning of young children and a conception of pedagogy that takes into account the reciprocity of home and school contexts for learning science.

  17. Science with the Advanced Gamma Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Paolo

    2009-05-01

    We present the scientific drivers for the Advanced Gamma Ray Imaging System (AGIS), a concept for the next-generation ground- based gamma-ray experiment, comprised of an array of ˜100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Design requirements for AGIS include achieving a sensitivity an order of magnitude better than the current generation of space or ground-based instruments in the energy range of 40 GeV to ˜100 TeV. We present here an overview of the scientific goals of AGIS, including the prospects for understanding VHE phenomena in the vicinity of accreting black holes, particle acceleration in a variety of astrophysical environments, indirect detection of dark matter, study of cosmological background radiation fields, and particle physics beyond the standard model.

  18. Scepticism and trust: two counterpoint essentials in science education for complex socio-scientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2014-09-01

    In this response to Tom G. K. Bryce and Stephen P. Day's (Cult Stud Sci Educ. doi: 10.1007/s11422-013-9500-0, 2013) original article, I share with them their interest in the teaching of climate change in school science, but I widen it to include other contemporary complex socio-scientific issues that also need to be discussed. I use an alternative view of the relationship between science, technology and society, supported by evidence from both science and society, to suggest science-informed citizens as a more realistic outcome image of school science than the authors' one of mini-scientists. The intellectual independence of students Bryce and Day assume, and intend for school science, is countered with an active intellectual dependence. It is only in relation to emerging and uncertain scientific contexts that students should be taught about scepticism, but they also need to learn when, and why to trust science as an antidote to the expressions of doubting it. Some suggestions for pedagogies that could lead to these new learnings are made. The very recent fifth report of the IPCC answers many of their concerns about climate change.

  19. Scientific research in the natural sciences in South Africa: A scientometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhamany Sooryamoorthy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a leading producer of scientific publications on the African continent, South Africa has made remarkable progress. However, attempts are yet to be made to comprehend the empirical reality of scientific production in South Africa. One way to do this is to analyse specific science disciplines (such as the natural sciences, publication outputs and their features. A bibliometric study was undertaken of the publication trends and patterns of South African researchers in the natural sciences from 1975 to 2005 (choosing selected sample years, using the Thomson Reuters� Web of Knowledge database of selected indexed natural science journals. Characteristics of natural science publications, such as the trends over the years, were revealed as well as the collaborative dimensions involved in the production of scientific papers in these disciplines in South Africa. The connection between collaboration and publication, as well as between collaboration and sectors of authors was evident. The key findings of this study were that authors were based mostly in universities and were collaborative in their research endeavours. In addition, the participation of international collaborators has increased.

  20. Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

  1. Struggles with learning about scientific models in a middle school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Suzanna Jane

    Two important goals in science education are teaching students about the nature of science and teaching students to do scientific inquiry. Learning about scientific models is central to both of these endeavors, but studies have shown that students have very flawed and limited understandings of the nature and purposes of scientific models (Carey & Smith, 1993; Grosslight, Unger, & Jay, 1991; Lederman, 1992). In this dissertation I investigate the processes of teaching and learning about scientific models in an 8th grade classroom in an urban middle school. In order to do so, I examine recordings of student and teacher talk about models across a period of two months in which students completed two independent inquiry projects, using the Inquiry Island software and curriculum (Eslinger, 2004; Shimoda, White, & Frederiksen, 2002; White, Shimoda, & Frederiksen, 2000). My analysis draws on video records of small-group work and whole-class interactions, as well as on students' written work. I find that in this classroom, students struggled to understand the nature and purpose of scientific models. I analyze episodes in the classroom talk in which models appeared to be a source of trouble or confusion, and describe the ways in which the teacher attempted to respond to these troubles. I find that in many cases students appeared to be able to produce scientific models of the proper form, yet still struggled with displaying an understanding of what a model was, or of the functions of models in scientific research. I propose directions for further research and curriculum development in order to build on these findings. In particular, I argue, we need to design ways to help students engage in scientific modeling as a social and communicative practice, and to find ways to build from their everyday reasoning and argumentation practices. My research also reinforces the importance of looking at classroom talk, not just pre- and post-assessments, in order to understand teaching and

  2. From scientific progress to economic growth the economics and the economy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Frank

    2017-01-01

    he past few centuries have seen an enormous increase in living standards in many parts of the world and these economies have become more complex than ever before. At the same time, progress in science and technology has reached unprecedented heights, taking us far beyond the wildest dreams of a few generations ago. Questions as to how science, technology and the economy interact are pertinent and important ones, whose partial answers require a view "from across the fence" between disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the vast and varied field of the economics of science. It is a unique blend of an economic perspective on the way science works, what makes scientists tick, and a study of the impact of scientific and technological progress on economies and their growth. Whether it is about the speculative market of ideas or science and technology as engines of the economy, there is something here for economists, engineers and scientists alike.

  3. The sociology of scientific work the fundamental relationship between science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Vinck, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    More than ever before, science and technology play a significant role in modern society as evidenced by the development of nanotechnologies and the controversies surrounding GMOs and climate change. This book comprehensively explores the flourishing field of science and technology studies and examines its creation, development and interaction with contemporary society. Dominique Vinck examines the various relationships between science and society including the emergence of sciences, the dynamics of innovation and technical democracy. He also investigates the principal social mechanisms of science and technology such as institutions, organizations, exchanges between researchers and the construction of scientific knowledge, expertise and innovation. The book provides a thorough overview of the field and reviews the major theoretical and methodological approaches as well as the current state of research on a range of topics. This original book will strongly appeal to students and researchers in the social scie...

  4. PHYSICAL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF AN ADVANCED CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bansilal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Certificate in Education programmes was offered by many South African universities to provide opportunities for teachers to upgrade their positions. The purpose of the study was to explore Physical Science teachers’ perceptions of their professional development. In this study we considered three domains of professional development which are content knowledge, pedagogic content knowledge and teacher beliefs and attitudes. This study used a mixed method approach using the form of an embedded design. The study was conducted with 156 students enrolled in an ACE Physical Science programme. The teachers stated that their content knowledge and pedagogic content knowledge had not only improved, but also their engagement with actual laboratories, and conducting experiments contributed to their teaching experiences. Hence, their self-confidence of physical science teaching evolved. The authors recommend that the ACE programme should also include a mentoring system with teaching practicum via school leadership and subject advisers.

  5. International conference on Advances in Engineering Technologies and Physical Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Rieger, Burghard; IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies : Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2011

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains thirty revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in an international conference in engineering technologies and physical science and applications. The conference serves as good platforms for the engineering community to meet with each other and to exchange ideas. The conference has also struck a balance between theoretical and application development. The conference is truly international meeting with a high level of participation from many countries. Topics covered include chemical engineering, circuits, communications systems, control theory, engineering mathematics, systems engineering, manufacture engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers the state of art of tremendous advances in engineering technologies and physical science and applications, and also serves as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies and physical science and applications.

  6. [Ghostwriters and commerce of scientific papers on the internet: science at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Maria Christina Anna

    2007-01-01

    Frauds in scientific production are not a rare phenomenon, even in the medical field. Among these frauds are some types of authorship misconduct, such as plagiarism and ghostwriting sponsored by pharmaceutical industries. Another type of misconduct, which is particularly detrimental to science, is the e-commerce of scientific works, which has been growing and frequently shown in the press. To analyze the e-commerce of scientific papers and the means by which these services are offered. Eighteen Brazilian web sites that offer elaboration of scientific papers were selected. A request for the elaboration of a final essay for a forged post-graduate course was sent to each of them. The research requested had already been completed, consequently technical, ethical and bibliographical characteristics were already known to the author. Ten enterprises accepted the order and, except for one, they have not objected to the conditions imposed: Field research, approval by an ethics committee on research and use of the Vancouver norms. Six have not replied and two have not accepted the order alleging that they had no co-workers available for the task. E-commerce of scientific papers is a fact which can negatively interfere in the ethical, scientific and professional development of graduate and post-graduate students, as well as in scientific production by adulterating data and information found in literature. A new approach is recommended, especially when evaluating final essays.

  7. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  8. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  9. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  10. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  11. Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zimbabwe Scientific Association was founded in Bulawayo in 1899 (called the Rhodesia Scientific Assocation at the time) to promote the study and advancement of science in Zimbabwe and to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Its journal, Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific ...

  12. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Ganang Suradjijo

    2002-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. This proceedings contains a proposal about basic research in nuclear technology which has environment. This proceedings is the second part of the two parts which published in series. There are 57 articles which have separated index. (PPIN)

  13. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Nico, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR)-based techniques have become an essential and fundamental research tool in Molecular Environmental Science (MES) research. MES is an emerging scientific field that has largely evolved from research interactions at the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) SR laboratories in response to the pressing need for understanding fundamental molecular-level chemical and biological processes that involve the speciation, properties, and behavior of contaminants, within natural systems. The role of SR-based investigations in MES and their impact on environmental problems of importance to society has been recently documented in Molecular Environmental Science: An Assessment of Research Accomplishment, Available Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, and Needs (EnviroSync, 2003).

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Gifted Students' Scientific, Societal, and Moral Questions Concerning Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Tirri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science. The participants (=658 of this study were 16–19-year-old international students from 55 countries and two continents, Asia and Europe. They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in 2011 in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research. The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys. The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions. The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science.

  15. Crossdisciplinary fundamental research--the seed for scientific advance and technological innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroto, Harold

    2011-12-28

    As it was earlier in the 1980's, so it is now, fundamental science research is under threat as decisions are made on science funding by people who do not do fundamental research, seem congenitally incapable of understanding what it is and furthermore in the face of countless examples seem blind to how important it has been to the technologies that govern our modern life and will be to the future technologies that we desperately need to develop to survive. In this article some general observations are made on how the fascination for what happens in space and stars was the key trigger that gave birth to Science itself and a particular case is outlined which indicates that this same fascination is still the catalyst of some fundamental breakthroughs today. This article also outlines an archetypal example of the way major breakthroughs are often made by the synergy that comes from cross-disciplinary research in a way which is totally surprising. In this case it started from a curiosity about the quantum mechanical description of molecular dynamics and involved pioneering advances in synthetic organic chemistry which led to the suprising discovery that some exotic carbon molecules were abundant in space and stars. These results initiated an experiment using a new technology that represented a major breakthrough in cluster science. The upshot was totally unpredictable, the birth of a whole new field of Chemistry as well as a paradigm shift in major areas of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

  16. An Analysis of the Supports and Constraints for Scientific Discussion in High School Project-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alozie, Nonye M.; Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    One goal of project-based science is to promote the development of scientific discourse communities in classrooms. Holding rich high school scientific discussions is challenging, especially when the demands of content and norms of high school science pose challenges to their enactment. There is little research on how high school teachers enact…

  17. Associations among Attitudes, Perceived Difficulty of Learning Science, Gender, Parents' Occupation and Students' Scientific Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and…

  18. Within the Timeline of Science Ethics: Two Parenting Advice Books and a Scientific Milestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKÖZER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism allegations on similarities between Dr. Benjamin Spock's Baby and Child Care (1946 and Dr. İhsan Doğramacı's Annenin Kitabı (1952; The Mother's Book and the public presentation of the ruling on the 15th of April, 2014 by European Court of Human Rights consummating legal proceedings on these allegations, are not likely to contribute to ensuring a correct understanding of plagiarism as conceived in science ethics in the general public and scientific community. First, the Court has not ruled in support of the veracity of allegations. Second, parallels between the two books – regarding genre, claims to originality, and the nature of similarities – do not justify evaluation in reference to the concept of plagiarism as defined in science ethics. Besides, intellectual property law, on which allegations pretend to be based, cannot be taken to found illegitimacy of plagiarism in terms of science ethics. Science ethics defines plagiarism as misconduct positively with reference to norms of scientific integrity, the fairness principle, and values essential to collaborative work, rather than negatively with reference to violation of intellectual property. In the mid-20th century, in an environment where such principles or values have not yet taken root, the course of the discovery of DNA structure, one of the century's greatest breakthroughs, has enabled ethics violations substantially surpassing issues of intellectual property or plagiarism, and moreover, these violations have apologists even today. Scientific integrity and fairness imply “treating colleagues with integrity and honesty” as equally as “providing proper references and giving due credits to the work of others”. Abusing plagiarism allegations as a means to defame colleagues or permitting such abuse to become commonplace neither suits advocacy of scientific ethics nor complies with the “fairness” principle. A strategy to fight plagiarism must be tested against

  19. Shortcomings of Evaluation Worksheets for Scientific Art Articles in Iran Based on Merton's Science Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Hassani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific journal assessment worksheets are the most important tool for evaluating the quality of scientific papers. The purpose of this research is an objective and qualitative description of indices used in the worksheets for the evaluation of art scientific research journals in Iran and to acknowledge their shortcomings in comparison with the norms of science from the Robert King Merton's perspective. The research approach in this study is combining survey and content analysis. Statistical samples consisted of nine worksheets developed for the evaluation of specialized art journal articles with a scientific research rank. Moreover, 14 experts in the fields of Scientometrics and art were invited to provide feedback on the extent to which the evaluation criteria used in the evaluation worksheets are in conformity with Merton’s science norms. Data collection was done in two forms including library research, referring to scientific journal databases, and structured interviews. In order to uncover the existing status of the indicators from the researcher-made check list, Excel software and a questionnaire were used as research instruments. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics along with relevant tables and charts. Findings of the research show that out of the total 53 existing indicators, the index of "using sufficient and new valid sources (internal and external" had the highest frequency (77.78%. The findings also indicated that the other 26 indicators had the lowest frequency percentage (11.11%. Moreover, these indices are consistent with the six out of seven of Merton's science norms (less than 18%. The obtained results revealed the unbalanced distribution of components and indicators of evaluation in these worksheets and their non-conformance to the norms of science, necessitating their revision.

  20. Regenerative dentistry: translating advancements in basic science research to the dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Murray, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. This review provides an assessment of how tissue engineering, stem cell, genetic transfer, biomaterial and growth factor therapies can be integrated into clinical dental therapies to restore and regenerate oral tissues. In parallel to the creation of a new field in general medicine called "regenerative medicine," we call this field "regenerative dentistry." While the problems of introducing regenerative therapies are substantial, the potential benefits to patients and the profession are equally ground-breaking. In this review, we outline a few areas of interest for the future of oral and dental medicine in which advancements in basic science have already been adapted to fit the goals of 21st century dentistry.

  1. Sandia and General Motors: Advancing Clean Combustion Engines with

    Science.gov (United States)

    , storage, and disposal. Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Safety Components and Systems Improving battery performance, economics, and safety for transportation. Batteries Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences Geosciences Fusion Energy Sciences Advanced Scientific Computing

  2. Exploration on the reform of the science and engineering experiment teaching based on the combination with teaching and scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The existing problems of the experiment education in colleges and universities are analyzed. Take the science and engineering specialty as example, the idea of the combination with teaching and scientific research is discussed. The key problems are how the scientific research and scientific research achievements are used effectively in the experiment education, how to effectively use scientific research laboratories and scientific researchers. Then, a specialty experiment education system is established which is good for the teaching in accordance of all students' aptitude. The research in this paper can give the construction of the experiment teaching methods and the experiment system reform for the science and engineering specialties in colleges and universities.

  3. Translanguaging in a middle school science classroom: Constructing scientific arguments in English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Peter R.

    This dissertation investigates translanguaging in an English/Spanish dual language middle school science classroom as the teacher and students worked through a curriculum unit focusing on socioscientific issues and implementing a scientific argumentation framework. Translanguaging is the process in which bilingual speakers fluidly and dynamically draw from their full linguistic repertoire to perform a communicative act. Using ethnographically informed data collection in conjunction with discourse analysis, teacher translanguaging was examined for its related functions in the science classroom and how teacher translanguaging afforded opportunities for framing and supporting scientific argumentation. Results suggest that the functions of teacher translanguaging fell into three main themes: maintaining classroom culture, facilitating the academic task, and framing epistemic practices. Of the three categories of translanguaging, framing epistemic practices proved to be of paramount importance in the teacher presenting and supporting the practice of scientific argumentation. Implications from this study are relevant for pre-service science teacher preparation and in-service science teacher professional development for teachers working with emergent bilingual students.

  4. Advancements in Large-Scale Data/Metadata Management for Scientific Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupally, K.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.; Frame, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific data often comes with complex and diverse metadata which are critical for data discovery and users. The Online Metadata Editor (OME) tool, which was developed by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory team, effectively manages diverse scientific datasets across several federal data centers, such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Center and USGS's Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries (CSAS&L) project. This presentation will focus mainly on recent developments and future strategies for refining OME tool within these centers. The ARM OME is a standard based tool (https://www.archive.arm.gov/armome) that allows scientists to create and maintain metadata about their data products. The tool has been improved with new workflows that help metadata coordinators and submitting investigators to submit and review their data more efficiently. The ARM Data Center's newly upgraded Data Discovery Tool (http://www.archive.arm.gov/discovery) uses rich metadata generated by the OME to enable search and discovery of thousands of datasets, while also providing a citation generator and modern order-delivery techniques like Globus (using GridFTP), Dropbox and THREDDS. The Data Discovery Tool also supports incremental indexing, which allows users to find new data as and when they are added. The USGS CSAS&L search catalog employs a custom version of the OME (https://www1.usgs.gov/csas/ome), which has been upgraded with high-level Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) validations and the ability to reserve and mint Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs). The USGS's Science Data Catalog (SDC) (https://data.usgs.gov/datacatalog) allows users to discover a myriad of science data holdings through a web portal. Recent major upgrades to the SDC and ARM Data Discovery Tool include improved harvesting performance and migration using new search software, such as Apache Solr 6.0 for serving up data/metadata to scientific communities. Our presentation will highlight

  5. Creating Science Education Specialists and Scientific Literacy in Students through a Successful Partnership among Scientists, Science Teachers, and Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, S.; Prouhet, T.; Radencic, S.

    2007-12-01

    The nature of science and the nature of learning are often assumed to have little practical relationship to each other. Scientists conduct research and science teachers teach. Rarely do the scientist and the science teacher have an opportunity to learn from each other. Here we describe results from a program funded by NSF, the Information Technology in Science (ITS) Center for Teaching and Learning. The ITS Center provided the support and structure necessary for successful long-term collaboration among scientists, science teachers, and education researchers that has resulted in the creation of new science education specialists. These specialists are not only among the science teachers, but also include avid recruits to science education from the scientists themselves. Science teachers returned to their classrooms armed with new knowledge of content, inquiry, and ideas for technology tools that could support and enhance students' scientific literacy. Teachers developed and implemented action research plans as a means of exploring educational outcomes of their use and understanding of new technologies and inquiry applied to the classroom. In other words, they tried something different in the class related to authentic inquiry and technology. They then assessed the students' to determine if there was an impact to the students in some way. Many of the scientists, on the other hand, report that they have modified their instructional practices for undergraduate courses based on their experiences with the teachers and the ITS Center. Some joined other collaborative projects pairing scientists and educators. And, many of the scientists continue on-going communication with the science teachers serving as mentors, collaborators, and as an "expert" source for the students to ask questions to. In order to convey the success of this partnership, we illustrate and discuss four interdependent components. First, costs and benefits to the science teacher are discussed through case

  6. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Johnson, Gary M.; Washington, Warren M.

    2009-07-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in partnership with the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) held a workshop on the challenges in climate change science and the role of computing at the extreme scale, November 6-7, 2008, in Bethesda, Maryland. At the workshop, participants identified the scientific challenges facing the field of climate science and outlined the research directions of highest priority that should be pursued to meet these challenges. Representatives from the national and international climate change research community as well as representatives from the high-performance computing community attended the workshop. This group represented a broad mix of expertise. Of the 99 participants, 6 were from international institutions. Before the workshop, each of the four panels prepared a white paper, which provided the starting place for the workshop discussions. These four panels of workshop attendees devoted to their efforts the following themes: Model Development and Integrated Assessment; Algorithms and Computational Environment; Decadal Predictability and Prediction; Data, Visualization, and Computing Productivity. The recommendations of the panels are summarized in the body of this report.

  7. Construction of the Cognitive Dimension of the Scientific Literacy in the Students through the Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Camacho-Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research recognizes the cognitive contributions to the students participating in the Third Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics that will define the advancement and strengthening in the construction of its conceptual dimension in the scientific literacy.  This paper is based, mainly, on qualitative approach techniques (ethnographic design:  case study; however, some data are interpreted through quantitative methodologies (descriptive design with an explanatory and exploratory touch for the analysis of a sample of 54 high school students, finalists in the category A of the Olympics, through the use of tools such as a documentary study and a survey, in July 2009.  The information generated was analyzed using elements of inferential and descriptive statistics, figures and histograms.  It was proved that there is a better cognitive management in the topics assessed, an increase in the students’ academic performance as the tests are applied, a commitment for the academic update supported by the development of several tasks for previous preparation, curriculum contributions unprecedented based on our sample, a consent to optimize student’s knowledge about Biology, which will allow the application of scientific notions to diversify and renew the knowledge, according to what is established in the principles of scientific literacy.

  8. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; contributed papers. Proceedings. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The first International Conference on Advances in Materials Science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in Cairo. The specialists discussed advances in materials science formation, development and observation. The applications of materials science technique in the field of construction material, Moessbauer measurements, physico science, corrosion and mechanical alloying were discussed at the meeting. more than 700 papers were presented in the meeting

  9. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; contributed papers. Proceedings. V.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The first International Conference on Advances in Materials Science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in Cairo. The specialists discussed advances in materials science formation, development and observation. The applications of materials science technique in the field of construction material, Moessbauer measurements, physico science, corrosion and mechanical alloying were discussed at the meeting. more than 700 papers were presented in the meeting.

  10. Coastal aquifers: Scientific advances in the face of global environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal aquifers embody the subsurface transition between terrestrial and marine systems, and form the almost invisible pathway for tremendous volumes of freshwater that flow to the ocean. Changing conditions of the earth's landscapes and oceans can disrupt the fragile natural equilibrium between fresh and saltwater that exists in coastal zones. Among these, over-abstraction of groundwater is considered the leading man-made cause of seawater intrusion. Moreover, many of the world's largest urban settings, where sources of contamination are profuse, have been built over the freshwater in coastal aquifers. Thus, coastal aquifers are important receptors of human impacts to water on Earth (Michael et al., 2017). This Special Issue on 'Investigation and Management of Coastal Aquifers' contains current scientific advances on the topic, dealing with the storage and quality of water, affected by stressors ranging in scale from point source contamination to global climate change.

  11. Topics in library and information science in Brazil: focus on electronic scientific journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Alves de Mendonça

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accents the national electronic journals of library and information science with purpose of identifying the questions most debated in information science through the analysis of articles published from 2003 to 2013, in addition to detecting the subjects of the articles analyzed in order to detect thematic similarities and differences in the scope of interdisciplinarity, including the identification of "empty", i.e. important issues not contemplated. Include the library science journals for the reason of the relevant titles currently be originated of publications before dedicated to the library science and then concentrated on studies in information science. To achieve this quali-quantitative research, nature descriptive and case study, resort to documentary analysis and thematic content analysis as collection techniques and data analysis, respectively. Verifies that the increase in research in this field follows with the expansion of the Graduate Program in Information Science and expands as found in electronic journals, the means to intensify scientific communication and ratify interdisciplinary relations. Registers 48 themes, among which Management has the highest incidence (191 articles as opposed to the classes; Administration and Environment and Sustainability, both with only seven studies each. Library Science has the highest number of interdisciplinary relations. It is recommended that researchers in the field turn their attention to topics on the rise not yet explored in the context of information science, like Cognitive and Behavioral Studies; and Information Architecture, in view of the prospects for growth and contribution to the field.

  12. Think Scientifically: The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory's Elementary Science Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norden, Wendy M.

    2013-07-01

    The pressure to focus on math and reading at the elementary level has increased in recent years. As a result, science education has taken a back seat in elementary classrooms. The Think Scientifically book series provides a way for science to easily integrate with existing math and reading curriculum. This story-based science literature program integrates a classic storybook format with solar science concepts, to make an educational product that meets state literacy standards. Each story is accompanied by hands-on labs and activities that teachers can easily conduct in their classrooms with minimal training and materials, as well as math and language arts extensions. These books are being distributed through teacher workshops and conferences, and are available free at http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/epo/educators/thinkscientifically.php.

  13. Popular Science as a Means of Emotional Engagement with the Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A P ILKINGTON

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a debate (and its origins which is taking place around the issue of science popularization. Although the participants are all describing popularization in various ways, the heart is in what makes a good popularization. The notion of this has changed from the 19th century view, which called for a simple and easy - to - understand text, to a more modern view, which suggests a good popularization engages the reader emotionally. This discussion might also be seen in a context of a more profou nd debate of science experts versus general public and what science and scientific knowledge mean to each group. The exploration of this relationship suggests a shift in the role lay public plays in science.

  14. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature.

  15. Science writing heurisitc: A writing-to-learn strategy and its effect on student's science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caukin, Nancy S.

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine if employing the writing-to-learn strategy known as a "Science Writing Heuristic" would positively effect students' science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view. The publications Science for All American, Blueprints for Reform: Project 2061 (AAAS, 1990; 1998) and National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) strongly encourage science education that is student-centered, inquiry-based, active rather than passive, increases students' science literacy, and moves students towards a constructivist view of science. The capacity to learn, reason, problem solve, think critically and construct new knowledge can potentially be experienced through writing (Irmscher, 1979; Klein, 1999; Applebee, 1984). Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is a tool for designing science experiences that move away from "cookbook" experiences and allows students to design experiences based on their own ideas and questions. This non-traditional classroom strategy focuses on claims that students make based on evidence, compares those claims with their peers and compares those claims with the established science community. Students engage in reflection, meaning making based on their experiences, and demonstrate those understandings in multiple ways (Hand, 2004; Keys et al, 1999, Poock, nd.). This study involved secondary honors chemistry students in a rural prek-12 school in Middle Tennessee. There were n = 23 students in the group and n = 8 in the control group. Both groups participated in a five-week study of gases. The treatment group received the instructional strategy known as Science Writing Heuristic and the control group received traditional teacher-centered science instruction. The quantitative results showed that females in the treatment group outscored their male counterparts by 11% on the science achievement portion of the study and the males in the control group had a more constructivist scientific

  16. The questions of scientific literacy and the challenges for contemporary science teaching: An ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    This study began with questions about how science education can bring forth humanity and ethics to reflect increasing concerns about controversial issues of science and technology in contemporary society. Discussing and highlighting binary epistemological assumptions in science education, the study suggests embodied science learning with human subjectivity and integrity between knowledge and practice. The study questions (a) students' understandings of the relationships between STSE and their everyday lifeworld and (b) the challenges of cultivating scientific literacy through STSE teaching. In seeking to understand something about the pedagogical enactment of embodied scientific literacy that emphasizes the harmony of children's knowledges and their lifeworlds, this study employs a mindful pedagogy of hermeneutics. The intro- and intra-dialogical modes of hermeneutic understanding investigate the pedagogical relationship of parts (research texts of students, curriculum, and social milieu) and the whole (STSE teaching in contemporary time and place). The research was conducted with 86 Korean 6 graders at a public school in Seoul, Korea in 2003. Mixed methods were utilized for data collection including a survey questionnaire, a drawing activity, interviews, children's reflective writing, and classroom teaching and observation. The research findings suggest the challenges and possibilities of STSE teaching as follows: (a) children's separated knowledge from everyday practice and living, (b) children's conflicting ideas between ecological/ethical aspects and modernist values, (c) possibilities of embodied knowing in children's practice, and (d) teachers' pedagogical dilemmas in STSE teaching based on the researcher's experiences and reflection throughout teaching practice. As further discussion, this study suggests an ecological paradigm for science curriculum and teaching as a potential framework to cultivate participatory scientific literacy for citizenship in

  17. Students' Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Online Evaluative Standards, and Online Searching Strategies for Science Information: The Moderating Role of Cognitive Load Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were used to ascertain the students' scientific epistemic beliefs, information commitments, and cognitive load experience. Structural equation modeling was then used to analyze the moderating effect of cognitive load, with the results revealing its significant moderating effect. The relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and the advanced evaluative standards used by the students were significantly stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. Moreover, considering the searching strategies that the students used, the relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and advanced searching strategies were also stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. However, for the high cognitive load students, only one of the sophisticated scientific epistemic belief dimensions was found to positively associate with advanced evaluative standard dimensions.

  18. PREFACE: APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (AMSN08)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2009-09-01

    Dear friends To contribute to the enhancement of the international scientific cooperation of the ASEAN countries and in reply to the proposal of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Sub Committee on Materials Science and Technology (SCMST) of the ASEAN Committee of Science and Technology (ASEAN COST) agreed to organize this APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology with the participation of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Rencontres du Vietnam, the Vietnam Physical Society, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City and the Vietnam National University in Hanoi. As well as the participants from 9 of the 10 ASEAN countries and many other countries/regions of APCTP (Australia, China, Chinese Taipei, Japan and Korea) we warmly welcome the guests from Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel. Without the financial support of the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics APCTP, Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics ICTP, the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development AOARD, the US Office of Naval Research Global-Asia ONRG, the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam MOST, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology VAST, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City VNU HCMC and other Sponsors, we would have been unable to hold this Workshop. On behalf of the International and Local Organizing Committees I would like to express our deep gratitude to the Sponsors. We highly appreciate the support and advice of the members of the International Advisory Committee, the scientific contribution of the invited speakers and all participants. We acknowledge the warm reception of the Khanh Hoa province Administration and citizens, and the hard work of the VAST staff for the success of the Workshop. We cordially wish all participants lively scientific

  19. Scientific advances of the MyOcean projects underpinning the transition towards the Marine Copernicus service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The MyOcean projects supported by the European Commission period have been developed during the 2008-2015 period to build an operational service of ocean physical state and ecosystem information to intermediate and downstream users in the areas of marine safety, marine resources, marine and coastal environment and weather, climate and seasonal forecasting. The "core" information provided to users is obtained through the combination of satellite and in situ observations, eddy-resolving modelling of the global ocean and regional european seas, biochemistry, ecosystem and sea-ice modelling, and data assimilation for global to basin scale circulation. A comprehensive R&D plan was established in 2010 to ensure the collection and provision of information of best possible quality for daily estimates of the ocean state (real-time), its short-term evolution, and its history over the past (reanalyses). A service validation methodology was further developed to ensure proper scientific evaluation and routine monitoring of the accuracy of MyOcean products. In this presentation, we will present an overview of the main scientific advances achieved in MyOcean using the NEMO modelling platform, ensemble-based assimilation schemes, coupled circulation-ecosystem, sea-ice assimilative models and probabilistic methodologies for ensemble validation. We will further highlight the key areas that will require additional innovation effort to support the Marine Copernicus service evolution.

  20. Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Ling; Kwan, Jenny; Hodson, Derek; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2009-01-01

    Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field of molecular biology. The story of SARS illustrates vividly some NOS features advocated in the school science curriculum, including the tentative nature of scientific knowledge, theory-laden observation and interpretation, multiplicity of approaches adopted in scientific inquiry, the inter-relationship between science and technology, and the nexus of science, politics, social and cultural practices. The story also provided some insights into a number of NOS features less emphasised in the school curriculum—for example, the need to combine and coordinate expertise in a number of scientific fields, the intense competition between research groups (suspended during the SARS crisis), the significance of affective issues relating to intellectual honesty and the courage to challenge authority, the pressure of funding issues on the conduct of research and the ‘peace of mind’ of researchers, These less emphasised elements provided empirical evidence that NOS knowledge, like scientific knowledge itself, changes over time. They reflected the need for teachers and curriculum planners to revisit and reconsider whether the features of NOS currently included in the school science curriculum are fully reflective of the practice of science in the 21st century. In this paper, we also report on how we made use of extracts from the news reports and documentaries on SARS, together with episodes from the scientists’ interviews, to develop a multimedia instructional package for explicitly teaching the prominent features of NOS and scientific inquiry identified in the SARS research.

  1. Scientific Value and Educational Goals: Balancing Priorities and Increasing Adult Engagement in a Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickler, Jessica; Cherry, Tammy Messick; Allee, Leslie; Smyth, Rebecca Rice; Losey, John

    2014-01-01

    The Lost Ladybug Project is a citizen science project that engages individuals and groups in research and learning about ladybug population dynamics. With a dual purpose of advancing scientists' research about ladybug populations and achieving learning outcomes with participants, the project's summative evaluation led to critical reflection on the…

  2. Developing Capacities for Teaching Responsible Science in the MENA Region: Refashioning Scientific Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Spurred on by new discoveries and rapid technological advances, the capacity for life science research is expanding across the globe-and with it comes concerns about the unintended impacts of research on the physical and biological environment, human well-being, or the deliberate misuse of knowledge, tools, and techniques to cause harm. This…

  3. Scientifically speaking: Identifying, analyzing, and promoting science talk in small groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthuis, Nicole Inamine

    In this dissertation I define, document, and analyze the nature of students' science talk as they work in cooperative learning groups. Three questions form the basis of this research. First, what is science talk? Second, how much and what kind of science talk did students do? And, third, what conditions help promote or inhibit students' science talk? This study was conducted in a total of six classrooms in three high schools. I videotaped and audiotaped students as they worked in small groups during the course of an ecology unit. I analyzed this videotape data and field notes using both quantitative and qualitative methods. I define science talk as talk that serves to move students along in terms of the science (both content and process) required or suggested by the activity. More specifically, I identified five epistemological characteristics that delineate what counts as scientific knowledge and, subsequently, science talk. From this definition, I developed an analytic framework and science talk observation instrument to document the quantity and level of student and teacher talk during groupwork. Analysis of the data from this instrument indicates that the overall level of students' science talk is considerable and students do significantly more science talk than school talk. I also found that while the overall level and type of science talk does not vary by class or by school, it does vary by activity type. Finally, my analysis suggests that science talk does not vary by gender composition of the group. I explored the classroom conditions that promote or inhibit science talk during groupwork. My findings suggest that, among other things, teachers can promote science talk by delegating authority to students, by emphasizing content and the big idea, by implementing open-ended tasks, and by modeling science talk. In conclusion, the findings described in this dissertation point teachers and researchers toward ways in which they may improve practice in order to

  4. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex

  5. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems

  6. Information literacy in science writing: how students find, identify, and use scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.

    2016-11-01

    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.

  7. Science gateways for distributed computing infrastructures development framework and exploitation by scientific user communities

    CERN Document Server

    Kacsuk, Péter

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the science gateway building technology developed in the SCI-BUS European project and its adoption and customization method, by which user communities, such as biologists, chemists, and astrophysicists, can build customized, domain-specific science gateways. Many aspects of the core technology are explained in detail, including its workflow capability, job submission mechanism to various grids and clouds, and its data transfer mechanisms among several distributed infrastructures. The book will be useful for scientific researchers and IT professionals engaged in the develop

  8. When 'paradigms' differ: scientific communication between skepticism and hope in recent philosophy of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coletto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The first half of this article illustrates how contemporary humanist philosophy of science got caught up in a gradual loss of confidence concerning the possibility of sound communication among scholars holding on to different paradigms or presuppositions. The second half is dedicated to the responses provided by a Christian school of philosophy to the bleak possibility of a communication crisis. The resources deployed by the reformational school of philosophy are argued to constitute valuable instruments to create a more hopeful attitude towards scientific dialogue. A final note is dedicated to the possible causes of the difficulties experienced in this area of reflection by contemporary humanist philosophy of science.

  9. Sublime science: Teaching for scientific sublime experiences in middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Shane

    Due to a historical separation of cognition and emotion, the affective aspects of learning are often seen as trivial in comparison to the more 'essential' cognitive qualities - particularly in the domain of science. As a result of this disconnect, feelings of awe, wonder, and astonishment as well as appreciation have been largely ignored in the working lives of scientists. In turn, I believe that science education has not accurately portrayed the world of science to our students. In an effort to bring the affective qualities of science into the science classroom, I have drawn on past research in the field of aesthetic science teaching and learning as well as works by, Burke, Kant, and Dewey to explore a new construct I have called the "scientific sublime". Scientific sublime experiences represent a sophisticated treatment of the cognitive as well as affective qualities of science learning. The scientific sublime represents feelings of awe, wonder, and appreciation that come from a deep understanding. It is only through this understanding of a phenomenon that we can appreciate its true complexity and intricacies, and these understandings when mixed with the emotions of awe and reverence, are sublime. Scientific sublime experiences are an attempt at the re-integration of cognition and feeling. The goal of this research was twofold: to create and teach a curriculum that fosters scientific sublime experiences in middle school science classes, and to better understand how these experiences are manifested in students. In order to create an approach to teaching for scientific sublime experiences, it was first necessary for me to identify key characteristics of such an experience and a then to create a pedagogical approach, both of which are described in detail in the dissertation. This research was conducted as two studies in two different middle schools. My pedagogical approach was used to create and teach two five-week 7 th grade science units---one on weather

  10. Using Deep-Sea Scientific Drilling to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Michael; Cooper, Sharon; Kurtz, Nicole; Burgio, Marion; Cicconi, Alessia

    2017-04-01

    Beginning with confirmation of sea floor spreading in Leg 3 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project in 1968, scientific ocean drilling has provided much of the evidence supporting modern understanding of the Earth System, global climate changes, and many other important concepts. But for more than three decades, results of discoveries were published primarily in scientific journals and cruise volumes. On occasion, science journalists would write articles for the general public, but organized educational outreach efforts were rare. Starting about a decade ago, educators were included in the scientific party aboard the JOIDES Resolution. These "teachers-at-sea" developed formats to translate the technical and scientific activities into language understandable to students, teachers, and the public. Several "Schools of Rock" have enabled groups of teachers and informal science educators to experience what happens aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Over the past few years, educational outreach efforts based on scientific drilling expanded to create a large body of resources that promote Ocean Science Literacy. Partnerships between scientists and educators have produced a searchable database of inquiry-centered classroom and informal science activities. These are available for free through the JOIDES Resolution website, joidesresolution.org. Activities are aligned with the Ocean Literacy Principles (http://oceanliteracy.wp2.coexploration.org/) and Science Education Standards. In addition to a suite of lessons based on the science behind scientific drilling, participants have developed a range of educational resources that include graphic novels ("Tales of the Resolution" (http://joidesresolution.org/node/263) ; children's books ("Uncovering Earth's Secrets" and "Where the Wild Microbes Grow" http://joidesresolution.org/node/2998); posters, videos, and other materials. Cooper and Kurtz are currently overseeing improvements and revisions to the JR education website pages. The

  11. Polymers – A New Open Access Scientific Journal on Polymer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymers is a new interdisciplinary, Open Access scientific journal on polymer science, published by Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI. This journal welcomes manuscript submissions on polymer chemistry, macromolecular chemistry, polymer physics, polymer characterization and all related topics. Both synthetic polymers and natural polymers, including biopolymers, are considered. Manuscripts will be thoroughly peer-reviewed in a timely fashion, and papers will be published, if accepted, within 6 to 8 weeks after submission. [...

  12. Proceedings of the 1st international scientific conference "Teaching methods for economics and business sciences"

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Teaching is a challenging but also a rewarding profession. It is underpinned by one key question: how do we build a good teaching and learning environment so that our students can acquire professional competences which will enable them to be successful in today’s global business environment. These proceedings include the papers presented at the 1st International Scientific Conference »Teaching Methods for Economics and Business Sciences« held on 8 May 2017 at the University of Maribor, F...

  13. Scepticism and Trust: Two Counterpoint Essentials in Science Education for Complex Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    In this response to Tom G. K. Bryce and Stephen P. Day's ("Cult Stud Sci Educ." doi:10.1007/s11422-013-9500-0, 2013) original article, I share with them their interest in the teaching of climate change in school science, but I widen it to include other contemporary complex socio-scientific issues that also need to be discussed. I…

  14. Professor, member of the Academy of (Medical) Sciences, Igor Dmitrievich Kirpatovsky and his scientific heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitova, Z.; Smirnova, E.; Protasov, A.

    2015-11-01

    Academician Igor Dmitrievich Kirpatovsky created a scientific school at the Department of Operative Surgery at the Russian People's Friendship University. Unique studies have been conducted in various areas of medicine and science: vascular and abdominal surgery; microsurgery; traumatology and orthopedics; clinical anatomy and relief anatomy; nervous and endocrine transplantation; andrology transplantation; experiments in the area of renal transplantation, small intestine and limb transplantation; transplantation immunology.

  15. Praxeologies and Institutional Interactions in the Advanced Science Teacher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus

    disciplines in conjunction. In particular the inquiry process of Study and Research Paths (SRP) is experimented as a promising design to bring about disciplinary interaction. SRP is internationally a very recent design, entirely new to Danish teacher education, and the thesis add to the knowledge of its......The present thesis consists of six papers that address three important aspects in mathematics and science teacher education: ‘Integrating two or more teaching disciplines’, ‘learning from practice’ and ‘interaction between institutions’. These aspects are studied in combination as they have...... unfolded in the context of developing and implementing a Danish education programme called the Advanced Science Teacher Education (ASTE), that aim to educate lower secondary school teachers, who among other things are to excel at interdisciplinarity. The essence of integrated teaching is elusive...

  16. Review of research on advanced computational science in FY2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    Research on advanced computational science for nuclear applications, based on “Plan to Achieve Medium- to Long-term Objectives of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Medium- to Long-term Plan)”, has been performed at Center for Computational Science and e-Systems (CCSE), Japan Atomic Energy Agency. CCSE established the committee consisting of outside experts and authorities which does research evaluation and advices for the assistance of the research and development. This report summarizes the followings. (1) Results of the R and D performed at CCSE in FY 2016 (April 1st, 2016 - March 31st, 2017), (2) Results of the evaluation on the R and D by the committee in FY 2016. (author)

  17. Review of research on advanced computational science in FY2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Research on advanced computational science for nuclear applications, based on 'Plan to Achieve Medium- to Long-term Objectives of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Medium- to Long-term Plan)', has been performed at Center for Computational Science and e-Systems (CCSE), Japan Atomic Energy Agency. CCSE established the committee consisting of outside experts and authorities which does research evaluation and advices for the assistance of the research and development. This report summarizes the followings. (1) Results of the R and D performed at CCSE in FY 2015 (April 1st, 2015 - March 31st, 2016), (2) Results of the evaluation on the R and D by the committee in FY 2015 (April 1st, 2015 - March 31st, 2016). (author)

  18. Quo Vadis ICDP? The Science Plan of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The rocks and fluids of our ever-changing planet contain heat, energy, and life as well as archived records of what has gone before. These precious relicts and living systems need to be probed, collected, monitored and analyzed. The science results obtained cover the spectrum of the earth sciences from climate change, natural hazards and earth resources to the origins of life on Earth. The need to drill has never been greater, and this requires improved coordination between the marine, terrestrial and ice-coring communities and the research and private sector communities, effectively addressing the needs of our growing population for energy, sustenance, and quality of life. The ICDP is an infrastructure for scientific drilling that facilitates outstanding science. It is the only international platform for scientific research drilling in terrestrial environments. ICDP brings together scientists and stakeholders from 24 nations to work together at the highest scientific and technical niveaux. More than 30 drilling projects and 55 planning workshops have been supported to date. It is an efficient organisation, run according to the philosophy "lean and mean", with an average annual budget of about 5 million, and further third-party drilling expenditures that more than doubles this yearly investment. Here we report on ICDP's 2013 Science Conference "Imaging the Past to Imagine our Future", held November 11-14, 2013 in Potsdam whose goal was to set the new ICDP Science Plan in motion. New insights into geoprocesses and the identification of hot topics were high on the agenda, and debated in closed sessions, via posters and through oral presentations, and where appropriate dovetailed with socio-economic challenges. The conference was used to strengthen and expand our ties with member countries, and to debate incorporating industry into selected ICDP strategic activities where it makes sense to do so (ICDP remains science-driven). In addition, the conference paved the way

  19. Comparing absolute and normalized indicators in scientific collaboration: a study in Environmental Science in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrini-Grácio, M.C.; Oliveira, E.F.T.

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis of scientific collaboration proximity trends generated from absolute indicators and indicators of collaboration intensity in the field of Environmental Sciences in Latin America (LA), in order to identify possible existing biases in the absolute indicators of international cooperation, due to the magnitude of scientific production of these countries in mainstream science. More specifically, the objective is to analyze the compared forms of absolute and normalized values of co-authorship among Latin America countries and their main collaborators, in order to observe similarities and differences expressed by two indexes of frequency in relation to scientific collaboration trends in LA countries. In addition, we aim to visualize and analyze scientific collaboration networks with absolute and normalized indexes of co-authorship through SC among Latin America countries and their collaborators, comparing proximity evidenced by two generated collaborative networks - absolute and relative indicators. Data collection comprised a period of 10 years (2006-2015) for the countries from LA: Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Colombia as they produced 94% of total production, a percentage considered representative and significant for this study. Then, we verified the co-authorship frequencies among the five countries and their key collaborators and builted the matrix with the indexes of co-authorship normalized through SC. Then, we generated two egocentric networks of scientific collaboration - absolute frequencies and normalized frequencies through SC using Pajek software. From the results, we observed the need for absolute and normalized indicators to describe the scientific collaboration phenomenon in a more thoroughly way, once these indicators provide complementary information. (Author)

  20. Advancing nursing science through health trajectory research: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Jean F; Henly, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Center for Health Trajectory Research has focused on developing ways to better understand how interventions influence health trajectories during transitional, acute, or chronic health challenges across the life span. The health trajectory perspective advances nursing science by providing a person-centered point of view that emphasizes change in health over time within individuals, families, groups, or communities. Theoretical considerations and statistical modeling approaches used in studying health trajectories, along with exemplars from nursing research studies from this special issue of Nursing Research, are highlighted.