WorldWideScience

Sample records for science achievement level

  1. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  2. Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

    This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all

  3. The effects of student-level and classroom-level factors on elementary students' science achievement in five countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects (Lamb & Fullarton, 2002) as well as understanding how these factors operate across countries (Baker, Fabrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004). The current study examined the individual student factors and classroom factors on fourth grade science achievement within and across five countries. Guided by the previous school learning models, the elements of students' science learning were categorized as student-level and classroom-level factors. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science, and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the United States and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia, and Scotland were reported. Multilevel effects of student and classroom variables were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 fourth grade dataset. The outcome variable was the TIMSS 2003 science score. Overall, the results of this study showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student-level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom-level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the U.S. and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the U.S. and Australia. Experimental studies that investigate the impacts of teacher and instructional factors on elementary science achievement are

  4. Predictors of gender achievement in physical science at the secondary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenko, Brittany Hunter

    This study used the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science restricted data-set for twelfth graders. The NAEP data used in this research study is derived from a sample group of 11,100 twelfth grade students that represented a national population of over 3,000,000 twelfth grade students enrolled in science in the United States in 2009. The researcher chose the NAEP data set because it provided a national sample using uniform questions. This study investigated how the factors of socioeconomic status (SES), parental education level, mode of instruction, and affective disposition affect twelfth grade students' physical science achievement levels in school for the sample population and subgroups for gender. The factors mode of instruction and affective disposition were built through factor analysis based on available questions from the student surveys. All four factors were found to be significant predictors of physical science achievement for the sample population. NAEP exams are administered to a national sample that represents the population of American students enrolled in public and private schools. This was a non-experimental study that adds to the literature on factors that impact physical science for both genders. A gender gap is essentially nonexistent at the fourth grade level but appears at the eighth grade level in science based on information from NAEP (NCES, 1997). The results of the study can be used to make recommendation for policy change to diminish this gender gap in the future. Educators need to be using research to make instructional decisions; research-based instruction helps all students.

  5. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  6. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  7. ethiopian students' achievement challenges in science education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Oli Negassa. Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia ... achievement in science education across selected preparatory schools of Ethiopia. The .... To what extent do students' achievements vary across grade levels, regions,.

  8. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Barry D. (Dept. of Social Sciences, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (United States)), e-mail: bdsolomo@mtu.edu; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban (Center for Public Sector Research, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  9. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban

    2010-09-01

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  10. Charter school education in Texas: Student achievement on the exit level assessment in math and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jeffery E.

    Public schools in the state of Texas are held accountable for performance and quality of education. Accountability is important to all schools, but it is critical to open-enrollment charter schools to remain in good standing. The current economic situation in Texas public education has brought attention as well as the need for alternative education programs such as charter schools. It is of the utmost importance for charter schools to illustrate that they are meeting the academic needs of the target market. This study addressed student achievement, as well as expenditure per student in both charter schools and traditional schools in the Region 10 educational service center. The datum for the study were obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) website, specifically the Academic Excellence Indicator System Data (AEIS) files for the 2011-2012. The study sample included 30 open-enrollment charters schools and 30 traditional high schools within the Region 10 educational service center during the school year of 2011-2012. The research study determined significant statistical differences between open-enrollment charter schools and traditional high schools. The potential for the study was to gain additional knowledge and insight along with additional data for the open-enrollment charter schools and traditional schools in the Region 10 Educational Service Center. The study has potentially increased the information for researchers and practitioners in education. In addition this study has proved charter schools are a viable and an effective educational tool for the future.

  11. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  12. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  13. Academic Satisfaction Level and Academic Achievement among Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences: Academic Year 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijeh Jamshidi; Babak Mohammadi; Zahra Mohammadi; Mohammad Karimi Parviz; Roghayeh Poursaberi; Mohammad Mehdi Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Academic satisfaction is considered one of the most important factors affecting academic achievement among students. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic satisfaction and academic achievement among students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted with 346 student participants using stratified random sampling. The research instrument included the Student Academic Sa...

  14. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  15. Regression Levels of Selected Affective Factors on Science Achievement: A Structural Equation Model with TIMSS 2011 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the science success regression levels of chosen emotional features of 8th grade students using Structural Equation Model. The study was conducted by the analysis of students' questionnaires and science success in TIMSS 2011 data using SEM. Initially, the factors that are thought to have an effect on science…

  16. The relationship of attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept to achievement in chemistry at the secondary school level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gerald Richard

    There is currently a crisis in science education in the United States. This statement is based on the National Science Foundation's report stating that the nation's students, on average, still rank near the bottom in science and math achievement internationally. This crisis is the background of the problem for this study. This investigation studied learner variables that were thought to play a role in teaching chemistry at the secondary school level, and related them to achievement in the chemistry classroom. Among these, cognitive style (field dependence/independence), attitudes toward science, and self-concept had been given considerable attention by researchers in recent years. These variables were related to different competencies that could be used to measure the various types of achievement in the chemistry classroom at the secondary school level. These different competencies were called academic, laboratory, and problem solving achievement. Each of these chemistry achievement components may be related to a different set of learner variables, and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of these relationships. Three instruments to determine attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept were used for data collection. Teacher grades were used to determine chemistry achievement for each student. Research questions were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and t-tests. Results indicated that field independence was significantly correlated with problem solving, academic, and laboratory achievement. Educational researchers should therefore investigate how to teach students to be more field independent so they can achieve at higher levels in chemistry. It was also true that better attitudes toward the social benefits and problems that accompany scientific progress were significantly correlated with higher achievement on all three academic measures in chemistry. This suggests that educational researchers

  17. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  18. Parents' Attitudes Towards Science and their Children's Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Liyanage Devangi H.

    2014-12-01

    Although countries worldwide are emphasizing the importance of science education for technological development and global economic competition, comparative findings from standardized international student assessments reveal a huge gap in science scores between developed and developing countries. Certain developed economies too have made little progress in raising science achievement over the past decade. Despite school improvement being placed high on the policy agenda, the results of such actions have been poor. Therefore, there is a need to explore additional ways in which science achievement can be enhanced. This study focuses on the family and examines whether parents' attitudes towards science (how much they value science and the importance they place on it) can influence their children's science achievement. Individual- and school-level data are obtained from the Program for International Student Assessment 2006 survey for 15 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and non-OECD countries. Hierarchical linear modelling is employed to estimate the equations. The findings indicate that parents' attitudes towards science have a positive and statistically significant effect on science achievement, after controlling for other important student- and school-level variables. Moreover, students from poor backgrounds appear to benefit from more positive parental science attitudes as much as students from high socioeconomic status, such that equality of student achievement is not affected. This study recommends that schools and teachers encourage parents to play a more pro-active role in their children's science education, as well as educate parents about the importance of science and strategies that can be adopted to support their children's science learning.

  19. Guidance levels, achievable doses and expectation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lianbo; Meng, Bing

    2002-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) published their guidance levels and reference doses for typical X-ray examination and nuclear medicine in their documents in 1993, 1994 and 1996 respectively. From then on, the concept of guidance levels or reference doses have been applied to different examinations in the field of radiology and proved to be effective for reduction of patient doses. But the guidance levels or reference doses are likely to have some shortcomings and can do little to make further reduction of patient dose in the radiology departments where patient dose are already below them. For this reason, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) proposed a concept named achievable doses which are based on the mean dose observed for a selected sample of radiology departments. This paper will review and discuss the concept of guidance levels and achievable doses, and propose a new concept referred to as Expectation Levels that will encourage the radiology departments where patient dose are already below the guidance levels to keep patient dose as low as reasonably achievable. Some examples of the expectation levels based on the data published by a few countries are also illustrated in this paper

  20. Science Achievement in TIMSS Cognitive Domains Based on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects. Understanding how different learning styles might influence science achievement may guide educators in their efforts to raise achievement. This study is an attempt to examine…

  1. The Effect of Achievement Badges on Students’ Behavior: An Empirical Study in a University-Level Computer Science Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Hakulinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Achievement badges are a form of gamification that are used in an attempt to increase user engagement and motivation in various systems. A badge is typically a graphical icon that appears as a reward for the user after reaching an achievement but that has no practical value. In this study, we describe and evaluate the use of achievement badges in the ANONYMOUS online learning environment where students solve interactive, automatically assessed exercises in a Data Structures and Algorithms course throughout the semester. We conducted an experiment where the students (N=281 were randomly divided into a treatment and a control group, with and without achievement badges. Students in the treatment group were awarded achievement badges, for example, for solving exercises on the first attempt, doing exercises early, or solving all the exercises in a round with full points. Grading was the same for both groups, i.e. collecting badges did not affect the final grade, even though the exercise points themselves did. Students’ activity in ANONYMOUS was logged in order to find out whether the achievement badges had an effect on their behavior. We also collected numerical and open-ended feedback in order to find out students’ attitudes towards the badges. Our results show that achievement badges can be used to affect students’ behavior. Statistically significant differences were observed in the time used per exercise, number of sessions, total time, and normalized total number of badges. Furthermore, the majority of the students reported being motivated by the badges. Based on our findings, achievement badges seem to be a promising method to motivate students and to encourage desired study practices.

  2. A multi-level differential item functioning analysis of trends in international mathematics and science study: Potential sources of gender and minority difference among U.S. eighth graders' science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyu

    Science is an area where a large achievement gap has been observed between White and minority, and between male and female students. The science minority gap has continued as indicated by the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS). TIMSS also shows a gender gap favoring males emerging at the eighth grade. Both gaps continue to be wider in the number of doctoral degrees and full professorships awarded (NSF, 2008). The current study investigated both minority and gender achievement gaps in science utilizing a multi-level differential item functioning (DIF) methodology (Kamata, 2001) within fully Bayesian framework. All dichotomously coded items from TIMSS 2007 science assessment at eighth grade were analyzed. Both gender DIF and minority DIF were studied. Multi-level models were employed to identify DIF items and sources of DIF at both student and teacher levels. The study found that several student variables were potential sources of achievement gaps. It was also found that gender DIF favoring male students was more noticeable in the content areas of physics and earth science than biology and chemistry. In terms of item type, the majority of these gender DIF items were multiple choice than constructed response items. Female students also performed less well on items requiring visual-spatial ability. Minority students performed significantly worse on physics and earth science items as well. A higher percentage of minority DIF items in earth science and biology were constructed response than multiple choice items, indicating that literacy may be the cause of minority DIF. Three-level model results suggested that some teacher variables may be the cause of DIF variations from teacher to teacher. It is essential for both middle school science teachers and science educators to find instructional methods that work more effectively to improve science achievement of both female and minority students

  3. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  4. Science Standards, Science Achievement, and Attitudes about Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Charlie M.; Kisida, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between (a) the quality of state science standards and student science achievement, (b) the public's belief in teaching evolution and the quality of state standards, and (c) the public's belief in teaching evolution and student science achievement. Using multiple measures, we find no evidence of a…

  5. The Achievement Gap between Science Classrooms and Historic Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Sarah; Scherman, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    In the past politics deprived many African children (in particular) in South Africa the opportunity of achieving quality education. This was most especially true in subjects such as mathematics and science. In this research the science teacher-level data from Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 (TIMSS'99) were analysed with a…

  6. Achievement of Serbian eighth grade students in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Radovan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS 2003 assessment conducted in Serbia in the fields of the science achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the science curriculum context of their achievement. There were 4264 students in the sample. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders had made average scale score of 468 points in the science, and with this achievement they are placed in the zone of the top of low international benchmarking level, very close to the point of intermediate benchmark. The average science achievement of the Serbian eighth graders is somewhat below the general international science achievement. The best results were achieved in the science content domain of "chemistry", and the lower results in the content domain of "environmental science". Across the defined science cognitive domains, it was confirmed that the Serbian students had achieved the best results in cognitive domain of "factual knowledge" and weaker results in "reasoning and analysis". The achieved results raise many questions about contents of the science curriculum in Serbia, its overall quality and basic characteristics of its implementation. These results can be eligibly used to improve the science curricula and teaching in Serbian primary school. .

  7. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of self-efficacy among students with different levels of academic achievement at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMENEH GHARETEPEH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: studies have indicated that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-efficacy and can predict the academic achievement. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in identifying self-efficacy among the students of Public Health School with different levels of academic achievement. Methods: This correlational study was conducted on all the students of Public Health School. 129 students were included in the study through census method. Data were collected using Emotional Intelligence and self-efficacy questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis by SPSS 14. Results: The average score of students with high academic achievement was higher in self-efficacy (39.78±5.82 and emotional intelligence (117.07±10.33 variables and their components than that of students with low academic achievement (39.17±5.91, 112.07±13.23. The overall emotional intelligence score to predict self-efficacy explanation was different among students with different levels of academic achievement (p<0.001. Self-efficacy structure was explained through self-awareness and self-motivation components in students with low academic achievement (r=0.571. In students with high academic achievement, self-awareness, selfmotivation and social consciousness played an effective role in explaining self-efficacy (r=0.677, p<0.001. Conclusion: Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy play an important role in achieving academic success and emotional intelligence can explain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to teach emotional intelligence skills to students with low academic achievement through training workshops.

  8. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  9. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  10. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  11. Science Motivation of University Students: Achievement Goals as a Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat; Akcaalan, Mehmet; Yurdakul, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make a study of the relationship between achievement goals and science motivation. Research data were collected from 295 university students. Achievement goals and science motivation scales were utilized as measure tools. The link between achievement goals orientation and science motivation was…

  12. Comparisons between students' learning achievements of their conventional instruction and the science, technology and social conceptual instructional design on digestion system issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichalek, Supattra; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this action research study were 1) to develop learning activities according to the instructional designing model of science, technology, and social (STS) on Digestion Issue, 2) to compare students' learning achievements between their learning activities with the conventional instructional (CIM) and conceptual instructional designing methods of science, technology, and social (STS) on digestion system of secondary students at the 10th grade level with a sample size of 35 experimental student group of their STS learning method, and 91 controlling group in two classes in the first semester in academic year 2016. Using the 4-Instructional Innovative Lesson Plans, the Students' Learning Behaviour Observing Form, the Questionnaire on Teacher Behaviour Interaction (QTBI), the Researcher's Recording Form, the Learning Activity Form, and the Parallel Learning Achievement Test (LAT) were assessed. The results of this research have found that; the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC) value ranged from 0.67 to 1.00; the difficulty values were 0.47 and 0.79 for the CIM and STS methods, respectively, the discriminative validity for the LAT was ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. The reliability of the QTBI was 0.79. Students' responses of their learning achievements with the average means scores indicted of the normalized gain values of 0.79 for the STS group, and 0.50 and 0.36 for the CIM groups, respectively. Students' learning achievements of their post-test indicated that of a higher than pre-test, the pre-test and post-test assessments were also differentiated evidence at the 0.05 levels for the STS and CIM groups, significantly. The 22-students' learning outcomes from the STS group evidences at a high level, only of the 9-students' responses in a moderate level were developed of their learning achievements, responsibility.

  13. Achieving What Political Science Is For

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacoff, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…

  14. The role of science in achieving sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, Gleb

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few decades research in the natural sciences has unveiled a number of specific complex relations between human activity an environmental change on a global scale. Scientific assesment confirm that global life support systems, such as climate, biodiversity and water resources are significantly affected by human activities. System change became the key in the research plan that emerged - systems being defined as the socio-economic and technical chains of production, distribution, consumption and disposal activities. Predicting the impact of a changing world on human health is a hard task and requires an interdisciplinary approach drawn from the fields of evaluation, biogeography, ecology and social sciences, and relying on various methodologies such as mathematical modelling as well as historical analysis. However, the great majority of public health researchers are empiricists by training and tradition, studying the past and the present via direct observation. By definition empirical methods cannot be used to study the future. To extent that the advent of global environmental changes obliges scientists to estimate future impacts, should current or foreseeable trends continue, then empiricism must be supplemented by integrated assessment modelling. The prediction of environmental change and its health impacts encounters uncertainties at various level. Some of the uncertainties are of scientific kind or are referring to the conceptualisation and construction of mathematical models where the specification of linked processes may be uncertain. Research on transformation towards sustainability puts emphasis on the interaction of innovation (production), consumption and institution and incentive structure. The specific challenges and research needs are: - Understand the dynamics of structural change in sociotechno-ecological system and anticipate transformation paths (knowledge of system dynamics); - Assess and evaluate the impacts of specific paths of

  15. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  16. Aspects of science engagement, student background, and school characteristics: Impacts on science achievement of U.S. students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Larry J.

    and hands-on activities). Focused implementation of these research findings could enhance both science engagement and science achievement of U.S. students. I identified five keylimitations of my research project: the age of the dataset, the lack of racial/ethnic identifiers, the low proportion of student-level variance accounted for by multilevel models with aspects of science engagement as outcome variables, the lack of class-level measures, and the lack of inclusion of students' epistemological and fixed/flexible beliefs. These limitations provide opportunities for further investigations into these critical issues in science education.

  17. International Conference "Social Sciences: Achievements and Prospects"

    OpenAIRE

    Open European Academy of Public Sciences

    2018-01-01

    The Organizing Committee of the International Scientific and Practical Conference of the Open European Academy of Social Sciences(Spain, Barcelona), in partnership with the Barcelona University (Spain, Barcelona), the Berlin University (Germany, Berlin) Conference sections: Anthropology, Demography and Ethnography, Journalism, Art History and Culturology History and archeology, Political science, Psychology, Pedagogy Regional studies and socio-economic geography, Relig...

  18. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for

  19. Exploring the Relations of Inquiry-Based Teaching to Science Achievement and Dispositions in 54 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Dean; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-06-01

    This study, drawing on data from the third cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an analytic strategy, examined the relations of inquiry-based science teaching to science achievement and dispositions toward science among 170,474 15-year-old students from 4780 schools in 54 countries across the globe. The results of the HLM analyses, after accounting for student-, school-, and country-level demographic characteristics and students' dispositions toward science, revealed that inquiry-based science teaching was significantly negatively related to science achievement. In contrast, inquiry-based science teaching was significantly positively associated with dispositions toward science, such as interest in and enjoyment of science learning, instrumental and future-oriented science motivation, and science self-concept and self-efficacy. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  20. Science achievement determinants: factorial structure of family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family plays an important role in determining the academic achievement ... parents' assistance, expectation, and encouragement in their children's mathematics ... suggested that cultural upbringing is a strong factor contributing to the.

  1. Science achievement of students in the Republic of Yemen and implications for improvement of science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nageeb Kassem

    The purpose of this study was to establish a research base from which strategies could be developed for improving science education in Yemen. The study measured the achievement in general science of Yemeni students attending primary, preparatory, and secondary schools, and their counterparts attending three- or five-year education programs in primary teacher training institutions. A sample of 1,984 students from six major cities in Yemen was given the Second International Science Study test in May 1988. Achievement scores of these selected groups were compared. The mean achievement in general science was 11.93 for science track students, 9.21 for three-year teacher training institution students, and 8.49 for five-year teacher training institution students. These mean scores were based on a total of 35 items. This low level of achievement was further verified by making comparisons of the achievement of selected groups from Yemeni high schools in six cities with each other. The following factors were measured in this study: location, grade level, gender and type of science program studied. Selected groups from Yemeni high schools were also compared to their peers in other nations. The researcher compared students of the science track and teacher training institutions to their counterparts in 13 nations and students of the literature track to their counterparts in eight nations. Fifth and ninth grade students' scores were compared with the scores of their counterparts in 15 and 17 nations respectively. In every comparison, every Yemeni group ranked at the bottom of the achievement list. (Jacobson W., & Doran, R. 1988) The outcomes of this research indicate the profound need for improving science programs in all grade levels in Yemen. The research recommendations for improvement in science education in Yemen fall into four areas: a change in attitudes toward education, a change in teacher education, a change in classroom conditions, and a change in educational

  2. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  3. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  4. Parental influences on students' self-concept, task value beliefs, and achievement in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senler, Burcu; Sungur, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to investigate the grade level (elementary and middle school) and gender effect on students' motivation in science (perceived academic science self-concept and task value) and perceived family involvement, and secondly to examine the relationship among family environment variables (fathers' educational level, mothers' educational level, and perceived family involvement), motivation, gender and science achievement in elementary and middle schools. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that elementary school students have more positive science self-concept and task value beliefs compared to middle school students. Moreover, elementary school students appeared to perceive more family involvement in their schooling. Path analyses also suggested that family involvement was directly linked to elementary school students' task value and achievement. Also, in elementary school level, significant relationships were found among father educational level, science self-concept, task value and science achievement. On the other hand, in middle school level, family involvement, father educational level, and mother educational level were positively related to students' task value which is directly linked to students' science achievement. Moreover, mother educational level contributed to science achievement through its effect on self-concept.

  5. Achieving Open Access to Conservation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-01-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. Obtención de Acceso Abierto a la Ciencia de la Conservación Resumen La ciencia de la conservación es una

  6. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  7. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  8. Student achievement in science: A longitudinal look at individual and school differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alina

    The importance of science in today's technological society necessitates continued attention to students' experiences in science and specifically their achievement in science. There is a need to look at gender and race/ethnicity simultaneously when studying students' experiences in science and to explore factors related to higher achievement among students. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, this study contributes to existing literature on student achievement in science by simultaneously exploring the effects of race/ethnicity and gender. Capitalizing on the availability of yearly science achievement scores, I present trajectories of student achievement from 7th to 12th grade. This study also includes an exploration of school effects. Overall, student achievement in science increases from 7th to 12th grade, although some leveling is seen in later grades. Growth in achievement differs by both gender and race/ethnicity, but racial/ethnic differences are larger than gender differences. Hispanic, Black, Asian, and White males score higher, on average, throughout the secondary grades than their female counterparts. Achievement scores of Asian students are consistently higher than White students, who in turn score higher than Hispanic and finally Black students. Both background and science-related factors help explain variation in achievement status and growth in achievement. Parental education is positively associated with achievement status among all groups except Black students for whom there is no effect of parental education. Science related resources in the home are positively associated with student achievement and the effect of these resources increases in later grades. Student achievement in science is also positively related to student course taking and attitude toward science. Furthermore, both the negative effect of viewing science as a male domain, which exists for males and females, and the positive effect of parental support for

  9. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  10. The Influence of Mind Mapping on Eighth Graders' Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-El-Mona, Issam; Adb-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of using mind maps as a learning tool on eighth graders' science achievement, whether such influence was mediated by students' prior scholastic achievement, and the relationship between students' mind maps and their conceptual understandings. Sixty-two students enrolled in four intact sections of a grade 8 science…

  11. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modelling, using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 fourth grade dataset. Overall, the results showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the USA and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the USA and Australia. Recommendations for practice and policy were discussed.

  12. Seeding science success: Relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with aspirations and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, Wanasinghe Durayalage

    This research comprises three inter-related synergistic studies. Study 1 aims to develop a psychometrically sound tool to measure secondary students' science self-concepts, motivation, and aspirations in biology, chemistry, earth and environmental methodology to explicate students' and teachers' views, practices, and personal experiences, to identify the barriers to undertaking science for secondary students and to provide rich insights into the relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with their aspirations and achievement. Study 3 will detect additional issues that may not necessarily be identifiable from the quantitative findings of Study 2. The psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument demonstrated that students' science self-concepts were domain specific, while science motivation and science aspirations were not. Students' self-concepts in general science, chemistry, and physics were stronger for males than females. Students' self-concepts in general science and biology became stronger for students in higher years of secondary schooling. Students' science motivation did not vary across gender and year levels. Though students' science aspirations did not vary across gender, they became stronger with age. In general, students' science self-concepts and science motivation were positively related to science aspirations and science achievement. Specifically, students' year level, biology self-concept, and physics self concept predicted their science and career aspirations. Biology self-concept predicted teacher ratings of students' achievement, and students' general science self-concepts predicted their achievement according to students' ratings. Students' year level and intrinsic motivation in science were predictors of their science aspirations, and intrinsic motivation was a greater significant predictor of students' achievement, according to student ratings. Based upon students' and teachers' perceptions, the

  13. Quality Science Teacher Professional Development and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, J.

    2007-12-01

    Studies show that socio-economic background and parental education accounts for 50-60 percent of a child's achievement in school. School, and other influences, account for the remaining 40-50 percent. In contrast to most other professions, schools require no real apprenticeship training of science teachers. Overall, only 38 percent of United States teachers have had any on-the-job training in their first teaching position, and in some cases this consisted of a few meetings over the course of a year between the beginning teacher and the assigned mentor or master teacher. Since individual teachers determine the bulk of a student's school experiences, interventions focused on teachers have the greatest likelihood of affecting students. To address this deficiency, partnerships between scientists and K-12 teachers are increasingly recognized as an excellent method for improving teacher preparedness and the quality of science education. Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers' (founded in 1990) basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have no firsthand experience doing science, hence the Program's motto, "Practice what you teach." Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers provides strong evidence that a teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for secondary school science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant data. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in this form of professional development.

  14. Promoting the achievement of girls in GCSE science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kevin Charles

    This study, designed to challenge the under-representation and limited attainment of girls in the physical sciences in an 11-16 comprehensive school, was suggested by research into attitude formation by Kelly et al in the early 1980s. Balanced science, in removing opportunities for girls to opt out of the physical sciences, made it essential to identify those factors which were adversely affecting girls' attitudes towards science.Preliminary research tasks investigated stereotypical attitudes towards science activities and the school curriculum amongst students and their parents. Additional research probed students' perceptions of their ability in science and the relevance of science subjects. Students' attitudes towards science and science teaching were investigated in relation to their option and career choices. These data influenced the choice of MEG Coordinated Science (The Suffolk Development) as the GCSE balanced science course for the school.The subsequent programme of action research included a series of small-scale investigations, involving both monitoring and evaluation, designed to develop the Suffolk scheme and satisfy the research aims. Student attitudes towards teaching methods and the Suffolk materials were amongst those areas investigated. After evaluation the findings were channelled into the action research spiral to integrate teaching methods and curriculum development thereby promoting the attitudes and achievement of the girls.Improvements in attainment by all students, particularly the girls, were illustrated by increasing GCSE success. Although the traditional pattern of boys' superiority within the physical sciences was markedly reduced the research demonstrated that it is possible to improve the attainment of girls within GCSE science without discriminating against boys.Student opinion and the GCSE data suggested that the girls' achievements could be partially explained by the coursework-led assessment which suited the girls' preferred

  15. Achievements and Challenges in the Science of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Balogh, André; Gombosi, Tamas; Veronig, Astrid; von Steiger, Rudolf

    2017-11-01

    In June 2016 a group of 40 space weather scientists attended the workshop on Scientific Foundations of Space Weather at the International Space Science Institute in Bern. In this lead article to the volume based on the talks and discussions during the workshop we review some of main past achievements in the field and outline some of the challenges that the science of space weather is facing today and in the future.

  16. Similarity of TIMSS Math and Science Achievement of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Zabulionis

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1991-97, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA undertook a Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in which data about the mathematics and science achievement of the thirteen year-old students in more than 40 countries were collected. These data provided the opportunity to search for patterns of students' answers to the test items: which group of items was relatively more difficult (or more easy for the students from a particular country (or group of countries. Using this massive data set an attempt was made to measure the similarities among country profiles of how students responded to the test items.

  17. The effects of hands-on-science instruction on the science achievement of middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Felita

    Student achievement in the Twenty First Century demands a new rigor in student science knowledge, since advances in science and technology require students to think and act like scientists. As a result, students must acquire proficient levels of knowledge and skills to support a knowledge base that is expanding exponentially with new scientific advances. This study examined the effects of hands-on-science instruction on the science achievement of middle school students. More specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of hands-on science instruction versus traditional science instruction on the science test scores of middle school students. The subjects in this study were one hundred and twenty sixth-grade students in six classes. Instruction involved lecture/discussion and hands-on activities carried out for a three week period. Specifically, the study ascertained the influence of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the science test scores of middle school students. Additionally, this study assessed the effect of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the attitudes of sixth grade students toward science. The two instruments used to collect data for this study were the Prentice Hall unit ecosystem test and the Scientific Work Experience Programs for Teachers Study (SWEPT) student's attitude survey. Moreover, the data for the study was treated using the One-Way Analysis of Covariance and the One-Way Analysis of Variance. The following findings were made based on the results: (1) A statistically significant difference existed in the science performance of middle school students exposed to hands-on science instruction. These students had significantly higher scores than the science performance of middle school students exposed to traditional instruction. (2) A statistically significant difference did not exist between the science scores of male and female middle school students. (3) A statistically

  18. Problem-based learning versus traditional science instruction: Achievement and interest in science of middle grades minority females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungin, Rochelle E.

    This quantitative study examined science interest and achievement of middle school minority females in both traditional science classes and Problem-based Learning (PBL) science classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference between traditional teaching and the PBL teaching method. The researcher also looked for a significant relationship between interest in science and achievement in science. This study used survey data from parents of female middle school science students to measure student interest in science concepts. The population of interest for this study was 13--15 year old eighth grade females from various racial make-ups such as, African American, Hispanic, Bi-racial, Asian, and Other Pacific Islander. Student achievement data was retrieved from the 8th grade science fall common assessed benchmark exam of both test groups. The results of the survey along with the benchmark data was to shed light on the way adolescent females learn and come to embrace science. The findings may provide guidance for science educators seeking to reach their minority female students and guide their achievement levels higher than before. From the results of the t-test and Pearson correlation test of this study, it can be concluded that while this study did not show a significant difference in academic achievement or interest between the two teaching styles, it revealed that interest in science has a positive role to play in the academic success of minority girls in science. The practical implications for examining these issues are to further the research on solutions for closing the minority and gender achievement gaps. The results of this study have implications for researchers as well as practitioners in the field of education.

  19. English language proficiency and other factors influencing mathematics achievement at junior secondary level in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, Sarah J.; Plomp, T.

    2001-01-01

    South Africa participated in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)in 1995 and its repeat in 1999. In 1995, none of the data on school or teacher level could be analyzed to provide the context for the students' poor achievements in mathematics and science. With the 1999 data

  20. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  1. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  2. Inclusivity in the Classroom and International Achievement in Mathematics and Science: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Wei, Tianlan; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sheffield, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have examined the role of inclusivity in international assessments of student achievement, such as the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). The current study examined how the inclusivity of students with disabilities at the classroom level across countries may be associated with achievement scores,…

  3. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  4. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  5. Class Size and Academic Achievement in Introductory Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Terri L.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…

  6. Emotional Value Judgment and Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine emotional value judgment on student achievement in Basic Science. The study was carried out in Ijebu-North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Data were collected through valid questionnaire sent to five secondary schools within the local Government. One Hundred Junior Secondary II ...

  7. Income-Based Disparities in Early Elementary School Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study documents gaps in kindergarten and first-grade science achievement by family income and explores the degree to which such gaps can be accounted for by student race/ethnicity, out-of-school activities, parental education, and school fixed effects. In doing so, it expands on prior research that documents disparate rates of science…

  8. Equal pay for women in science is achievable

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... introduced a bill, the SECURE Water Act, that would expand the survey's groundwater and stream-flow monitoring programmes. Equal pay for women in science is achievable. Aggressive academic management can correct pay disparities between male and female scientists, say researchers. Their study.

  9. Learning nanotechnology with texts and comics: the impacts on students of different achievement levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-05-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two media which attract high-school students to learn science. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was adopted. The participants were 697 grade ten students from eight schools with different levels of academic achievement. Two similar classes in each of the eight schools were assigned as the comic group or the text group. The results indicated that the science comic book benefited medium achievers more than the science text booklet did, but the contrary result was found for the high achievers. In comparison, the two media benefited the low achievers equally, but both had only a limited effect due to the students' lack of prior knowledge. We conclude four kinds of evidence, including perceived difficulty of comprehension, reasons for interest/disinterest, emotional perceptions of learning science, and learning time, to support the phenomenon of the learning benefit of media specific to certain achievers' science learning.

  10. The effect of technology on student science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, June Kraft

    2003-10-01

    Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets

  11. Family Experiences, the Motivation for Science Learning and Science Achievement of Different Learner Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Salomé; Lemmer, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Science education is particularly important for both developed and developing countries to promote technological development, global economic competition and economic growth. This study explored the relationship between family experiences, the motivation for science learning, and the science achievement of a group of Grade Nine learners in South…

  12. Science Self-Beliefs and Science Achievement of Adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of science self-beliefs on science achievement for 24,680 13-year-old students from Gulf Cooperation Council member countries--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The…

  13. Development process and achievements of China nuclear agricultural sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the creation of our nuclear agricultural sciences and the development process as well as the main results for agricultural applications of nuclear technology. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China began in 1956, after 50 years of development, the collaborative research network, the academic exchange network, and the international exchange network have been formatted. These three networks comprehensively have promoted the formation and development of China nuclear agricultural sciences. Remarkable results have been achieved in the fields of radiation mutation breeding, space mutation breeding, isotope tracer technique application in agriculture, agricultural products storage and preservation of irradiation processing, irradiation sterile insect technique, low-doses of radiation to stimulate output. In addition, the concept of suggestions on the future development of China nuclear agricultural sciences, as well as the priorities of research fields are put forward. (authors)

  14. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

  15. Achieving conservation science that bridges the knowledge-action boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge-action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which

  16. Achieving Science with CubeSats: Thinking Inside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lal, Bhavya

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a study conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The study focused on the scientific potential and technological promise of CubeSats. We will first review the growth of the CubeSat platform from an education-focused technology toward a platform of importance for technology development, science, and commercial use, both in the United States and internationally. The use has especially exploded in recent years. For example, of the over 400 CubeSats launched since 2000, more than 80% of all science-focused ones have been launched just in the past four years. Similarly, more than 80% of peer-reviewed papers describing new science based on CubeSat data have been published in the past five years.We will then assess the technological and science promise of CubeSats across space science disciplines, and discuss a subset of priority science goals that can be achieved given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. Many of these goals address targeted science, often in coordination with other spacecraft, or by using sacrificial or high-risk orbits that lead to the demise of the satellite after critical data have been collected. Other goals relate to the use of CubeSats as constellations or swarms, deploying tens to hundreds of CubeSats that function as one distributed array of measurements.Finally, we will summarize our conclusions and recommendations from this study; especially those focused on nearterm investment that could improve the capabilities of CubeSats toward increased science and technological return and enable the science communities’ use of CubeSats.

  17. Science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation: Perceptions of female science olympians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kelly Rae

    Women remain under-represented in science career fields and this is especially evident in the physical sciences. Female students maintain equal science interest and achievement to male students in elementary school but by middle and high school they fall behind their male peers. Reasons cited for girls' declining interest in science include battling traditional gender stereotypes, lack of encouragement, and lack of female role models. Four main science concerns related to girls/women as indicated by research literature were science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. In Georgia, some girls have made a break from the research trends by demonstrating their fervor for science through participation in the academic activity, Science Olympiad. The purpose of this study was to examine the science perceptions of girls who demonstrated science success by their participation in Science Olympiad. Utilizing phenomenological and feminist perspectives, the qualitative research method of focus group interviewing was used to address the research questions comprising the four science concerns of female science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. The study participants were all girls/women who participated in Science Olympiad. A total of five focus groups were studied. One of the focus groups had current college undergraduates, former Science Olympians, in it while the others were composed of high school girls. Through the description of their science experiences, the participants shared their perceptions of the four science concerns. When addressing these science concerns, the participants revealed four factors that had most affected their science perceptions: the importance of support, science needs Serious Fun, teachers matter, and the bonuses of extracurricular involvement. In their experiences, the participants found success in science because they had teachers, parents, and peers who supported their academic interests, including science, and

  18. An Investigation of International Science Achievement Using the OECD's PISA 2006 Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Todd

    School Effectiveness Research (SER) is concerned with efforts to better understand the effectiveness enhancing relationship between student and school variables and how these variables primarily influence academic achievement (Scheerens, 2004). However, one identified methodological shortcoming in SER is the absence of cross-cultural perspectives (Kyriakides, 2006). This is a concern as what may prove effective in one nation does not necessarily mean that it can be easily and seamlessly imported into another with the same results. This study looked at the relationships between science self-beliefs and academic achievement in science across all nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2006. It further explored the variance accounted for by cultural, social and economic capital (the elements of the PISA socioeconomic status variable) for each country in PISA 2006 when predicting scientific literacy. Lastly, it used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze data from PISA 2006 for nations experiencing high rates of immigration (i.e., Germany, Spain, Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand). The outcome measures used for these countries were achievement scores in science, mathematics and reading. The variables examined at the student level were science self-efficacy, science self-concept, immigrant status and socioeconomic status. The variables examined at the school level were student level aggregates of school proportion of immigrants and school socioeconomic status. In the correlation analysis between science literacy and either science self-concept of science self-efficacy, findings suggest that at the student level, students with both higher science self-concept and higher science self-efficacy tend to achieve higher academically. However, at the country level the relationship was negative between self-concept and academic achievement in science (i.e., countries with higher science self-concept tend

  19. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  20. The Relationship between The Level of Intelligence, Achievement Motivation, Mathematics Learning Habits and Learning Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhatu Sikhah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tingkat kecerdasan dengan prestasi belajar matematika (2 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara motivasi berprestasi dengan prestasi belajar matematika (3 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kebiasaan belajar dengan prestasi belajar matematika (4 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tingkat kecerdasan, motivasi berprestasi, dan kebiasaan belajar matematika dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa semester 1 kelas XI IPA SMAN 1 Bojong. Jumlah sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 40 orang siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif korelatif sehingga data dianalisa untuk mendeskripsikan hubungan antara tingkat kecerdasan, motivasi berprestasi, dan kebiasaan belajar matematika dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa. Instrumen pengambilan data menggunakan dokumentasi dan angket, dan dianalisa menggunakan regresi dan korelasi linier sederhana, serta regresi dan korelasi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara : (1 tingkat kecerdasan dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa, (2 motivasi berprestasi dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa, (3 kebiasaan belajar dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa (4 tingkat kecerdasan, motivasi berprestasi dan kebiasaan belajar matematika dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa.   The purpose of this study is (1 To determine the relationship between the level of intelligence and academic achievement of mathematics (2 To determine the relationship between achievement motivation and learning achievement in mathematics (3 To determine the relationship between study habits and academic achievement of mathematics (4 To determine the relationship between level of intelligence, achievement motivation and study habits mathematics learning achievement of student mathematics 1st semester of grade XI IPA SMAN 1 Bojong. The number of samples in this study were 40 students.This research was descriptive

  1. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  2. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  3. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  4. Teacher Tweets Improve Achievement for Eighth Grade Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Van Vooren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Digital Age teachers have fallen far behind the technical skills of their "digital native" students. The implementation of technology as a tool for classroom communication is foreign for most teachers, but highly preferred by students. While teenagers are using Facebook, Twitter, and other social networks to communicate, teachers continue to respond through face-to-face conversations, telephone calls, and email messaging. Twitter, a platform for short message service text, is an online social network site that allows users to send and receive messages using 140 characters or less called Tweets. To analyze the relationship of the teacher's use of Twitter with student academic achievement, a correlation study conducted by Bess collected data from two matched samples of eighth grade science students: one utilizing Twitter and one not utilizing Twitter to reinforce classroom instruction. Two tests matching the science standards were given to both samples of students. The results of the tests were used as primary data. The findings suggested a positive correlation between the use of Twitter and student performance on the standardized tests. Implications for this study indicate that young teenagers may prefer Twitter as a mode of communication with their teacher, resulting in higher academic achievement in a middle school science class.

  5. Assessment of Student Achievement: Evaluation of Student Achievement at the Intermediate Level. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, M.; And Others

    Evaluation and assessment procedures of Ontario, Canada principals and teachers at the Intermediate level (grades 7 and 8) were examined. Extensive questionnaires were returned by 134 principals and 225 teachers divided across the subject areas of English, Mathematics, Science, Languages, History, Home Economics or Shop, Arts, and Physical…

  6. Relationship Between Teacher Inquiry Science Instruction Self-Efficacy and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanners, Grace D.

    Standardized test data indicate that student achievement in science is a problem both nationally and locally. At the study site, only a small percentage of fifth-grade students score at the advanced level on the Maryland state science assessment (MSA). In addition, the performance of African American, economically disadvantaged, and special education students is well below that of the general student population. Some studies have shown that teacher self-efficacy affects student achievement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fifth-grade teacher inquiry science instruction self-efficacy scores and the scores of their students on the MSA. Bandura's work on the effect of self-efficacy on human behavior provided the theoretical basis for this study. The research questions examined the relationship between teacher inquiry science instructional self-efficacy scores and students' science MSA scores as well as the relationship by student subgroups. A correlational research design was used. The Teaching Science as Inquiry survey instrument was used to quantify teacher self-efficacy, and archival MSA data were the source for student scores. The study included data from 22 teachers and 1,625 of their students. A 2-tailed Pearson coefficient analysis revealed significant, positive relationships with regard to overall student achievement ( r20 = .724, p < .01) and the achievement of each of the subgroups (African American: r20 = .549, p < .01; economically disadvantaged: r20 = .655, p < .01; and special education: r18 = .532, p < .05). The results of this study present an opportunity for positive social change because the local school system can provide professional development that may increase teacher inquiry science instruction self-efficacy as a possible means to improve overall science achievement and to reduce achievement gaps.

  7. Physical sciences at Diamond: past achievements and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, D F

    2015-03-06

    The start of user operation at the Diamond Light Source in January 2007 marks a major milestone for the physical sciences in the UK. The routine delivery to the UK community of ultra-bright X-ray beams from the third-generation source has provided us with capabilities that were available previously only at international sources, and indeed has created some that are unique. Here, a personal view is given of some of the achievements to date, and possible future opportunities outlined. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning Environments as Basis for Cognitive Achievements of Students in Basic Science Classrooms in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomatofa, Rachel; Okoye, Nnamdi; Igwebuike, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The nature of classroom learning environments created by teachers had been considered very important for learning to take place effectively. This study investigated the effect of creating constructivist and transmissive learning environments on achievements of science students of different ability levels. 243 students formed the entire study…

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF FOLK MATHEMATICS ON ACHIEVEMENT AT SECONDARY LEVEL STUDENT

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. K. K. Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the effectiveness of folk mathematics on achievement at secondary level student. It was an experimental method conducted on secondary school students in teaching mathematics for seventh standard. The result concluded by the investigator was that the effect of folk mathematics was better than the traditional method of teaching.

  10. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  11. Male Saudi Arabian freshman science majors at Jazan University: Their perceptions of parental educational practices on their science achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.

  12. Achievement Level and Sex Differences in Levels of Interests and the Interest-Educational Choice Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Neal

    1978-01-01

    The prediction of level of post-high-school educational choice was investigated using the theme scores of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, sex and achievement level as predictors. Results indicated significant relationships between interests and educational choice, moderated in some cases by sex and achievement level. (Author)

  13. The effects of school policies and practices on eighth-grade science achievement: A multilevel analysis of TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Carol Ann Mary

    Identifying the relative importance of both alterable school policies and fairly stable contextual factors as they relate to middle level science achievement, a domain of identified national concern, requires simultaneous investigation of multilevel predictors (i.e., student level and school level) specific to the grade level and academic subject area. The school level factors are predictors associated with both the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status, tracking, and instructional time) and the classroom (e.g., average academic press of peers, teacher collaboration, and instructional strategies). The current study assessed the effects of school policies, practices, and contextual factors on the science achievement of eighth grade students. These influences were considered to be both additive (i.e., influencing the mean achievement in a school after controlling for student characteristics) and interactive (i.e., affecting the relationships between student background characteristics and individual achievement). To account for the nested structure of predictors and cross level interactions among predictors, a multilevel model for middle level science achievement was estimated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) with data collected from eighth grade students, science teachers, and administrators in 1995 as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The major findings of this research suggest that although average eighth grade science achievement in a school was primarily associated with the contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status and average academic press), both the academic differentiating influence of prior achievement and the social differentiating influence of parental education on the science achievement of eighth grade students were related not only to contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school, but also to the instructional policies of the classroom

  14. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own classrooms. The study analyzed the mean scale scores for the science portion of the state's high school graduation test for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine whether schools receiving the intervention scored significantly higher than comparison schools receiving no intervention. The results showed that all schools achieved significant improvement of scale scores between 2004 and 2007, but there were no significant performance differences between intervention and comparison schools, nor were there any significant differences between various subgroups in intervention and comparison schools. However, one subgroup, economically disadvantaged (ED) students, from high-level intervention schools closed the achievement gap with ED students from no-intervention schools across the period of the study. The study provides important information to guide future research on and design of large-scale professional development programs to foster inquiry-based science.

  15. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    obstacles and limitations to achievement. Student study participants believe African American male students are targeted for suspension more often because of their gender and race, parents of high achieving African American males show some uncertainty about the school's ability to treat their sons in a fair and equitable manner, and teachers see indifference and the lack of science skills as the root cause of the diminished presence of African American male participation in higher level science classes.

  16. Teaching science in a technology rich environment: Probeware's effect on student attitude and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmanowicz, Marc

    Purpose The use of technology in the science classroom has been a major part of the initiative toward increasing student attitude and achievement in Science, Technology, Education and Math [STEM] education in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of probeware in a high school science living environment classroom impacts student attitude towards science and/or student achievement on standards-based assessments. This study sought to answer the following quantitative questions with a qualitative component: To what extent does the use of probeware in a high school level living environment course influence student attitudes toward science compared to students who are not using probeware? What is the impact, if any, on student achievement in a living environment course, as measured by New York State Living Environment Regents [NYSLER] exam grades, between students who use probeware and students who do not? Is there a significant difference between the two groups with regard to achieving mastery on the NYSLER exam? Sample The participants in the study were Living Environment students of a suburban high school outside of New York City. Methods The quasiexperimental study examined the effects of the replacement of traditional scientific equipment with probeware on student attitude and achievement in a living environment classroom. Student attitude was measured by the modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory [mATSI] and student achievement was measured by the New York State Living Environment Regents [NSLER] Exam. Descriptive statistics, ANCOVA and hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to answer the research questions in this study. A qualitative component was included to enhance the understanding of the quantitative analysis. Major Findings Through this study, results demonstrated a statistically significant impact of probeware on student attitude, but did not show a statistically significant impact of

  17. Growing minds: The effect of school gardening programs on the science achievement of elementary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemmer, Cynthia Davis

    Science literacy refers to a basic knowledge and understanding of science concepts and processes needed to consider issues and make choices on a daily basis in an increasingly technology-driven society. A critical precursor to producing science literate adults is actively involving children in science while they are young. National and state (TX) science standards advocate the use of constructivist methods including hands-on, experiential activities that foster the development of science process skills through real-world investigations. School gardens show promise as a tool for implementing these guidelines by providing living laboratories for active science. Gardens offer opportunities for a variety of hands-on investigations, enabling students to apply and practice science skills. School gardens are increasing in popularity; however, little research data exists attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The study used a quasi-experimental posttest-only research design to assess the effects of a school gardening program on the science achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade elementary students. The sample consisted of 647 students from seven elementary schools in Temple, Texas. The experimental group participated in school gardening activities as part of their science curriculum. The control group did not garden and were taught using traditional classroom-based methods. Results showed higher scores for students in the experimental group which were statistically significant. Post-hoc tests using Scheffe's method revealed that these differences were attributed to the 5th grade. No statistical significance was found between girls and boys in the experimental group, indicating that gardening was equally effective for both genders. Within each gender, statistical significance was found between males in the experimental and control groups at all three grade levels, and for females in the 5 th grade. This research indicated that

  18. Middle school science curriculum design and 8th grade student achievement in Massachusetts public schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Betsey A.

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) released proposed Science and Technology/Engineering standards in 2013 outlining the concepts that should be taught at each grade level. Previously, standards were in grade spans and each district determined the method of implementation. There are two different methods used teaching middle school science: integrated and discipline-based. In the proposed standards, the Massachusetts DESE uses grade-by-grade standards using an integrated approach. It was not known if there is a statistically significant difference in student achievement on the 8th grade science MCAS assessment for students taught with an integrated or discipline-based approach. The results on the 8th grade science MCAS test from six public school districts from 2010 -- 2013 were collected and analyzed. The methodology used was quantitative. Results of an ANOVA showed that there was no statistically significant difference in overall student achievement between the two curriculum models. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference for the various domains: Earth and Space Science, Life Science, Physical Science, and Technology/Engineering. This information is useful for districts hesitant to make the change from a discipline-based approach to an integrated approach. More research should be conducted on this topic with a larger sample size to better support the results.

  19. Students' Motivational Beliefs in Science Learning, School Motivational Contexts, and Science Achievement in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Lung; Liou, Pey-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Taiwanese students are featured as having high academic achievement but low motivational beliefs according to the serial results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Moreover, given that the role of context has become more important in the development of academic motivation theory, this study aimed to examine the relationship…

  20. The effects of a science intervention program on the attitudes and achievement of high school girls in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley, Carrie Capers

    This study investigated the effects of a high school science intervention program that included hands-on activities, science-related career information and exposure, and real-world experiences on girls' attitudes and achievement in science. Eighty-four girls, 44 ninth-graders and 40 tenth-graders, and 105 parents participated in the study. Survey data was collected to assess the girls' attitudes toward science in seven distinct areas: social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, leisure interest in science, and career interest in science. Additional questionnaires were used to determine the extent of the girls' participation in sports and the attitudes of their parents toward science. The girls' cumulative science semester grade point averages since the seventh grade were used to assess academic science achievement. This study found no evidence that participation in the program improved the girls' attitudes or achievement in science. Parent attitudes and years of participation in sports were not accurate predictors of science achievement. Additionally, no significant relationship was detected between the girls' and their parents' perceptions of science. However, the study did suggest that extended participation in sports may positively affect science achievement for girls. This study holds implications for educational stakeholders who seek to implement intervention methods and programs that may improve student attitudes and achievement in science and attract more youth to future science-related careers.

  1. Examining the Evidence from TIMSS: Gender Differences in Year 8 Science Achievement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Australia's continuing participation in international science studies such as TIMSS provides a useful lens through which to monitor achievement in science over time. Gender differences in science were not evident in the early years of TIMSS but appear to be growing. This article examines gender differences in science achievement in early secondary…

  2. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  3. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  4. Achieving Conservation Science that Bridges the Knowledge–Action Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge–action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which

  5. Strategies to Improve Students’ Educational Achievement Motivation at Guilan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdokht Taheri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the fact that motivation is linked directly to the learning process and educational achievement, this study endeavored to identify strategies to improve students’ educational achievement motivation at Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: To conduct this descriptive-analytical study, 368 students from Guilan University of Medical Sciences were selected using simple random sampling from 2013-2014. All of the Guilan University of Medical Sciences’ students met the general eligibility criteria except guest students. The questionnaire included five domains of economic, socio-cultural, educational, geo-regional, and personality factors in educational achievement motivation. Through using descriptive and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, the compiled data were analyzed at the significance level of 0.05. Results: Data analysis revealed that socio-cultural factors have the maximum score (64.14 ± 9.92 and geo-regional factors have the minimum score (19.01±3.63 on the participants’ educational achievement motivation. What is more, a significant difference was revealed between educational field and educational effective factors as well as educational level and educational effective factors (p<0.011, p<0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Given that the socio-cultural factors had the maximum score on the students’ educational achievement motivation, it is recommended that university officials take these factors into account, and attempt to plan to provide appropriate strategies to enhance their students’ motivation, specifically their educational achievement motivation.

  6. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  7. Relationships Between the Way Students Are Assessed in Science Classrooms and Science Achievement Across Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Man-Wai; Fung, Karen

    2018-04-01

    Canadian students experience many different assessments throughout their schooling (O'Connor 2011). There are many benefits to using a variety of assessment types, item formats, and science-based performance tasks in the classroom to measure the many dimensions of science education. Although using a variety of assessments is beneficial, it is unclear exactly what types, format, and tasks are used in Canadian science classrooms. Additionally, since assessments are often administered to help improve student learning, this study identified assessments that may improve student learning as measured using achievement scores on a standardized test. Secondary analyses of the students' and teachers' responses to the questionnaire items asked in the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program were performed. The results of the hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that both students and teachers identified teacher-developed classroom tests or quizzes as the most common types of assessments used. Although this ranking was similar across the country, statistically significant differences in terms of the assessments that are used in science classrooms among the provinces were also identified. The investigation of which assessment best predicted student achievement scores indicated that minds-on science performance-based tasks significantly explained 4.21% of the variance in student scores. However, mixed results were observed between the student and teacher responses towards tasks that required students to choose their own investigation and design their own experience or investigation. Additionally, teachers that indicated that they conducted more demonstrations of an experiment or investigation resulted in students with lower scores.

  8. Influence of science and technology magnet middle schools on students' motivation and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David

    Some informal discussions among educators regarding motivation of students and academic performance have included the topic of magnet schools. The premise is that a focused theme, such as an aspect of science, positively affects student motivation and academic achievement. However, there is limited research involving magnet schools and their influence on student motivation and academic performance. This study provides empirical data for the discussion about magnet schools influence on motivation and academic ability. This study utilized path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to simultaneously investigate the relationships between demographic exogenous independent variables, the independent variable of attending a science or technology magnet middle school, and the dependent variables of motivation to learn science and academic achievement in science. Due to the categorical nature of the variables, Bayesian statistical analysis was used to calculate the path coefficients and the standardized effects for each relationship in the model. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine the amount of variance each path explained. Only five of 21 paths had statistical significance. Only one of the five statistically significant paths (Attended Magnet School to Motivation to Learn Science) explained a noteworthy amount (45.8%) of the variance.

  9. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  10. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    be implemented at West High School: (1) Have high expectations for all students. (2) Encourage students to take advanced science courses and help them succeed in these advanced science courses. (3) Improve communications among students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors regarding procedures, policies, programs, and goals at the school. (4) Assign guidance counselors per grade level rather than across grade levels. (5) Have procedures in place so information from guidance counselors is consistent. (6) Increase parental involvement in the school. Simply increasing the number of and variety of AP science and IB science courses will not result in closing the achievement gap. All constituents must be positive about both preparation and interest of African American students in completing advanced science courses if these courses are indeed to narrow the achievement gap.

  11. Analyzing Turkey's data from TIMSS 2007 to investigate regional disparities in eighth grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberber, Ebru

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education quality and achieving equity in quality education across the regions continue to be a monumental challenge in Turkey. Most recently, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 indicated that Turkey's educational achievement at the eighth grade, the end of compulsory primary education in Turkey, was far below that of other countries in the EU. Considering Turkey's long standing socioeconomic disparities between the western and eastern parts of the country, the challenges of improving overall education quality are coupled with the challenges of achieving equity in learning outcomes for students across the regions. This dissertation used data from TIMSS 2007 to document the extent of Turkey's regional differences in science achievement at the eighth grade and to investigate factors associated with these differences. Findings from a series of analyses using hierarchical linear models suggested that attempts to increase Turkish students' achievement and close the achievement gaps between regions should target the students in the undeveloped regions, particularly in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Designing interventions to improve competency in Turkish and to compensate for the shortcomings of insufficient parental education, limited home educational resources, poor school climate for academic achievement, and inadequate instructional equipment and facilities might be expected to close the regional achievement gaps as well as raise the overall achievement level in Turkey.

  12. Factors affecting student achievement in science: A study of teacher beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jonathan

    This study employed a mixed methods and mixed model research design to explore secondary science teachers' beliefs. Specifically, this study focused on factors that secondary science teachers believe affect student achievement in science, and the extent to which teacher beliefs transfer to teacher practice. This study is significant because the outcomes may inform professional development and policy decisions at the school, district, and provincial level. Results from self-reporting data of 82 secondary science teachers indicate that teacher beliefs in each of the fourteen topics surveyed (Classroom Management, Learning Styles, Inclusion, Equity, Science-Technology-Society (STS), Formative Assessment, Summative Assessment, Constructivism, Thematic Approach, Hands-On/Minds-On Activities, The Nature of Science, Science Subject Matter, Electronic Learning and Cooperative Learning) are positive for most Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) secondary science teachers. Furthermore, secondary science teachers reported having strong beliefs in their ability to affect student learning (self-efficacy beliefs). However, it is apparent from the survey and interview data that teachers believe there are other influential factors that are preventing some students from learning despite the teachers' best efforts and ability. Regarding implementation, this study indicates that beliefs and the enactment of beliefs in classroom practice are positively correlated. The data also shows that at least seventy percent of teachers reported that they implement practices consistent with all but two topics -- The Nature of Science and Electronic Learning -- at least once a week. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the P.E.I. secondary science setting. Limitations and implications of this study are also addressed.

  13. Achieving Network Level Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d’Auriol, Brian J.; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full network level privacy has often been categorized into four sub-categories: Identity, Route, Location and Data privacy. Achieving full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes (e.g., energy, memory and computation power), sensor networks (e.g., mobility and topology) and QoS issues (e.g., packet reach-ability and timeliness). In this paper, we proposed two new identity, route and location privacy algorithms and data privacy mechanism that addresses this problem. The proposed solutions provide additional trustworthiness and reliability at modest cost of memory and energy. Also, we proved that our proposed solutions provide protection against various privacy disclosure attacks, such as eavesdropping and hop-by-hop trace back attacks. PMID:22294881

  14. Achieving Network Level Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Full network level privacy has often been categorized into four sub-categories: Identity, Route, Location and Data privacy. Achieving full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes (e.g., energy, memory and computation power, sensor networks (e.g., mobility and topology and QoS issues (e.g., packet reach-ability and timeliness. In this paper, we proposed two new identity, route and location privacy algorithms and data privacy mechanism that addresses this problem. The proposed solutions provide additional trustworthiness and reliability at modest cost of memory and energy. Also, we proved that our proposed solutions provide protection against various privacy disclosure attacks, such as eavesdropping and hop-by-hop trace back attacks.

  15. Measuring more than we know? An examination of the motivational and situational influences in science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydel, Angela Michelle

    The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on

  16. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  17. Science learning based on local potential: Overview of the nature of science (NoS) achieved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilujeng, Insih; Zuhdan Kun, P.; Suryadarma, IGP.

    2017-08-01

    The research concerned here examined the effectiveness of science learning conducted with local potential as basis from the point of a review of the NoS (nature of science) achieved. It used the non equivalent control group design and took place in the regions of Magelang and Pati, Province of Central Java, and the regions of Bantul and Sleman, Province of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The research population consisted of students of the first and second grades at each junior high school chosen with research subjects sampled by means of cluster sampling. The instruments used included: a) an observation sheet, b) a written test, and c) a questionnaire. The learning and research instruments had been declared valid and reliable according to previous developmental research. In conclusion, the science learning based on local potential was effective in terms of all the NoS aspects.

  18. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  19. Aligning Science Achievement and STEM Expectations for College Success: A Comparative Study of Curricular Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Han

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of preparation in science leads to high rates of attrition among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors, even among students who are highly oriented toward STEM. Using data for twenty-seven countries from the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment, we compare the United States with other industrialized countries in terms of fifteen-year-olds’ science achievement and their expectations to focus on STEM in the future. The United States trails most countries in the mean science achievement of the general student population and among students expecting to pursue STEM majors or careers. Lack of curricular standardization in the United States is related to this lower science achievement. Countries with higher curricular standardization exhibit higher average science achievement scores; science achievement and students’ future orientation toward science are also better aligned in these countries. We discuss the implications of these findings for American colleges and universities as they seek to reduce student attrition in STEM fields.

  20. The Correlation between Teacher Professional Competence and Natural Science Learning Achievement in Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Ngurah Ardiawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This present study aims at investigating the correlation between teachers’ professional competence and natural science learning achievement in elementary schools in Buleleng regency. The population in this study are all sixth grade teachers, which it is further narrowed down to 30 teachers as the sample. In order to gather the data, the researcher employs questionnaire regarding teacher professional competence and document study toward students’ achievement on national examination in academic year 2016/2017. Further, ex post facto is chosen as the design of the study. Meanwhile, the data are analysed through correlation analysis with assistance of SPSS 16 software. Based on the analysis, it was obtained that the correlation between teacher professional competence and the learning achievement on natural science subject is in the interval of 0.40-0.59 with correlation coefficient at rho=0.506. This means there is a significant correlation between teacher professional competence and students’ learning achievement on natural science in national examination in academic year 2016/2017 (tcount = 3.103 > ttable =2.048 with significance level at α = 0,05 and coefficient of determination at 0.2560 (25.60%

  1. Differences in academic achievement according to the levels of cognitive and of self-regulation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding study as a strategic and self-regulated activity and having in mind the distinction between cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyses whether the differences in the use of this kind of strategies leads to different levels of academic achievement. Data were collected using a sample of 447 (12 to 16 years-old students from Spanish Secondary Compulsive Education. Various instruments were applied to assess students’ cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies. Students’ marks in Maths, Spanish, English (Foreign language, Science, Social studies and Music were taken as indicators of academic achievement. Data suggest that the more students use cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies in a specifi c subject the better their level of achievement in that same subject.

  2. Aligning science and policy to achieve evolutionarily enlightened conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Sgrò, Carla M

    2017-06-01

    There is increasing recognition among conservation scientists that long-term conservation outcomes could be improved through better integration of evolutionary theory into management practices. Despite concerns that the importance of key concepts emerging from evolutionary theory (i.e., evolutionary principles and processes) are not being recognized by managers, there has been little effort to determine the level of integration of evolutionary theory into conservation policy and practice. We assessed conservation policy at 3 scales (international, national, and provincial) on 3 continents to quantify the degree to which key evolutionary concepts, such as genetic diversity and gene flow, are being incorporated into conservation practice. We also evaluated the availability of clear guidance within the applied evolutionary biology literature as to how managers can change their management practices to achieve better conservation outcomes. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of maintaining genetic diversity, conservation policies provide little guidance about how this can be achieved in practice and other relevant evolutionary concepts, such as inbreeding depression, are mentioned rarely. In some cases the poor integration of evolutionary concepts into management reflects a lack of decision-support tools in the literature. Where these tools are available, such as risk-assessment frameworks, they are not being adopted by conservation policy makers, suggesting that the availability of a strong evidence base is not the only barrier to evolutionarily enlightened management. We believe there is a clear need for more engagement by evolutionary biologists with policy makers to develop practical guidelines that will help managers make changes to conservation practice. There is also an urgent need for more research to better understand the barriers to and opportunities for incorporating evolutionary theory into conservation practice. © 2016 Society for Conservation

  3. The effectiveness of Family Science and Technology Workshops on parental involvement, student achievement, and student curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Lora Bechard

    The literature suggests that parental involvement in schools results in positive changes in students and that schools need to provide opportunities for parents to share in the learning process. Workshops are an effective method of engaging parents in the education of their children. This dissertation studies the effects of voluntary Family Science and Technology Workshops on elementary children's science interest and achievement, as well as on parents' collaboration in their child's education. The study involved 35 second and third-grade students and their parents who volunteered to participate. The parental volunteers were randomly assigned to either the control group (children attending the workshops without a parent) or the treatment group (children attending the workshops with a parent). The study was conducted in the Fall of 1995 over a four-week period. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine the effects of the workshops on children's science achievement and science curiosity, as well as on parents' involvement with their child's education. The study revealed that there was no significant statistical difference at the.05 level between the treatment/control groups in children's science achievement or science curiosity, or in parent's involvement with their children's education. However, the study did focus parental attention on effective education and points the way to more extensive research in this critical learning area. This dual study, that is, the effects of teaching basic technology to young students with the support of their parents, reflects the focus of the Salve Regina University Ph.D. program in which technology is examined in its effects on humans. In essence, this program investigates what it means to be human in an age of advanced technology.

  4. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.

  5. The Influence of Reading Literacy on Mathematics and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponera, Elisa; Sestito, Paolo; Russo, Paolo M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of students' reading literacy, measured by the PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) test, on their performance in the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) mathematics and science tests. The data on 4,125 Italian students from 199 schools were analyzed:…

  6. The Science of Firescapes: Achieving Fire-Resilient Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Paveglio, Travis B; Cochrane, Mark A; Bowman, David Mjs; Moritz, Max A; Kliskey, Andrew D; Alessa, Lilian; Hudak, Andrew T; Hoffman, Chad M; Lutz, James A; Queen, Lloyd P; Goetz, Scott J; Higuera, Philip E; Boschetti, Luigi; Flannigan, Mike; Yedinak, Kara M; Watts, Adam C; Strand, Eva K; van Wagtendonk, Jan W; Anderson, John W; Stocks, Brian J; Abatzoglou, John T

    2016-02-01

    Wildland fire management has reached a crossroads. Current perspectives are not capable of answering interdisciplinary adaptation and mitigation challenges posed by increases in wildfire risk to human populations and the need to reintegrate fire as a vital landscape process. Fire science has been, and continues to be, performed in isolated "silos," including institutions (e.g., agencies versus universities), organizational structures (e.g., federal agency mandates versus local and state procedures for responding to fire), and research foci (e.g., physical science, natural science, and social science). These silos tend to promote research, management, and policy that focus only on targeted aspects of the "wicked" wildfire problem. In this article, we provide guiding principles to bridge diverse fire science efforts to advance an integrated agenda of wildfire research that can help overcome disciplinary silos and provide insight on how to build fire-resilient communities.

  7. 191 Students' Self-Concept and Their Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Achievement Test in Basic showed Science (SATBS) were employed as .... Higher Studies; Teacher-Students opinion and found out that students .... Factors and Pupils Leaning Outcome in Bended Primary Science Project,.

  8. Innovative science within and against a culture of achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.

    2003-05-01

    As science educators struggle to reform science education, we need a better understanding of the conundrums associated with the ways educators enact innovative science within and against the academic, rigorous, and elite sociohistorical constructions of science. I ethnographically investigated the meanings of an innovative, reform-based curriculum (Active Physics) in various micro (classroom) and macro (school and community) contexts. I conducted the study in a high school serving primarily upper middle class students, the majority of whom (97%) planned to attend college. I explored how meanings of the curriculum transformed as the curriculum traveled across space and time. While certain aspects of the context enabled innovative science (e.g., support from the administration, pressure to serve a wider range of students), other aspects of the context constrained the potential of the curriculum (e.g., the need to establish for students, parents, and administrators the legitimacy of Active Physics as real and rigorous physics). Using practice theory to understand the influence of context and agency in shaping school science practice, this study demonstrates the potential for viewing meanings of science in local settings as partially fluid entities, sometimes reproducing and sometimes contesting sociohistorical legacies.

  9. Increasing women's aspirations and achievement in science: The effect of role models on implicit cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Julie E.

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating men more than women with science) was linked to more negative (implicit and explicit) attitudes towards science and less identification with science. For men, stereotypes were either non-significantly or positively related to science attitudes and identification. Time 2 examined the influence of implicit and explicit science cognitions on students' science aspirations and achievement, and found that implicit stereotyping, attitudes, and identification were all unique predictors of science aspirations, but not achievement. Of more importance, Time 2 examined the influence of science role models, and found that identification with a role model of either gender reduced women's implicit science stereotyping and increased their positive attitudes toward science. Implications for decreasing the gender gap in advanced science achievement are discussed.

  10. Selected personality traits and achievement motivation in university students of physical culture, education and natural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sigmund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding personality variables and other important psychological traits in the university population appears topical particularly with respect to personality, motivation, health as well as overall academic achievement. A significant role is played by correlations of the monitored variables in relation to selected study specialization. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge on selected personality traits and the level of achievement motivation in a specific group of university students with respect to the diversity of their study specialization. METHODS: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. In the research, psychodiagnostic methods were used to perform diagnostics and to fulfil the overall research plan. All diagnostic methods used are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. We monitored variables such as personality, achievement motivation and achievement anxiety. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statgraphics programme v. 9.0. Result processing was made using parametric as well as non-parametric statistical methods (Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman’s correlation. RESULTS: University students specialized in physical culture showed the highest values of extraversion and psychoticism, and clearly the lowest values of neuroticism compared to the students of education and natural sciences. The highest values of openness were observed in the students specialized in sports. In terms of the overall achievement motivation related to study specialization, almost identical values were observed. However, the students of physical culture showed significantly lower values of achievement debilitating anxiety

  11. The science of firescapes: Achieving fire-resilient communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Travis B. Paveglio; Mark A. Cochrane; David MJS Bowman; Max A. Moritz; Andrew D. Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Andrew T. Hudak; Chad M. Hoffman; James A. Lutz; Lloyd P. Queen; Scott J. Goetz; Philip E. Higuera; Luigi Boschetti; Mike Flannigan; Kara M. Yedinak; Adam C. Watts; Eva K. Strand; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; John W. Anderson; Brian J. Stocks; John T. Abatzoglou

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fire management has reached a crossroads. Current perspectives are not capable of answering interdisciplinary adaptation and mitigation challenges posed by increases in wildfire risk to human populations and the need to reintegrate fire as a vital landscape process. Fire science has been, and continues to be, performed in isolated "silos," including...

  12. Students' Self-Concept and Their Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the relationship between students self-concept andtheir academic performance in Basic Science. It further examines genderdifference in students performance. The study adopted ex-post factorresearch design and made use of 300 students all from Public Schools. Theadapted Version of ...

  13. Defining the Relationship of Student Achievement Between STEM Subjects Through Canonical Correlation Analysis of 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Melissa Jean

    Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 achievement databases encompassing information from fourth/eighth grades. Student achievement in life science/biology was correlated with achievement in mathematics and other sciences across three analytical areas: mathematics and science student performance, achievement in cognitive domains, and achievement in content domains. Strong correlations between student achievement in life science/biology with achievement in mathematics and overall science occurred for both high- and low-performing education systems. Hence, partial emphases on the inter-subject connections did not always lead to a better student learning outcome in STEM education. In addition, student achievement in life science/biology was positively correlated with achievement in mathematics and science cognitive domains; these patterns held true for correlations of life science/biology with mathematics as well as other sciences. The importance of linking student learning experiences between and within STEM domains to support high performance on TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 mathematics, and other sciences. At the eighth grade level, students who built increasing levels of cognitive complexity upon firm foundations were prepared for successful learning throughout their educational careers. The results from this investigation promote a holistic design of school learning opportunities to improve student achievement in life science/biology and other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects at the elementary and middle school levels. While the curriculum can vary from combined STEM subjects to separated mathematics or science courses, both professional learning communities (PLC) for teachers and problem-based learning (PBL) for learners can be

  14. Understanding Science Achievement Gaps by Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Kindergarten and First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…

  15. The Impact of Language Factors on Learner Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, C. H.; Rogers, S. C.; Harvey, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    South African learner achievement remains poor, despite large investment in schooling over the last two decades. Literature and research findings offer no single explanation or solution. In this article, the authors explored the relative contribution of specific language factors such as the role of home- and school-language equivalence, cultural…

  16. The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

  17. Interpreting the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) achievement scales using scale anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Dana L.

    1999-11-01

    The scale anchoring method was used to analyze and describe the TIMSS primary and middle school (Populations 1 and 2) mathematics and science achievement scales. Scale anchoring is a way of attaching meaning to a scale by describing what students know and can do at specific points on the scale. Student achievement was scrutinized at four points on the TIMSS primary and middle school achievement scales---the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th international percentiles for fourth and eighth grades. The scale anchoring method was adapted for the TIMSS data and items that students scoring at each of the four scale points were likely to answer correctly (with a 65 percent probability) were identified. The items were assembled in binders organized by anchor level and content area. Two ten-member panels of subject-matter specialists were convened to scrutinize the items, draft descriptions of student proficiency at the four scale points, and identify example TIMSS items to illustrate performance at each level. Following the panel meetings, the descriptions were refined through an iterative review process. The result is a content-referenced interpretation of the TIMSS scales through which TIMSS achievement results can be better communicated and understood.

  18. Gender and Middle School Science: An Examination of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer

    Gender differences in middle school science were examined utilizing a mixed-methods approach. The intrinsic and extrinsic experiences of male and female non-gifted high-achieving students were investigated through the administration of the CAIMI, student interviews, teacher questionnaires, observations, and document examination. Male and female students were selected from a rural Northeast Georgia school district based on their high performance and high growth during middle school science. Eighty-three percent of the student participants were white and 17% were Hispanic. Half of the male participants and one third of the female participants were eligible for free and reduced meals. Findings revealed that male participants were highly motivated, whereas female participants exhibited varying levels of motivation in science. Both male and female students identified similar instructional strategies as external factors that were beneficial to their success. Due to their selection by both genders, these instructional strategies were considered to be gender-neutral and thereby useful for inclusion within coeducational middle school science classrooms.

  19. Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

  20. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  1. The Influence of the Project Method on the Achievement of Young Learners in the Field Science and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Snežana; Veselinov, Danica

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of project work on the achievement of young learners in the area of science and social studies. The presented results are part of a wider study, in which they were interpreted from a different angle. The goal of the wider study was to determine to what extent a higher level of knowledge acquisition in the field…

  2. Resources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Perception of Science Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Bozdag, Hüseyin Cihan

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the predictive power of mathematics self-efficacy resources and perception of science self-efficacy on academic achievement. The study, adopting a relational screening model, was conducted with a total of 698 students in sixth, seventh and eighth grade level of a state secondary school. Mathematics…

  3. An Examination of Effective Practice: Moving Toward Elimination of Achievement Gaps in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study of middle school science teachers explored the relationship between effective science instruction, as defined by the National Science Education Standards (NRC in National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996), and student achievement in science. Eleven teachers participated in a three year study of teacher effectiveness, determined by the LSC Classroom Observation Protocol (Horizon Research, Inc. in Local Systemic Change Classroom Observation Protocol. May 1, 2002) and student achievement, which was assessed using the Discovery Inquiry Test in Science. Findings in this study revealed the positive impact that effective science teachers have on student learning, eliminating achievement gaps between White and Non-White students. Case studies of three teachers, both effective and ineffective explore the beliefs and experiences that influence teachers to change, or not to change practice. This study provides justification for teaching science effectively to narrow achievement gaps in science and provides insight to stakeholders in science education as to how to support teachers in becoming more effective, through addressing existing teacher beliefs and providing experiences that challenge those beliefs.

  4. An exploration of the impact of reform-based science instruction on second graders' academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data previously collected in a larger one-group pre/post test study of a science instructional intervention (ISI Science) (Connor et al., 2010). In the original study, six teachers and two graduate assistants taught two science units designed based upon constructivist principles and reform-based practices. Using the 5-E Learning Cycle (Bybee, 1997), reading and science were integrated into each lesson. Videotapes were made of all lessons and science and reading achievement data were collected. For the current study, dependent achievement variables were science achievement measured by the Iowa Science Test; reading comprehension, by the Woodcock Passage Comprehension; and vocabulary, by the Iowa Vocabulary. Pre- and post-tests scores on the dependent measures were available for 96 children from the original study. Quality of instruction was measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawanda & Piburn, 2000). Videotapes of 24 science lessons from the larger study were analyzed using the RTOP. Reliability of ratings for the RTOP in the study was determined to be .96. No significant results were found for relations between instructional quality (RTOP) and any of the achievement variables although significant pre to post increases on all three measures were observed. No differences by race or gender were found. This latter finding was noteworthy given the research in science identifying both gender and race differences in science achievement. Recommendations for future research and teacher education are discussed.

  5. Impact of Integrated Science and English Language Arts Literacy Supplemental Instructional Intervention on Science Academic Achievement of Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jamar Terry

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design study was to determine if any differences existed in upper elementary school students' science academic achievement when instructed using an 8-week integrated science and English language arts literacy supplemental instructional intervention in conjunction…

  6. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  7. The Relationship between Science Achievement and Self-Concept among Gifted Students from the Third International Earth Science Olympiad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Pei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between gifted students' academic self-concept (ASC) and academic achievement (AC) in earth science with internationally representative high-school students from the third International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO) held in Taiwan in 2009. The results of regression analysis indicated that IESO students' ASC…

  8. Competence in Mathematics and Academic Achievement: An Analysis of Enrollees in the Bachelor of Science in Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Robert; Maswere, Dyson W.; Mwanga, Yeko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the role of prior grounding attained in mathematics in predicting the academic achievement of enrollees in Bachelor of Science in Actuarial Science (BSAS). The investigation is based on administrative records of 240 BSAS enrollees at Makerere University, School of Statistics and Planning in the 2007-2009 cohorts. Students'…

  9. The effects of formative assessment on student self-regulation, motivational beliefs, and achievement in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa Digennaro

    Goals 2000 set forth a bold vision for U.S. students: they would be "first in the world in science and mathematics" by the year 2000. Performance indicators such as the TIMSS-R (1999) and NAEP (2000) reports suggest that U.S. students have not yet reached that goal. This study intended to learn how specific assessment strategies might contribute to improved student performance in science. This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of formative assessment with reflection on students' motivational beliefs, self-regulatory skills, and achievement in elementary science. The study aimed to find out whether and how classroom applications of formative assessment during science instruction might influence fifth-grade students' attitudes and self-perceptions about science learning, self-regulatory learning behaviors, and achievement. To explore the effects of the assessment intervention, the study utilized a mixed methods approach involving quantitative and qualitative investigations of treatment and control groups during a four-week intervention period. Quantitative measures included student self-report surveys administered pre- and post-treatment and an end-of-unit science test. Qualitative measures included classroom observations, student interviews (post-treatment), and a teacher interview (post-treatment). Findings indicated that the fifth-grade students in this study had positive attitudes toward science and high levels of self-efficacy for science. Results suggested that these elementary students employed a wide variety of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to support science learning. Findings revealed that these fifth graders believed formative assessment with reflection was beneficial for science learning outcomes. Research results did not show that the formative assessment intervention contributed to significant differences between treatment and control groups. However, the data revealed different levels of academic achievement and self

  10. Prospective Teachers' Comprehension Levels of Special Relativity Theory and the Effect of Writing for Learning on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers who take the Introduction to Modern Physics lesson in the faculty of education science teaching department and the effect of writing for learning on their achievement is researched. In the research, a control group pre-test post-test…

  11. Relationship between affect and achievement in science and mathematics in Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoe Ng, Khar; Fah Lay, Yoon; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-11-01

    Background : The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assesses the quality of the teaching and learning of science and mathematics among Grades 4 and 8 students across participating countries. Purpose : This study explored the relationship between positive affect towards science and mathematics and achievement in science and mathematics among Malaysian and Singaporean Grade 8 students. Sample : In total, 4466 Malaysia students and 4599 Singaporean students from Grade 8 who participated in TIMSS 2007 were involved in this study. Design and method : Students' achievement scores on eight items in the survey instrument that were reported in TIMSS 2007 were used as the dependent variable in the analysis. Students' scores on four items in the TIMSS 2007 survey instrument pertaining to students' affect towards science and mathematics together with students' gender, language spoken at home and parental education were used as the independent variables. Results : Positive affect towards science and mathematics indicated statistically significant predictive effects on achievement in the two subjects for both Malaysian and Singaporean Grade 8 students. There were statistically significant predictive effects on mathematics achievement for the students' gender, language spoken at home and parental education for both Malaysian and Singaporean students, with R 2 = 0.18 and 0.21, respectively. However, only parental education showed statistically significant predictive effects on science achievement for both countries. For Singapore, language spoken at home also demonstrated statistically significant predictive effects on science achievement, whereas gender did not. For Malaysia, neither gender nor language spoken at home had statistically significant predictive effects on science achievement. Conclusions : It is important for educators to consider implementing self-concept enhancement intervention programmes by incorporating 'affect' components of academic

  12. Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.

  13. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  14. Using the Learning Together Strategy to Affect Student Achievement in Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Manda D.

    Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in the conceptual understanding of science concepts in a classroom where the teacher applied the cooperative learning strategy, Learning Together, as compared to the classroom in which teacher-directed instruction was applied. The theories of positive social interdependence and social development, which posit that social interaction promotes cognitive gains, provided a framework for the study. A convenience sample of 38 students in Grade 5 participated in the 6-week study. Nineteen students received the cooperative learning strategy treatment, while 19 students did not. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both groups, and an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between the 2 sample means. Results indicated that the group receiving the cooperative learning strategy scored significantly higher than did the control group receiving direct instruction. The experimental group also scored higher in vocabulary acquisition. Using the cooperative learning strategy of Learning Together could guide teachers' efforts to help students achieve excellent state-mandated test scores. Learning Together may be employed as a powerful teaching tool across grade levels and content areas, thus promoting positive gains in other state-mandated testing areas such as math, language arts, and social studies.

  15. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  16. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Süleyman, E-mail: yupul@hotmail.com; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif, E-mail: mehmet.hasiloglu@hotmail.com; Kunduraci, Ayşe, E-mail: ayse-kndrc@hotmail.com [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Education, Science Education, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  17. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Süleyman; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif; Kunduraci, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  18. Teacher Learning in Technology Professional Development and Its Impact on Student Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Longhurst, Max; Campbell, Todd

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated teacher learning and teacher beliefs in a two-year technology professional development (TPD) for teachers and its impact on their student achievement in science in the western part of the United States. Middle-school science teachers participated in TPD focused on information communication technologies (ICTs) and their…

  19. Examining the Effects of Turkish Education Reform on Students' TIMSS 2007 Science Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Atar, Burcu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of some of the changes such as student centered learning (i.e. inquiry science instruction), outfitting classrooms with latest technology and computers that the reform movement has brought about on students' TIMSS 2007 science achievements. Two-staged stratified sampling was used in the selection…

  20. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  1. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: A Quantile Regression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  2. Students' Achievement in Math and Science: How Grit and Attitudes Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutawah, Masooma Ali; Fateel, Moosa Jaafar

    2018-01-01

    Many recent studies in the field of mathematics and science education have been studying the effect of non-cognitive factors in students' achievement such as emotions, attitudes, values, beliefs, motivation, anxiety and grit. For example, attitude has been an important area in science education, and there have been many attempts to measure…

  3. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  4. International Assessment: A Rasch Model and Teachers' Evaluation of TIMSS Science Achievement Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a comparative assessment of the achievement of students in many countries. In the present study, a rigorous independent evaluation was conducted of a representative sample of TIMSS science test items because item quality influences the validity of the scores used to inform…

  5. Identifying the Factors Affecting Science and Mathematics Achievement Using Data Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiray, S. Ahmet; Gok, Bilge; Bozkir, A. Selman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the order of significance of the variables that affect science and mathematics achievement in middle school students. For this aim, the study deals with the relationship between science and math in terms of different angles using the perspectives of multiple causes-single effect and of multiple…

  6. The Gender and Science Digital Library: Affecting Student Achievement in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sarita

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Gender and Science Digital Library (GSDL), an online collection of high-quality, interactive science resources that are gender-fair, inclusive, and engaging to students. Considers use by teachers and school library media specialists to encourage girls to enter careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). (LRW)

  7. Inspiring science achievement: a mixed methods examination of the practices and characteristics of successful science programs in diverse high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Cavlazoglu, Baki; LeBlanc, Jennifer; Stuessy, Carol L.

    2017-08-01

    While the achievement gap in science exists in the US, research associated with our investigation reveals some high school science programs serving diverse student bodies are successfully closing the gap. Using a mixed methods approach, we identified and investigated ten high schools in a large Southwestern state that fit the definition of "highly successful, highly diverse". By conducting interviews with science liaisons associated with each school and reviewing the literature, we developed a rubric identifying specific characteristics associated with successful science programs. These characteristics and practices included setting high expectations for students, providing extensive teacher support for student learning, and utilizing student-centered pedagogy. We used the rubric to assess the successful high school science programs and compare them to other high school science programs in the state (i.e., less successful and less diverse high school science programs). Highly successful, highly diverse schools were very different in their approach to science education when compared to the other programs. The findings from this study will help schools with diverse students to strengthen hiring practices, enhance teacher support mechanisms, and develop student-focused strategies in the classroom that increase science achievement.

  8. Evaluation Methods of the Academic Achievement of Students Ilam University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei AR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Academic achievement exams have long played an important role in education and so have been always judged, reviewed and restudied. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different types of academic achievement exams (evaluation methods by faculty of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, faculty members of Ilam University of Medical Sciences in the second semester of 2013-14 academic year (N=90 were studied by total counting. Data were gathered by a researcher made questionnaire by 29 questions that was assessing the application level of educational progress evaluation methods by faculty members. For data analysis, SPSS 16 software was used and descriptive and inferential statistics (Student T test and one-way ANOVA were performed. Findings: 76 of participants (93.8% placed a greater emphasis on the final exam. The most widely used methods for students' progress evaluation was multiple-choice questions (93.8% n=76, and low used assessment method was 360 degree evaluation (4.9% n=4. Comparing of mean scores of participants based on gender and academic degree, were not showed a significant differences, but comparison of the mean scores of participants based on faculty showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Conclusion: With respect to faculty member's emphasis on use and application of the final evaluation results and preferably less effort and common procedures, as well as less variety of evaluation methods of students' progress, paying attention to the new methods of educational achievement evaluation and implementation training courses for teachers is essential.

  9. Home and School Environmental Determinants of Science Achievement of South African Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Andrea; Visser, Mariette

    2017-01-01

    Determinants of educational achievement extend beyond the school environment to include the home environment. Both environments provide tangible and intangible resources to students that can influence science achievement. South Africa provides a context where inequalities in socio-economic status are vast, thus the environments from whence…

  10. Mathematics and Natural Science Students' Motivational Profiles and their First-year Academic Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Vermue, Carlien; Deinum, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Our study focused on describing first-year university students’ motivational profiles and their achievement. 755 students in the faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences participated in the study. Data on academic motivation was collected before the start of the program, data on achievement at

  11. Mathematics and Natural Science Students' Motivational Profiles and their First-year Academic Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Vermue, Carlien; Deinum, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our study focused on describing first-year university students’ motivational profiles and their achievement. 755 students in the faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences participated in the study. Data on academic motivation was collected before the start of the program, data on achievement at

  12. The impact of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts on student achievement in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Ruben, Jr.

    Educators in today's society are in search for different ways to reach their students in order to keep them engaged and active in the learning process. There are several strategies that teachers have utilized in the classroom in order to reach all students. Now seen more in the classroom is the use of technology in one form or another. There are several types of technologies that one may employ while in the classroom, but seen more recently is the use of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts. The major purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of using podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts in conjunction with science curriculum on student academic achievement. Two intermediate schools from the south Texas region were chosen as a convenience sample for the study because one school utilized the technology of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level while the other school did not utilize podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level. The researcher collected scores from curriculum based assessments that were aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for comparison between the two different groups, while controlling grade five science TAKS scores for group equalization. Once all data was collected, scores were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and were analyzed using an analysis of covariance. The ANCOVA allowed the researcher to see that differences among curriculum based assessments scores existed between the two different schools. Scores were higher for the students who utilized podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level when compared to those scores for students who did not utilize podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level. This study showed the benefits reaped of having students create their own podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts. Having students create their own technology has them actively engaged in the learning

  13. Achievement Motivation and Academic Motivation among Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozeh Khamoushi; Arash Parsa Moghaddam; Mahtab Sadeghi; Ali Akbar Parvizifard; Akram Ahmadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Students are often similar in terms of learning ability and talent. However, there are remarkable differences in their academic performance during their schooling, which can be due to the differences in their academic motivation and achievement motivation. The current study was carried out to compare achievement motivation and academic achievement among the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive Analytical cross-sec...

  14. Teacher learning in technology professional development and its impact on student achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Longhurst, Max; Campbell, Todd

    2017-07-01

    This research investigated teacher learning and teacher beliefs in a two-year technology professional development (TPD) for teachers and its impact on their student achievement in science in the western part of the United States. Middle-school science teachers participated in TPD focused on information communication technologies (ICTs) and their applications in science inquiry pedagogy. Three self-reporting teacher instruments were used alongside their student achievement scores on the end-of-year state-science-test. The teacher self-reporting measures investigated technological literacy, ICT capabilities, and pedagogical beliefs about science inquiry pedagogy. Data were collected every year, and descriptive statistics, t-tests, and Pearson's correlations were used for analysis. We found teachers' technological skills and ICT capabilities increasing over time with significant gains each year. Additionally, teachers' pedagogical beliefs changed to become more science inquiry oriented over time; however, the gains were not significant until after the second year of TPD. Comparisons of teacher learning and belief measures with student achievement revealed that the students' performance was correlated to teachers' pedagogical beliefs about science inquiry, but not to their technological skills nor to their ICT capabilities. This research suggests that pedagogical considerations should be foregrounded in TPD and that this may require more longitudinal TPD to ensure that technology integration in science instruction is consequential to student learning.

  15. Enhancing student engagement to positively impact mathematics anxiety, confidence and achievement for interdisciplinary science subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Yvette L.; Gyuris, Emma; Connolly, Sean R.

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary science educators must equip their students with the knowledge and practical know-how to connect multiple disciplines like mathematics, computing and the natural sciences to gain a richer and deeper understanding of a scientific problem. However, many biology and earth science students are prejudiced against mathematics due to negative emotions like high mathematical anxiety and low mathematical confidence. Here, we present a theoretical framework that investigates linkages between student engagement, mathematical anxiety, mathematical confidence, student achievement and subject mastery. We implement this framework in a large, first-year interdisciplinary science subject and monitor its impact over several years from 2010 to 2015. The implementation of the framework coincided with an easing of anxiety and enhanced confidence, as well as higher student satisfaction, retention and achievement. The framework offers interdisciplinary science educators greater flexibility and confidence in their approach to designing and delivering subjects that rely on mathematical concepts and practices.

  16. Teaching Physics at Preschool Level for Mexican Students in Order to Achieve the National Scientific Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Díaz, Mario H.; Nieto Betance, Gabriela; García Trujillo, Luís Antonio; Chávez-Campos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In its program of studies for preschool level, the Secretary of Public Education of Mexico promoted development of four standards of science: Scientific knowledge, applications of scientific knowledge and technology, skills associated to science, and attitudes associated to science. However, to develop this skills and reach out the standards there…

  17. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  18. Improving the Science and Mathematic Achievement of Mexican American Students Through Culturally Relevant Science. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinez, Diana I.; Ortiz de Montellano, Bernardo R.

    There are many ways in which science can be made culturally relevant: archeoastronomy, mathematics, geology, ethnobotany, chemistry, and art can all be taught from a perspective celebrating the accomplishments of Mexican American and American Indian science and encouraging exploration. A culturally relevant curriculum provides teachers with…

  19. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  20. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  1. Relationship of sex, achievement, and science self-concept to the science career preferences of black students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobowitz, Tina

    Science career preferences of junior high school-aged students, while not stable predictors of ultimate career choice, do serve to direct and maintain individuals along the paths to careers in science. In this study, factors relevant to science career preferences of black eighth grade students were investigated. This issue is of particular import to blacks since they are severely underrepresented in the scientific fields. The sample consisted of 113 males and 148 females in an inner city junior high school. The Science Career Preference Scale, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Self-Concept of Ability Scale (Form B-Science) were administered. Mathematics and science grades were obtained from class rating sheets. Treatment of the data involved multiple regression analysis according to a hierarchical model. Results showed that of all the independent variables, sex was the strongest predictor of science career preferences, accounting for 25% of the criterion variance. The findings suggest that early adolescent science career preferences are related more to interests that are consonant with sex-role considerations than realistic assessment of mathematics or science achievement.

  2. Teacher enactment of an inquiry-based science curriculum and its relationship to student interest and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimichino, Daniela C.

    This mixed-methods case study, influenced by aspects of grounded theory, aims to explore the relationships among a teacher's attitude toward inquiry-based middle school reform, their enactment of such a curriculum, and student interest and achievement in science. A solid theoretical basis was constructed from the literature on the benefits of inquiry-based science over traditional science education, the benefits of using constructivist learning techniques in the classroom, the importance of motivating teachers to change their teaching practices to be more constructive, and the importance of motivating and exciting students in order to boost achievement in science. Data was collected using qualitative documents such as teacher and student interviews, classroom observations, and curriculum development meetings, in addition to quantitative documents such as student science interest surveys and science skills tests. The qualitative analysis focused on examining teacher attitudes toward curricular reform efforts, and the enactments of three science teachers during the initial year of an inquiry-based middle school curriculum adoption using a fidelity of implementation tool constructed from themes that emerged from the data documents utilized in this study. In addition, both qualitative and quantitative tools were used to measure an increase or decrease in student interest and student achievement over the study year, and their resulting relationships to their teachers' attitudes and enactments of the curriculum. Results from data analysis revealed a positive relationship between the teachers' attitude toward curricular change and their fidelity of implementation to the developers' intentions, or curricular enactment. In addition, strong positive relationships were also discovered among teacher attitude, student interest, and student achievement. Variations in teacher enactment also related to variations in student interest and achievement, with considerable positive

  3. Precollege science achievement growth: Racial-ethnic and gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Patricia Ann

    The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in

  4. A Comparative Study of Hawaii Middle School Science Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew Cain, Peggy

    The problem was middle-grade students with specific learning disabilities (SWDs) in reading comprehension perform less well than their peers on standardized assessments. The purpose of this quantitative comparative study was to examine the effect of electronic concept maps on reading comprehension of eighth grade students with SWD reading comprehension in a Hawaii middle school Grade 8 science class on the island of Oahu. The target population consisted of Grade 8 science students for school year 2015-2016. The sampling method was a purposeful sampling with a final sample size of 338 grade 8 science students. De-identified archival records of grade 8 Hawaii standardized science test scores were analyzed using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS. The finding for hypothesis 1 indicated a significant difference in student achievement between SWDs and SWODs as measured by Hawaii State Assessment (HSA) in science scores (p reading comprehension. Recommendations for practice were for educational leadership and noted: (a) teachers should practice using concept maps with SWDs as a specific reading strategy to support reading comprehension in science classes, (b) involve a strong focus on vocabulary building and concept building during concept map construction because the construction of concept maps sometimes requires frontloading of vocabulary, and (c) model for teachers how concept maps are created and to explain their educational purpose as a tool for learning. Recommendations for future research were to conduct (a) a quantitative comparative study between groups for academic achievement of subtests mean scores of SWDs and SWODs in physical science, earth science, and space science, and (b) a quantitative correlation study to examine relationships and predictive values for academic achievement of SWDs and concept map integration on standardized science assessments.

  5. Relationships among constructivist learning environment perceptions, motivational beliefs, self-regulation and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Sungur Vural, Semra

    2013-11-01

    Background. There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose. This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (personal relevance, uncertainty, shared control, critical voice, student negotiation), motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation), self-regulation, and science achievement. Sample. The sample for this study comprised 802 Grade 8 students from 14 public middle schools in a district of Ankara in Turkey. Design and methods. Students were administered 4 instruments: Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Goal Achievement Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Science Achievement Test. LISREL 8.7 program with SIMPLIS programming language was used to test the conceptual model. Providing appropriate fit indices for the proposed model, the standardized path coefficients for direct effects were examined. Results. At least one dimension of the constructivist learning environment was associated with students' intrinsic interest, goal orientation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and science achievement. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest predictor of both mastery and performance avoidance goals rather than the approach goals. Intrinsic value was found to be significantly linked to science achievement through its effect on self-regulation. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulation and between goal orientation and science achievement were not significant. Conclusion. In a classroom environment supporting student autonomy and control, students tend to develop higher interest in tasks, use more self-regulatory strategies, and demonstrate higher academic performance. Science teachers are highly recommended to consider these findings when designing

  6. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  7. Self-Concept Predicts Academic Achievement Across Levels of the Achievement Distribution: Domain Specificity for Math and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Chen, Meichu

    2017-09-18

    This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement. These results were replicated across the three data sets representing different populations and provide robust evidence for the role of self-concept of ability in understanding achievement from early childhood to adolescence across the spectrum of performance (low to high). © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. The Effect of the Type of Achievement Grouping on Students' Question Generation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of different types of achievement grouping on question generation. There were 46 participants from two Grade 5 classrooms. Students completed a test to determine their achievement levels. One of the classrooms was randomly assigned, to work in homogeneous achievement groups and the other one in…

  9. The Effects of Research-Based Curriculum Materials and Curriculum-Based Professional Development on High School Science Achievement: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Getty, Stephen; Wilson, Christopher; Carlson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional materials can be valuable interventions to improve student interest and achievement in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2007); yet, analyses indicate that many science instructional materials and curricula are fragmented, lack coherence, and are not carefully articulated through a sequence of grade levels (AAAS,…

  10. Self-regulated learning and science achievement in a community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, (Louisa) Lin-Yi L.

    Self-regulated learning involves students' use of strategies and skills to adapt and adjust towards achievement in school. This research investigates the extent to which self-regulated learning is employed by community college students, and also the correlates of self-regulated learning: Is it used more by students in advanced science classes or in some disciplines? Is there a difference in the use of it by students who complete a science course and those who do not? How does it relate to GPA and basic skills assessments and science achievement? Does it predict science achievement along with GPA and assessment scores? Community college students (N = 547) taking a science course responded to the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The scales measured three groups of variables: (1) cognitive strategies (rehearsal, elaboration, organization, and critical thinking); (2) metacognitive self-regulation strategies (planning, monitoring, and self-regulation); and (3) resource management strategies (time and study environment, effort regulation, peer learning, and help-seeking). Students' course scores, college GPA, and basic skills assessment scores were obtained from faculty and college records. Students who completed a science course were found to have higher measures on cumulative college GPAs and assessment scores, but not on self-regulated learning. Self-regulated learning was found not to be used differently between students in the advanced and beginning science groups, or between students in different disciplines. The exceptions were that the advanced group scored higher in critical thinking but lower in effort regulation than the beginning group. Course achievement was found to be mostly unrelated to self-regulated learning, except for several significant but very weak and negative relationships in elaboration, self-regulation, help-seeking, and effort regulation. Cumulative GPA emerged as the only significant predictor of science achievement

  11. Special Project Examination in Integrated Science - Ordinary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, David

    A science achievement test for the General Certificate of Education (GCE, England) was developed for students enrolled in the curriculum of the Schools Council Integrated Science Project. This document contains discussions of the testing program and a copy of the 1973 test. After an overview of the curriculum project and issues related to…

  12. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  13. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  14. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  15. Effect of Demonstration Method of Teaching on Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daluba, Noah Ekeyi

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of demonstration method of teaching on students' achievement in agricultural science in secondary school in Kogi East Education Zone of Kogi State. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design. The population for the study was 18225 senior…

  16. Factors Predicting Turkish and Korean Students' Science and Mathematics Achievement in TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Erbilgin, Evrim; Arikan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study makes an important contribution to an expanding body of international comparative studies by exploring factors predicting differences in science and mathematics achievement by students in Turkey and the Republic of Korea on the 2011 TIMSS assessment. While these countries are similar with regards to population size, cultural beliefs…

  17. Study Habit, Self-Concept and Science Achievement of Public and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared study habit, self-concept and science achievement of students in public and private junior secondary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were randomly selected from Egba and Ijebu divisions of the state. A sample of three hundred and sixty (360) students participated in the ...

  18. Making Sense of Scientific Biographies: Scientific Achievement, Nature of Science, and Storylines in College Students' Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the educative value of scientific biographies will be explored, especially for non-science major college students. During the "Scientist's life and thought" course, 66 college students read nine scientific biographies including five biologists, covering the canonical scientific achievements in Western scientific history.…

  19. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…

  20. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Improving Students' Achievement in Third Grade's Science in Bani Kenana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Nisreen Saleh Khader

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of blended learning in improving students' achievement in the third grade's science in the traditional method. The study sample consisted of (108) male and female students, who were divided into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group studied the units and changes of the…

  1. Using the Learning Together Strategy to Affect Student Achievement in Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Manda D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in…

  2. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  3. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  4. Building Links between Early Socioeconomic Status, Cognitive Ability, and Math and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, Angela; Belsky, Jay; Grimm, Kevin; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether and how socioeconomic status (SES) predicts school achievement in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) using structural equation modeling and data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Child Care and Youth Development. The present inquiry addresses gaps in…

  5. The Middle School Experience: Effects on the Math and Science Achievement of Adolescents with LD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study and applying hierarchical linear modeling, this study found a strong gap in achievement in math and science between adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). The gap was reduced for LD adolescents who did not make a school transition until at least ninth grade. (DB)

  6. The Influence of Achievement Goals on Online Help Seeking of Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Barnes, Brad; Wright, Ewan; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the online help-seeking behaviors of computer science students with a focus on the effect of achievement goals. The online help-seeking behaviors investigated were online searching, asking teachers online for help, and asking peers or unknown people online for help. One hundred and sixty-five students studying computer…

  7. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Marcia K. Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  8. "Earth, Sun and Moon": Computer Assisted Instruction in Secondary School Science--Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Orhan; Bilen, Kadir; Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a web-based teaching method on students' academic achievement and attitudes in the elementary education fifth grade Science and Technology unit, "System of Earth, Sun and Moon". The study was a quasi-experimental study with experimental and control groups comprising 54 fifth grade students attending…

  9. Cooperative Learning and Learning Achievement in Social Science Subjects for Sociable Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpratiwi; Darsono; Sasmiati; Pujiyatli

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The research objective was to compare students' learning achievement for sociable learning motivation students in social science (IPS) using cooperative learning. Research Methods: This research used a quasi-experimental method with a pre-test/post-test design involving 35 fifth-grade students. The learning process was conducted four…

  10. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  11. Mathematics and Natural Science Students' Motivational Profiles and Their First-Year Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Vermue, Carlien Elske; Deinum, Jan Folkert

    2018-01-01

    Our study focused on describing first-year university students' motivational profiles and examining differences in academic achievement based on these profiles. Data on academic motivation of 755 students in the field of mathematics and natural sciences were collected before the start of their bachelor's degree program; data on GPA were collected…

  12. 76 FR 9004 - Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing AGENCY: U.S... Achievement Levels in Writing. SUMMARY: The National Assessment Governing Board (Governing Board) is... for NAEP in writing. This notice provides opportunity for public comment and submitting...

  13. A Further Characterization of Empirical Research Related to Learning Outcome Achievement in Remote and Virtual Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, James R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper further characterizes recently reviewed literature related to student learning outcome achievement in non-traditional (virtual and remote) versus traditional (hands-on) science labs, as well as factors to consider when evaluating the state and progress of research in this field as a whole. Current research is characterized according to (1) participant nationality and culture, (2) participant education level, (3) participant demography, (4) scientific discipline, and (5) research methodology, which could provide avenues for further research and useful dialog regarding the measurement and interpretation of data related to student learning outcome achievement in, and thus the efficacy of, non-traditional versus traditional science labs. Current research is also characterized by (6) research publication media and (7) availability of non-traditional labs used, which demonstrate some of the obstacles to progress and consensus in this research field.

  14. TPACK Levels of Physics and Science Teacher Candidates: Problems and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ersin

    2014-01-01

    This research examined whether the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of physics and science teachers is at a sufficient level and whether the TPACK level affected the academic achievements of the students. In the research, a mixed method was used quantitatively and qualitatively. In the quantitative part of the research, Provus'…

  15. The Predictive Effects of Motivation toward Learning Science on TIMSS Grade 8 Students' Science Achievement: A Comparative Study between Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Yoon Fah; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    TIMSS routinely presents very powerful evidence showing that students with more positive motivation toward learning science have substantially higher achievement. The results from TIMSS 2011 are consistent with previous assessments. This study explored the predictive effects of motivation toward learning science on science achievement among…

  16. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  17. Bulgarian Contribution to World Science and Main Criteria for Assessing the Achievements of Scientists [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and the new developments in world science are both discussed. The transition from the ‘normal science’ (Kuhn to the ‘post-normal science’ (Funtowicz & Ravetz is commented. The integration processes in science, the mass higher education and its mcdonaldization are also considered. The difference between ‘science’ and ‘surrogate science’ is explained. The existence of marginal journals as an attribute of the surrogate science is discussed. Such a broad-based consideration allows a realistic assess of the contribution of Bulgarian scientists in the development of world science to be made. Some of the most important scientific achievements made by Bulgarians are listed.

  18. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.; Bruggeman, F.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren de Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between 'completed' sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  19. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren De Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.M.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between "completed" sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  20. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  1. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H02: There will be no significant statistical association between the educational factors teacher certification type (composite or content specific) and teacher certification pathway and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H03: There will be no significant statistical association between a teachers' demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. The researcher employed the assistance of the human resource departments of participating districts to generate a demographic report identifying the sex, years of experience, certification types and pathways of the teachers of record for African American male students who took the 10th grade Science TAKS during the 2009-2010 school year. Data ascertained from the demographic report was entered in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (SPSS). A linear regression statistical analysis was used to establish the following: 1). the degree of association between demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS , 2) the degree of association between educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS, 3) the degree of association between demographic and educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS Conclusion: Constantine et al (2009) concluded that although individual teachers appear to have an effect on student achievement, their study could not identify what about a teacher affects student achievement. Similar to Constatine, the researcher did not find any association between the demographic and educational factors of teachers and the science academic achievement of African American males

  2. The Integration of Mathematics in Middle School Science: Student and Teacher Impacts Related to Science Achievement and Attitudes Towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Luisa

    Contemporary research has suggested that in order for students to compete globally in the 21st century workplace, pedagogy must shift to include the integration of science and mathematics, where teachers effectively incorporate the two disciplines seamlessly. Mathematics facilitates a deeper understanding of science concepts and has been linked to improved student perception of the integration of science and mathematics. Although there is adequate literature to substantiate students' positive responses to integration in terms of attitudes, there has been little empirical data to support significant academic improvement when both disciplines are taught in an integrated method. This research study, conducted at several school districts on Long Island and New York City, New York, examined teachers' attitudes toward integration and students' attitudes about, and achievement on assessments in, an integrated 8th grade science classroom compared to students in a non-integrated classroom. An examination of these parameters was conducted to analyze the impact of the sizeable investment of time and resources needed to teach an integrated curriculum effectively. These resources included substantial teacher training, planning time, collaboration with colleagues, and administration of student assessments. The findings suggest that students had positive outcomes associated with experiencing an integrated science and mathematics curriculum, though these were only weakly correlated with teacher confidence in implementing the integrated model successfully. The positive outcomes included the ability of students to understand scientific concepts within a concrete mathematical framework, improved confidence in applying mathematics to scientific ideas, and increased agreement with the usefulness of mathematics in interpreting science concepts. Implications of these research findings may be of benefit to educators and policymakers looking to adapt integrated curricula in order to

  3. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  4. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  5. Understanding science teaching effectiveness: examining how science-specific and generic instructional practices relate to student achievement in secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie

    2017-12-01

    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student achievement can provide teachers with beneficial information about how to best engage their students in meaningful science learning. To address this need, this study examined the instructional practices that 99 secondary biology teachers used in their classrooms and employed regression to determine which instructional practices are predictive of students' science achievement. Results revealed that the secondary science teachers who had well-managed classroom environments and who provided opportunities for their students to engage in student-directed investigation-related experiences were more likely to have increased student outcomes, as determined by teachers' value-added measures. These findings suggest that attending to both generic and subject-specific aspects of science teachers' instructional practice is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms that result in more effective science instruction in secondary classrooms. Implications about the use of these observational measures within teacher evaluation systems are discussed.

  6. Achieving equity through critical science agency: An ethnographic study of African American students in a health science career academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998) to highlight the intersections between the career trajectory implied by the Academy (its curriculum, classroom activities, and clinical experiences) and the students' pursued career trajectories. Data was collected over five months and included individual student interviews, group interviews, parent and administrator interviews, field notes from a culminating medical course and clinical internship, and Academy recruitment documents. The results of this study suggest that participants pursued a health science career for altruistic purposes and the Academy was a resource they drew upon to do so. However, the meanings of science and science person implied by the Academy hindered the possibility for many participants' to advance their science career trajectories. While the Academy promised to expose students to a variety of high-status health care roles, they were funneled into feminine, entry-level positions. This study adds to previous underrepresentation literature by contextualizing how identity-related factors influence African American students' career attainment.

  7. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Kindergarten level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of six lessons covering the senses of touch and sight, the sense of smell, how to distinguish living and non-living things, cell structures, the skeletal system, and the significance of food groups. 8 figs.

  8. The mathematics/science teachers' factor in achievement of the goal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Teacher is the key factor in the success of any Educational endeavor at all levels. The introduction of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) necessitates a finding on the state of readiness of mathematics/science teachers in the field who will implement the programme towards the participatory level of ...

  9. Science writing heurisitc: A writing-to-learn strategy and its effect on student's science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caukin, Nancy S.

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine if employing the writing-to-learn strategy known as a "Science Writing Heuristic" would positively effect students' science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view. The publications Science for All American, Blueprints for Reform: Project 2061 (AAAS, 1990; 1998) and National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) strongly encourage science education that is student-centered, inquiry-based, active rather than passive, increases students' science literacy, and moves students towards a constructivist view of science. The capacity to learn, reason, problem solve, think critically and construct new knowledge can potentially be experienced through writing (Irmscher, 1979; Klein, 1999; Applebee, 1984). Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is a tool for designing science experiences that move away from "cookbook" experiences and allows students to design experiences based on their own ideas and questions. This non-traditional classroom strategy focuses on claims that students make based on evidence, compares those claims with their peers and compares those claims with the established science community. Students engage in reflection, meaning making based on their experiences, and demonstrate those understandings in multiple ways (Hand, 2004; Keys et al, 1999, Poock, nd.). This study involved secondary honors chemistry students in a rural prek-12 school in Middle Tennessee. There were n = 23 students in the group and n = 8 in the control group. Both groups participated in a five-week study of gases. The treatment group received the instructional strategy known as Science Writing Heuristic and the control group received traditional teacher-centered science instruction. The quantitative results showed that females in the treatment group outscored their male counterparts by 11% on the science achievement portion of the study and the males in the control group had a more constructivist scientific

  10. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-02-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.

  11. Study the relationship between medical sciences students’ self-esteem and academic achievement of Guilan university of medical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirdehi, Maryam Mirzaee; Asgari, Fariba; Tabari, Rasool; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnejad

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achievement of productivity and improvement of quality in the educational system is the effective, influential factors for countries development. Academic achievement is the main objective of the training program and the most important concerns of teachers, education officials, and university Student's families. Self-esteem is one of the factors affecting student academic achievement. This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in Medical Sciences students of in 2014–2015. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive–correlational study. In this study, 537 university students were selected using random stratified sampling method from Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2014–2015. Data were collected using the standard self-esteem questionnaire of Cooper Smith consisting of four elements (general, social, familial, and educational) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21 and descriptive statistics such as Spearman correlation and Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The results indicated a significant relationship between grade point average and educational self-esteem (P = 0.002, r = 0.135) and global self-esteem (P = 0.02, r = 0.102). There was also a significant relationship between composite Index educational status and general self-esteem (P = 0.019, r = 0.102) and academic achievement (P = 0.007, r = 0.116) and global self-esteem (P = 0.020, r = 0.102). CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, the highest mean score of self-esteem was related to the familial element, and the lowest average was in terms of social self-esteem, therefore, given the importance and necessity of self-esteem in academic achievement, strengthening of all aspects of self-esteem is suggested. PMID:29693033

  12. Study the relationship between medical sciences students' self-esteem and academic achievement of Guilan university of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirdehi, Maryam Mirzaee; Asgari, Fariba; Tabari, Rasool; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnejad

    2018-01-01

    Achievement of productivity and improvement of quality in the educational system is the effective, influential factors for countries development. Academic achievement is the main objective of the training program and the most important concerns of teachers, education officials, and university Student's families. Self-esteem is one of the factors affecting student academic achievement. This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in Medical Sciences students of in 2014-2015. This is a descriptive-correlational study. In this study, 537 university students were selected using random stratified sampling method from Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2014-2015. Data were collected using the standard self-esteem questionnaire of Cooper Smith consisting of four elements (general, social, familial, and educational) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21 and descriptive statistics such as Spearman correlation and Logistic Regression. The results indicated a significant relationship between grade point average and educational self-esteem ( P = 0.002, r = 0.135) and global self-esteem ( P = 0.02, r = 0.102). There was also a significant relationship between composite Index educational status and general self-esteem ( P = 0.019, r = 0.102) and academic achievement ( P = 0.007, r = 0.116) and global self-esteem ( P = 0.020, r = 0.102). According to the results, the highest mean score of self-esteem was related to the familial element, and the lowest average was in terms of social self-esteem, therefore, given the importance and necessity of self-esteem in academic achievement, strengthening of all aspects of self-esteem is suggested.

  13. Relationship between teacher preparedness and inquiry-based instructional practices to students' science achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' self-reported preparedness for teaching science content and their instructional practices to the science achievement of eighth grade science students in the United States as demonstrated by TIMSS 2007. Six hundred eighty-seven eighth grade science teachers in the United States representing 7,377 students responded to the TIMSS 2007 questionnaire about their instructional preparedness and their instructional practices. Quantitative data were reported. Through correlation analysis, the researcher found statistically significant positive relationships emerge between eighth grade science teachers' main area of study and their self-reported beliefs about their preparedness to teach that same content area. Another correlation analysis found a statistically significant negative relationship existed between teachers' self-reported use of inquiry-based instruction and preparedness to teach chemistry, physics and earth science. Another correlation analysis discovered a statistically significant positive relationship existed between physics preparedness and student science achievement. Finally, a correlation analysis found a statistically significant positive relationship existed between science teachers' self-reported implementation of inquiry-based instructional practices and student achievement. The data findings support the conclusion that teachers who have feelings of preparedness to teach science content and implement more inquiry-based instruction and less didactic instruction produce high achieving science students. As science teachers obtain the appropriate knowledge in science content and pedagogy, science teachers will feel prepared and will implement inquiry-based instruction in science classrooms.

  14. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  15. Leading in the Middle: Leadership Behaviors of Middle Level Principals that Promote Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. In particular, this study investigated the specific principal leadership behaviors of middle level principals that promote student achievement in school. A secondary variable for consideration was student…

  16. Level of Attention of Secondary School Students and Its Relationship with their Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzoor Hussain Shah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between the level of attention and academic achievement. The tool designed to carry out this study was questionnaire. A sample of 420 students was taken from six secondary schools of district chakwal. The data was collected personally by visiting the concerned schools. The collected data was properly tabulated and analyzed with the help of ANOVA. The major findings of the study were: students’ level of attention directly effects their academic achievement. Those students who have high level of attention their academic achievement is also higher. As the level of attention decreases academic achievement also decreases student with moderate attention level have average academic achievement while the student with low level of attention are failed. The main factors that distract student attention are noise, home environment, financial problems, health problems and lack of interest. The study concludes that attention should be considered an important psychological phenomenon that effects the students’ academic achievement. As the individuals are different in their capabilities, skills, intelligence and aptitude their level of attention is also different.

  17. The Role of Neighborhood Context and School Climate in School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Linda D; McMahon, Susan D; Jason, Leonard A

    2018-03-30

    In recent years, the quality of education available to children has become increasingly dependent on the social and economic demographics of neighborhoods in which the children live. This study assesses the role of community violence in explaining the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and academic outcomes and the potential of positive school climate to promote academic achievement. With a sample of 297 Chicago public elementary schools, we examine community-level and school-level data and use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping to illustrate how school academic achievement coincides with neighborhood economics and crime statistics. Results support the hypothesized mediation, such that lower SES was associated with lower academic achievement, and violent crime partially mediated this relation. School climate was positively associated with academic achievement, and student safety significantly moderated the relation between SES and academic achievement. Implications for theory, research, and intervention are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  18. Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement of Zahedan Medical Sciences Students in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Arbabisarjou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Students with higher self-efficacy utilize higher tendency, endeavor, and strength in performing academic tasks and feel ensure of their ability, thus self-efficacy can influence their academic achievement. Current study was conducted aiming at investigating relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. It is a descriptive – analytical research on 190 students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during 2015 – 2016. Subjects were selected randomly and two-part questionnaire was used as data collection tool. First part was related to demographic characteristics and second part was related to self-efficacy questionnaire. Finally data were analyzed by SPSS 19 Software using deceptive statistics, Pearson correlation and independent t. Average age of individuals was 21.46 ± 312 and 82 students were female.Relationship between gender and self-efficacy of students was significant and self-efficacy was higher in females. But relationship between gender and academic achievementis not significant. Relationship between age and academic achievement was not significant. Relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of students was measured through Pearson correlation test and significant relationship was observed. People with higher selfefficacy have more optimal academic status compared to people with low self-efficacy and there is direct positive relationship between GPA and self-efficacy.

  19. Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

  20. The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p < 0.05) in the population of university students being analyzed. Conclusions Engagement has been shown to be one of the many factors, which are positively involved, in the academic achievements of college students. PMID:23446005

  1. Locus of Control, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Some Deaf and Typical Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, R. Ademola; Aanu, E. Mosunmola

    2010-01-01

    This study compared locus of control, interest in school and science achievement of typical and deaf secondary school students. The study also investigated influence of students' locus of control and interest in school on general science achievement. Seventy two (72) deaf and 235 typical children were purposively selected from eight secondary…

  2. Consideration of Learning Orientations as an Application of Achievement Goals in Evaluating Life Science Majors in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-01-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics…

  3. The Effects of Online Homework on First Year Pre-Service Science Teachers' Learning Achievements of Introductory Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratniyom, Jadsada; Boonphadung, Suttipong; Unnanantn, Thassanant

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the introductory organic chemistry online homework on first year pre-service science teachers' learning achievements. The online homework was created using a web-based Google form in order to enhance the pre-service science teachers' learning achievements. The steps for constructing online homework were…

  4. A Correlational Study of Graphic Organizers and Science Achievement of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, William Gordon

    English language learners (ELLs) demonstrate lower academic performance and have lower graduation and higher dropout rates than their non-ELL peers. The primary purpose of this correlational quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between the use of graphic organizer-infused science instruction and science learning of high school ELLs. Another objective was to determine if the method of instruction, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language proficiency (ELP) were predictors of academic achievement of high school ELLs. Data were gathered from a New York City (NYC) high school fall 2012-2013 archival records of 145 ninth-grade ELLs who had received biology instruction in freestanding English as a second language (ESL) classes, followed by a test of their learning of the material. Fifty-four (37.2%) of these records were of students who had learned science by the conventional textbook method, and 91 (62.8%) by using graphic organizers. Data analysis employed the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for multiple regression analysis, which found graphic organizer use to be a significant predictor of New York State Regents Living Environment (NYSRLE) test scores (p < .01). One significant regression model was returned whereby, when combined, the four predictor variables (method of instruction, SES, gender, and ELP) explained 36% of the variance of the NYSRLE score. Implications of the study findings noted graphic organizer use as advantageous for ELL science achievement. Recommendations made for practice were for (a) the adoption of graphic organizer infused-instruction, (b) establishment of a protocol for the implementation of graphic organizer-infused instruction, and (c) increased length of graphic organizer instructional time. Recommendations made for future research were (a) a replication quantitative correlational study in two or more high schools, (b) a quantitative quasi-experimental quantitative study to

  5. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  6. Confidence in Science and Achievement Outcomes of Fourth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from assessments of fourth-grade science have indicated that students in Korea scored higher than international averages. Research results have also shown that attitudes toward science were related to achievement outcomes for Korean students. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between confidence in science and…

  7. Sensitivity Achieved by the LIGO and Virgo Gravitational Wave Detectors during LIGO's Sixth and Virgo's Second and Third Science Runs

    OpenAIRE

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the sensitivity achieved by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors for low-mass compact binary coalescence (CBC) searches during LIGO's sixth science run and Virgo's second and third science runs. We present strain noise power spectral densities (PSDs) which are representative of the typical performance achieved by the detectors in these science runs. The data presented here and in the accompanying web-accessible data files are intended to be released to the public as a ...

  8. The Influence of Parents Educational Level on Secondary School Students Academic Achievements in District Rajanpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rana Muhammad Asad; Iqbal, Nadeem; Tasneem, Saima

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to focus the influence and impact of parents educational level on students academic achievement at secondary level of education. The study utilizes the students results of the 9th class in secondary school certificate examination taken by the Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Dera Ghazi Khan. Oral interview,…

  9. PERSISTENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN NATURAL SCIENCES STUDENTS

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    Alexandr I Krupnov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of empirical study of the association between variables of persistence and academic achievement in foreign languages. The sample includes students of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science at the RUDN University ( n = 115, divided into 5 subsamples, two of which are featured in the present study (the most and the least successful students subsamples. Persistence as a personality trait is studied within A.I. Krupnov’s system-functional approach. A.I. Krupnov’s paper-and-pencil test was used to measure persistence variables. Academic achievement was measured according to the four parameters: Phonetics, Grammar, Speaking and Political vocabulary based on the grades students received during the academic year. The analysis revealed that persistence displays different associations with academic achievement variables in more and less successful students subsamples, the general prominence of this trait is more important for unsuccessful students. Phonetics is the academic achievement variable most associated with persistence due to its nature, a skill one can acquire through hard work and practice which is the definition of persistence. Grammar as an academic achievement variable is not associated with persistence and probably relates to other factors. Unsuccessful students may have difficulties in separating various aspects of language acquisition from each other which should be taken into consideration by the teachers.

  10. Student-generated illustrations and written narratives of biological science concepts: The effect on community college life science students' achievement in and attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert Christopher

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two conceptually based instructional strategies on science achievement and attitudes of community college biological science students. The sample consisted of 277 students enrolled in General Biology 1, Microbiology, and Human Anatomy and Physiology 1. Control students were comprised of intact classes from the 2005 Spring semester; treatment students from the 2005 Fall semester were randomly assigned to one of two groups within each course: written narrative (WN) and illustration (IL). WN students prepared in-class written narratives related to cell theory and metabolism, which were taught in all three courses. IL students prepared in-class illustrations of the same concepts. Control students received traditional lecture/lab during the entire class period and neither wrote in-class descriptions nor prepared in-class illustrations of the targeted concepts. All groups were equivalent on age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, and number of college credits earned and were blinded to the study. All interventions occurred in class and no group received more attention or time to complete assignments. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) via multiple regression was the primary statistical strategy used to test the study's hypotheses. The model was valid and statistically significant. Independent follow-up univariate analyses relative to each dependent measure found that no research factor had a significant effect on attitude, but that course-teacher, group membership, and student academic characteristics had a significant effect (p < .05) on achievement: (1) Biology students scored significantly lower in achievement than A&P students; (2) Microbiology students scored significantly higher in achievement than Biology students; (3) Written Narrative students scored significantly higher in achievement than Control students; and (4) GPA had a significant effect on achievement. In addition, given p < .08: (1

  11. Comparison of student achievement among two science laboratory types: traditional and virtual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Mary Celeste

    Technology has changed almost every aspect of our daily lives. It is not surprising then that technology has made its way into the classroom. More and more educators are utilizing technological resources in creative ways with the intent to enhance learning, including using virtual laboratories in the sciences in place of the "traditional" science laboratories. This has generated much discussion as to the influence on student achievement when online learning replaces the face-to-face contact between instructor and student. The purpose of this study was to discern differences in achievement of two laboratory instruction types: virtual laboratory and a traditional laboratory. Results of this study indicate statistical significant differences in student achievement defined by averages on quiz scores in virtual labs compared with traditional face-to-face laboratories and traditional laboratories result in greater student learning gains than virtual labs. Lecture exam averages were also greater for students enrolled in the traditional laboratories compared to students enrolled in the virtual laboratories. To account for possible differences in ability among students, a potential extraneous variable, GPA and ACT scores were used as covariates.

  12. 2×2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high-level swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.

  13. Stories of Success: Understanding Academic Achievement of Hispanic Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Amanda

    A review of the literature shows that there is much evidence to suggest the challenges facing Hispanic students in American public schools. Hispanic enrollment in K--12 public schools has increased from 6 to 19% in the last thirty years, yet schools have not made adequate adjustments to accommodate this changing population. Issues such as remedial tracking and cultural differences have led to low high school graduate rates for Hispanic students and inequities in schooling experiences (Gay, 2000). Particularly in the area of science, Hispanic students struggle with academic success (Cole & Espinoza, 2008). Despite these obstacles, some Hispanic students are academically successful (Rochin & Mello, 2007; Merisotis & Kee, 2006). This dissertation tells the stories of these Hispanic students who have been successful in science in secondary public schools. This study followed a grounded theory methodology and utilized individual interviews to collect data about Hispanics who have demonstrated achievement in the area of science. Through the analysis of these interviews, factors were identified which may have contributed to the success of these Hispanics in the field of science. Implications for future practice in public schools are also discussed.

  14. The Impact of Color-Coding Freshmen Integrated-Science Assignments on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant Allen, Anita Kay

    Students in Grade 9 exhibit high rates of grade retention and absenteeism. Educators have used different strategies that will increase the achievement of those students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship existed between student achievement and the strategy to use colored paper for Grade 9 science assignments and tests. Itten's color theory provided the theoretical framework. Itten was one of the first researchers to explore the notion that the human eye can detect wavelengths as colors and that those colors can engage and create order in the human brain. A sample of students assigned to 4 classroom teachers at one high school who volunteered to take part in the study for 18 weeks were used in this quantitative study. Teachers administered student assessments on blue, green, yellow, and white paper. Each class was assigned 1 of the 4 colors for 4.5 weeks. The classes were then assigned a different color for the same length of time until each class had exposure to all 4 colors. Physical science exams given to students in the same grade or subject were used as the dependent variable. An ANOVA indicated that the groups using blue paper scored the highest on the physical science exams; students who used white paper earned the lowest scores. When comparing all 3 groups using colored paper (all three colored paper groups combined into one group) to the white paper groups, t-test results indicated that students using any colored paper scored higher than students using white paper. Further research on the impact of colored paper on student academic performance is necessary. Implications for positive social change indicate that new knowledge about instructional tools that impact student achievement deserves more attention.

  15. Closing the science achievement gap for ninth grade English learners through standards- and inquiry-based science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Myrna Hipol

    In light of the need to close the achievement gap among our culturally and linguistically diverse students, more specifically the Hispanics and the Hispanic English Learners (ELs), the effects of teacher professional development (2 year PD vs. 1 Year PD vs. no PD) on the implementation of a standards-aligned and inquiry-based science curriculum program---the Integrated Coordinated Science for the 21st Century published by It's About Time, Inc. (ICS-IAT)---on the LAUSD ninth graders science scores were examined. Participants included 8,937 9th grade students (7,356 Hispanics). The primary outcome measurement was scaled scores from the California Standard Test (CST) in Integrated Coordinated Science (CST_ICS1). Correlations between California English Language Development Test (CELDT) component subscores (reading, listening and speaking) and CST scores were also examined. Results indicated that the science scores of the students of teachers who participated in two year PD were significantly higher compared to the scores of students of the one year PD group and the control group. The results show that all ethnic groups benefited from two years of teacher PD, except the African American group. Among Hispanics, students classified as IFEP, RFEP and EO gained from the teachers having two years of professional development. But the target population, ELs did not benefit from two years of teacher PD. The correlations between the CELDT and CST_ELA were much higher than the CELDT and CST_ICS1 correlations. This finding validates Abedi's claim (2004) that EL students are disadvantaged because of their language handicap on tests that have a greater language load. Two year PD participation significantly enhanced the accessibility of science to the ninth graders. The essential features in the PD were classroom simulation of all the activities identified in the storyboard with the actual and correct use of needed equipment and materials; creation and presentation of sample or model

  16. Highlights from TIMSS 2011: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2013-009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provasnik, Stephen; Kastberg, David; Ferraro, David; Lemanski, Nita; Roey, Stephen; Jenkins, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international comparative study of student achievement. TIMSS 2011 represents the fifth such study since TIMSS was first conducted in 1995. Developed and implemented at the international level by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement…

  17. EXAMINING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SPORTS SCIENCES FACULTY STUDENTS: THE CASE OF FIRAT UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most emphasised aspect of teaching is student achievement. It is the reason for teaching and the product teaching produces. The potential of a well - qualified workforce with high academic achievement is thought to be the primary factor in the development of a society. This study was designed to examine the academic achievement of students studying at the Sports Sciences Faculty of Fırat University in terms of a set of variables. The entire population was included, and the study was conducted with 684 students (80.1%. A que stionnaire developed by the researchers was used as the data - gathering instrument. The data were evaluated using a statistical package program, and presented as frequency, percentage and means. The Kruskal Wallis and Mann - Whitney U tests were used to analy se the data. This research found that there was a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement scores and their age, gender, mothers' state of employment, place of residence, departments, year of study and type of education (p<0.05.

  18. Communicating Ocean Science at the Lower-Division Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Ocean Literacy for Youth, Publics, Professionals, and Scientists (POLYPPS) is an NSF-funded collaboration between the University of Hawai`i and the Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) - California, which is based at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California - Berkeley. One of the objectives of this project is to instutionalize ocean science communications courses at colleges and universities in Hawai`i. Although the focus of most of these communications courses has been on training graduate students and scientists, lower-division students interested in the ocean sciences are finding this background helpful. At the University of Hawai`i Maui College there are several marine science courses and certificate programs that require students to interact with the public through internships, research assistantships, and course-related service-learning projects. Oceanography 270, Communicating Ocean Science, is now offered to meet the needs of these students who engage with the public in informal educational settings. Other students who enroll in this course have a general interest in the marine environment and are considering careers in K-12 formal education. This course gives this group of students an opportunity to explore formal education by assisting classroom teachers and preparing and presenting problem-based, hands-on, inquiry activities. Employers at marine-related businesses and in the tourist industry have welcomed this course with a focus on communication skills and indicate that they prefer to hire local people with strong backgrounds in marine and natural sciences. A basic premise of POLYPPS is that science education must draw not only from the latest advances in science and technology but also from the cultural contexts in which the learners are embedded and that this will achieve increased understanding and stewardship of ocean environments. Students in Oceanography 270 integrate traditional Hawaiian knowledge into their

  19. Topics in Current Science Research: Closing the Achievement Gap for Under Resourced Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya Villalpando, Alvaro; Daal, Miguel; Phipps, Arran; Speller, Danielle; Sadoulet, Bernard; Winheld, Rachel; Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Topics in Current Science Research (TCSR) is a five-week summer course offered at the University of California, Berkeley through a collaboration between the Level Playing Field Institute's Summer Math and Science Honors Academy (SMASH) Program and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) group at UC Berkeley. SMASH is an academic enrichment program geared towards under-resourced, high school students of color. The goals of the course are to expand the students' conception of STEM, to teach the students that science is a method of inquiry and not just a collection of facts that are taught in school, and to expose the scholars to critical thinking within a scientific setting. The course's curriculum engages the scholars in hands-on scientific research, project proposal writing, and presentation of their scientific work to their peers as well as to a panel of UC Berkeley scientists. In this talk, we describe the course and the impact it has had on previous scholars, we discuss how the course's pedagogy has evolved over the past 10 years to enhance students' perception and understanding of science, and we present previous participants' reflections and feedback about the course and its success in providing high school students a genuine research experience at the university level.

  20. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  1. The challenge of achieving professionalism and respect of diversity in a UK Earth Sciences department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Jonathan; Taylor, Michelle; Callaghan, Mark; Castiello, Gabriella; Cooper, George; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Herron, Louise; Hoult, Jill; Lo, Marissa; Love, Tara; Macpherson, Colin; Oakes, Janice; Phethean, Jordan; Riches, Amy

    2017-04-01

    The Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, has a balanced gender profile at undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral levels (38%, 42% and 45% females, respectively), but one of the lowest percentages, relative to the natural applicant pool, of female academic staff amongst UK geoscience departments. There are currently 9% female academic staff at Durham, compared with a median value (in November 2015) of 20% for all Russell Group geoscience departments in the UK. Despite the fact that the female staff group is relatively senior, the Department's current academic management is essentially entirely male. The Department has an informal working culture, in which academics operate an "open door" policy, and staff and students are on first name terms. This culture, open plan office space, and our fieldwork programme, allow staff and students to socialise. A positive outcome of this culture is that > 95% of final year undergraduate students deemed the staff approachable (National Student Survey 2016). Nevertheless, a survey of staff and research student attitudes revealed significant differences in the way males and females perceive our working environment. Females are less likely than males to agree with the statements that "the Department considers inappropriate language to be unacceptable" and "inappropriate images are not considered acceptable in the Department". That anyone could find "inappropriate" language and images "acceptable" is a measure of the challenge faced by the Department. Males disagree more strongly than females that they "have felt uncomfortable because of [their] gender". The Department is proactively working to improve equality and diversity. It held a series of focus group meetings, divided according to gender and job role, to understand the differences in male and female responses. Female respondents identified examples of inappropriate language (e.g. sexual stereotyping) that were directed at female, but not male, colleagues. Males

  2. Students' Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Level and Its Relationship with Their Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar Güvendir, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation levels of eighth grade students and its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The participants of the study included 6,829 students who took TIMSS in 2011 and 239 mathematics teachers. The data obtained from the student and teacher questionnaires that are included in the…

  3. Fostering Students' Preparation and Achievement in Upper Level Mathematics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet; Shaqlaih, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study describes an intervention to address both motivation, student engagement and preparation in upper-level mathematics courses. The effect of the intervention regarding students' achievements is investigated via students' opinions and data analysis from students' assessments. The results of this study show the featured intervention…

  4. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  5. The Effects of Higher Education/Military Service on Achievement Levels of Police Academy Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Allen

    This study compared levels of achievement of three groups of Houston (Texas) police academy cadets: those with no military service but with 60 or more college credit hours, those with military service and 0 hours of college credit, and those with military service and 1 to 59 hours of college credit. Prior to 1991, police cadets in Houston were…

  6. Level of Students' Achievement in Mathematics at the End of Elementary Education in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Tarig Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Elrofai, Tahra Aisa

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of student's achievement in mathematics in Yemen. This study use a sample of 200 male students and 200 female students, chosen from eight government schools on the basis of diversified sampling techniques. A mathematics test which composed of seventy five items that covered geometrical…

  7. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  8. The Effects of Visual Thinking Strategies on Reading Achievement of Students with Varying Levels of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelvis, Rima R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) curriculum on reading achievement of students with various motivational levels. A 2X2 factorial design was used. The sample population consisted of 104 fourth grade students from an upper middle class school system in Connecticut. All students were administered a…

  9. The Effect of Peer Support on University Level Students' English Language Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Irfan; Çeliköz, Nadir; Ünal, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of peer support on university level students' English language achievements. An experimental model with pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 800 students who were studying at a university in Istanbul vicinity. As experiment group, 400 students (200 of whom…

  10. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  11. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  12. Protocol adherence and the ability to achieve target haemoglobin levels in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Moran, John; Hlatky, Mark; Lafayette, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Anemia management remains complicated in patients with endstage renal disease on hemodialysis. We wished to evaluate the effect of protocol adherence to EPO and intravenous iron dosing on achieving the desired range of hemoglobin levels. A cohort of hemodialysis patients was studied to evaluate the rate of adherence to EPO and iron dosing protocols over a 5 month period. A database was completed to evaluate all known comorbidities, demographic factors, and facility issues that might affect hemoglobin levels. A logistic regression model was employed to evaluate the effect of adherence to the anemia protocols on the probability of achieving a hemoglobin level below, within or above the targeted range of 11-12.5 g/dl. Among 2114 patients, we found that adherence to both the EPO and iron dosing protocol resulted in the greatest probability of achieving the target hemoglobin range (56 +/- 5% in anemia protocol adherent patients versus 42 +/- 7% in non adherent patients). This was predominantly due to a lowered risk of having above target hemoglobin levels rather than below. The use of the anemia protocols was associated with lower rates of hospitalization (9 +/- 0.7 visits/100 months in adherent group vs 15 +/- 2 in non adherent group) and lower utilization of both EPO and intravenous iron. Furthermore, patients in the adherent groups had less variability of their hemoglobin levels month by month, at least as judged by standard deviation. Adherence to anemia protocols, as practiced in the dialysis units included in this cohort, may improve hemodialysis patients' ability to achieve target hemoglobin levels, and by avoiding above target hemoglobin values, lower drug utilization and reduce variability of hemoglobin levels.

  13. What factors help or hinder the achievement of low SES students? An international comparison using TIMSS 2011 8th grade science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Justin L.

    Focusing on science from a cross-country perspective, this study explores the relationship between 8th grade science achievement and student, teacher, and school characteristics. More specifically, this study will pay special attention to low socio-economic status (SES) students and seek to understand why some disadvantaged students are able to have higher than expected achievement in science given their SES while other disadvantaged students are not able to achieve beyond what would be expected given their background. This study will explore the multi-level relationship between the characteristics of students, their teachers, their schools, and student achievement in science. While looking at students in classrooms and in schools, this work will create as precise as possible a measure of student SES by drawing on recommendations of an expert panel commissioned by the National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP) study. The study uses the most recent cycle (2011) of the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), to strategically select a six-country sample from the 45 participating countries. This six-country sample was selected by using the country level achievement and the standard deviation of that achievement. This will create a sample that has a range of equality in achievement and strength in achievement. This allows for making comparisons both across and within countries to better understand variations in the factors of student performance, especially for disadvantaged students. This paper builds on the existing research around socio-economic status (SES) and achievement by exploring in more detail the conditions in schools and classrooms around the world that might magnify or reduce the effect of SES on student achievement. The analysis looks at these questions: "What conditions help low SES students achieve higher than what would be expected given their SES?" and "What conditions hinder low SES students to achieve at or below what would

  14. An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Gail S.

    Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

  15. Impact of a school district's science reform effort on the achievement and attitudes of third- and fourth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymansky, James A.; Yore, Larry D.; Anderson, John O.

    2004-10-01

    This article is about one school district's effort to reform its elementary science curriculum through a program of professional development called Science, Parents, Activities and Literature (Science PALs). The differential exposure of the district's K-6 teachers to Science PALs and differences in how well teachers implemented Science PALs-type inquiry strategies allowed us to conduct a quasi-experimental study of the impact of Science PALs on student achievement and attitudes. We measured achievement with an instrument based on items taken from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, [1997]) and selected attitudes about science with the Student Perceptions of Classroom Climate (SPOCC; Yore et al., [1998]), an instrument that we designed. Our analyses of student attitude scores as a function of years of teacher participation in Science PALs and supervisor's rating of a teacher's implementation of the project's instructional approaches showed a significant overall positive impact on student attitudes toward school science. Student TIMSS scores on multiple-choice items or constructed-response items did not improve significantly when analyzed by the number of years a student's teacher was involved in the Science PALs effort or by the supervisor's rating of that implementation. We found no significant differences in attitude or achievement scores among students taught by a series of teachers rated high, medium, or low in quality of implementation by the district's science supervisor. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of clear and positive connections between Science PALs and student performance in light of the increased focus on accountability in reform projects.

  16. How does a Next Generation Science Standard Aligned, Inquiry Based, Science Unit Impact Student Achievement of Science Practices and Student Science Efficacy in an Elementary Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Kayla Lee

    This study examined the impact of an inquiry based Next Generation Science Standard aligned science unit on elementary students' understanding and application of the eight Science and Engineering Practices and their relation in building student problem solving skills. The study involved 44 second grade students and three participating classroom teachers. The treatment consisted of a school district developed Second Grade Earth Science unit: What is happening to our playground? that was taught at the beginning of the school year. Quantitative results from a Likert type scale pre and post survey and from student content knowledge assessments showed growth in student belief of their own abilities in the science classroom. Qualitative data gathered from student observations and interviews performed at the conclusion of the Earth Science unit further show gains in student understanding and attitudes. This study adds to the existing literature on the importance of standard aligned, inquiry based science curriculum that provides time for students to engage in science practices.

  17. Expressing International Educational Achievement in Terms of U.S. Performance Standards: Linking NAEP Achievement Levels to TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    Educators, researchers, and policymakers have considerable interest in how the American educational system compares to those in other countries. One major index for comparison is student academic achievement. This paper links the scale of the "National Assessment of Educational Progress" ("NAEP") to the scale of the "Third International…

  18. Science Achievement Gaps by Gender and Race/Ethnicity in Elementary and Middle School: Trends and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North

    2015-01-01

    Research on science achievement disparities by gender and race/ethnicity often neglects the beginning of the pipeline in the early grades. We address this limitation using nationally representative data following students from Grades 3 to 8. We find that the Black-White science test score gap (-1.07 SD in Grade 3) remains stable over these years,…

  19. Learning Environment, Attitudes and Achievement among Middle-School Science Students Using Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared inquiry and non-inquiry laboratory teaching in terms of students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment, attitudes toward science, and achievement among middle-school physical science students. Learning environment and attitude scales were found to be valid and related to each other for a sample of 1,434 students in…

  20. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  1. The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science: three years of honouring outstanding achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, T.; Chatzichristou, E.; Heward, A.

    2012-09-01

    Europlanet launched an annual Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Sciences at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in 2009. At EPSC 2012, the prize will be presented for the third time. To date, the prize has been awarded to: • 2010 - Dr Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planétologie de Grenoble for his development and dissemination of his 'planeterrella' experiment; • 2011 - The Austrian Space Forum for their coordinated programme of outreach activities, which range from simple classroom presentations to space exhibitions reaching 15 000 visitors; • 2012 - Yaël Nazé, for the diverse outreach programme she has individually initiated over the years, carefully tailored to audiences across the spectrum of society, including children, artists and elderly people. These three prizes cover a spectrum of different approaches to outreach and provide inspiration for anyone wishing to become engaged in public engagement, whether at an individual and institutional level.

  2. Pre-college Science Experiences; Timing and Causes of Gender Influence Science Interest Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplita, E.; Reed, D. E.; McKenzie, D. A.; Jones, R.; May, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    It is known that female students tend to turn away from science during their pre-college years. Experiences during this time are not limited to the classroom, as cultural influences extend beyond K-12 science education and lead to the widely studied reduction in females in STEM fields. This has a large impact on climate science because currently relatively little effort is put into K-12 climate education, yet this is when college attitudes towards science are formed. To help quantify these changes, 400 surveys were collected from 4 different colleges in Oklahoma. Student responses were compared by gender against student experiences (positive and negative), and interest in science. Results of our work show that females tend to have their first positive experience with science at a younger age with friends, family and in the classroom, and have more of an interest in science when they are younger. Males in general like experiencing science more on their own, and surpass the interest levels of females late in high school and during college. While in college, males are more comfortable with science content than females, and males enjoy math and statistics more while those aspects of science were the largest areas of dislike in females. Understanding how to keep students (particularly female) interested in science as they enter their teen years is extremely important in preventing climate misconceptions in the adult population. Potential small changes such as hosting K-12 climate outreach events and including parents, as opposed to just inviting students, could greatly improve student experiences with science and hence, their understanding of climate science. Importantly, a greater focus on female students is warranted.

  3. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  4. Investigation of Inquiry-based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sunny Minelli

    This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science teachers conceptualize "inquiry-based instruction?" 2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? And 3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the connection between science instruction and student learning? The participants within this research study represent 33 percent of teachers in grades 5 through 9 within six school districts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Of the 12 consent forms originally obtained, 10 teachers completed all three phases of the data collection, including the online survey, participation in focus groups, and teacher self-reflection. 60 percent of the participants taught only science, and 40 percent taught all content areas. Of the ten participants, 50 percent were certified teachers of science and 50 percent were certified as teachers of elementary education. 70 percent of the research participants reflected having obtained a master's, with 60 percent of these degrees being received in areas of education, and 10 percent in the area of science. The research participants have a total of 85 collective years of experience as professional educators, with the average years of experience being 8.5 years. Analysis of data revealed three themes related to research question #1) How do middle-level science teachers conceptualize inquiry-based instruction? and sub-question #1) How do middle-level science teachers characterize effective instruction? The themes that capture the essence of teachers' formulation of inquiry-based instruction that emerged in this study were student centered, problem solving, and hands-on . Analysis of data revealed one theme

  5. The origin of oil and gas in light of the latest achievements in earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenko, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    A theory of mineralogical asthenospheric origin of oil and gas is justified from geological, geophysical and geochemical standpoints in light of the contemporary achievements of earth sciences. The conditions of formation of oil and gas bearing provinces and the formation of oil and gas deposits are characterized. Three eras of oil and gas formation and oil and gas accumulation in the earth's crust, which are associated with the Hercynian, Cimmerian and Alpine geotectonic cycles of development of geosynclinal regions, are identified in the evolutionary development of the earth. The presented opinions are supported by data from geological exploration practice and by current materials from hydrogeochemistry, thermobarogeologeochemistry, space geochemistry and from the study of volcanos.

  6. Water Sciences - Connecting the dots to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Ortigara, Angela; Minelli, Lucilla

    2017-04-01

    includes several international organizations (i.e., CEO Water Mandate, FAO, ILO, UNDP, UNECE, UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UN-Water TAU, WHO and WMO) and is coordinated by the UN World Water Assessment Programme of UNESCO. The Synthesis Report will provide an integrated analysis and synthesis of data, information and policy linkages between different SDG targets and indicators, providing Member Stater with 'the big picture' on progress made in achieving SDG 6, and recommendations for policy and decision makers and stakeholders in the water and development sectors. The role of (water) science is more critical than ever. In this era of rapid developments we are in dire need for action: further insights are needed to fully understand and quantify the systematic links between the different SDGs in order to explore future possible development pathways. Sound scientific basis has to support the development of effective policy implementation strategies.

  7. Do Thinking Styles Matter for Science Achievement and Attitudes toward Science Class in Male and Female Elementary School Students in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…

  8. The Effects of Classroom Instructional Strategies on Science Achievement of Elementary-School Students in Japan: Findings from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS has provided a comprehensive assessment of educational contexts and mathematics and science achievement (National Research Council, 1999). The initial TIMSS assessment was conducted in 1995 (TIMSS 1995) and several studies have examined factors related to…

  9. GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J.

    1995-07-01

    An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

  10. History, achievements, and future challenges of Japanse Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    established East and Southeast Asian Federation of Soil Science Societies (ESAFS) in 1991. Since the early 1990s the research topics have become more related to the global as well as regional environmental issues. Major achievements in the history of the society may include 1) development of research particularly on paddy soils and volcanic ash soils, 2) consistent commitment to the education for constructing sustainable society, and 3) international cooperation in improving rice production in the developing countries particularly in Tropical Asia. Today 2,699 members are registered in the society, which includes 9 divisions and holds an annual meeting every year. Two journals are bimonthly published, i.e. "Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition" in Japanese and "SSPN" in English and the latter was recognized as a cooperating journal of IUSS in 2010. Future challenges of the society are 1) more commitment to international organizations, e.g. EGU in addition to IUSS, ESAFS and other soil-based communities, 2) enhancement of international cooperation for developing countries not only in Asia but also Africa, and 3) acceleration of soils research and education in association with related disciplines for constructing a holistically harmonized society on the planet earth.

  11. Learning Language Levels in Students Accurate with a History Academic Achievement History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorlela Binti Noordin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the Malay proficiency among students in Form Two especially non-Malay students and its relationship to academic achievement History. To achieve the purpose of the study there are two objectives, the first is to look at the difference between mean of Malay Language test influences min of academic achievement of History subject among non-Malay students in Form Two and the second is the relationship between the level of Malay proficiency and their academic achievement for History. This study used quantitative methods, which involved 100 people of Form Two non-Malay students in one of the schools in Klang, Selangor. This study used quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical inference with IBM SPSS Statistics v22 software. This study found that there was a relationship between the proficiency of Malay language among non-Malay students with achievements in the subject of History. The implications of this study are discussed in this article.

  12. A Path Analysis of Basic Need Support, Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement Level among Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' support of basic psychological needs, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level was measured in a sample of 240 secondary school students (8th and 10th grades). Correlation analysis showed significant positive relations between all of the variables, except for the relation between need support of…

  13. The Correlation between Pre-Service Science Teachers' Astronomy Achievement, Attitudes towards Astronomy and Spatial Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Cumhur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in pre-service Science teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards astronomy and skills for spatial thinking in terms of their years of study. Another purpose of the study was to find out whether there was correlation between pre-service teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards…

  14. The Role of Teacher Morale and Motivation on Students' Science and Math Achievement: Findings from Singapore, Japan, Finland and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazaoglu, Ilkay; Aztekin, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is one of the factors that affect the realization of the teaching objectives, motivation and academic achievement of student. This study aimed to answer to the question "How is the relation between the students' academic (sciences and mathematics) achievement and teachers' morale/motivation in Singapore, Japan, Finland and…

  15. The Effects of Using Diorama on 7th Grade Students' Academic Achievement and Science Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan Efe, Hulya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of using diorama on 7th grade students' academic achievement and science learning skills in "human being and environment relation" unit. The participants were 49 (E:25, C:24) 7th grade students studying during 2015-16 academic year in Diyarbakir, Turkey. An achievement test and "science…

  16. Effects of Innovative Science and Mathematics Teaching on Student Attitudes and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelsbergh, E.R.; Prins, G.T.; Rietbergen, C.; Fechner, S.; Vaessen, B.E.; Draijer, J.M.; Bakker, A.

    2016-01-01

    Many teaching approaches have been tried to improve student attitudes and achievement in science and mathematics education. Achievement effects have been synthesized, but a systematic overview of attitude effects is missing. This study provides a meta analytic review based on 56 publications

  17. Does the Constellation Program Offer Opportunities to Achieve Space Science Goals in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.; Dissel, Adam F.; Folta, David C.; Stevens, John; Budinoff, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    Future space science missions developed to achieve the most ambitious goals are likely to be complex, large, publicly and professionally very important, and at the limit of affordability. Consequently, it may be valuable if such missions can be upgraded, repaired, and/or deployed in space, either with robots or with astronauts. In response to a Request for Information from the US National Research Council panel on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System, we developed a concept for astronaut-based in-space servicing at the Earth-Moon L1,2 locations that may be implemented by using elements of NASA's Constellation architecture. This libration point jobsite could be of great value for major heliospheric and astronomy missions operating at Earth-Sun Lagrange points. We explored five alternative servicing options that plausibly would be available within about a decade. We highlight one that we believe is both the least costly and most efficiently uses Constellation hardware that appears to be available by mid-next decade: the Ares I launch vehicle, Orion/Crew Exploration Vehicle, Centaur vehicle, and an airlock/servicing node developed for lunar surface operations. Our concept may be considered similar to the Apollo 8 mission: a valuable exercise before descent by astronauts to the lunar surface.

  18. The effects of professional development related to classroom assessment on student achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzie, Dawn Danielle

    This study investigated the relationship between students' standardized test scores in science and (a) increases in teacher assessment literacy and (b) teacher participation in a Teacher Quality Research (TQR) project on classroom assessment. The samples for these studies were teachers from underperforming schools who volunteered to take part in a professional development program in classroom assessment. School groups were randomly assigned to the treatment group. For Study 1, teachers in the treatment received professional development in classroom assessment from a trained assessment coach. Teachers in the control received no professional development. For Study 2, teachers in Treatment 1 received professional development in classroom assessment from a trained assessment coach and teachers in Treatment 2 received professional development in classroom assessment from a facilitator with one day of training. Teachers in both groups completed a measure of assessment literacy, the Teacher Quality Research Test of Assessment Literacy Skills (TQR_TALS), prior to the beginning and then again at the conclusion of the four month professional development program. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between students' standardized test scores in science and (a) increases in teacher assessment literacy and (b) teacher TQR status. Based upon these analyses, the professional development program increased teachers' assessment literacy skills; however, the professional development had no significant impact on students' achievement.

  19. The role of Social Networks on Academic Achievement of Gonabad University of Medical Science\\' students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Dastani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social networks are the most important means of communication in the societies as well as in the world, so the use of virtual social networks among students is important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual social networks among students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive study, 277 students were randomly selected from  Gonabad University of  Medical Sciences. They completed a questionnaire which its validity and reliability were obtained in earlier studies. Then the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: The findings showed that 87 percent of the students were aware of virtual social networks, and 52 percent were members of these social networks. Students spend about an hour and eleven minutes (SD=2.20771 on the virtual networks. There was no significant difference between academic achievement of students in the groups. Conclusion: The results showed that more than half of the students were members of social networks. Students are not familiar with all of the effects of these social networks since they are recently emerged, so performing more research on other aspects of their impact on the life and health of students are necessary.

  20. Understanding the factors that influence high science achievers' academic choices and intent to pursue or opt out of the hard sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihuis, Gisell

    Drawing on Eccles and her colleagues' Expectancy-Value model of academic behavior and choice, this dissertation study set out to serve three purposes: (1) to understand how high achieving high school students who aspire to science college degrees compare, in terms of motivational beliefs and social experiences, with other high achievers who do not aspire to science college degrees; (2) to understand why some high school students who excel in the hard sciences are unsure about pursuing a science degree in college; and (3) to examine whether gender differences in motivational beliefs and social experiences found in previous research on math (see Eccles 1984) exist for science among high achieving high school students. Survey and interview data showed that gender differences previously found in Eccles' research on math exist for science among a select group of high achieving high school students. Yet, these gender differences did not explain students' aspirations for science. Motivation, classroom perceptions, science engagement, as well as other science-related experiences at home and school, including parent and teacher influences, were also important factors associated with students' aspirations for science. Results and implications for this study are encouraging because they suggest that both parents and educators can help more high achievers become interested in science. Parents can expose their children, male and female alike, to science at home early on in their childhood and teachers can help students sustain and further develop an interest in science at school. In this manner, both parents and teachers can work together as a team to encourage more high achievers to aspire to science degrees in their future. Lastly, it is important to note that this study found Eccles' model of motivation and choice helpful in understanding not only gender differences in math and the hard sciences, but also aspiration differences that cut across gender among students

  1. Regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipar, M.

    1997-01-01

    A review of regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning is given. It contains licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning; Status and methodology of Mochovce safety analysis report; Mochovce NPP safety enhancement program; Regulatory body policy towards Mochovce NPP safety enhancement; Recent development in Mochovce pre-operational safety enhancement program review and assessment process; Licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning

  2. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  3. The effects of contextual learning instruction on science achievement of male and female tenth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samantha Jones

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest

  4. The effect of cooperative learning on students’ achievement and views on the science and technology course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertel Altun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of learning plan implementation prepared with the cooperative learning method. In particular, the study addresses the effect of cooperative learning on students’ achievement and their views regarding the ‘Systems in Our Body’ unit of the 6th grade Science and Technology lesson. For this purpose, mixed method was used. The study is conducted in the second term of the 2013-2014 academic year, on a study group consisted of 7 girls and 13 boys, a total of 20 students of a private middle school in Istanbul. An achievement scale was utilized for the quantitative data and focus group interviews were hold for the qualitative data. While t-test was used for the quantitative findings, content analysis technique was used for the qualitative data. The result of the study indicated that CL method had a favorable effect on learning. The cooperation based learning-teaching environment provided cooperation, supported permanent learning, provided opportunities to be successful, contributed to the development of social and personal skills, but also caused worry as it requires students to be successful at all stages.

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Achievement and Views on the Science and Technology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertel ALTUN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of learning plan implementation prepared with the cooperative learning method. In particular, the study addresses the effect of cooperative learning on students’ achievement and their views regarding the ‘Systems in Our Body’ unit of the 6th grade Science and Technology lesson. For this purpose, mixed method was used. The study is conducted in the second term of the 2013-2014 academic year, on a study group consisted of 7 girls and 13 boys, a total of 20 students of a private middle school in Istanbul. An achievement scale was utilized for the quantitative data and focus group interviews were hold for the qualitative data. While t-test was used for the quantitative findings, content analysis technique was used for the qualitative data. The result of the study indicated that CL method had a favorable effect on learning. The cooperation based learning-teaching environment provided cooperation, supported permanent learning, provided opportunities to be successful, contributed to the development of social and personal skills, but also caused worry as it requires students to be successful at all stages.

  6. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  7. Language arts achievement level, attitude survey format, and adolescents' attitudes towards reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L R; Ryan, B E

    1997-01-01

    The joint effects of student achievement level and attitude survey format upon attitudes toward reading were investigated. Sixth-grade students completed reading attitude surveys involving a standard Likert-type format or one involving pictures of the comic strip character, Garfield. The survey items were identical for both formats; only the presentation format was varied. There was no significant main effect on attitude responses due to achievement level, but the main effect due to survey format was significant, with the Likert-type format producing significantly higher attitude responses than the Garfield format. The interaction between achievement level and format also was significant, with above average students and average students giving higher attitude responses than did below average students when the Garfield format was used. When the Likert-type format was used, average students and below average students gave higher attitude responses than did above average students. The results imply that attitude responses of adolescents can be manipulated by varying the format of the survey.

  8. Study habits and skills, and academic achievement of students in Kerman University of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Noohi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Study skills is one important factor influencing academic achievement of students . We must replace ineffective models and habits of study with more fruitful skills in order to gain better learning. This study investigates the study skills and habits of medical students and their educational achievement.Methods: Based on a pilot study the sample size was estimates as 400. Systematic cluster sampling based on medical school registry of students was used. The subjects were medical sciences students of different program. Data gathered with a researcher – made questioner of study skills containing five part including demographic question ; 14 items on planning and time management; 20 on active reading , 8 on concentration and 18 on note taking; and 20 on study habits.Results: The mean score was 163/1±28/2 (range 50-250 for study skill and 25/6±6/86 (range 20-60 for study habits. The mean scores of students for different components of study skills were 16.89±1.7 for planning and time management (Possible of 14-70, 59.1±14.1 for reading comprehension and speed (20-100, 19.8±6.6 for concentration (8-40, and 46.43±13.8 for note taking (18-90.The major defects in students’ study skills were planning and time management followed by concentration and note taking skills. Study skills had a significant correlation with educational achievement (r = 0.101, P < 0.05 while study habits correlation with educational achievement was not significant (r = 0.085, P > 0.05. Although males scored slightly better in study habits and all components of study skills but this superiority was only significant for reading comprehension and speed.Conclusion: Students need to learn study skills early in their university life. results showed weakness in study habits and study skill and deficit in planning and time management ,concentration and note taking skill. We suggest educational course or workshop about university skills for students

  9. Single Enteral Loading Dose of Phenobarbital for Achieving Its Therapeutic Serum Levels in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Ali H.; Atici, Aytug; Okuyaz, Cetin; Uysal, Sercan

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether therapeutic serum drug levels may be achieved with a single enteral loading dose of phenobarbital. Methods The study was performed at the Mersin University Hospital in Turkey between April 2004 and August 2006, and included 29 newborn babies with seizure. After the acute treatment of the seizure with midazolam at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, phenobarbital was administered by orogastric route at a loading dose of 20 mg/kg. Serum phenobarbital concentrations were measured at 0.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours after the loading. Serum phenobarbital levels between 10-30 μg/mL were considered as the therapeutic range. Results The serum phenobarbital levels reached therapeutic values in 9 (31%), 19 (66%), 21 (72%), and 23 (79%) patients at 0.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours after loading, respectively, while they did not reach therapeutic values in 6 patients (21%) after 12 hours. Four of the patients in whom there was no increase in serum phenobarbital levels had hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusion Enteral loading of phenobarbital can achieve therapeutic serum levels in the large majority of newborn babies with seizure and may be safely used in babies with the intact gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20564764

  10. The soil education technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: achievements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Aparecida de Mello, Nilvania

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Education and public awareness technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society was created in 1987 as Soil Science teaching commission at that time. In the 90's of the last century the commission was very active and realized three national symposia in the years 1994 to 1996: in Viçosa, Minas Gerais; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul and Pato Branco, Paraná. The following symposium scheduled to happen in Brasilia, 1997 could not be realized and was followed by a weakening and reduction of the involved group. Those three symposia were focused on the aspects of soil science taught at the university educational level, mainly in agrarian sciences. The concern about what was going on at basic education and perception by society was not much present. The commission was revitalized in 2005 and in 2007 realized its first meeting at the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science in Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul. At that meeting it was already an urge to assume the approach of soil education instead of soil science teaching, within a major concern how society consider soils. It was accepted and adequate under the structural reorganization undergone by the national society following the IUSS main lines. The commission was renamed and got two new mates at the newly created Division IV, Soils, Environment and Society, of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: Soils and Food Safety and History, Epistemology and Sociology of Soil Science. The national symposia were relaunched to happen biannually. An inventory of the soil education experiences around the country started and the geographic distribution of the future symposia intended to rescue and bring together experiences in different parts of the country that would not be known by other means. Three symposia were already realized: Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 2008 (southeast); Curitiba, Paraná, 2010 (south) and Sobral, Ceará, 2012 (northeast). The next is planned to happen in Recife, Pernambuco in April 2014. The scope of the

  11. From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Cynthia D.

    Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the problems and concerns teachers at one school district faced as they tried to implement and sustain elementary inquiry science instruction. The district chosen was a large suburban district in the Western United States. The population was ninety percent Caucasian with a slightly more ethnically diverse school population. This district was chosen because it had an elementary science program for over twenty years and had received national acclaim for that program. The district had a stable and homogeneous staff there was a low administrator and teacher turnover rate and the elementary teaching population was ninety percent Caucasian and ninety percent female. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted. Data were collected from focus groups of teachers and science partners. Observations of elementary science classroom instruction and professional development sessions were made. Results of this research indicated that one important key to elementary science reform rests in the hands of teachers. Once the door to the classroom is closed, the teacher can decide to teach or not to teach science. The findings of this research illustrate that teachers hold ideas about science and science instruction that are antithetical to some tenets of inquiry science. Until these ideas are addressed it will be difficult, if not impossible, to implement a systemic elementary inquiry science program. This study demonstrates that professional development for elementary teachers in science needs to change from a focus on the mechanical usage of individual units to a focus on teacher expectations for

  12. Should applicants to Nottingham University Medical School study a non-science A-level?: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Janet; Smith, Jennifer; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been suggested that studying non-science subjects at A-level should be compulsory for medical students. Our admissions criteria specify only Biology, Chemistry and one or more additional subjects. This study aimed to determine whether studying a non-science subject for A-level is an independent predictor of achievement on the undergraduate medical course. Methods The subjects of this retrospective cohort study were 164 students from one entry-year group (October 200...

  13. Perceived self-efficacy and student-teacher relationships among diverse Title I students' achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry, Triaka A.

    The need for more diversity in STEM-related careers and college majors is urgent. Self-efficacy and student-teacher relationships are factors that have been linked to influencing students’ pursuit of subject-specific careers and academic achievement. The impact of self-efficacy and student perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors on student achievement have been extensively researched in the areas of Mathematics and English, however, most studies using science achievement, as a criterion variable, were conducted using non-diverse, White upper middle class to affluent participants. In order to determine the strength of relationships between perceived science self-efficacy, and student perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors as factors that influence science achievement (science GPA), the Science Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) and Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI) were administered to twelfth grade students enrolled at a highly diverse urban Title I high school, while controlling for demographics, defined as gender, ethnicity, and minority status. Using a hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, results demonstrated that the predictor variables (i.e., gender, ethnicity, minority status, science self-efficacy, and teacher interpersonal behaviors) accounted for 20.8% of the variance in science GPAs. Science self-efficacy made the strongest unique contribution to explaining science GPA, while minority status and gender were found to be statistically significant contributors to the full model as well. Ethnicity and teacher interpersonal behaviors did not make a statistically significant contribution to the variance in science GPA, and accounted for ≤ 1% of the variance. Implications and recommendations for future research are subsequently given.

  14. Research on the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın İlimdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players based upon the importance of motivation on the athletes’ successes. The research group comprises 243 voluntary amateur football players who actively participated in the competitions during 2016-2017 season in Elazig. In the study, “Sports-Specific Achievement Motivation Scale” that was developed by Willis (1982 and adapted to Turkish by Tiryaki and Godelek (1997 was used. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 22 programme. The margin of error was accepted as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha value was found as ,78. Consequently; when the subscales of achievement motivation of the amateur soccer players participating in the study were analyzed with some variables, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those aged 22-24 years and those aged 25-27 years in approach success. In the team playing year variable, the statistical significance was found between the ones who have 1 year football history in the team and those who are 5 years or more in the approach success. It was observed the approach to achievement motivation increased as the experience of playing for a team increased. As for the year of working with a trainer variable, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those who had 1 year past with coach and those who had 2 years past with the motivation to avoid failure.

  15. Original article Self-esteem and achievement motivation level in overweight and obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Radziwiłłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight is a global trend, whereas the number of studies devoted to the psycho-social functioning of the overweight young is comparatively small. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlations between the occurrence of overweight and obesity during adolescence and achievement motivation and self-esteem levels, taking into consideration the sex and age of subjects. Participants and procedure Altogether, 72 subjects were included in the study. Of them, 36 were overweight (n = 16; BMI = 25-29.9 or obese (n = 20; BMI ≥ 30, whereas the control group (n = 36 comprised individuals with standard body weight. Both the overweight/obese group and the control group were composed of 18 females and 18 males. The age range of subjects was 14-21 (M = 17.32; SD = 2.61. The M. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Questionnaire of Measuring Achievement Motivation (by M. Widerszal-Bazyl, and also a socio-demographic survey, were applied. Results Overweight and obese individuals are characterized by lower (average or low self-esteem and achievement motivation (they are characterized by a lower perseverance level while performing tasks, perceive time in a less dynamic way, are less future-oriented, and their self-confidence level is lower than individuals with standard body weight, and who are characterized by high self-esteem and average achievement motivation. In the scope of school mark average, and also of planning higher academic education, there are no intergroup differences. Sex, and also age, does not differentiate overweight or obese individuals in the scope of self-esteem or achievement motivation. Differences occur in the case of comparing individuals of the same sex. Overweight or obese women are characterized by a lower self-esteem level than those whose body mass index is normal. Overweight or obese men are characterized by a lower self-esteem and achievement motivation

  16. Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher

  17. ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF TEACHING SKILLS IN THE CONCLUSION PROFORDEMS ITSON AND IMPACT ON SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Nallely López-Lugo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Teacher Training Program of Higher Education Media (PROFORDEMS, aims to contribute to the educational profile in skills development. This study aims to determine the level of achievement reached graduates considered teachers regarding teaching skills training process to conclude the paragraph after performing the analysis of as it impacts on society. The method was quantitative, applied for UN compound instrument teaching skills and attributes, with Likert scale Establishing the four levels of Tobon, 76 graduate teachers of the seventh generation of the Technological Institute of Sonora, of which Were Significantly of the headquarters of Navojoa and Obregón, Navojoa Being 47 with the participation of 20 women and 27 men, regarding Obregon Participants were 17 women and 12 men. Were the results satisfactory, over 65% of graduates found in the teachers considered autonomous and strategic levels, competition four is the one that obtained the lowest percentage. To conclude that the PROFORMDES contributes to teaching skills.

  18. Using Argument-Based Science Inquiry to Improve Science Achievement for Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonte C.; Tseng, Ching-mei; Murillo, Angelique; Therrien, William; Hand, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The increased emphasis on STEM related careers and the use of science in everyday life makes learning science content and concepts critical for all students especially for those with disabilities. As suggested by the National Resource Council (2012), more emphasis is being placed on being able to critically think about science concepts in and…

  19. The effects of three concept mapping strategies on seventh-grade students' science achievement at an urban middle school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Navdeep Kaur

    2011-12-01

    There is great concern over students' poor science achievement in the United States. Due to the lack of science achievement, students are not pursing science related careers resulting in an increase in outsourcing to other countries. Learning strategies such as concept mapping may ameliorate this situation by providing students with tools that encourage meaningful learning. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the effects of three concept mapping learning strategies (concept identifying, proposition identifying, student generated) on urban middle school students' understanding of the circulatory system. Three intact classes of seventh-grade students were assigned to one of the three concept mapping strategies. The students were given a pretest on the circulatory system then learned and used their respective concept mapping strategies while learning about the circulatory system. At the conclusion of the study, students' science achievement was measured by performance on an achievement test and rubric scores of their respective concept identifying, proposition identifying, and student generated concept maps. The results of the study suggest that all three of the concept mapping strategies are effective in increasing students' science achievement. Additionally, the moderate significant correlations between the posttest and concept map scores of the current study established that concept maps are a useful measure of student knowledge. Lastly, the results of the current study also suggest that the concept identifying mapping strategy may be a useful scaffold in instructing students how to develop student generated concept maps.

  20. The Effectiveness of Data Science as a Means to Achieve Proficiency in Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccucci, Wendy; Tamarkin, Dawn; Jones, Kiku

    2015-01-01

    Data Science courses are becoming more prevalent in recent years. Increasingly more universities are offering individual courses and majors in the field of Data Science. This study evaluates data science education as a means to become proficient in scientific literacy. The results demonstrate how the educational goals of a Data Science course meet…

  1. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  2. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  3. The Evaluation of Burnout Levels of Sports Sciences Faculty Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaeksi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the burnout levels of sports sciences faculty students in terms of some other variables. 46 Female (Age, M: 20.88 ± 1.86) and 107 male (Age, M: 22.15 ± 2.15) in total 153 students participated in this research. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Form (MBI-SF) was used for data collection. Descriptive…

  4. The effect of using digital mind mapping on cognitive achievement and performance level of some basic skills in handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Thabet Awad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the effect of using digital mind maps to on the cognitive achievement and the performance level of some basic skills in handball. Research population includes the first-year students at the Faculty of Physical Education in Port Said consisting of 200 students. Research Sample both researchers randomly selected the sample of first year students. The total sample size reaches 180 students with a 90.00%, after excluding failed students, re-registered students, the students of other levels of curriculum, practitioners to previous experiences and irregular students. The total number was 20 students with a percentage of (10.00%. They were divided into: Basic Sample: includes 80 students with a 44.44%. They were divided into two equal groups of 40 students. First Exploratory Sample: includes 60 students from the same research population and from outside the basic sample in order to find Tests Validity of the tests with a 33.33%. Second Exploratory Sample: includes 40 students from the same research population and from outside the basic sample in order to find Tests Reliability of the tests and identify the extent of pilot program appropriateness for the sample under discussion with a 22.22%. The first-year students were selected, according to the study plan, which contains a handball curriculum for the students of this educational level. Statistical Treatments: Both researchers conducted data statistically processes, using a statistical package for Social Sciences, SPSS ver. 20.0, in order to identify: arithmetic mean, standard deviation, median, skewness coefficient, correlation coefficient, discriminant validity coefficient, "t" test per one group, "t" test per two groups. The use of mind maps has a positive effect better than (explanation and model method on the cognitive achievement and the performance level of some basic skills in handball. Active learning techniques, such as the method of digital mind maps in teaching

  5. The effect of inclusion classrooms on the science achievement of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Matthew Robert

    General education and Special Education students from three high schools in Rutherford County were sampled to determine the effect on their academic achievement on the Tennessee Biology I Gateway Exam in Inclusion classrooms. Each student's predicted and actual Gateway Exam scores from the academic year 2006--2007 were used to determine the effect the student's classroom had on his academic achievement. Independent variables used in the study were gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, grade point average, type of classroom (general or Inclusion), and type student (General Education or Special Education). The statistical tests used in this study were a t-test and a Mann--Whitney U Test. From this study, the effect of the Inclusion classroom on general education students was not significant statistically. Although the Inclusion classroom allows the special education student to succeed in the classroom, the effect on general education students is negligible. This study also provided statistical data that the Inclusion classroom did not improve the special education students' academic performances on the Gateway Exam. Students in a general education classroom with a GPA above 3.000 and those from a household without a low socioeconomic status performed at a statistically different level in this study.

  6. Achieving population-level violence declines: implications of the international crime drop for prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Nivette, Amy; Murray, Aja Louise; Krisch, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies.

  7. Achievement motivation and level of aspiration: adolescent Ethiopian immigrants in the Israeli education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T R; Mosher, N

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on two questions: Are Ethiopian high school children who immigrated to Israel achievement motivated? To what extent does the presence or absence of certain components of the achievement construct in the indigenous value system of Ethiopian students affect progress at school? The study is based on pilot research conducted in Israel in 1987 for which the central research questions were: Are elements of motivation to be found in the indigenous value system of Ethiopian students? If so, what is their effect on progress at school? The research is based on a questionnaire administered to 88 Ethiopian students and 85 veteran Israeli students. The main findings of this research are: There are some elements in the socialization of Ethiopian students that can be looked upon as components of achievement motivation. These include a high level of aspiration, the ability to postpone gratification, and obedience. These elements help the Ethiopian children succeed at school. On the other hand, some elements in the socialization of Ethiopian children hinder their progress: conformity restraints on individual creativity and external locus of control.

  8. THE POTENTIALITIES AND THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL IN OLT COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil MARINESCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the current situation of rural development perspective based on knowledge of the human factor in Olt County. The first and most important observation is the repercussions on the demographics of rural population structure and balance in Olt County where it appears on one side of its unevenness, with a trend of diminishing the employment, hence the number of employees. The analysis of agricultural density, represented by the area in hectares / capita reveals the existence of a low level of rural population pressure on agricultural space. On the structure of agricultural branches it was surprised on one hand the annual variation in levels of achievement, but on the other hand the share of services which is insignificant. All this contributes to the low attractiveness of agriculture for young people in the rural county of Olt.

  9. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  10. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  11. Knowledge Levels of Pre-Service Science Teachers on Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Molu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the knowledge levels of pre-service science teachers about radioactivity. A knowledge test was administered to 56 pre-service science teachers participated in the General Chemistry I course in the fall semester of 2014-15 academic year. Papers derived from the pre-service science teachers were read and evaluated, and the responses were classified as “accurate", "misconception", "wrong" and "empty" categories for open-ended questions and the responses to the multiple-choice questions were classified as "right" and "wrong". The pre-service science teachers’ correct response rates were between 9 % (definition of “nuclear radiation” concept, question 15 and 86 % (radioactivity uses, question 14 in open-ended questions whereas in multiple choice questions the ratio of correct answers ranged from 5 % (concept definition and nuclear reactions, questions 21, 23 and 33 to 98 % (sample of concept, question 20. Students hold misconceptions on the radioactivity, warning picture, nuclear power plant (questions 1, 13, and 16; isotopes (question 4; natural and artificial nucleus reaction (question 6; age of the rocks (question 8; atomic bomb (question 10; hydrogen bomb (question 11 and core irradiation (question 15.

  12. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    In a ceremony held in Washington, D.C. (USA) on June 6, 2005, ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the southern Hemisphere, received the coveted 21st Century Achievement Award from the Computerworld Honors Program for its visionary use of information technology in the Science category. Sybase, a main database server vendor and member of the Chairmen's Committee, nominated ESO's Data Flow System in recognition of its contributions to the global information technology revolution and its positive impact on society. The citations reads: "ESO has revolutionized the operations of ground-based astronomical observatories with a new end-to-end data flow system, designed to improve the transmission and management of astronomical observations and data over transcontinental distances." This year's awards, in 10 categories, were presented at a gala event at the National Building Museum, attended by over 250 guests, including leaders of the information technology industry, former award recipients, judges, scholars, and diplomats representing many of the 54 countries from which the 17-year-old program's laureates have come. "The Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Awards are presented to companies from around the world whose visionary use of information technology promotes positive social, economic and educational change," said Bob Carrigan, president and CEO of Computerworld and chairman of the Chairmen's Committee of the Computerworld Honors Program. "The recipients of these awards are the true heroes of the information age and have been appropriately recognized by the leading IT industry chairmen as true revolutionaries in their fields." ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO Receives the Award in the Science Category [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 496 pix - 53k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 992 pix - 470k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1550 pix - 1.1M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 18/05: Receiving the Computerworld 21st Century Achievement Award for Science

  13. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  14. How to achieve optimal organization of primary care service delivery at system level: lessons from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelone, Ferruccio; Kringos, Dionne S; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; De Belvis, Antonio G; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-09-01

    To measure the relative efficiency of primary care (PC) in turning their structures into services delivery and turning their services delivery into quality outcomes. Cross-sectional study based on the dataset of the Primary Healthcare Activity Monitor for Europe project. Two Data Envelopment models were run to compare the relative technical efficiency. A sensitivity analysis of the resulting efficiency scores was performed. PC systems in 22 European countries in 2009/2010. Model 1 included data on PC governance, workforce development and economic conditions as inputs and access, coordination, continuity and comprehensiveness of care as outputs. Model 2 included the previous process dimensions as inputs and quality indicators as outputs. There is relatively reasonable efficiency in all countries at delivering as many as possible PC processes at a given level of PC structure. It is particularly important to invest in economic conditions to achieve an efficient structure-process balance. Only five countries have fully efficient PC systems in turning their services delivery into high quality outcomes, using a similar combination of access, continuity and comprehensiveness, although they differ on the adoption of coordination of services. There is a large variation in efficiency levels obtained by countries with inefficient PC in turning their services delivery into quality outcomes. Maximizing the individual functions of PC without taking into account the coherence within the health-care system is not sufficient from a policymaker's point of view when aiming to achieve efficiency.

  15. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI

  16. A Review of the School Science Curricula in Eleven High Achieving Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Martin; Reiss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen unprecedented interest in science curricula, with many governments seeing improvements in the performance of their school students in science as key to future economic prosperity. We present the results of an analysis of the curriculum documents for primary and secondary science in Australia (New South Wales and…

  17. Enhancing Student Engagement to Positively Impact Mathematics Anxiety, Confidence and Achievement for Interdisciplinary Science Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Yvette L.; Gyuris, Emma; Connolly, Sean R.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary science educators must equip their students with the knowledge and practical know-how to connect multiple disciplines like mathematics, computing and the natural sciences to gain a richer and deeper understanding of a scientific problem. However, many biology and earth science students are prejudiced against mathematics due to…

  18. Rachiplusia nu larva as a biofactory to achieve high level expression of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lucía Virginia; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Wolman, Federico Javier; Cascone, Osvaldo; Miranda, María Victoria

    2011-05-01

    A process based on orally-infected Rachiplusia nu larvae as biological factories for expression and one-step purification of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRP-C) is described. The process allows obtaining high levels of pure HRP-C by membrane chromatography purification. The introduction of the partial polyhedrin homology sequence element in the target gene increased HRP-C expression level by 2.8-fold whereas it increased 1.8-fold when the larvae were reared at 27 °C instead of at 24 °C, summing up a 4.6-fold overall increase in the expression level. Additionally, HRP-C purification by membrane chromatography at a high flow rate greatly increase D the productivity without affecting the resolution. The V(max) and K(m) values of the recombinant HRP-C were similar to those of the HRP from Armoracia rusticana roots. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  19. Outside school time: an examination of science achievement and non-cognitive characteristics of 15-year olds in several countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Larry E.

    2016-03-01

    Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school science and science assessment scores in many countries, raising questions about why. The secondary analysis of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 PISA surveys found that in most Western countries the longer students attended after-school science programs (in a typical week), the lower their PISA standardized science test score, but the higher their positive attitudes toward future science careers, interest in science, and self-confidence in science. Several potential hypotheses for this relationship are examined and rejected. Further analysis of a causal relationship between frequent attendance in after-school programs and student achievement and attitudes should clearly identify the content of the program so that the analysis could distinguish experiences closely related to regular school curricula from the informal science activities that are not. A new analysis also should include carefully designed longitudinal surveys to test the effectiveness of informal experiences on later life choices in career and study. Revision of a Paper prepared for AERA meetings in Chicago, 19 April 2015.

  20. The Integration of Mathematics in Middle School Science: Student and Teacher Impacts Related to Science Achievement and Attitudes towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary research has suggested that in order for students to compete globally in the 21st century workplace, pedagogy must shift to include the integration of science and mathematics, where teachers effectively incorporate the two disciplines seamlessly. Mathematics facilitates a deeper understanding of science concepts and has been linked to…

  1. The Impact of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on Participation and Achievement in Science: A 10-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alex; Knipe, Damian; Gallagher, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of government science education policy through the uptake of science A level subjects and patterns of attainment among boys and girls. Whereas recent evidence from Britain has been popularly interpreted as showing the educational advantage of single-sex schooling, the evidence of this study suggests that pupils are more likely…

  2. The Impact of a "Framework"-Aligned Science Professional Development Program on Literacy and Mathematics Achievement of K-3 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprzycki, Peter; Tuttle, Nicole; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Molitor, Scott; Kadervaek, Joan; Mendenhall, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a Framework-aligned professional development program at the PreK-3 level. The NSF funded program integrated science with literacy and mathematics learning and provided teacher professional development, along with materials and programming for parents to encourage science investigations and discourse around…

  3. Flipping around the classroom: Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing students' satisfaction and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Banna, Majeda M; Whitlow, Malinda; McNelis, Angela M

    2017-09-01

    The flipped classroom approach is based on shared responsibility for learning by students and teachers, and empowers students to take an active role in the learning process. While utilization of this approach has resulted in higher exam scores compared to traditional approaches in prior studies, the flipped classroom has not included learners in Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (ABSN) programs. To examine differences on exam scores and satisfaction of teaching between a 3-week flipped and traditional classroom approach. Mixed methods, crossover repeated measures design. Private school of nursing located in the eastern United States. 76 ABSN students. Two separate sections of a Pharmacology course received either 3-weeks of flipped or traditional classroom during Period 1, then switched approaches during Period 2. Two exam scores measuring knowledge and a questionnaire assessing satisfaction of teaching were collected. Focus groups were conducted to learn about students' experience in the flipped classroom. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and stepwise linear mixed model were used to analyze quantitative data. Focus group data were transcribed, coded, and categorized in themes. Students in the flipped classroom achieved significantly higher scores on the first Pharmacology exam than students in the traditional classroom, but there was no significant difference on the second exam. Three themes emerged from focus groups on student perception of integrating the flipped approach: don't fix what isn't broken; treat me as an adult; and remember the work is overwhelming. Both traditional and flipped classroom approaches successfully prepared students for the Pharmacology exams. While results support the use of the flipped approach, judicious use of this instructional pedagogy with dense or difficult content, particularly in accelerated programs, is recommended. Instructors should also provide students with enough information and rationale for using

  4. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when applied

  5. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  6. FACTOR ANALYSIS ABOUT EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL AMONG MOTHERS WHO PROVIDE BREASTMILK TO THEIR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiyas Kusumaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of mother who breastfeed their babies exclusively in Indonesia is low. It caused by many factors such as high intensity of formula milk advertisement, lack of awareness about the importance of breastfeeding, working mother, social culture, family support and the role of health care provider. The purpose of this research was to analyze factors related with successfulness level of exclusive breastfeeding. Method: Design used in this research was analytic retrospective. The population were all mothers at Pacarkeling Public Health Center area. Sample obtained through purposive sampling. Total sample was 61 respondents. Independent variables were knowledge, information and promotion, family support, social cultural, role of health provider, work/occupation, education and breast physiology anatomy. The dependent variable was exclusive breastfeeding. Result: The result indicated that exclusive breastfeeding achievement level was related with information and promotion (r = 0.271, family support (r = 373, health care provider role (r = 231, mother occupation (r = 251, anatomy and physiology of breast (r = 293, while the knowledge (r = 108, social cultural (r = 180 and education (r = 093 not significantly related. Discussion: In conclusion, there was a positive correlation between information and promotion, family support, health care provider role, mother’s occupation, anatomy and physiology of breast with successfulness level of exclusive breastfeeding. While the knowledge, social cultural and education did not indicate significant result. Therefore it is suggested to increase the quantity and quality of information and promotion about exclusive breastfeeding to the society, health care provider and pregnant and breastfeeding mother.

  7. ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH AMLODIDINE: ORIGINAL DRUG VERSUS GENERIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antihypertensive effects of new generic amlodipine (Stamlo M in comparison with original amlodipine (Norvasc in monotherapy and in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor and diuretic in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degree.Material and methods. 60 patients with HT of 1-2 degree were included in the open randomized parallel comparative study. Patients were split into 2 groups. Study duration was 10 weeks. Efficacy control, dose correction, addition of ACE inhibitor and diuretic was performed each 2 weeks.Results. The significant antihypertensive effect of monotherapy was observed in both groups already by the 2-4 weeks of therapy. Significant differences between amlodipines in influence on blood pressure (BP level and heart rate was not found. Monotherapy with generic amlodipine (10 mg OD provided target BP level more than in half of patients. Achievement of target BP levels was found in 89% and 96% of patients treated with generic and original amlodipine, respectively, when they were combined with lisinopril (10 mg OD and hydrochlorothiazide (12,5 mg OD.Conclusion. New generic amlodipine (Stamlo M is an effective and safe antihypertensive drug comparable with original amlodipine in clinical efficacy.

  8. Considerations for achieving low level radioactivity measurements with liquid scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Low level LS counting requires that the most rigorous standards be maintained in sample preparation, instrument stability and low background operation. In order to achieve these goals, one must pay particular attention to sample chemistry and cocktail selection in order to minimize quench and obtain the highest counting efficiency. The use of special low volume vials, fabricated for positive seal and with material of low cocktail permeability and low natural radioactivity, is one of the most economical means for lowering background and reducing sample loss during long counting periods. Acquisition of select high quantum yield low noise PMT's is an excellent way to achieve high counting efficiency and lower electronic-generated background. Radiation shielding both by massive and electronic guards is the most important means for reducing background caused by external radiation sources. Pulse height discrimination and fast pulse time circuitry can both be applied with fast coincidence counting for background reduction. PSA can be applied to β, γ and β-γ counting and as a means for background reduction. 8 figures, 3 tables

  9. Effects of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of Turkish students on smoking perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Hilal Parlak; Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of sixth, seventh and eighth grade primary school students upon their perceptions about smoking. The data were collected with the Socio-Demographic Data Collection Form, Pier-Herris Self-Concept scale and Children's Decision Balance Scale. The study sample consisted of 374 students receiving education in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three primary schools, which were selected among primary schools of Izmir Provincial Directorate for National Education representing three socio-economic groups with a simple random sampling method. The data were collected in December 2012-January 2013. Percentages and the t test were used in the evaluation of the data. While students with a positive self-concept had score averages of 7.12±2.18 regarding the lower dimension of smoking pros and 29.0±2.47 regarding the lower dimension of smoking cons, their counterparts with a negative self-concept had score averages of 8.61±3.76 (p=0.000) and 28.1±3.49 (p=0.004), respectively. According to self-perception, there was statistical difference between perceptions of students regarding smoking (pself-perception had a low perception of smoking pros and a high perception of smoking cons. Perception of academic achievement did not affect the pros and cons perceptions of children regarding smoking.

  10. The effects of collaborative concept mapping on the achievement, science self-efficacy and attitude toward science of female eighth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Antoinette Frances

    This study sought to examine whether collaborative concept mapping would affect the achievement, science self-efficacy and attitude toward science of female eighth grade science students. The research questions are: (1) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the achievement of female students in science? (2) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the science self-efficacy of female students? (3) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the attitudes of females toward science? The study was quasi-experimental and utilized a pretest-posttest design for both experimental and control groups. Eighth grade female and male students from three schools in a large northeastern school district participated in this study. The achievement test consisted of 10 multiple choice and two open-response questions and used questions from state-wide and national assessments as well as teacher-constructed items. A 29 item Likert type instrument (McMillan, 1992) was administered to measure science self-efficacy and attitude toward science. The study was of 12 weeks duration. During the study, experimental group students were asked to perform collaborative concept map construction in single sex dyads using specific terms designated by the classroom teacher and the researcher. During classroom visitations, student perceptions of collaborative concept mapping were collected and were used to provide insight into the results of the quantitative data analysis. Data from the pre and posttest instruments were analyzed for both experimental and control groups using t-tests. Additionally, the three teachers were interviewed and their perceptions of the study were also used to gain insight into the results of the study. The analysis of data showed that experimental group females showed significantly higher gains in achievement than control group females. An additional analysis of data showed experimental group males showed significantly greater gains in

  11. Patterns of Motivational Beliefs in the Science Learning of Total, High-, and Low-Achieving Students: Evidence of Taiwanese TIMSS 2011 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Lung; Liou, Pey-Yan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pattern of the relationships among motivational beliefs and science achievement of 8th grade Taiwanese students, given that the students in Taiwan have high science academic achievement but low motivational beliefs in science learning on a series of international large-scale assessments. Three…

  12. Learning Strategies of Physics Teacher Candidates: Relationships with Physics Achievement and Class Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk, Gamze S.; Çalişkan, Serap; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    Learning strategy concept was introduced in the education field from the development of cognitive psychology. Learning strategies are behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning which are intended to influence the learner's encoding process. Literature on learning strategies in physics field is very scarce. Participants of the research consist of teacher candidates (n=137) from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th grade attending Department of Physics Education, Education Faculty of Buca, Dokuz Eylül University in Turkey. Data of this research was collected by ``Scale of Learning Strategies Usage in Physics'' (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93). Mean, Standard Deviation, Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the research data. This paper reports on teacher candidates' learning strategies used in physics education The paper investigates the relationships between learning strategies and physics achievement, class level. Some important outcomes of the research are presented, discussed and certain suggestions are made.

  13. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  14. Achieving Population-Level Change Through a System-Contextual Approach to Supporting Competent Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Burke, Kylie; Prinz, Ronald J; Morawska, Alina

    2017-03-01

    The quality of parenting children receive affects a diverse range of child and youth outcomes. Addressing the quality of parenting on a broad scale is a critical part of producing a more nurturing society. To achieve a meaningful population-level reduction in the prevalence rates of child maltreatment and social and emotional problems that are directly or indirectly influenced by parenting practices requires the adoption of a broad ecological perspective in supporting families to raise children. We make the case for adopting a multilevel, whole of population approach to enhance competent parenting and describe the essential tasks that must be accomplished for the approach to be successful and its effects measurable. We describe how a theoretically integrated system of parenting support based on social learning and cognitive behavioral principles can be further strengthened when the broader community supports parental participation. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  15. The Effects of Project Based Learning on Undergraduate Students' Achievement and Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakuyu, Yunus; Ay, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the Project-Based Learning (PBL) method on undergraduate students' achievement and its association with these students' self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching and pinions about PBL. The sample of the study consisted of two randomly chosen classes from a set of seven classes enrolled…

  16. Comparing Multiple Intelligences Approach with Traditional Teaching on Eight Grade Students' Achievement in and Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev; Gokcek, Nur; Kilic, Ziya; Kilic, Esma

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences (MI) teaching approach on 8th Grade students' achievement in and attitudes toward science. This study used a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. While the experimental group (n=30) was taught a unit on acids and bases using MI teaching approach, the…

  17. Rural/Urban Disparities in Science Achievement in Post-Socialist Countries: The Evolving Influence of Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, Erica L.; Kotok, Stephen; Bodovski, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in educational outcomes exist between students in rural areas as compared to students in urban settings. While there is some evidence that these rural disparities are present in eastern Europe, little is known about young peoples' lives in the rural areas of this region. This paper presents an analysis of science achievement by…

  18. Interaction between examination type, anxiety state, and academic achievement in college science; an action-oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri; Ben-Chaim, David

    The trait anxiety profile of future science teachers, as well as their preferences concerning types of examinations in science and mathematics, have been surveyed prior to the administration - within the various science courses - of several traditional and nontraditional types of examinations and the assessment of students' state anxieties as well as their respective performance, i.e., their academic achievements. Our major findings are that(a)Our students prefer by far examinations in which the emphasis is on understanding and analyzing rather than on knowing and remembering, that the use of any relevant material during the examinations be permitted, and that the time duration be practically unlimited (e.g., take-home-type examinations).(b)Students' state anxiety correlates with the type of the examination, with a tendency towards somewhat higher anxiety for females. The preferred types of examinations reduce test anxiety significantly, and result in higher grades accordingly.(c)The reduction of anxiety and the improvement in achievements as a function of the examination type are far more significant for low achievers compared with medium and high achievers.(d)Although teachers are aware of the student preferences, they persist in giving their students their own pet-type examinations.These results are discussed in terms of the implications for upgrading both science education and college student testing and assessment mechanisms.

  19. Investigation of Science Inquiry Items for Use on an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards Using Cognitive Lab Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Gilmore, Joanna A.; Price, Karen J.; Bennett, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of item enhancements applied to science-inquiry items for incorporation into an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards for high school students. Six items were included in the cognitive lab sessions involving both students with and without disabilities. The enhancements (e.g., use of visuals,…

  20. Facility factors dominate the ability to achieve target haemoglobin levels in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin E; Lafayette, Richard A; Whittemore, Alice S; Hlatky, Mark A; Moran, John

    2008-09-01

    Our objective was to determine whether patient factors, processes of care and measures of erythropoietin (EPO) responsiveness were associated with successful anemia management at the individual patient level. We retrospectively reviewed laboratory and demographic data from 1499 patients receiving hemodialysis in 15 units operated by the same dialysis provider. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of an average 3-month hemoglobin level below or above the target interval of 11.0-12.5 g/dL. To explain the effect of facility on anemia performance, we calculated correlations between measures of EPO responsiveness and the probability of achieving the target interval by facility. Patients above the target hemoglobin range demonstrated an association with parathyroid hormone (PTH) (OR = 0.96 per 100 pg/mL increase), female gender (OR = 0.68), EPO protocol use (OR = 0.94 per 10% increase in use) and facility (range of OR = 0.26-2.59 for 15 participating sites). Patients below the target hemoglobin range demonstrated an association with CRP (OR = 1.10 per mg/L increase), PTH (OR = 1.07 per 100 pg/mL increase), iron deficiency (OR = 1.07 per 10% increase), EPO protocol use (OR = 0.89 per 10% increase in use), iron protocol use (OR = 0.93 per 10% increase in use) and facility (range of OR = 0.58-3.41 over 15 units). EPO index (r = 0.71), EPO dose (r = 0.73), hemoglobin (r = -0.60) and EPO per unit weight (r = 0.76) were significantly correlated with the probability of achieving the target hemoglobin by facility. The facility significantly influences the outcome of anemia management in patients with ESRD. In part, this is due to the patients' EPO responsiveness, which may be influenced by facility care patterns.

  1. Teachers' participation in research programs improves their students' achievement in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Samuel C; Dubner, Jay; Miller, Jon; Glied, Sherry; Loike, John D

    2009-10-16

    Research experience programs engage teachers in the hands-on practice of science. Program advocates assert that program participation enhances teachers' skills in communicating science to students. We measured the impact of New York City public high-school science teachers' participation in Columbia University's Summer Research Program on their students' academic performance in science. In the year before program entry, students of participating and nonparticipating teachers passed a New York State Regents science examination at the same rate. In years three and four after program entry, participating teachers' students passed Regents science exams at a rate that was 10.1% higher (P = 0.049) than that of nonparticipating teachers' students. Other program benefits include decreased teacher attrition from classroom teaching and school cost savings of U.S. $1.14 per $1 invested in the program.

  2. Guided Learning at Workstations about Drug Prevention with Low Achievers in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heyne; Bogner, Franz X.

    2012-01-01

    Our study focussed on the cognitive achievement potential of low achieving eighth graders, dealing with drug prevention (cannabis). The learning process was guided by a teacher, leading this target group towards a modified learning at workstations which is seen as an appropriate approach for low achievers. We compared this specific open teaching…

  3. Achieving local support for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.A.; Seidler, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how Illinois is progressing toward the goal of having a new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility in operation by the federally mandated milestone of January 1, 1993. To accomplish this task, Illinois has adopted a voluntary siting process. The voluntary siting process will be successful by definition only if a high level of local support can be achieved and sustained. A strong public participation program in conjunction with a comprehensive information and education program is essential to fostering the necessary local support. Many other elements are also needed throughout this process. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) has found that making grants to local governments, awarding scholarships for area students, enacting a comprehensive system of legislation and regulations, explaining the site identification and characterization program, describing facility design features, practicing a strong policy of buying and hiring locally, maintaining good relationships with local news media and building trust through personal relationships have all greatly contributed to support for the LLW program in the potential host communities

  4. Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester

    2009-07-01

    Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.

  5. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  6. Time on Text and Science Achievement for High School Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Vanessa L.; Dolenc, Nathan; Kong, Xiaoqing; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The conflict between the amount of material to be addressed in high school science classes, the need to prepare students for standardized tests, and the amount of time available forces science educators to make difficult pedagogical decisions on a daily basis. Hands-on and inquiry-based learning offer students more authentic learning experiences…

  7. Participation in Science and Technology: Young People's Achievement-Related Choices in Late-Modern Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter; Henriksen, Ellen Karoline; Lyons, Terry; Schreiner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Young people's participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is a matter of international concern. Studies and careers that require physical sciences and advanced mathematics are most affected by the problem and women in particular are under-represented in many STEM fields. This article views international research about…

  8. Academic Commitment and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Academic Achievement in Additional Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. Ruric; Human-Vogel, Salomé

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of research within science and engineering education revolves around academic success and retention of science and engineering students. It is well known that South Africa is experiencing, for various reasons, an acute shortage of engineers. Therefore, we think it is important to understand the factors that contribute to attrition…

  9. Achieving population-level immunity to rabies in free-roaming dogs in Africa and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K Morters

    Full Text Available Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least

  10. Computer simulations in the high school: students' cognitive stages, science process skills and academic achievement in microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, J.; Michal Lomask, S.; Lazarowitz, R.

    2002-08-01

    Computer-assisted learning, including simulated experiments, has great potential to address the problem solving process which is a complex activity. It requires a highly structured approach in order to understand the use of simulations as an instructional device. This study is based on a computer simulation program, 'The Growth Curve of Microorganisms', which required tenth grade biology students to use problem solving skills whilst simultaneously manipulating three independent variables in one simulated experiment. The aims were to investigate the computer simulation's impact on students' academic achievement and on their mastery of science process skills in relation to their cognitive stages. The results indicate that the concrete and transition operational students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher academic achievement than their counterparts in the control group. The higher the cognitive operational stage, the higher students' achievement was, except in the control group where students in the concrete and transition operational stages did not differ. Girls achieved equally with the boys in the experimental group. Students' academic achievement may indicate the potential impact a computer simulation program can have, enabling students with low reasoning abilities to cope successfully with learning concepts and principles in science which require high cognitive skills.

  11. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  12. Staying in the science stream: patterns of participation in A-level science subjects in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of participation and attainment in A-level physics, chemistry and biology from 1961 to 2009. The A-level has long been seen as an important gateway qualification for higher level study, particularly in the sciences. This long term overview examines how recruitment to these three subjects has changed in the context of numerous policies and initiatives that seek to retain more young people in the sciences. The results show that recruitment to the pure sciences has ...

  13. Spatial cognition and science achievement: The contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic spatial skills from 7 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkiss, Alex; Gilligan, Katie A; Tolmie, Andrew K; Thomas, Michael S C; Farran, Emily K

    2018-01-22

    Prior longitudinal and correlational research with adults and adolescents indicates that spatial ability is a predictor of science learning and achievement. However, there is little research to date with primary-school aged children that addresses this relationship. Understanding this association has the potential to inform curriculum design and support the development of early interventions. This study examined the relationship between primary-school children's spatial skills and their science achievement. Children aged 7-11 years (N = 123) completed a battery of five spatial tasks, based on a model of spatial ability in which skills fall along two dimensions: intrinsic-extrinsic; static-dynamic. Participants also completed a curriculum-based science assessment. Controlling for verbal ability and age, mental folding (intrinsic-dynamic spatial ability), and spatial scaling (extrinsic-static spatial ability) each emerged as unique predictors of overall science scores, with mental folding a stronger predictor than spatial scaling. These spatial skills combined accounted for 8% of the variance in science scores. When considered by scientific discipline, mental folding uniquely predicted both physics and biology scores, and spatial scaling accounted for additional variance in biology and variance in chemistry scores. The children's embedded figures task (intrinsic-static spatial ability) only accounted for variance in chemistry scores. The patterns of association were consistent across the age range. Spatial skills, particularly mental folding, spatial scaling, and disembedding, are predictive of 7- to 11-year-olds' science achievement. These skills make a similar contribution to performance for each age group. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Education Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  14. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann

    2011-12-01

    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  15. 492 Study Habit, Self-Concept and Science Achievement of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    student study habit and self-concept combined together and singularly predicted science ... Study skills are fundamental to academic success. A student who ... Motivation to engage or not in a task is significantly determined by self- concept or ...

  16. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  17. Effects of multiple intelligences instruction strategy on students achievement levels and attitudes towards English Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Bas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences instruction strategy and traditional instructionalenvironment on students’ achievement and their attitude towards English lesson. The research was carried out in 2009 – 2010education-instruction year in Karatli Sehit Sahin Yilmaz Elementary School, Nigde, Turkey. Totally 60 students in two differentclasses in the 4th grade of this school participated in the study. In this study, an experimental method with a control group hasbeen used in order to find out the difference between the students who were taught by multiple intelligences instructionstrategy in the experiment group and the students who were taught by traditional instructional methods in the control group.The results of the research showed a significant difference between the attitude scores of the experiment group and thecontrol group. It was also found out that the multiple intelligences instruction strategy activities were more effective in thepositive development of the students’ attitudes. At the end of the research, it is revealed that the students who are educatedby multiple intelligences instruction strategy are more successful and have a higher motivation level than the students who areeducated by the traditional instructional methods.

  18. Association between scores in high school, aptitude and achievement exams and early performance in health science college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Alwan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was carried out to assess the correlation between admi-ssion criteria to health science colleges, namely, final high school grade and Saudi National Apti-tude and Achievement exams, and early academic performance in these colleges. The study inclu-ded 91 male students studying in the two-year pre-professional program at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Records of these students were used to extract relevant information and their academic performance (based on the grade point average achieved at the end of the first semester of the pre-professional program, which were analytically studied. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the associa-tions between the different scores. SPSS statistical program (version 12.0 was used for data ana-lyses. We found a strong correlation between the academic performance and the Achievement Exam, Aptitude Exam and high school final grade, with Pearson Correlation Coefficients of 0.96, 0.93, 0.87, respectively. The Saudi National Achievement Exam showed the most significant correla-tion. Our results indicate that academic performance showed good correlation with the admission criteria used, namely final high school grade, Saudi National Aptitude and Achievement Exams.

  19. Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, William M., III

    The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.

  20. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  1. Internship training in computer science: Exploring student satisfaction levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Ghaith M

    2017-08-01

    The requirement of employability in the job market prompted universities to conduct internship training as part of their study plans. There is a need to train students on important academic and professional skills related to the workplace with an IT component. This article describes a statistical study that measures satisfaction levels among students in the faculty of Information Technology and Computer Science in Jordan. The objective of this study is to explore factors that influence student satisfaction with regards to enrolling in an internship training program. The study was conducted to gather student perceptions, opinions, preferences and satisfaction levels related to the program. Data were collected via a mixed method survey (surveys and interviews) from student-respondents. The survey collects demographic and background information from students, including their perception of faculty performance in the training poised to prepare them for the job market. Findings from this study show that students expect internship training to improve their professional and personal skills as well as to increase their workplace-related satisfaction. It is concluded that improving the internship training is crucial among the students as it is expected to enrich their experiences, knowledge and skills in the personal and professional life. It is also expected to increase their level of confidence when it comes to exploring their future job opportunities in the Jordanian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Implications of a Cognitive Science Model Integrating Literacy in Science on Achievement in Science and Reading: Direct Effects in Grades 3-5 with Transfer to Grades 6-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romance, Nancy; Vitale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reported are the results of a multiyear study in which reading comprehension and writing were integrated within an in-depth science instructional model (Science IDEAS) in daily 1.5 to 2 h daily lessons on a schoolwide basis in grades 3-4-5. Multilevel (HLM7) achievement findings showed the experimental intervention resulted in significant and…

  3. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A pious platitude or an achievable goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh

    2011-07-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.

  4. Student's social interaction in inquiry-based science education: how experiences of flow can increase motivation and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Robin; Abrams, Eleanor

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged 13-14 years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on 46 % of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. Implications for science teaching and future research include shifting the current focus in inquiry-based science from a continuum that progresses from teacher-directed to open inquiry experiences to a

  5. Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of the Chemical Sciences (by Mary Ellen Bowden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1999-02-01

    Chemical Heritage Foundation: Philadelphia, PA, 1997. viii + 180 pp. 21.6 x 27.8 cm. ISBN 0-941901-15-1. Paper. 20.00 (10.00 for high school teachers who provide documentation). At a 1991 summer workshop sponsored by the Chemical Heritage Foundation and taught by Derek A. Davenport and William B. Jensen, high school and college teachers of introductory chemistry requested a source of pictorial material about famous chemical scientists suitable as a classroom aid. CHF responded by publishing this attractive, inexpensive paperback volume, which reflects the considerable research effort needed to locate appropriate images and to write the biographical essays. Printed on heavy, glossy paper and spiral bound to facilitate conversion to overhead transparencies, it contains 157 images from pictorial collections at CHF and many other institutions on two types of achievers: the historical "greats" most often referred to in introductory courses, and scientists who made contributions in areas of the chemical sciences that are of special relevance to modern life and the career choices students will make. The pictures are intended to provide the "human face" of the book's subtitle- "to point to the human beings who had the insights and made the major advances that [teachers] ask students to master." Thus, for example, Boyle's law becomes less cold and abstract if the student can connect it with the two portraits of the Irish scientist even if his face is topped with a wig. Marie Curie can be seen in the role of wife and mother as well as genius scientist in the photographs of her with her two daughters, one of whom also became a Nobel laureate. And students are reminded of the ubiquity of the contribution of the chemical scientists to all aspects of our everyday life by the stories and pictures of Wallace Hume Carothers' path to nylon, Percy Lavon Julian's work on hormones, and Charles F. Chandler and Rachel Carson's efforts to preserve the environment. In addition to portraits

  6. Consideration of learning orientations as an application of achievement goals in evaluating life science majors in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-06-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics such as metacognition. We investigate a sample population of 218 students in a first-semester introductory algebra-based physics course, drawn from 14 laboratory sections within six semesters of course sections, to determine the influence of achievement goals on life science majors' attitudes towards physics. Learning orientations that, respectively, pertain to mastery goals and performance goals, in addition to a learning orientation that does not report a performance goal, were recorded from students in the specific context of learning a problem-solving framework during an in-class exercise. Students' learning orientations, defined within the context of students' self-reported statements in the specific context of a problem-solving-related research-based course implementation, are compared to pre-post results on physics problem-solving items in a well-established attitudinal survey instrument, in order to establish the categories' validity. In addition, mastery-related and performance-related orientations appear to extend to overall pre-post attitudinal shifts, but not to force and motion concepts or to overall course grade, within the scope of an introductory physics course. There also appears to be differentiation regarding overall course performance within health science majors, but not within biology majors, in terms of learning orientations; however, health science majors generally appear to fare less well on all measurements in the study than do biology majors, regardless of learning orientations.

  7. Dr William Kerr ‘Bill’ Collins, Recipient of the 2010 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore JM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is my distinct pleasure to make this presentation of the TSRC Lifetime Achievement Award to Dr Bill Collins from NC State University. Bill is well known in academic and industry circles for his contributions to Tobacco Science. Some have suggested that Bill Collins is the single person most identified with flue-cured tobacco at NC State and probably world-wide.

  8. Understanding Science Teaching Effectiveness: Examining How Science-Specific and Generic Instructional Practices Relate to Student Achievement in Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student…

  9. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  10. Middle Grades Student Achievement and Poverty Levels: Implications for Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Lauren; Foley, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a history of the standardized testing and accountability movement, the curriculum standards attached to the accountability movement, and the attempted shift to common core. Student poverty and its impact on student achievement the focus of this paper. Recognizing the impact of poverty on student achievement as measured by…

  11. Fostering Gender Equality and Achievement in Natural Science and Mathematics Instruction in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally in the United States, males have been drawn to careers in the natural sciences and mathematics for a variety of social and economic reasons, but in recent decades females have demonstrated a similar aptitude in these fields when provided with equal opportunities. Because the percentage of women attending colleges and universities in the developing and developed countries often surpasses the percentage of males, and as non-traditional students who might be older woman are returning to college and universities for training to make themselves competitive in the workforce, it is important that instruction in the natural sciences and mathematics be relevant to student needs. We will present the results of a recent campus-initiated discussion about improving the instruction of women in the natural sciences and mathematics as it applies to our institution in the fashion industries.

  12. An Exploration of the Ways that Parents Can Influence African American Girls Interest in Achieving in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lori L.

    Math and science is the core of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education. It is the staying power of economic growth, job opportunities, new technology, innovation and emerging research on a global spectrum in the 21st century. Data reports that African American women are underrepresented in the STEM career field. The focus of this project was to specifically address African American middle school girls achievement gap, awareness and interests in the STEM pipeline. Data for this research was gathered by using Action Research Methodology approach using journals, questionnaire survey and dialogue. Five parents/educators participated in this empirical research study by sharing their personal, lived and unapologetic experiences through eight weeks of action/reflection inquiry. The finding of this research is that parents need to be engaged about STEM and the importance for girls to do well academically early in school with math and science.

  13. The Effect of CTL Approach Based on NHT Learning Model toward Students’ motivation, Science Achievement, and Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mifta Fausan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The learning is an interaction process between students and their environment in order to improve good behavior. The results of observation which has been done in grade V SDN No. 4 Tanjung Batu showed that the students’ motivation and science achievement were low. This was becaused by the learning process which was still product oriented (based on material content, consequently, this lead to limit the learning is merely on memorizing concept activities. One of the learning approach that can be used to solve this problem is the Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL based on Numbered Head Together (NHT. This research aims to determine the effect of CTL based on NHT toward student’s motivation, science achievement, and retention. Subjects in this research were the students of grade V SDN No. 4 Tanjung Batu. This research is a quasi-experimental using post-test only control design. The data obtained were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The research instruments were observation sheets and written test. The results showed that there was significant effect of CTL based on NHT toward students’ motivation, science achievement, and retention. It can be seen from the independent sample t-test results which showed significant value less than 0.05.

  14. The Effect of Computer Assisted Mind Mapping on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitudes and Retention in Science and Technology Course

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    Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining the effects of computer assisted mind mapping (CAMM technique on students’ academic achievement, attitudes and retention in Science and Technology course. Mixed-method research design which included both quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the study. Pretest-posttest control group experimental design, interview and observation techniques were used. The study included one experimental (N:36 one control group (N:32. The study was conducted on seventh grade students at an elementary school in 2011-2012 academic year. While experimental group used CAMM technique, control group used traditional method. The achievement test, administered as a pre-, post- and delayed post-test, included 34 questions. The mean difficulty of the test was calculated to be .54 and KR-20 reliability coefficient was measured to be .73. To determine students' attitudes towards Science and Technology course, a 20-item five-point Likert-style attitude scale (α: .89 developed by Akınoğlu (2001 was used. The results revealed that CAMM technique had a positive effect on students’ achievement and attitudes towards learning science and technology

  15. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  16. A Multi-Level Systems Perspective for the Science of Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Katy; Contractor, Noshir; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J.; Fiore, Stephen M.; Hall, Kara L.; Keyton, Joann; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William; Uzzi, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This Commentary describes recent research progress and professional developments in the study of scientific teamwork, an area of inquiry termed the “science of team science” (SciTS, pronounced “sahyts”). It proposes a systems perspective that incorporates a mixed-methods approach to SciTS that is commensurate with the conceptual, methodological, and translational complexities addressed within the SciTS field. The theoretically grounded and practically useful framework is intended to integrate existing and future lines of SciTS research to facilitate the field’s evolution as it addresses key challenges spanning macro, meso, and micro levels of analysis. PMID:20844283

  17. Learning Achievement Packages in Sciences-Biology: Cell Theory, Mitosis, Magnification, Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Juan D.

    This publication presents four science curriculum units designed to meet the learning problems of students with special language handicaps. The materials are written in both English and Spanish, and deal with topics in biology suitable for students in grades 7 through 11. All four units were classroom tested during 1970-1972 in the Calexico…

  18. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  19. Assessing Students' Attitudes and Achievements in a Multicultural and Multilingual Science Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1999-01-01

    Takes a qualitative and quantitative look at the curriculum and teaching of a two-way immersion eighth-grade solar energy science classroom and examines its implications for education policy and reform. Results for a class of 25 students indicate that the approach increases the retention rate of Hispanic students. (SLD)

  20. An Empirical Study of Relationships between Student Self-Concept and Science Achievement in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Oliver, Steve; Garcia, Augustine

    2004-01-01

    Positive self-concept and good understanding of science are important indicators of scientific literacy endorsed by professional organizations. The existing research literature suggests that these two indicators are reciprocally related and mutually reinforcing. Generalization of the reciprocal model demands empirical studies in different…

  1. Factors Influencing Achievement in Undergraduate Social Science Research Methods Courses: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate social science research methods courses tend to have higher than average rates of failure and withdrawal. Lack of success in these courses impedes students' progression through their degree programs and negatively impacts institutional retention and graduation rates. Grounded in adult learning theory, this mixed methods study…

  2. The Effects of Cognitive Conflict Management on Cognitive Development and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Zainol Badli; Halim, Lilia; Mohd Meerah, Subahan; Osman, Kamisah

    2014-01-01

    Three teaching methods were compared in this study, namely a Cognitive Conflict Management Module (CCM) that is infused into Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE), (Module A) CASE without CCM (Module B) and a conventional teaching method. This study employed a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design using non-equivalent…

  3. Selective Attentional Effects of Adjunct Study Questions on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the selective attentional effects of adjunct study questions inserted before or after the presentation of science flow diagrams. The basic design for the study was a post-test only control group design involving a total of 252 students randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Oshun State Nigeria. These were…

  4. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  5. The Association between Personal Characteristics and Educational Experiences with Academic Achievement among the Students Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    befrin MohammdZade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Learning Strategies includes overt and covert behaviors, which are associated with success in learning. On the other hand, training students who are able to live in environments with diverse values, rapid technological changes, and developments in the socio-cultural complex is one of the unique challenges to a university administrator. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the association of personal characteristics and educational experiences of the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences with their academic achievements. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences during 2014-2015 academic year. Students were selected through random stratified sampling based on gender and discipline (N=352. The research tool was the college students’ experiences questionnaire (CSEQ. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results: All three dimensions of college students’ experiences, including perceptions of quality of environment, quality of effort, and social integration are significant anticipators of their academic achievements respectively and predict 0.415 of achievements variances. Conclusion: Taking into account the personal characteristics and educational experiences of college students for their academic achievements in medical universities is essential. In spite of the impact of academic environments ranging from individuals and facilities for college students, improving these factors contribute to better communication between students and faculty members and.

  6. The Relationship between Sleep Quality and Academic Achievement with Migraine Headaches among Alborz Medical Sciences University Students

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    Leila Sadati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Considering the issue of sleep quality in medical students as a stratum of society who are concerned with human health and its relationship with other psychological variables (in particular academic achievement and headaches seems essential. So, the present study was done to evaluate the relationship between Sleep Quality and academic achievement with migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: The present study was descriptive _ correlation. The population in this study includes all the students in Alborz Medical Sciences University in the academic year of 2014. 256 students (156 females and 100 males who were selected according to research entrance criteria by stratified sampling method; and they answered to the Sleep of Quality Test and Examine Migraine Headaches Symptom Questionnaires. Also, the mean of first term scores were considered as an index of the academic achievement. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Results: The results showed that there were statistically significant correlation between migraine headaches with academic achievement, Sleep of Quality and substandard mental sleep quality, delay into going to sleep, sleep disorders, taking hypnotic pills, and daily function disorder; and sleep disorders, daily function disorder, academic achievement and taking hypnotic pills could predict and explain 25/6 changes associated to migraine headaches. Conclusion: Those students with inappropriate Sleep of Quality; they experienced more migraine headaches and failure in academic achievements.

  7. Convolutional Neural Network Achieves Human-level Accuracy in Music Genre Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Mingwen

    2018-01-01

    Music genre classification is one example of content-based analysis of music signals. Traditionally, human-engineered features were used to automatize this task and 61% accuracy has been achieved in the 10-genre classification. However, it's still below the 70% accuracy that humans could achieve in the same task. Here, we propose a new method that combines knowledge of human perception study in music genre classification and the neurophysiology of the auditory system. The method works by trai...

  8. An ecological perspective of science and math academic achievement among African American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Endya Bentley

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), path analytic procedures were performed to test an ecological model of the effects of family, individual and school characteristics on the academic African American students. A distinctive study is the inclusion of school computer use in the model. The study results show that several of the variables directly or indirectly affected 12th grade academic achievement. Furthermore, most of the individual influence variables were directly related to 12 th grade achievement. Two surprising findings from this study were the insignificant effects of family income and school computer use on 12 th grade achievement. Overall, the findings support the notion that family, individual, and school characteristics are important predictors of academic success among African American students.

  9. Where Are All the Talented Girls? How Can We Help Them Achieve in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MEADOWS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Women’s participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM courses and careers lags behind that of men. Multiple factors contribute to the underrepresentation of women and girls in STEM. Academic research suggests three areas, which account for the under representation of girls in STEM: social and environmental factors, the school climate and the influence of bias. In order to engage and to retain girls in STEM, educators need to: eliminate bias in the classroom, change school culture, introduce female role models, help girls assess their abilities accurately and develop talent in areas related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Educators should encourage young girls to ask questions about the world, to problem solve, and to develop creativity through play and experimentation. Women have made impressive gains in science and engineering but remain a distinct minority in many science and engineering fields. Creating environments that support girls’ and women’s achievements and interests in science and engineering will encourage more girls and women to pursue careers in these vital fields.

  10. INTEGRATION OF BUSINESS, EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innara Lyapina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current world affairs show that the post-industrial stage of development of all mature world powers’ economies is followed by creation of a new development paradigm, which is based on the economy of knowledge, science achievements, innovations, global information and communication systems, and which leads to innovative economy formation. In the context of the national innovation economy formation in the Russian Federation, prerequisites are created for integrating the efforts of business, science and education representatives to develop, produce and market high-tech products which have significant economic or social potential. And this is not only the task announced by the Russian government, but also a natural process in the country’s economy, which contributes to the increase in the integration participants’ efficiency. The result of such integrated interaction of education, science and business consists in a synergistic effect through formation of an interactive cooperation model that involves the active use of combined knowledge, ideas, technologies and other resources during innovative projects implementation. At the same time, integration processes are diverse, complex and occur in each case taking into account the integrating parties’ activity specifics. Within this framework, the goal of the research is to characterize the impact of the education, science and business integration process, on the national technological initiative implementation in the country on the whole and to study the integrating experience of these entities at the regional level. In the course of the research, the stages of the Russian national innovation economy formation process have been studied; the role of education, science and business in the National Technological Initiative implementation has been characterized; it’s been proved that educational institutions are the key link in the integration process in the chain “education – science

  11. An evaluative study of the impact of the "Curriculum Alignment Toolbox" on middle school science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carol L.

    The number of computer-assisted education programs on the market is overwhelming science teachers all over the Michigan. Though the need is great, many teachers are reluctant to procure computer-assisted science education programs because they are unsure of the effectiveness of such programs. The Curriculum Alignment Toolbox (CAT) is a computer-based program, aligned to the Michigan Curriculum Framework's Benchmarks for Science Education and designed to supplement science instruction in Michigan middle schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CAT in raising the standardized test scores of Michigan students. This study involved 419 students from one urban, one suburban and one rural middle school. Data on these students was collected from 4 sources: (1) the 8th grade Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) test, (2) a 9 question, 5-point Likert-type scale student survey, (3) 4 open-response student survey questions and (4) classroom observations. Results of this study showed that the experimental group of 226 students who utilized the CAT program in addition to traditional instruction did significantly better on the Science MEAP test than the control group of 193 students who received only traditional instruction. The study also showed that the urban students from a "high needs" school seemed to benefit most from the program. Additionally, though both genders and all identified ethnic groups benefited from the program, males benefited more than females and whites, blacks and Asian/Pacific Islander students benefited more than Hispanic and multi-racial students. The CAT program's success helping raise the middle school MEAP scores may well be due to some of its components. CAT provided students with game-like experiences all based on the benchmarks required for science education and upon which the MEAP test is based. The program also provided visual and auditory stimulation as well as numerous references which students indicated

  12. A comparison of the Web of Science with publication-level classification systems of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ruiz-Castillo, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a new criterion for choosing between a pair of classification systems of science that assign publications (or journals) to a set of scientific fields. Consider the standard normalization procedure in which field mean citations are used as normalization factors. We recommend system A over system B whenever the standard normalization procedure based on A performs better than the when it is based on B. Since the evaluation can be made in terms of either system, the performance assessment requires a double test. In addition, since the assessment of two normalization procedures would be generally biased in favor of the one based on the classification system used for evaluation purposes, ideally a pair of classification systems must be compared using a third, independent classification system for evaluation purposes. We illustrate this strategy by comparing a Web of Science journal-level classification system, consisting of 236 journal subject categories, with two publication-level algorithmically constructed classification systems consisting of 1,363 (G6) and 5,119 (G8) clusters. There are two main findings. (1) The G8 system is found to dominate the G6 system. Therefore, when we have a choice between two classification systems at different granularity levels, we should use the system at the higher level because it typically exhibits a better standard normalization performance. (2) The G8 system and the Web of Science (WoS) journal-level system are found to be non-comparable. Nevertheless, the G8-normalization procedure performs better using the WoS system for evaluation purposes than the WoS-normalization procedure using the G8 system for evaluation purposes. Furthermore, when we use the G6 system for evaluation purposes, the G8-normalization procedure performs better than the WoS-normalization procedure. We conclude that algorithmically constructed classification systems constitute a credible alternative to the WoS system and, by extension, to

  13. The Analysis of Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Medical Students of Basic Sciences Program

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    Reza Ghaffari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Learning style is an individual’s preferred method of encountering information in specific situations in order to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes through study or experience. Students and Planers’ awareness of learning styles facilitate the teaching process, increases satisfaction and makes the future choices easier. This study aimed to examine different learning styles and their relation to academic achievement in medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive – analytical study, the sample consisted of all medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-2012. The data was collected through a questionnaire which included respondents’ demographic information and overall grade point average (GPA as well as Kolb standard questions on learning styles. Results: 4.3%, 47.8%, 44.9% and 2.9% of students preferred diverger, assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles, respectively. Mean overall GPA of students who preferred diverger learning styles was 14.990.39±. Students who prefer assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles had mean overall GPAs of 14.940.56±, 15.080.58± and 14.830.29± respectively. The findings showed no significant relationship between students’ learning academic achievement and their learning styles (p = 0.689. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between Students’ academic achievement and their learning styles. Furthermore, the majorit of the students preferred accommodator and converger learning styles. Consequently, adopting interactive teaching methods, using tutorials, running simulation programs, launching laboratory activities and encouraging students to think and analyze problems and issues can be greatly effective in prolonging their learning lifecycle.

  14. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this…

  15. Engaging College Science Students and Changing Academic Achievement with Technology: A Quasi-Experimental Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Adam C.; Jaffee, David; Miller, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Can modern, computer-based technology engage college students and improve their academic achievement in college? Although numerous examples detail technology's classroom uses, few studies empirically examine whether technologically oriented pedagogical changes factually lead to positive outcomes among college students. In this pilot study, we used…

  16. Family Processes Affect Students' Motivation, and Science and Math Achievement in Cypriot High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoulis, Michalis K.; Campbell, James Reed

    2001-01-01

    Studied the influence of home environment on male and female high school students' motivation and achievement. Results for 737 Cypriot high school students and their parents show the importance of student self-concept and negative effects for parental pressure. Results suggest the need for closer lines of communication between home and school.…

  17. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  18. A Comparison of Students' Achievement and Attitude Changes Resulting From a Laboratory and Non-Laboratory Approach to General Education Physical Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Leonhardt Maurice

    Student achievement and attitude changes resulting from two different approaches to teaching of physical science were studied among 94 non-science freshmen enrolled at Valley City State College during the 1970-71 winter quarter. Thirty-four students were taught the laboratory-oriented Physical Science for Nonscience Students (PSNS) Project course…

  19. Investigation of Primary Education Second Level Students' Motivations toward Science Learning in Terms of Various Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the primary education second level students' motivations towards science learning in terms of various factors. Within the research, the variation of the total motivational scores in science learning according to the gender, class, socio-economic levels, success in science-technology course and…

  20. Comparisons of Student Achievement Levels by District Performance and Poverty. ACT Research Report Series 2016-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Chrys; Shaw, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This report looks at student achievement levels in Arkansas school districts disaggregated by district poverty and by the district's performance relative to other districts. We estimated district performance statistics by subject and grade level (4, 8, and 11-12) for longitudinal student cohorts, using statistical models that adjusted for district…

  1. Implications for School Leaders of the Impact of Math, Science, and Technology Magnet Programs on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Lupita

    2012-01-01

    Although many national studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of magnet programs, there is limited research involving math, science, and technology magnet schools and their influence on student academic performance, especially at the middle school level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a statistical difference existed…

  2. Time Management and Its Relation To Students’ Stress, Gender and Academic Achievement Among Sample of Students at Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saleh Al Khatib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between time management, perceived stress, gender and academic achievement among United Arab Emirates college students. The respondents were 352 college students from Al Ain University of Science and Technology. The sample was stratified by sex. Among the respondents, 52.5% were female students and 47.5% were male students. The mean age of the sample was 23.4 years ranging from 18 to 39. Time management was measured by Time Management Questionnaire” developed by Britton and Tesser (1991, while perceived stress was measured by The Perceived Stress Scale developed by Cohen (1985. The findings of the study showed that there was statistically significant negative relationship between time management and perceived stress. Females reported higher time management compared to their males counter mates. Higher time management and lower perceived stress were associated with high levels of academic achievement. However, time management was the most significant predictor of academic achievement accounting for 26 % of the variance while perceived stress accounted for an additional 11.2% of the variance in academic achievement. All three predictors explained 29.4% (R = .543 of total variance. The implications and limitations are reviewed as are the suggestions for future research.   Keywords: Time management, perceived stress, academic achievement, college students.

  3. A-Level Science--What Value Practical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Qualifications Regulator in England (Ofqual) has decided that with the implementation of revised (linear) science specifications, first teaching from September 2015, the assessment of practical skills will not contribute to the overall qualification grade. This could have significant implications for post-16 science teaching. The decision was…

  4. Perceptions of Relationships between District and School Level Administrators on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookins, Tyrone

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the extent to which perceived Using a case study of an urban school district, serving 40,000 students in the Midwest region of the United States, this study investigated district and school administrative leaders' perceptions of how their interactions influenced the achievement of black students.…

  5. Interracial Best Friendships: Relationship with 10th Graders' Academic Achievement Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Lee, Sang Min; Daniel, Ashley F.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between interracial best friendships and 10th-grade students' academic achievement. The analysis consisted of data from 13,134 participants in the ELS:2002 database. The results indicated that interracial best friendships for minority students (African Americans, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, and…

  6. A Comparison of Urban, Suburban, and Rural Principal Leadership Skills by Campus Student Achievement Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susan; Winn, Pam; Erwin, John

    2011-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled school leaders, statewide assessments of 784 Texas public school administrators were compared in a causal-comparison study to determine how leadership skills varied by type of campus (urban, suburban and rural) and by campus student achievement ratings. Data were collected from a 2006-2008…

  7. Student Misconceptions in Chemical Equilibrium as Related to Cognitive Level and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Alan E.; Kass, Heidi

    Reported is an investigation to determine the nature and extent of student misconceptions in chemical equilibrium and to ascertain the degree to which certain misconceptions are related to chemistry achievement and to performance on specific tasks involving cognitive transformations characteristic of the concrete and formal operational stages of…

  8. Variability in Pretest-Posttest Correlation Coefficients by Student Achievement Level. NCEE 2011-4033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Russell; Haimson, Joshua; Perez-Johnson, Irma; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    State assessments are increasingly used as outcome measures for education evaluations. The scaling of state assessments produces variability in measurement error, with the conditional standard error of measurement increasing as average student ability moves toward the tails of the achievement distribution. This report examines the variability in…

  9. The Influence of Race-Ethnicity and Physical Activity Levels on Elementary School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Reilly, Monique S.

    2018-01-01

    The authors used structural equation modeling to map the relationships between student race-ethnicity via the mediating variable physical activity on English language arts (ELA) and mathematics achievement among 964 fourth- and fifth-grade students. The students attended a New York City Metropolitan area school district and completed the Physical…

  10. Nutrition sciences as part of school education on secondary level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hillger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The following article focuses on nutrition related topics that had been implemented in the curricula of secondary level schools in Saxony, Germany, during their reorganisation. The overall aim was to make children and adolescents more sensitive to nutrition related topics in their daily lives. Thus, the lesson plans that have been created for the teachers will be introduced and a preview of further steps will be given.

    Methods: For the subject economics-technology-household exemplary lesson plans within the framework of the Saxon curricula were created for secondary level schools from grades eight to ten. Furthermore, conceptions for project days and different kinds of courses were prepared for nutrition related topics. After the lesson plans were tested and three teachers were consulted, feedback from all of the subject teachers was obtained via interview for qualitative analysis. Fifty-two pupils were asked to answer a questionnaire. The responses according to the lessons were taken partially standardised and were evaluated.

    Results: Teachers as well as pupils appreciated the complex lesson plans and materials on scientific basis.The consulted subject teachers emphasised that the lesson plans can be regarded as a fundamental preparation for their further work. If necessary they need to be adapted to the teacher’s ideas and special circumstances in school.

    Conclusions: With the preparation of the lesson plans important steps were realised within the restructuring process of Saxon curricula. Thus, the implementation of nutrition related topics in school curricula could be achieved.

  11. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  12. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  13. Achieving Educational Goals in Neurology Ward from the Viewpoint of Clinical Clerkship at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Razazian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in

  14. Exploring Europa's Habitability: Science achieved from the Europa Orbiter and Clipper Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, D. A.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Vance, S.

    2012-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate in the search for present-day habitable environments in our solar system. Europa is unique among the large icy satellites because it probably has a saltwater ocean today beneath an ice shell that is geodynamically active. The combination of irradiation of its surface and tidal heating of its interior could make Europa a rich source of chemical energy for life. Perhaps most importantly, Europa's ocean is believed to be in direct contact with its rocky mantle, where conditions could be similar to those on Earth's biologically rich sea floor. Hydrothermal zones on Earth's seafloor are known to be rich with life, powered by energy and nutrients that result from reactions between the seawater and the warm rocky ocean floor. Life as we know it depends on three principal "ingredients": 1) a sustained liquid water environment; 2) essential chemical elements that are critical for building life; and 3) a source of energy that could be utilized by life. Europa's habitability requires understanding whether it possesses these three ingredients. NASA has enlisted a study team to consider Europa mission options feasible over the next decade, compatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget and addressing Planetary Decadal Survey priorities. Two Europa mission concepts (Orbiter and multiple flyby—call the "Clipper") are undergoing continued study with the goal to "Explore Europa to investigate its habitability." Each mission would address this goal in complementary ways, with high science value of its own. The Orbiter and Clipper architectures lend themselves to specific types of scientific measurements. The Orbiter concept is tailored to the unique geophysical science that requires being in orbit at Europa. This includes confirming the existence of an ocean and characterizing that ocean through geophysical measurements of Europa's gravitational tides and magnetic induction response. It also includes mapping of the global morphology and

  15. Evaluation and capacity building to improve precollege science and mathematics achievement in the US: 10 CFR, Part 605

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The National Center for Improving Science Education has undertaken activities to achieve evaluation goals for DOE's Precollege programs: develop means to determine program quality; develop means for determining the contribution of DOE precollege programs to both teacher enhancement and student achievement; provide evaluation designs and instruments and reports of program quality and impact; and strengthen both DOE's and the Labs' capacity to do both short- and long-term planning as well as deliver effective programs and evaluation. Appendices include evaluation/technical assistance report, profiling teacher research participation and teacher development programs, teacher surveys, impact assessment design, and teacher research participation programs anecdotes for 8 labs.

  16. Gamification in science education: The relationship of educational games to motivation and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Kelly Elizabeth

    Community colleges have become increasingly more important in America's higher education system. Part of this emphasis has been directly due to President Obama's 2010 directive to produce a competitive workforce in the United States by increasing the community college graduation rate by five million over the next decade (Madhani, 2010). Community colleges allow open admission for students which permits marginally prepared students to enter. These students may lack motivation, which contributes to student attrition (Williams, 2010). The focus of this study is to examine methods that may improve student learning and motivation, which could ultimately lead to higher graduation rates. This study investigates the relationship of gamification to motivation and achievement in a community college microbiology class. Gamification is defined as "the process of adding game mechanics to processes, programs, and platforms that would not traditionally use such concepts" (Swan, 2012). The goal of game-based learning is to increase student motivation and learning. The results of this investigation indicate that educational games increase motivation and achievement of students in a community college microbiology class.

  17. Survey of Anxiety Levels and Its Relation to Students Demographic of Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Norouzinia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, changing lifestyles, social relations and the advancement of technology causes fear, threats and concerns of different groups in society, especially students. Adverse impact of Anxiety on the efficacy and talents, personality and social identity formation of students, threat to achieve the goals of academic achievement and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine level of anxiety and some of their demographic correlates in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 1390. Methods: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. The study population included all students of the Alborz university. 305 students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Based on our results, 64 percent of students were anxious. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in men than women (p=0.049. The level of anxiety and interesting in medical course (p<0.001, non-academic study (p=0.007 and a major physical illness (p=0.009 had significant correlations with together. Conclusion: Results showed a high percentage of students anxious. Regarding the relation between anxiety and other problems such as depression and other disorders including failure in educational function, social relationships and lifestyle, Training courses on coping skills for anxiety and stress as well as consulting services and further guidance is recommended for them.

  18. Achieving strategic renewal: the multi-level influences of top and middle managers’ boundary-spanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, L.; Fourne, S.P.L.; Elfring, T.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on corporate entrepreneurship (CE) and social network research, this study focuses on strategic renewal as a form of CE and examines the impact of boundary-spanning at top and middle management levels on business units’ exploratory innovation. Analyses of multi-source and multi-level data,

  19. Visual thinking networking promotes long-term meaningful learning and achievement for 9th grade earth science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Palma Joni

    2001-12-01

    An experimental and interview-based design was used to test the efficacy of visual thinking networking (VTN), a new generation of metacognitive learning strategies. Students constructed network diagrams using semantic and figural elements to represent knowledge relationships. The findings indicated the importance of using color in VTN strategies. The use of color promoted the encoding and reconstruction of earth science knowledge in memory and enhanced higher order thinking skills of problem solving. Fifty-six ninth grade earth science students (13--15 years of age) in a suburban school district outside New York City were randomly assigned to three classes with the same instructor. Five major positive findings emerged in the areas of problem solving achievement, organization of knowledge in memory, problem solving strategy dimensionality, conceptual understanding, and gender differences. A multi-covariate analysis was conducted on the pre-post gain scores of the AGI/NSTA Earth Science Examination (Part 1). Students who used the color VTN strategies had a significantly higher mean gain score on the problem solving criterion test items than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .003) and the writing strategies for learning science (p color VTN strategies: (1) significantly recalled more earth science knowledge than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .021) and the writing strategies (p color VTNs had a significantly higher mean number of conceptually accurate propositions than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .018) and the writing strategies (p = .010). Gender influenced the choice of VTN strategy. Females used significantly more color VTN strategies, while males used predominately black/white VTN strategies (p = .01). A neurocognitive model, the encoding activation theory of the anterior cingulate (ENACT-AC), is proposed as an explanation for these findings.

  20. A Toolkit Modeling Approach for Sustainable Forest Management Planning: Achieving Balance between Science and Local Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Sturtevant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM. The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and local domain experts in the meta-model building process. The modeling team works iteratively with each of these groups to define essential questions, identify data resources, and then determine whether available tools can be applied or adapted, or whether new tools can be rapidly created to fit the need. The desired goal of the process is a linked series of domain-specific models (tools that balances generalized "top-down" models (i.e., scientific models developed without input from the local system with case-specific customized "bottom-up" models that are driven primarily by local needs. Information flow between models is organized according to vertical (i.e., between scale and horizontal (i.e., within scale dimensions. We illustrate our approach within a 2.1 million hectare forest planning district in central Labrador, a forested landscape where social and ecological values receive a higher priority than economic values. However, the focus of this paper is on the process of how SFM modeling tools and concepts can be rapidly assembled and applied in new locations, balancing efficient transfer of science with adaptation to local needs. We use the Labrador case study to illustrate strengths and challenges uniquely associated with a meta-modeling approach to integrated modeling as it fits within the broader collaborative modeling framework. Principle advantages of the approach include the scientific rigor introduced by peer-reviewed models, combined with the adaptability of meta-modeling. A key challenge is the limited transparency of scientific models to different participatory groups

  1. Gender, mathematics, reading comprehension and science reasoning as predictors of science achievement among African-American students at a historical black college or university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Consuella Artiemese

    This study investigated predictors that influence the science achievement of African-American non-science majors in a Physical Science class. The population consisted of male and female college students enrolled in Physical Science courses at a historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern portion of the United States. A personal data information sheet was administered to 120 participants during the Fall of 2008. The personal data information sheet consisted of questions pertaining to the high school courses, students took in math, language arts and science. It also consisted of basic background information. Students also gave written consent for their midterm and final grades earned in Physical Science to be used in the study as part of the analyses. A t-Test including chi-square tests revealed that there was not a significant difference in the raw scores of African-American females and African American males on the American College Test. A significant difference was not observed between the females and males on the ACT math subtest, t (118) = -.78, p = .43; reading comprehension subtest, t (118) = -1.44, .15 or on the science reasoning subtest, t (118) = -1.46, p = .15. A significant difference was not found between the final grades of African American females and the final grades of African American males. Chi-square tests were conducted to determine goodness of fit, X2 = 6.11, df = 1, p = .191. Although the grades of females were higher than males, results were not significant. The correlation between math ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .131, N = 120, p = .155, reading comprehension ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .072, N = 120, p = .434 and science reasoning ACT and final grades were found not to be significant, r = .109, N = 120, p = .237. Being that the majority of students who participated in the study were from one state, had similar high school backgrounds, had similar majors and were similar in

  2. Is This the End of the English Tradition of Practical A-Level Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ian

    2014-01-01

    From September 2015, schools in England will be teaching new A-level science specifications that have been developed by examination boards to encompass new higher levels of demand developed by the Department for Education. Integral to these new specifications is a radical change to the contribution of practical science to the A-level grade of the…

  3. Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  5. Staying in the Science Stream: Patterns of Participation in A-Level Science Subjects in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of participation and attainment in A-level physics, chemistry and biology from 1961 to 2009. The A level has long been seen as an important gateway qualification for higher level study, particularly in the sciences. This long-term overview examines how recruitment to these three subjects has changed in the context of…

  6. The impact of natural science contextual teaching through project method to students’ achievement in MTsN Miri Sragen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Sunarsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the science learning skills among students’ who follow contextual learning through project method with experiment method. The population of this research is the students’ of class VII MTS Negeri Miri Kab. Sragen on the teaching period of 2016/2017. Cluster random sampling technique is used as sample. This research was designed using contextual teaching through project method as an independent variable. The results of this Improvement show that there is a difference in the achievement of students' learning skill that follows contextual learning through the project method with the experimental method with Fobs = 8,83 and significant number 4,04 (p <0,05. Based on these findings contextual learning through the project is one of the learning methods that provide a positive influence on improving the achievement of science learning skills. This ain increase, because CTL is can help students’ understand the material by relating the problems that exist. Project methods are used by students’ in solving problems.

  7. Evaluation of Achievement, Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety Levels in Children who Preparing for College Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemaliye DIREKTOR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement, self-esteem, depression and state-trial anxiety of children who were preparing for college examination. 285 students who were preparing for college examination were recruited in Northern Cyprus. All data were obtained by using Sociodemographical Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Childhood Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, during 15-23 October 2016. It has been found that male students have a higher academic achievement and self-esteem levels than female students’. There was a significant negative correlation between students’ self-esteem and depression levels. Results showed that self-esteem and depression predicted academic achievement. Also on the area of child education, extensive studies should be carried out on examination, how the national examinations affect psychological problems. Obtained results were discussed in the light of literature

  8. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-15

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  9. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  10. High School Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Achieving Technology Integration and In-Class Reflections: The Case of Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Mehmet Alper; Isleyen, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of high school mathematics teachers in achieving mathematics instruction via computer algebra systems and the reflections of these practices in the classroom. Three high school mathematics teachers employed at different types of school participated in the study. In the beginning of this…

  11. Achieving uniform dose with the use of a custom tissue compensator and a leveled beam for tangential breast fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, L.; Luttrell, L.; Lake, D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to achieve uniform dose distribution in intact breast treatments, wedges can be employed. This paper will describe a custom compensator made from brass chips used in conjunction with a leveled beam and a custom cast to treat breast shapes that are less suited to a standard wedge set up. Materials and design, dosimetry, criteria, efficacy and results will be described

  12. The Effective Practices and Beliefs of School Principals in High Achieving Hispanic Majority Mid-Level Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the effective practices and beliefs of 10 Texas principals in high achieving majority Hispanic mid-level schools. Participant interviews were analyzed using the Creswell (2007) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study…

  13. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  14. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  15. Rural/Urban Disparities in Science Achievement In Post-Socialist Countries: The Evolving Influence of Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Kryst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Disparities in educational outcomes exist between students in rural areas as compared to students in urban settings. While there is some evidence that these rural disparities are present in eastern Europe, little is known about young peoples’ lives in the rural areas of this region. This paper presents an analysis of science achievement by location (rural v. urban using all available waves of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS. We examined the eighth grade data from five countries: Lithuania, Romania, the Russian Federation, Hungary, and Slovenia. Findings demonstrated that students attending rural schools had significantly lower science scores and that the rural disadvantage grew between 1995 and 2011 in some countries, but became non-significant in others. Overall, family socioeconomic status played an important role in determining the educational outcomes of rural students. The implications of these findings are explored in relation to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO 2015 Education for All goals.

  16. USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ASSESSMENT LEVEL EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana O. Oliinyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the necessity of internal (formative evaluation, the purpose of which is to intensify and optimize the process of the formation of digital citizenship of future specialists. Implementation of competence-based approach and informatization of education allows increasing efficiency of existing evaluation models, requires deep changes in all components of the education system. The attention is focused on a new generation of educational standards through improvement of innovative technologies of evaluation, providing open educational process (transparency of monitoring procedures and equal opportunities of students to achieve educational goals, help the student as a personality of learning activities to solve the problem of self-determination, self-control, self-realization.

  17. Assessment of Self-Efficacy in Systems Engineering as an Indicator of Competency Level Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    i.e., students, or entry level employees) towards a common goal (i.e., the desired future state) (Ponton et al. 2001, 247). Robbins , Bradley and...04, MIT Sloan, Cambridge, MA. Lucas, William A., Sarah Y. Cooper, Tony Ward, and Frank Cave. 2009. “Industry Placement, Authentic Experience and

  18. Achieving strategic renewal: the multi-level influences of top and middle managers’ boundary-spanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Glaser (Lotte); S.P.L. Fourné (Sebastian); T. Elfring (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on corporate entrepreneurship (CE) and social network research, this study focuses on strategic renewal as a form of CE and examines the impact of boundary-spanning at top and middle management levels on business units’ exploratory innovation. Analyses of multi-source and

  19. An Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Servant Leadership and Student Achievement in Middle Level Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Corbett A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory quantitative research study was to determine if middle schools in which higher levels of servant leadership are evident perform better on school effectiveness measures than middle schools that exhibit lower degrees of servant leadership. Furthermore, it sought to identify contextual factors that were correlated with…

  20. The Effects of the Use of Renzulli Learning on Student Achievement in Reading Comprehension, Reading Fluency, Social Studies, and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara B Field

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Renzulli Learning is an on-line educational profile and educational learning system designed to match student interests, learning styles, and expression styles with a vast array of educational activities and resources designed to enrich and engage students’ learning process. In this experimental study, quantitative procedures were used to investigate the use of Renzulli Learning on oral reading fluency, reading comprehension, science achievement, social studies achievement of 383 elementary and middle schools students. The research took place in two schools, an urban middle school in Georgia where half of all students are considered to be at risk due to poverty or other factors, and a suburban elementary school in southern California. Students in grades 3 5 (n = 185 and grades 6 8 (n = 198 were randomly assigned to use Renzulli Learning for 2-3 hours each week for a 16-week period. Students in the treatment groups were compared to students who did not have the opportunity to use Renzulli Learning in control classes in the same schools. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to explore differences between treatment and control students. After 16 weeks, students who participated in Renzulli Learning demonstrated significantly higher growth in reading comprehension (p < .001, significantly higher growth in oral reading fluency (p = .016, and significantly higher growth in social studies achievement (p = .013 than those students who did not participate in Renzulli Learning.

  1. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 31: PORTRAIT OF THE KHARKIV PHYSICIST ALEXANDER ILYICH AKHIEZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Description is in the short form of the basic distinguished scientific achievements, features of personality and way of life of the known Kharkov physicist-theorist A.I. Akhiezer. Methodology. Existent scientific approaches for treatment and systematization of physical knowledges. Methods of historical method at research of development in human society of basic sections of theoretical physics. Results. Short information is resulted about the basic creative and vital stages, and also fundamental scientific achievements of the indicated prominent physicist of the XX century. Some personal qualities of this Kharkov physicist-theorist, becoming a founder known in the world of physical school are described. Originality. First the Kharkov scientist-electro-physicist for the wide circle of readers imagined a short scientifically-historical essay the known physicist of contemporaneity, being based on his scientific labours and published materials about him. Practical value. Scientific popularization of creative activity of the known Kharkov physicist and his achievements in area of theoretical physics. Next reminder a wide reader on the example of creative life in science and got prominent scientific results of labour of one human personality known in the scientific world about incessant in modern society connection of times and generations.

  2. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  3. The integrated learning management using the STEM education for improve learning achievement and creativity in the topic of force and motion at the 9th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarndee, Nampetch; Kudthalang, Nukool; Jansawang, Natchanok

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study were to investigate and analyze the processing performances and the performance results (E1/E2) efficiency at the determining criteria for planning students' improvements to their learning processes toward their scientific knowledge were investigated, carry out the investigations, gathering evidence, and proposing explanations were developed and predicted. Students' engagements to their needs in unambiguous and clearly content of science teaching onto the instructional processes were attempted for establishing a national approach with the STEM education instructional method were strategized. Research administrations were designed to a sample size consisted of 40 secondary students in science class at the 9th grade level in Borabu School with the purposive sampling technique was selected. Using the STEM Education instructional innovation's lesson plans were managed learning activities. Students' learning achievements were assessed with the Pre-Test and Post-Test designs of 30 items. Students' creative thinking abilities were determined of their perceptions that obtained of the 3-item Creative Thinking Ability Test. The results for the effectiveness of the innovative instructional lesson plans based on the STEM Education Method, the lessoning effectiveness (E1/E2) evidences of 78.95/76.58 over the threshold setting is 75/75. Pretest-posttest designs for assessing students' learning achievements that impact a student's ability to achieve and explains with the STEM education instructional method were differences, significantly (ρ<.001) and the posttest of the 3-item Creative Thinking Ability Test designs for assessing Students' creative thinking abilities that impact a student's ability to have a good skill level in originality, fluency and flexibility thinking with the STEM education instructional method were differences, significantly (ρ<.001).

  4. Numerical difficulties associated with using equality constraints to achieve multi-level decomposition in structural optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thareja, R.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    There has been recent interest in multidisciplinary multilevel optimization applied to large engineering systems. The usual approach is to divide the system into a hierarchy of subsystems with ever increasing detail in the analysis focus. Equality constraints are usually placed on various design quantities at every successive level to ensure consistency between levels. In many previous applications these equality constraints were eliminated by reducing the number of design variables. In complex systems this may not be possible and these equality constraints may have to be retained in the optimization process. In this paper the impact of such a retention is examined for a simple portal frame problem. It is shown that the equality constraints introduce numerical difficulties, and that the numerical solution becomes very sensitive to optimization parameters for a wide range of optimization algorithms.

  5. Design of a composite structure to achieve a specified reliability level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, C.; Beakou, A.; Lemaire, M.

    1997-01-01

    Safety factors are widely used in structural design. For composite material structures, however, the lack of experimental feed-back does not allow the use of safety factors optimized from cost and reliability point of view. Reliability methods are one way to achieve the calibration of partial safety factors using a more rational method than judgement alone. First we present the calibration process. The reliability methods FORM, SORM, simulation, are initially applied to a laminate plate under uniform pressure. In this example, we compare three design criteria; the different reliability methods agree with the reference method for all criteria used. We chose the Tsai-Hill criteria and the FORM method to calculate safety factors. Then, a calibration process is undertaken on a composite pipe and this serves to illustrate the different steps in the calculation. Finally, we present a calibration of a general plate structure. The partial safety factors and their sensitivities to the different parameters of the stochastic variables are given according to load type

  6. Gender and Achievement among A-Level Students Working Alone or in Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniveton, Bromley H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between gender and the effect on student learning of working alone or in either single or mixed-sex pairs. Sixty-eight A-level students (mean age 16.8 years), all attending mixed-sex schools, took part in a task which incorporated a number of basic learning processes. They worked alone or in either single or…

  7. 1991 implementation of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) administrative radiation exposure levels: Experiences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Baumann, B.L.

    1993-06-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) radiation exposure levels were implemented on January 1, 1991, by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a prime US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor, located in Richland, Washington. This paper describes the radiation exposure levels which were implemented and the associated experiences and lessons learned. The issue of a report from the Committee on Biological Effectiveness of Ionizing Radiation in 1989 prompted DOE to re-evaluate its position on radiation exposure limits and the resulting doses received by occupational radiation workers. DOE requested that all it's contractors determine the impacts to operations from reduced radiation exposure levels

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ASSESSMENT MODEL AND METHOD TOWARD THE SCIENCE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT BY CONTROLLING THE STUDENTS? PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MATHEMATICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam rumbalifar; I. g. n. Agung; Burhanuddin tola.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to study the influence of the assessment model and method toward the science learning achievement by controlling the students? previous knowledge of mathematics. This study was conducted at SMP East Seram district with the population of 295 students. This study applied a quasi-experimental method with 2 X 2 factorial design using the ANCOVA model. The findings after controlling the students\\' previous knowledge of mathematics show that the science learning achievement of th...

  9. Levels of use of an elementary school inquiry-based instructional innovation among a selected group of teacher participants in the Delaware Elementary Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelle, Henry Ellsworth Wirt, III

    Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the "Elementary Science Initiative." As part of this adoption process, each participating elementary teacher and middle school science teacher receives extensive training in the use of several discrete science kits. The trainings include reinforcement and development of content knowledge, in addition to the modeling of and practice with complementary pedagogy. One measure of the effectiveness of the science kit training process (and perhaps the Initiative itself) is the teachers' levels of use of the Initiative. The purpose of this study was to determine the participating teachers' use of the science kit innovation through the use of the Concerns-based Adoption Model Levels of Use Questionnaire. Eight K--5 elementary classroom teachers who had completed at least three science kit trainings participated. The results of this study indicate that on the Overall Level of Use Rating Scale, teachers who had completed training in at least three science kits generally scored at the Routine (IVA) level. All of the teachers, regardless of the wide range in the number of years of experience, had achieved the Mechanical Use level in Overall (III) LoU, and 6 of the 8 participants (75%) were operating at no less than the Refinement (IVA) Overall LoU level.

  10. Local Partnerships: Achieving Stakeholder Consensus on Low-Level Waste Disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.; Bergmans, A.; Derveaux, K.; Vanhoof, L.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear waste management is more then finding a technical answer to a technical problem. Dealing with nuclear, or any other form of hazardous waste, for that matter, not only implies solving a technical problem, it also means solving a societal problem. And societal questions cannot be resolved in a technical laboratory. Of course, the technical aspect of nuclear waste management and disposal is a very important one, but the societal aspect is of equal importance. In order to find an implementable solution to deal with nuclear waste, attention should be paid to what kind of solution the society wants and under what conditions a proposed solution might be acceptable. This, however, cannot be achieved by simply adding a number of ''societal parameters'' to a technical concept modeling. It is something that can only be established through interaction with the public concerned. And that, in addition, is not something that can be preformed as an accidental spin off of a vastly elaborated technical program. Communicating or interacting with the public does not mean sweeping them off their feet with smoothly edited leaflets explaining how technically sound the proposed solution is and how wonderful it would fit in their back yard. Adding, just to proof how brilliantly this all has been thought through, numerous safety measures, so people would feel reassured. This kind of communication, will only activate people's suspicion and drive them straight into a ''NIMBY''-reaction. The public (and by this we mean the stakeholders or the people actually concerned) should be involved in the decision making on nuclear waste from the very start of the program. This means that they must be aware of the fact that tests are taken place, that they can participate in the follow up of these technical analysis, and, that they have a say in whether further steps will eventually be taken

  11. Gender and Minority Achievement Gaps in Science in Eighth Grade: Item Analyses of Nationally Representative Data. Research Report. ETS RR-17-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyu; Nandakumar, Ratna; Glutting, Joseoph; Ford, Danielle; Fifield, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated gender and minority achievement gaps on 8th-grade science items employing a multilevel item response methodology. Both gaps were wider on physics and earth science items than on biology and chemistry items. Larger gender gaps were found on items with specific topics favoring male students than other items, for…

  12. Investigating of the Relationship between the Views of the Prospective Science Teachers on the Nature of Scientific Models and Their Achievement on the Topic of Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Aysegül; Kayacan, Kadriye

    2017-01-01

    A non-experimental descriptive and correlational design was used to examine the "notion of the nature of scientific model, atom achievement and correlation between the two" held by a total sample of 76 prospective science teachers. "Students' Understanding of Models in Science" scale was utilized to evaluate the views of the…

  13. An Integrated Interdisciplinary Model for Accelerating Student Achievement in Science and Reading Comprehension across Grades 3-8: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romance, Nancy R.; Vitale, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effects of a multi-year implementation of the Science IDEAS model on (a) the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) achievement growth in Reading Comprehension and Science of grade 3-5 students receiving the model, and (b) the transfer effects of the model as measured by ITBS Reading…

  14. Effect of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Methods on Students' Achievements and Identifications of Laboratory Equipments in Science-Technology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2011-01-01

    Science lessons taught via experiments motivate the students, and make them more insistent on learning science. This study aims to examine the effects of cooperative learning on students' academic achievements and their skills in identifying laboratory equipments. The sample for the study consisted of a total of 43 sophomore students in primary…

  15. Achieving nonlinear optical modulation via four-wave mixing in a four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Ge, Guo-Qin; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2018-05-01

    We propose an accessible scheme for implementing tunable nonlinear optical amplification and attenuation via a synergetic mechanism of four-wave mixing (FWM) and optical interference in a four-level ladder-type atomic system. By constructing a cyclic atom-field interaction, we show that two reverse FWM processes can coexist via optical transitions in different branches. In the suitable input-field conditions, strong interference effects between the input fields and the generated FWM fields can be induced and result in large amplification and deep attenuation of the output fields. Moreover, such an optical modulation from enhancement to suppression can be controlled by tuning the relative phase. The quantum system can be served as a switchable optical modulator with potential applications in quantum nonlinear optics.

  16. Placement Work Experience May Mitigate Lower Achievement Levels of Black and Asian vs. White Students at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Moores

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority groups have been shown to obtain poorer final year degree outcomes than their majority group counterparts in countries including the United States, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Obtaining a lower degree classification may limit future employment prospects of graduates as well as opportunities for higher level study. To further investigate this achievement gap, we analyzed performance levels across three academic years of study of 3,051 Black, Asian and White students from a United Kingdom University. Analyses of covariance investigated effects of ethnicity and work placement experience (internships on first, second and final year marks, whilst statistically controlling for a number of factors thought to influence achievement, including prior academic performance. Results demonstrated superior achievement of White students consistently across all years of study. Placement experience reduced, but did not eliminate, the size of the achievement gap exhibited by final year students. Sex, parental education and socioeconomic status had no significant main effects. Female students showed a more complex pattern of results than males, with Black females not showing the same final year uplift in marks as their Asian and White counterparts. Implications and possible explanations are discussed.

  17. Identification and analysis of labor productivity components based on ACHIEVE model (case study: staff of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak

    2014-12-15

    Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees' viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities.

  18. Identification and Analysis of Labor Productivity Components Based on ACHIEVE Model (Case Study: Staff of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak

    2015-01-01

    Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees’ viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities. PMID:25560364

  19. The Impact of E-Education on At Risk High School Students' Science Achievement and Experiences during Summer School Credit Recovery Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Pamela Prevette

    interview data. Twenty-eight of the students were interviewed individually or as a member of a focus group. During the study, students were enrolled in either a biology course (n =10), earth science (n =10) or physical science (n =12). The students who participated in the study included thirteen females (37.5%) and nineteen males (62.5%). Students were classified as Caucasian (56.25%) or African American (43.75%) as well as non-Hispanic (87.5%) or Hispanic (12.5%). For analyses, Welch's t-tests were employed to investigate the effects of race/ethnicity or gender on how at risk students interacted with an e-education science course. Analyses revealed that self-efficacy by gender was statistically significant at the 0.01 critical level. Males had a higher self-efficacy mean than did females; however, females had higher academic growth. Learning environment stimulation was statistically significant at the 0.01 critical level for African American students. Time-on-task had a significant impact on academic growth for students who had previously failed the pretests. At risk students who completed one of the summer school science courses using an e-education program reported an increase in science self-efficacy, expressed satisfaction with their achievement, appreciated the autonomy afforded by the program, and expressed having positive emotions toward using the program. Students who could not demonstrate science proficiency during the pretest benefitted the most from the e-education program; students who failed the course due to non-academic reasons received virtually no academic benefit from the e-education program. However, the e-education program did serve to mitigate negative interactions with their face-to-face teachers, providing a neutral vehicle for content delivery. The program, while not benefiting all students equally, enabled all students who finished the course to earn a graduation credit. A majority of the students expressed great satisfaction with their ability to

  20. Should applicants to Nottingham University Medical School study a non-science A-level? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Janet; Smith, Jennifer; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2009-01-21

    It has been suggested that studying non-science subjects at A-level should be compulsory for medical students. Our admissions criteria specify only Biology, Chemistry and one or more additional subjects. This study aimed to determine whether studying a non-science subject for A-level is an independent predictor of achievement on the undergraduate medical course. The subjects of this retrospective cohort study were 164 students from one entry-year group (October 2000), who progressed normally on the 5-year undergraduate medical course at Nottingham. Pre-admission academic and socio-demographic data and undergraduate course marks were obtained. T-test and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were undertaken to identify independent predictors of five course outcomes at different stages throughout the course. There was no evidence that the choice of science or non-science as the third or fourth A-level subject had any influence on course performance. Demographic variables (age group, sex, and fee status) had some predictive value but ethnicity did not. Pre-clinical course performance was the strongest predictor in the clinical phases (pre-clinical Themes A&B (knowledge) predicted Clinical Knowledge, p A-level requirements should specify the choice of third or fourth subject.

  1. Philosophy Underlying Emotional Intelligence in Relation to Level of Curiosity and Academic Achievement of Rural Area Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Hassan; Tajularipin Sulaiman; Rohaizan Ishak

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Since emotional intelligence is still not wholly-accepted despite evidences of its powerful influence in general setting, this study is therefore conducted to identify the emotional intelligence level among school students in rural areas, relationships between emotional intelligence and anxiety, as well as relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Approach: It involved a sample of 223 form 1 and form 4 students. Process of data collection was ad...

  2. The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on the Programming Self-efficacy and Achievement of Introductory Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrey, Elizabeth

    Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this

  3. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  4. The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Teacher Certification Route, Content Hours in the Sciences, Field-Based Experiences and Class Size on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Robina

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law in 2002 with the idea that all students, no matter the circumstances can learn and that highly qualified teachers should be present in every classrooms (United Stated Department of Education, 2011). The mandates of NCLB also forced states to begin measuring the progress of science proficiency beginning in 2007. The study determined the effects of teacher efficacy, the type of certification route taken by individuals, the number of content hours taken in the sciences, field-based experience and class size on middle school student achievement as measured by the 8th grade STAAR in a region located in South Texas. This data provides knowledge into the effect different teacher training methods have on secondary school science teacher efficacy in Texas and how it impacts student achievement. Additionally, the results of the study determined if traditional and alternative certification programs are equally effective in properly preparing science teachers for the classroom. The study described was a survey design comparing nonequivalent groups. The study utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). A 25-item efficacy scale made up of two subscales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Belief (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) (Bayraktar, 2011). Once the survey was completed a 3-Way ANOVA, MANOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression were performed in SPSS to calculate the results. The results from the study indicated no significant difference between route of certification on student achievement, but a large effect size was reported, 17% of the variances in student achievement can be accounted for by route of certification. A MANOVA was conducted to assess the differences between number of science content hours on a linear combination of personal science teacher efficacy, science teaching outcome expectancy and total science teacher efficacy as measured by the STEBI. No significant

  5. The effects of home computer access and social capital on mathematics and science achievement among Asian-American high school students in the NELS:88 data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Mark Declan

    The purpose of this researcher was to examine specific environmental, educational, and demographic factors and their influence on mathematics and science achievement. In particular, the researcher ascertained the interconnections of home computer access and social capital, with Asian American students and the effect on mathematics and science achievement. Coleman's theory on social capital and parental influence was used as a basis for the analysis of data. Subjects for this study were the base year students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the subsequent follow-up survey data in 1990, 1992, and 1994. The approximate sample size for this study is 640 ethnic Asians from the NELS:88 database. The analysis was a longitudinal study based on the Student and Parent Base Year responses and the Second Follow-up survey of 1992, when the subjects were in 12th grade. Achievement test results from the NELS:88 data were used to measure achievement in mathematics and science. The NELS:88 test battery was developed to measure both individual status and a student's growth in a number of achievement areas. The subject's responses were analyzed by principal components factor analysis, weights, effect sizes, hierarchial regression analysis, and PLSPath Analysis. The results of this study were that prior ability in mathematics and science is a major influence in the student's educational achievement. Findings from the study support the view that home computer access has a negative direct effect on mathematics and science achievement for both Asian American males and females. None of the social capital factors in the study had either a negative or positive direct effect on mathematics and science achievement although some indirect effects were found. Suggestions were made toward increasing parental involvement in their children's academic endeavors. Computer access in the home should be considered related to television viewing and should be closely

  6. The levels of edit. [technical writing in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanburen, R.; Buehler, M. F.; Wallenbrock, D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The editorial process is analyzed, and five levels of edit are identified. These levels represent cumulative combinations of nine types of edit: (1) coordination, (2) policy, (3) integrity, (4) screening, (5) copy clarification, (6) Mechanical Style, (7) Language, and (9) substantive. The levels and types of edit, although developed for specific use with external reports at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cover the general range of technical editing, especially as it applies to an in-house technical publications organization. Each type of edit is set forth in terms of groups of actions to be performed by the editor. The edit-level concept has enhanced understanding and communication among editors, authors, and publications managers concerning the specific editorial work to be done on each manuscript. It has also proved useful as a management tool for estimating and monitoring cost.

  7. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Elizabeth A; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially predicted literacy achievement from cognitive-linguistic translation (Block 1); working memory components for word-form coding (Block 2), phonological and orthographic loops (Block 3), and supervisory focused or switching attention (Block 4); and SLD groups (Block 5). Results showed that cognitive-linguistic translation explained an average of 27% and 15% of the variance in reading and writing achievement, respectively, but working memory components explained an additional 39% and 27% of variance. Orthographic word-form coding uniquely predicted nearly every measure, whereas attention switching uniquely predicted only reading. Finally, differences in reading and writing persisted between dyslexia and dysgraphia, with dysgraphia higher, even after controlling for Block 1 to 4 predictors. Differences in literacy achievement between students with dyslexia and oral and written language learning disabilities were largely explained by the Block 1 predictors. Applications to identifying and teaching students with these SLDs are discussed.

  8. The effect of cooperative learning on the attitudes toward science and the achievement of students in a non-science majors' general biology laboratory course at an urban community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooperative learning strategies on students' attitudes toward science and achievement in BSC 1005L, a non-science majors' general biology laboratory course at an urban community college. Data were gathered on the participants' attitudes toward science and cognitive biology level pre and post treatment in BSC 1005L. Elements of the Learning Together model developed by Johnson and Johnson and the Student Team-Achievement Divisions model created by Slavin were incorporated into the experimental sections of BSC 1005L. Four sections of BSC 1005L participated in this study. Participants were enrolled in the 1998 spring (January) term. Students met weekly in a two hour laboratory session. The treatment was administered to the experimental group over a ten week period. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. Students in the cooperative learning group (nsb1 = 27) were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) and the cognitive biology test at the same time as the control group (nsb2 = 19) (at the beginning and end of the term). Statistical analyses confirmed that both groups were equivalent regarding ethnicity, gender, college grade point average and number of absences. Independent sample t-tests performed on pretest mean scores indicated no significant differences in the TOSRA scale two or biology knowledge between the cooperative learning group and the control group. The scores of TOSRA scales: one, three, four, five, six, and seven were significantly lower in the cooperative learning group. Independent sample t-tests of the mean score differences did not show any significant differences in posttest attitudes toward science or biology knowledge between the two groups. Paired t-tests did not indicate any significant differences on the TOSRA or biology knowledge within the cooperative learning group. Paired t-tests did show significant differences within the control group

  9. The concept of landscape education at school level with respect to the directions of the science of landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    School education is both a starting point for the development of various scientific disciplines (school educates future researchers) and the result of science. The landscape research is conducted within many scientific disciplines and has a long tradition. Lanscape education, which is the result of a scientific dimension, is implemented in primary school under the nature subject. Primary school education is the only level at which the geographical contents are carried out on landscape. The landscape is of interest to many disciplines: geography, architecture, social sciences and the arts. In recent years, there were many studies which contained an overview of the main strands of the science of landscape, presented the differences in the meaning of the concept and objectives of individual research disciplines. These studies have become the ground for the characterization of the concept of landscape education implemented in Polish school and its evaluation in terms of scientific achievements. A review of educational purposes, the basic content of education and achievements of students, demonstrate the influence of multiple scientific disciplines in school landscape education. The most significant share of the course content are achievements of geography disciplines, particularly: physical geography, environmental protection and landscape ecology. Other scientific fields: literature, art, psychology, sociology, and architecture do not have any impact on the school landscape education or their impact remains marginal.

  10. A Cross-grade Comparison to Examine the Context Effect on the Relationships Among Family Resources, School Climate, Learning Participation, Science Attitude, and Science Achievement Based on TIMSS 2003 in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shin-Feng; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Jing-Ru; Lin, Sheau-Wen; Kao, Huey-Lien

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to examine whether the relationships among family resources, school climate, learning participation, science attitude, and science achievement are different between primary school students and junior high school students within one educational system. The subjects included 4,181 Grade 4 students and 5,074 Grade 8 students who participated in TIMSS 2003 in Taiwan. Using structural equation modeling, the results showed that family resources had significant positive effects for both groups of learners. Furthermore, a context effect for the structural relationship between school climate, learning participation, and science achievement was revealed. In the primary school context, Grade 4 students who perceived positive school climate participated in school activities more actively, and had better science performance. However, in the secondary school context, learning participation had a negative impact and led to lower science achievement. The implications about this result in relation to the characteristics of the two educational contexts in Taiwan were further discussed.

  11. Higher weight, lower education: a longitudinal association between adolescents' body mass index and their subsequent educational achievement level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Hermans, Roel C J

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch adolescents (49% girls; mean age = 13.7 years) at schools providing different educational levels was used to determine adolescents who moved and did not move to a lower educational level in the first year, or in the second year, and to examine whether this movement could be predicted by BMI z-scores (zBMI), after controlling for a large range of potential confounding factors. A total of 1164 Dutch adolescents continued in the same level of education, whereas 84 adolescents moved to a lower educational level (43 moved in the first and 41 in the second year). A higher zBMI significantly increased the risk of a general transition to a lower educational level, and of a transition in the first year, but not in the second year, after controlling for potential demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounds. Findings suggest that a higher zBMI during adolescence immediately lowers educational achievement level during general secondary education. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Maximum coherent superposition state achievement using a non-resonant pulse train in non-degenerate three-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Niu, Yueping; Jin, Luling; Gong, Shangqing

    2010-01-01

    The coherent superposition state of the lower two levels in non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms is investigated using the accumulative effects of non-resonant pulse trains when the repetition period is smaller than the decay time of the upper level. First, using a rectangular pulse train, the accumulative effects are re-examined in the non-resonant two-level atoms and the modified constructive accumulation equation is analytically given. The equation shows that the relative phase and the repetition period are important in the accumulative effect. Next, under the modified equation in the non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms, we show that besides the constructive accumulation effect, the use of the partial constructive accumulation effect can also achieve the steady state of the maximum coherent superposition state of the lower two levels and the latter condition is relatively easier to manipulate. The analysis is verified by numerical calculations. The influence of the external levels in such a case is also considered and we find that it can be avoided effectively. The above analysis is also applicable to pulse trains with arbitrary envelopes.

  13. Effects of an Inverted Instructional Delivery Model on Achievement of Ninth-Grade Physical Science Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Donna

    This mixed-methods action research study was designed to assess the achievement of ninth-grade Physical Science Honors students by analysis of pre and posttest data. In addition, perceptual data from students, parents, and the researcher were collected to form a complete picture of the flipped lecture format versus the traditional lecture format. The researcher utilized a 4MAT learning cycle in two Physical Science Honors classes. One of these classes was traditionally delivered with lecture-type activities taking place inside the classroom and homework-type activities taking place at home; the other inverted, or flipped, delivered with lecture-type activities taking place outside the classroom and homework-type activities taking place inside the classroom. Existing unit pre and posttests for both classes were analyzed for differences in academic achievement. At the completion of the units, the flipped class students and parents were surveyed, and student focus groups were convened to ascertain their perceptions of the flipped classroom delivery model. Statistical analysis of posttest data revealed that there is no significant difference between the traditional lecture delivery format and the flipped delivery format. Analysis of perceptual data revealed six themes that must be considered when deciding to flip the classroom: how to hold students accountable for viewing the at-home videos, accessibility of students to the required technology, technical considerations relating to the video production, comprehension of the material both during and after viewing the videos, pedagogy of the overall flipped method, and preference for the flipped method overall. Findings revealed that students, parents, and the researcher all had a preference for the flipped class format, provided the above issues are addressed. The flipped class format encourages students to become more responsible for their learning, and, in addition, students reported that the hands-on inquiry

  14. Uncertainty Quantification for Ice Sheet Science and Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, C.; Schlegel, N.; Limonadi, D.; Schodlok, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Watkins, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better quantify uncertainties in global mean sea level rise projections and in particular upper bounds, we aim at systematically evaluating the contributions from ice sheets and potential for extreme sea level rise due to sudden ice mass loss. Here, we take advantage of established uncertainty quantification tools embedded within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) as well as sensitivities to ice/ocean interactions using melt rates and melt potential derived from MITgcm/ECCO2. With the use of these tools, we conduct Monte-Carlo style sampling experiments on forward simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet, by varying internal parameters and boundary conditions of the system over both extreme and credible worst-case ranges. Uncertainty bounds for climate forcing are informed by CMIP5 ensemble precipitation and ice melt estimates for year 2100, and uncertainty bounds for ocean melt rates are derived from a suite of regional sensitivity experiments using MITgcm. Resulting statistics allow us to assess how regional uncertainty in various parameters affect model estimates of century-scale sea level rise projections. The results inform efforts to a) isolate the processes and inputs that are most responsible for determining ice sheet contribution to sea level; b) redefine uncertainty brackets for century-scale projections; and c) provide a prioritized list of measurements, along with quantitative information on spatial and temporal resolution, required for reducing uncertainty in future sea level rise projections. Results indicate that ice sheet mass loss is dependent on the spatial resolution of key boundary conditions - such as bedrock topography and melt rates at the ice-ocean interface. This work is performed at and supported by the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Supercomputing time is also supported through a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere program.

  15. An Examination of High School Social Science Students' Levels Motivation towards Learning Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    This aim of this research was to examine the levels of motivation among high school social science students towards learning geography. The study group consisted of 397 students from different classes at Aksaray Ahmet Cevdet Pasa High School in the College of Social Science. The research was carried out with a scanning model, with data obtained…

  16. Conceptual Demand of Science Curricula: A Study at the Middle School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Sílvia; Neves, Isabel P.; Morais, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of the level of conceptual demand of science curricula by analysing the case of the current Portuguese Natural Sciences curriculum for middle school. Conceptual demand is seen in terms of the complexity of cognitive skills, the complexity of scientific knowledge and the intra-disciplinary relations between distinct…

  17. Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE '0' and 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, Christopher G.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on environmental studies/science at General Certificate of Examination (GCE) ordinary ("0") and advanced ("A") levels. Questionnaires were used to survey teachers (focusing on their professional training and why they teach environmental studies/science courses) and to determine the relationship between environmental…

  18. An investigation of children's levels of inquiry in an informal science setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Thomas, Beth Anne

    Elementary school students' understanding of both science content and processes are enhanced by the higher level thinking associated with inquiry-based science investigations. Informal science setting personnel, elementary school teachers, and curriculum specialists charged with designing inquiry-based investigations would be well served by an understanding of the varying influence of certain present factors upon the students' willingness and ability to delve into such higher level inquiries. This study examined young children's use of inquiry-based materials and factors which may influence the level of inquiry they engaged in during informal science activities. An informal science setting was selected as the context for the examination of student inquiry behaviors because of the rich inquiry-based environment present at the site and the benefits previously noted in the research regarding the impact of informal science settings upon the construction of knowledge in science. The study revealed several patterns of behavior among children when they are engaged in inquiry-based activities at informal science exhibits. These repeated behaviors varied in the children's apparent purposeful use of the materials at the exhibits. These levels of inquiry behavior were taxonomically defined as high/medium/low within this study utilizing a researcher-developed tool. Furthermore, in this study adult interventions, questions, or prompting were found to impact the level of inquiry engaged in by the children. This study revealed that higher levels of inquiry were preceded by task directed and physical feature prompts. Moreover, the levels of inquiry behaviors were haltered, even lowered, when preceded by a prompt that focused on a science content or concept question. Results of this study have implications for the enhancement of inquiry-based science activities in elementary schools as well as in informal science settings. These findings have significance for all science educators

  19. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  20. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…