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Sample records for sciatic nerve transection

  1. THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN ON THE EXTRAFASCICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN TRANSECTED RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    OpenAIRE

    Esad Ćosović; Zakira Mornjaković; Selma Aličelebić; Dina Kapić; Maida Šahinović; Almira Lujinović; Višnja Muzika; Samra Čustović

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies linking the effect of certain pharmacological agents with the status of connective tissue and nerve fiber regeneration after traumatic transection were focused mainly on the proximal nerve stump. In our study, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of the proximal and the distal nerve stump were done. Male Wistar rats underwent transection and excision of an 8-mm nerve segment of the left sciatic nerve. The vehiculum group of animals (n=7) was administered with 5%...

  2. Muscle differentiation after sciatic nerve transection and reinnervation in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijkema-Paassen, J; Meek, MF; Gramsbergen, A

    Reinnervation after peripheral nerve transections generally leads to poor functional recovery. In order to study whether changes in muscles might be a contributing factor in this phenomenon we studied muscle morphology and fibre type distributions after sciatic nerve transection in the rat hind

  3. THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN ON THE EXTRAFASCICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN TRANSECTED RAT SCIATIC NERVE

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    Esad Ćosović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies linking the effect of certain pharmacological agents with the status of connective tissue and nerve fiber regeneration after traumatic transection were focused mainly on the proximal nerve stump. In our study, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of the proximal and the distal nerve stump were done. Male Wistar rats underwent transection and excision of an 8-mm nerve segment of the left sciatic nerve. The vehiculum group of animals (n=7 was administered with 5% ethanol in Ringer solution (vehiculum, while the melatonin group (n=10 received 30mg/kg of melatonin dissolved in vehiculum, daily, intraperitoneally (i.p. for 14 consecutive days. Then, intravital excision of the marginal zone of the proximal and distal nerve stump was performed and the samples were further processed for qualitative photomicroscopic and stereological analysis. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of both nerve stumps showed absent or slight stump thickening in the melatonin group compared to the vehiculum group of animals, which is the result of reduced connective tissue proliferation. The mean epineurial volume density of the proximal nerve stump was statistically significantly lower (p=0,003 in the melatonin (0,36 than in the vehiculum group of animals (0,51. The difference in mean epineurial volume density of the distal stump was also statistically significant (p=0,039 with 0,33 in melatonin and 0,46 in the vehiculum group. Our study revealed that the administration of exogenous melatonin was effective in suppression of trauma-caused extrafascicular connective tissue proliferation in neuroma of the proximal nerve stump as well as fibroma formation in the distal nerve stump.

  4. Liquid Metal as Connecting or Functional Recovery Channel for the Transected Sciatic Nerve

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the liquid metal GaInSn alloy (67% Ga, 20.5% In, and 12.5% Sn by volume) is proposed for the first time to repair the peripheral neurotmesis as connecting or functional recovery channel. Such material owns a group of unique merits in many aspects, such as favorable fluidity, super compliance, high electrical conductivity, which are rather beneficial for conducting the excited signal of nerve during the regeneration process in vivo. It was found that the measured electroneurographic signal from the transected bullfrog sciatic nerve reconnected by the liquid metal after the electrical stimulation was close to that from the intact sciatic nerve. The control experiments through replacement of GaInSn with the conventionally used Riger Solution revealed that Riger Solution could not be competitive with the liquid metal in the performance as functional recovery channel. In addition, through evaluation of the basic electrical property, the material GaInSn works more suitable for the conduction of the...

  5. Electrospun micro- and nanofiber tubes for functional nervous regeneration in sciatic nerve transections

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    Amadio Stefano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many nerve prostheses have been proposed in recent years, in the case of consistent loss of nervous tissue peripheral nerve injury is still a traumatic pathology that may impair patient's movements by interrupting his motor-sensory pathways. In the last few decades tissue engineering has opened the door to new approaches;: however most of them make use of rigid channel guides that may cause cell loss due to the lack of physiological local stresses exerted over the nervous tissue during patient's movement. Electrospinning technique makes it possible to spin microfiber and nanofiber flexible tubular scaffolds composed of a number of natural and synthetic components, showing high porosity and remarkable surface/volume ratio. Results In this study we used electrospun tubes made of biodegradable polymers (a blend of PLGA/PCL to regenerate a 10-mm nerve gap in a rat sciatic nerve in vivo. Experimental groups comprise lesioned animals (control group and lesioned animals subjected to guide conduits implantated at the severed nerve stumps, where the tubular scaffolds are filled with saline solution. Four months after surgery, sciatic nerves failed to reconnect the two stumps of transected nerves in the control animal group. In most of the treated animals the electrospun tubes induced nervous regeneration and functional reconnection of the two severed sciatic nerve tracts. Myelination and collagen IV deposition have been detected in concurrence with regenerated fibers. No significant inflammatory response has been found. Neural tracers revealed the re-establishment of functional neuronal connections and evoked potential results showed the reinnervation of the target muscles in the majority of the treated animals. Conclusion Corroborating previous works, this study indicates that electrospun tubes, with no additional biological coating or drug loading treatment, are promising scaffolds for functional nervous regeneration. They

  6. Effects of Methylprednisolone on Motor Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Transection and Decellularized Scaffold Transplantation in Rats

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    A. Abdolmaleki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Following the peripheral nervous system trauma, prescribing anti-inflammatory agents is one of the strategies to control the damage and promoting the recovery process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methylprednisolone on improvement of motor function and tissue changes following sciatic nerve transection and repairing by decellularized scaffolds transplantation in rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10; negative control group (receiving no medication with transection of the sciatic nerve, sham group (nerve-mediated surgery with solvent drug, experimental groups 1 and 2 (transection of the sciatic nerve and scaffold transplantation with 1- and 30mg/kg of methylprednisolone intraperitoneally and experimental group 3 (transection of the sciatic nerve and scaffold transplantation with solvent drug. Behavioral, electrophysiological and tissue tests were performed during the experiment. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Findings: the rate of repair and improvement of motor function was increased significantly in the treated groups with methylprednisolone compared to the control group (p<0.05. Musculoskeletal atrophy of gastrocnemius was decreased in methylprednisolone treated groups. In addition, the number of neural fibers, axon diameter and thickness of myelin sheath were significantly higher in the treated groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The prescription of methylprednisolone increases the amount of motor improvement and tissue repair after the sciatic nerve transection and the decellularized scaffold transplantation. Recovery of the motor and tissue functions at high dose of methylprednisolone is better than low dose.

  7. Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection

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    M. Chacur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT. Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test and allodynia (von Frey hair test. Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals. The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL, blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30 in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%. Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%, reaching the greatest increase (60% 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.

  8. Low-Level Laser-Accelerated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration within a Reinforced Nerve Conduit across a Large Gap of the Transected Sciatic Nerve in Rats

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    Chiung-Chyi Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a novel combination of neural regeneration techniques for the repair of damaged peripheral nerves. A biodegradable nerve conduit containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin was annexed using beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP ceramic particles (genipin-gelatin-TCP, GGT to bridge the transection of a 15 mm sciatic nerve in rats. Two trigger points were irradiated transcutaneously using 660 nm of gallium-aluminum arsenide phosphide (GaAlAsP via laser diodes for 2 min daily over 10 consecutive days. Walking track analysis showed a significant improvement in sciatic functional index (SFI (P<0.01 and pronounced improvement in the toe spreading ability of rats undergoing laser stimulation. Electrophysiological measurements (peak amplitude and area illustrated by compound muscle action potential (CMAP curves demonstrated that laser stimulation significantly improved nerve function and reduced muscular atrophy. Histomorphometric assessments revealed that laser stimulation accelerated nerve regeneration over a larger area of neural tissue, resulting in axons of greater diameter and myelin sheaths of greater thickness than that observed in rats treated with nerve conduits alone. Motor function, electrophysiological reactions, muscular reinnervation, and histomorphometric assessments all demonstrate that the proposed therapy accelerated the repair of transected peripheral nerves bridged using a GGT nerve conduit.

  9. Effect of local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B on functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration: A sciatic nerve transection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzadeh, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Effects of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male, white Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Normal control group (NC), silicon group (SIL), and PDGF-B treated group (SIL/PDGF). In NC group, left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis muscle was sutured. In the SIL group, the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone conduit and filled with 10 μL phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/PDGF group, the silicon conduit was filled with 10 μL PDGF-B (0.5 ng/mL). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five and were studied in 4, 8, 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass, and histomorphometric studies showed earlier regeneration of axons in SIL/PDGF than in SIL group (P recovery and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection.

  10. Effect of Sciatic Nerve Transection on acetylcholinesterase activity in spinal cord and skeletal muscles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus

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    A. Kroth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sciatic nerve transection (SNT, a model for studying neuropathic pain, mimics the clinical symptoms of “phantom limb”, a pain condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In some vertebrate tissues, this condition decreases acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, the enzyme responsible for fast hydrolysis of released acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses. In spinal cord of frog Rana pipiens, this enzyme’s activity was not significantly changed in the first days following ventral root transection, another model for studying neuropathic pain. An answerable question is whether SNT decreases AChE activity in spinal cord of frog Lithobates catesbeianus, a species that has been used as a model for studying SNT-induced neuropathic pain. Since each animal model has been created with a specific methodology, and the findings tend to vary widely with slight changes in the method used to induce pain, our study assessed AChE activity 3 and 10 days after complete SNT in lumbosacral spinal cord of adult male bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Because there are time scale differences of motor endplate maturation in rat skeletal muscles, our study also measured the AChE activity in bullfrog tibial posticus (a postural muscle and gastrocnemius (a typical skeletal muscle that is frequently used to study the motor system muscles. AChE activity did not show significant changes 3 and 10 days following SNT in spinal cord. Also, no significant change occurred in AChE activity in tibial posticus and gastrocnemius muscles at day 3. However, a significant decrease was found at day 10, with reductions of 18% and 20% in tibial posticus and gastrocnemius, respectively. At present we cannot explain this change in AChE activity. While temporally different, the direction of the change was similar to that described for rats. This similarity indicates that bullfrog is a valid model for investigating AChE activity following SNT.

  11. Morphological study on the pressure ulcer-like dermal lesions formed in the rat heel skin after transection of the sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Daijiro; Minami, Chie; Miyagawa, Miki; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Miki, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Due to transection of bilateral sciatic nerves, pressure ulcer-like dermal lesion occurred in the hairy skin covering of the heel skin in almost all rats. In the present study, chronological changes of the rat heel skin after the transection were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined. In the heel skin, redness and swelling began by 3days after the operation, and open wound formed by 17days. At the redness and swelling stage, edema extensively occurred in the dermis. At the thickening stage, the epidermis at the pressed site became transiently thicker, and at the whitening stage, rapidly thinner. At these stages, the epidermis in the skin surrounding the pressed site became gradually thicker. At the yellow scar stage, the skin was covered only by necrotic tissues and horny layer. These layers were scratched during walking and turning, and the yellow scar stage became the open wound stage. Inflammatory reaction began at the thickening stage, and at the yellow scar and open wound stages, necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells and dilation of small blood vessels were observed. These morphological features are quite similar to those in the human pressure ulcer. These findings suggest that these dermal injuries could compare the human pressure ulcer for medical treatment and depressurization in future study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor on Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in the lumbar spinal cord of neonatal rats after sciatic nerve transection

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    A.C.S. Rezende

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF is a cytokine that plays a neuroprotective role in relation to axotomized motoneurons. We determined the effect of daily subcutaneous doses of CNTF (1.2 µg/g for 5 days; N = 13 or PBS (N = 13 on the levels of mRNA for Bcl-2 and Bax, as well as the expression and inter-association of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, and the survival of motoneurons in the spinal cord lumbar enlargement of 2-day-old Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection. Five days after transection, the effects were evaluated on histological and molecular levels using Nissl staining, immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The motoneuron survival ratio, defined as the ratio between the number of motoneurons counted on the lesioned side vs those on the unlesioned side, was calculated. This ratio was 0.77 ± 0.02 for CNTF-treated rats vs 0.53 ± 0.02 for the PBS-treated controls (P < 0.001. Treatment with CNTF modified the level of mRNA, with the expression of Bax RNA decreasing 18% (with a consequent decrease in the level of Bax protein, while the expression of Bcl-2 RNA was increased 87%, although the level of Bcl-2 protein was unchanged. The amount of Bcl-2/Bax heterodimer increased 91% over that found in the PBS-treated controls. These data show, for the first time, that the neuroprotective effect of CNTF on neonatal rat axotomized motoneurons is associated with a reduction in free Bax, due to the inhibition of Bax expression, as well as increased Bcl-2/Bax heterodimerization. Thus, the neuroprotective action of the CNTF on axotomized motoneurons can be related to the inhibition of this apoptotic pathway.

  13. Effects of sciatic nerve transection on glucose uptake in the presence and absence of lactate in the frog dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord

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    F Rigon

    Full Text Available Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms because the simplicity of their nervous tissue and the phylogenetic aspect of this question. One of these models is the sciatic nerve transection (SNT, which mimics the clinical symptoms of “phantom limb”, a condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In mammals, the SNT increases glucose metabolism in the central nervous system, and the lactate generated appears to serve as an energy source for nerve cells. An answerable question is whether there is elevated glucose uptake in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG after peripheral axotomy. As glucose is the major energy substrate for frog nervous tissue, and these animals accumulate lactic acid under some conditions, bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus were used to demonstrate the effect of SNT on DRG and spinal cord 1-[14C] 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2-DG uptake in the presence and absence of lactate. We also investigated the effect of this condition on the formation of 14CO2 from 14C-glucose and 14C-L-lactate, and plasmatic glucose and lactate levels. The 3-O-[14C] methyl-D-glucose (14C-3-OMG uptake was used to demonstrate the steady-state tissue/medium glucose distribution ratio under these conditions. Three days after SNT, 14C-2-DG uptake increased, but 14C-3-OMG uptake remained steady. The increase in 14C-2-DG uptake was lower when lactate was added to the incubation medium. No change was found in glucose and lactate oxidation after SNT, but lactate and glucose levels in the blood were reduced. Thus, our results showed that SNT increased the glucose metabolism in the frog DRG and spinal cord. The effect of lactate on this uptake suggests that glucose is used in glycolytic pathways after SNT.

  14. Schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Shigeki; Mizuno, Kosaku [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    A 52-year-old woman with schwannomatosis in the left sciatic nerve is presented. The patient had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 or 2. Cutaneous or spinal schwannomas were not detected. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the sciatic nerve revealed more than 15 tumors along the course of the nerve. Histological examination revealed schwannomas consisting of Antoni A and B areas. Immunohistochemical study showed most cells reacting intensely for S-100 protein. The patient underwent conservative follow-up treatment due to the minimal symptoms. The relationship of the disease with NF-2 and plexiform schwannoma is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Late sciatic nerve axonotmesis following acetabular reconstruction plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, J; Foruria, X; Labayru, F

    2016-01-01

    Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures can be post-traumatic, perioperative or postoperative. Late postoperative injury is very uncommon and can be due to heterotopic ossifications, muscular scarring, or implant migration. A case is presented of a patient with a previous transverse acetabular fracture treated with a reconstruction plate for the posterior column. After 17 years, she presented with progressive pain and motor deficit in the sciatic territory. Radiological and neurophysiological assessments were performed and the patient underwent surgical decompression of the sciatic nerve. A transection of the nerve was observed that was due to extended compression of one of the screws. At 4 years postoperatively, her pain had substantially diminished and the paresthesias in her leg had resolved. However, her motor symptoms did not improve. This case report could be relevant due to this uncommon delayed sciatic nerve injury due to prolonged hardware impingement. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. A RARE BIFURCATION PATTERN OF THE SCIATIC NERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emran

    2017-08-17

    Aug 17, 2017 ... Variations in branching patterns of the sciatic nerve are thought to be clinically significant because of the nerve's extensive distribution area. Here we report a rare and unusual branching pattern of the sciatic nerve which was observed in a male cadaver. Sciatic nerve underwent a high division inside the ...

  17. Bilateral sciatic nerve axonotmesis after gluteal lipoaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Mejia, Alexander; Martínez, Jorge Rodríguez; León, David; Taylor, Jesse A; Gutierrez-Gomez, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    The number of lipoaugmentation procedures, and specifically the number of gluteal lipoaugmentations, has risen dramatically over the past decade. Though gluteal lipoaugmentation confers a pleasing hourglass profile with seemingly minimal risk, its risks have not been fully realized. We report the case of a healthy 35-year-old woman who suffered axonotmesis of the sciatic nerve due to direct lipoinjection into and around the nerve sheath. She was treated expectantly in our Peripheral Nerve Clinic for 3 months without evidence of improvement. Subsequently, she underwent internal and external neurolysis. Eighteen weeks after her neurolysis, she continues to demonstrate signs of severe peripheral neuropathy, but has begun to show signs of nerve regeneration. This is the first reported case of sciatic nerve axonotmesis due to gluteal lipoaugmentation. It highlights the importance of a thorough knowledge of gluteal anatomy and a consciousness of the risks involved with lipoaugmentation of deep structures.

  18. Up-regulation of Robo1 in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... peripheral nervous system, this study investigated the expression profile of Robo1 in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were untreated (n = 8), or received SNT (n = 40), were analyzed. DRG from each treatment group at days.

  19. Up-regulation of Robo1 in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the role of Robo in peripheral nervous system, this study investigated the expression profile of Robo1 in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were untreated (n = 8), or received SNT (n = 40), were analyzed. DRG from each ...

  20. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian

    2009-01-01

    , peroneal neuropathy was suspected. The case illustrates that sciatic intraneural perineuriomas do occur in early childhood, and that traction on the sciatic nerve may result in earlier damage to the peroneal nerve than to the tibial nerve, thus mimicking a more peripheral lesion....

  1. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Songtao Gao; Yan Zheng; Qiqing Cai; Zhansheng Deng; Weitao Yao; Jiaqiang Wang; Xin Wang; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and tra...

  2. Levels of Bifurcation of the Sciatic Nerve among Ugandans at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sciatic nerve is derived from the lumbo-sacral plexus, It is the thickest nerve in the whole body, it exits the gluteal region through the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, it is the main innervator of the posterior thigh, the leg and foot, it usually ends halfway down the back of the thigh by dividing into the ...

  3. Bilateral sciatic nerve injury is a possible iatrogenic complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injection-induced sciatic nerve palsy is a major iatrogenic problem which results in disability among children under 6-years-old in the developing countries. It manifests as paresis in the muscles supplied by sciatic nerve distribution associated with a burning pain in the affected extremity. Its sequela is a deformity that limits ...

  4. Electrospun silk-polyaniline conduits for functional nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Muir, Elizabeth M; Bora, Utpal

    2017-08-17

    The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin (PASF) nanocomposite-based nerve conduits and their subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline-based nerve conduits describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesized by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles. Tubular shaped nerve conduits were subsequently formed by multiple rolling of the electrospun sheet over a stainless steel mandrel. The conduits were characterized in vitro for their physico-chemical properties as well as their compatibility with rat Schwann cells. Upon implantation in a 10 mm sciatic nerve injury model, the conduits were evaluated for their neuro-regenerative potential through extensive electrophysiological studies and monitoring of gait pattern over a course of 12 months. Gross examination, histological and ultra-structure analyses of the conduits and the regenerated nerve were also performed to evaluate morphological regeneration of transected nerve. PASF nanocomposite conduits seeded with Schwann cell (cell seeded PASF) exhibited excellent nerve conduction velocity (NCV) (50 m s(-1)), compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (12.8 mV), motor unit potential (MUP) (124 μV), growth of healthy tissue along the nerve gap and thick myelination of axons 12 months after implantation indicating enhanced neuro-regeneration. The excellent functional recovery achieved by animals implanted with cell seeded PASF conduits (86.2% NCV; 80.00% CMAP; 76.07% MUP) are superior to outcomes achieved previously with similar electrically conductive conduits. We believe that the present study would encourage further research in developing electrically active neural implants using synthetic conducting

  5. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); University College London, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Dyck, P. James B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  6. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

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    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-05-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images.

  7. Bilateral high division of the sciatic nerve: incidence and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The sciatic nerve (L4-S3) comprised of the tibial and common fibular (peroneal) components contained in the same epineural sheath usually leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen beneath the piriformis muscle. They usually separate in the lower thigh above the popiteal fossa. Variations in this ...

  8. Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley; da Cunha, Rafael Martins; Rodrigues, Amanda Karine Barros; Ramos, Fernando Wagner da Silva; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. The study was conducted by dissection of human cadavers' popliteal fossa, fixed in 10% formalin, from the Laboratory of Human Anatomy and Morphology Departments of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas and Universidade de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas. Access to the sciatic nerve was obtained. 44 popliteal fossa were analyzed. The bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in relation to the apex of the fossa was observed. There was bifurcation in: 67.96% below the apex, 15.90% above the apex, 11.36% near the apex, and 4.78% in the gluteal region. The sciatic nerve bifurcation to its branches occurs at various levels, and the chance to succeed when the needle is placed between 5 and 7 cm above the popliteal is 95.22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. [Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley; Cunha, Rafael Martins da; Rodrigues, Amanda Karine Barros; Ramos, Fernando Wagner da Silva; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando de

    2015-01-01

    Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. The study was conducted by dissection of human cadavers' popliteal fossa, fixed in 10% formalin, from the Laboratory of Human Anatomy and Morphology Departments of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas and Universidade de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas. Access to the sciatic nerve was obtained. 44 popliteal fossa were analyzed. The bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in relation to the apex of the fossa was observed. There was bifurcation in: 67.96% below the apex, 15.90% above the apex, 11.36% near the apex, and 4.78% in the gluteal region. The sciatic nerve bifurcation to its branches occurs at various levels, and the chance to succeed when the needle is placed between 5 and 7 cm above the popliteal is 95.22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Histopathological effects of intramuscular metamizole sodium on rat sciatic nerve

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    Abdurrahman Emir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: We investigated the histopathological effects of metamizole sodium (MS on the sciatic nerve.  Materials and Methods: This study was performed using 48 adult male Wistar albino rats. Ten groups were constituted with 6 rats in each group. MS injection into the sciatic nerve (group 1, MS injection into the muscle [group 3 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml and group 5 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml], MS injection into the muscle cavity in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 2 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml and group 4 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml], normal saline injection into the muscle in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 6A (0.4 ml and 6B (0.8 ml], subjected to injury by drilling the entire layer of nerve without injecting any drug, normal saline injection in the sciatic nerve, and control group. Nerve and muscle samples were taken 7 days after administrations. Tissue sections were stained using a hematoxylin and eosin-Luxol® fast blue stain, assessed by a histologist. Results: The levels of axonal degeneration of the rats in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6A, and  8 were found to be significantly higher compared to the levels of the rats in the control group (P

  11. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A rare bifurcation pattern of the sciatic nerve | Huq | Anatomy Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in branching patterns of the sciatic nerve are thought to be clinically significant because of the nerve's extensive distribution area. Here we report a rare and unusual branching pattern of the sciatic nerve which was observed in a male cadaver. Sciatic nerve underwent a high division inside the pelvic cavity, and ...

  13. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  14. Intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma leads to sciatic nerve palsy

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    Ichikawa Jiro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft tissue metastases, in particular intraneural metastasis, from any carcinomas seldom occur. To our knowledge, no case of sciatic nerve palsy due to intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma is reported in the literature. Case presentation A case is reported of a 82-year old woman with sciatic nerve palsy with intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Although she had undergone partial gastrectomy with T2b, N0, M0 two years ago and primary site was cured, she developed sciatic nerve palsy from the carcinoma metastasis directly to the nerve. Operative resection and Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, the same as her primary site adenocarcinoma. Conclusions Sciatica is usually caused by a herniated disc or spinal canal stenosis. Sciatic nerve palsy may be caused by nondiscogenic etiologies that may be either intrapelvic or extrapelvic. It is important to image the entire course of the nerve to distinguish these etiologies quickly. The longer the nerve compression the less likely a palsy will recover. Surgery is a good intervention that simultaneously obtains a tissue diagnosis and decompresses the nerve.

  15. Injection inside the paraneural sheath of the sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Lykke; Andersen, Sofie L; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    There exists little anatomic knowledge regarding the structure and sonographic features of the sheath enveloping the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa. We investigated the spread of an injection inside the sheath to (1) determine whether the sheath is a structure distinct from the nerve or par...

  16. VARIATIONS IN DIVISION OF SCIATIC NERVE: A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Vino Victor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sciatic nerve is the largest and thickest nerve in the body. It arises from the lumbar plexus within the pelvis. The nerve emerges from the pelvis to enter into its component nerves –tibial and common peroneal nerve. The division normally occurs at the lower apex of the superior angle of popliteal fossa of the thigh. However the division shows variations which may be inside the pelvis or outside the pelvis When outside, the division may occur anywhere from exit to apex of the popliteal fossa where nerve normally divides. These abnormal divisions of the may be aetiological factors for the pathologies related to the nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was done on twenty cadavers used in routine dissection for the under graduate students from Kanyakumari Government Medical College, Asaripalam, Nagarcoil, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu. The cadavers were fixed in 10% in formalin, glycerine, isopropylol, and sodium chloride solution. Of these, two cadavers showed higher division of sciatic nerve. The division has occurred at the lower border of piriform is and divided nerve has emerged from the lower border of the pyriformis. Variations were seen on both the sides in these two bodies. CONCLUSION A thorough knowledge of division sciatic nerve helps in differential diagnosis of sciatica of various origins & its management by the different treatment methods.

  17. The Histological Effects of Ozone Therapy on Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somay, Hakan; Emon, Selin Tural; Uslu, Serap; Orakdogen, Metin; Meric, Zeynep Cingu; Ince, Umit; Hakan, Tayfun

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common, important problem that lacks a definitive, effective treatment. It can cause neurologic deficits ranging from paresthesia to paralysis. This study evaluated the effect of ozone therapy on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into control sham surgery, sciatic nerve injury, and sciatic nerve injury with ozone groups (each n = 8). The sciatic nerve injury was inflicted via De Koning's crush-force method. The sciatic nerve injury group received medical air and the sciatic nerve injury ozone group received 0.7 mg/kg ozone. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 4 weeks after injury. Vascular congestion, vacuolization, edema formation, S100 expression, and the thicknesses of the perineurium and endoneurium and diameter of the injured sciatic nerves were evaluated. The diameter of the sciatic nerve and thicknesses of the perineurium and epineurium were significantly greater in the sciatic nerve injury group (P ozone group (P ozone group (P Ozone therapy improved sciatic nerve injury recovery without causing an increase in fibrotic tissue. Ozone reduced fibrosis, vascular congestion, vacuolization, and edema in rodents. Ozone treatment might be used to assist in sciatic nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve mm9 All antigens Neural Sciatic Nerve SRX815106,SRX8...15105 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve.bed ...

  2. Acetabular paralabral cyst causing compression of the sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh BAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetabular paralabral cysts are common. They vary in their clinical presentation and may be asymptomatic or cause pain and restriction at the hip joint. In rare instances they may cause symptoms by compressing local neurovascular structures. We report a case of symptomatic compression of the sciatic nerve by a posteriorly displaced acetabular paralabral cyst.

  3. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, in children, gluteal injection of quinine dihydrochloride (QDH) may result in damage to the sciatic nerve. Forty-six children were seen with foot drop following intramuscular injections in the same limb. They were analyzed for the type of injection, injection site, route of injection, the ...

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-07-25

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  5. Effects of ozone on sciatic nerve in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Chen, H; Lu, C; Wang, B; Zhang, Y; He, X; Yu, B

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O(3)) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0 μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O(2) was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone generator (Ozone Line Co, Italy). The rats were investigated by both gross measurement and behavioral changes. One day, one week and three weeks after injection, rat hindlimb footprints were measured and the sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was calculated, and after three weeks, all right sciatic nerves were exposed under anesthesia. Near neural stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve was calculated and nerve conduction velocity, latency and maximum amplitude recorded. Animals were sacrificed for pathology, and ipsilateral triceps surae were taken for wet weight. No serious behavioral abnormalities were observed in any animal. SFI comparison in the various times and various groups showed no significant differences (pozone concentrations from 10 μg/ml to 80 μg/ml injected around rat's peripheral nerve will not cause serious sequelae or serious damage to the structure and function of peripheral nerve. This finding provides evidence of the safety of ozone injected around the peripheral nerve.

  6. Sonographic evaluation of sciatic nerves in patients with unilateral sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Murat; Özçakar, Levent; Tiftik, Tülay; Kaymak, Bayram; Özel, Sumru; Akkuş, Selami; Akinci, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the sciatic nerves of patients with unilateral sciatica by using an ultrasound, and to determine whether ultrasonographic findings were related to clinical and electrophysiologic parameters. Cross-sectional study. Physical medicine and rehabilitation departments of a university hospital and a rehabilitation hospital. Consecutive patients (N=30; 10 men, 20 women) with complaints of low back pain and unilateral sciatica of more than 1 month of duration were enrolled. Not applicable. All patients underwent a substantial clinical assessment, and they were also evaluated by electromyogram and magnetic resonance imaging. Pain was evaluated by a visual analog scale and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) Scale. A linear array probe (7.5-12MHz) was used to scan sciatic nerves bilaterally in the prone position. Sciatic nerve diameters-thickness (short axis) and width (long axis)-and cross-sectional areas were measured bilaterally at the same levels, proximal to the bifurcation and midthigh. The values pertaining to the unaffected limbs were taken as controls. When compared with the unaffected sides, mean values for sciatic nerve measurements-long axis at bifurcation level (P=.017) and cross-sectional area at midthigh level (P=.005)-were significantly larger on the affected sides. Swelling ratios negatively correlated with symptom duration (r=-.394, P=.038) and LANSS scores (r=-.451, P=.016) at only midthigh level. Sciatic nerves seem to be enlarged on the side of sciatica in patients with low back pain. Our preliminary results may provide insight into better understanding the lower limb radiating pain in this group of patients. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in contralateral protein metabolism following unilateral sciatic nerve section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J.A.; Cubas, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    Changes in nerve biochemistry, anatomy, and function following injuries to the contralateral nerve have been repeatedly reported, though their significance is unknown. The most likely mechanisms for their development are either substances carried by axoplasmic flow or electrically transmitted signals. This study analyzes which mechanism underlies the development of a contralateral change in protein metabolism. The incorporation of labelled amino acids (AA) into proteins of both sciatic nerves was assessed by liquid scintillation after an unilateral section. AA were offered locally for 30 min to the distal stump of the sectioned nerves and at homologous levels of the intact contralateral nerves. At various times, from 1 to 24 h, both sciatic nerves were removed and the proteins extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). An increase in incorporation was found in both nerves 14-24 h after section. No difference existed between sectioned and intact nerves, which is consistent with the contralateral effect. Lidocaine, but not colchicine, when applied previously to the nerves midway between the sectioning site and the spinal cord, inhibited the contralateral increase in AA incorporation. It is concluded that electrical signals, crossing through the spinal cord, are responsible for the development of the contralateral effect. Both the nature of the proteins and the significance of the contralateral effect are matters for speculation.

  8. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  9. Electrical stimulation does not enhance nerve regeneration if delayed after sciatic nerve injury: the role of fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate and enhance nerve regeneration in sensory and motor neurons after injury, but there is little evidence that focuses on the varying degrees of fibrosis in the delayed repair of peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, a rat model of sciatic nerve transection injury was repaired with a biodegradable conduit at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 2 months after injury, when the rats were divided into two subgroups. In the experimental group, rats were treated with electrical stimuli of frequency of 20 Hz, pulse width 100 ms and direct current voltage of 3 V; while rats in the control group received no electrical stimulation after the conduit operation. Histological results showed that stained collagen fibers comprised less than 20% of the total operated area in the two groups after delayed repair at both 1 day and 1 week but after longer delays, the collagen fiber area increased with the time after injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression level of transforming growth factor β (an indicator of tissue fibrosis decreased at both 1 day and 1 week after delayed repair but increased at both 1 and 2 months after delayed repair. These findings indicate that if the biodegradable conduit repair combined with electrical stimulation is delayed, it results in a poor outcome following sciatic nerve injury. One month after injury, tissue degeneration and distal fibrosis are apparent and are probably the main reason why electrical stimulation fails to promote nerve regeneration after delayed repair.

  10. Sericin protects against diabetes-induced injuries in sciatic nerve and related nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengjun; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhong, Meirong; Chen, Zhihong

    2013-02-25

    Sericin from discarded silkworm cocoons of silk reeling has been used in different fields, such as cosmetology, skin care, nutrition, and oncology. The present study established a rat model of type 2 diabetes by consecutive intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (25 mg/kg) streptozotocin. After intragastrical perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly declined, and the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in L4-6 spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly increased. However, the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly decreased in model rats. These findings indicate that sericin protected the sciatic nerve and related nerve cells against injury in a rat type 2 diabetic model by upregulating the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells, and downregulating the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells.

  11. N-Propionylmannosamine stimulates axonal elongation in a murine model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Witzel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that sialic acid plays an important role during nerve regeneration. Sialic acids can be modified in vitro as well as in vivo using metabolic oligosaccharide engineering of the N-acyl side chain. N-Propionylmannosamine (ManNProp increases neurite outgrowth and accelerates the reestablishment of functional synapses in vitro. We investigated the influence of systemic ManNProp application using a specific in vivo mouse model. Using mice expressing axonal fluorescent proteins, we quantified the extension of regenerating axons, the number of regenerating axons, the number of arborising axons and the number of branches per axon 5 days after injury. Sciatic nerves from non-expressing mice were grafted into those expressing yellow fluorescent protein. We began a twice-daily intraperitoneal application of either peracetylated ManNProp (200 mg/kg or saline solution 5 days before injury, and continued it until nerve harvest (5 days after transection. ManNProp significantly increased the mean distance of axonal regeneration (2.49 mm vs. 1.53 mm; P < 0.005 and the number of arborizing axons (21% vs. 16% P = 0.008 5 days after sciatic nerve grafting. ManNProp did not affect the number of regenerating axons or the number of branches per arborizing axon. The biochemical glycoengineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid might be a promising approach for improving peripheral nerve regeneration.

  12. Exenatide promotes regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve

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    Ersin Kuyucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to peripheral nerves results in partial or complete dysfunction. After peripheral nerve injuries, a full functional recovery usually cannot be achieved despite the standard surgical repairs. Neurotrophic factors and growth factors stimulate axonal growth and support the viability of nerve cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the neurotrophic effect of exenatide (glucagon like peptide-1 analog in a rat sciatic nerve neurotmesis model. We injected 10 μg/d exenatide for 12 weeks in the experimental group (n = 12 and 0.1 mL/d saline for 12 weeks in the control group (n = 12. We evaluated nerve regeneration by conducting electrophysiological and motor functional tests. Histological changes were evaluated at weeks 1, 3, 6, and 9. Nerve regeneration was monitored using stereomicroscopy. The electrophysiological and motor functions in rats treated with exenatide were improved at 12 weeks after surgery. Histological examination revealed a significant increase in the number of axons in injured sciatic nerve following exenatide treatment confirmed by stereomicroscopy. In an experimentally induced neurotmesis model in rats, exenatide had a positive effect on nerve regeneration evidenced by electromyography, functional motor tests, histological and stereomicroscopic findings.

  13. Episomal Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Promote Functional Recovery of Transected Murine Peripheral Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Yuen Yung Loh

    Full Text Available Traumatic peripheral nerve neurotmesis occurs frequently and functional recovery is often slow and impaired. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have shown much promise in recent years due to its regenerative properties similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, the potential of iPSCs in promoting the functional recovery of a transected peripheral nerve is largely unknown. This study is the first to investigate in vivo effects of episomal iPSCs (EiPSCs on peripheral nerve regeneration in a murine sciatic nerve transection model. Episomal iPSCs refer to iPSCs that are generated via Oct3/4-Klf4-Sox2 plasmid reprogramming instead of the conventional viral insertion techniques. It represents a relatively safer form of iPSC production without permanent transgene integration which may raise questions regarding risks of genomic mutation. A minimal number of EiPSCs were added directly to the transected nerve. Functional recovery of the EiPSC group was significantly improved compared to the negative control group when assessed via serial five-toe spread measurement and gait analysis of ankle angles. EiPSC promotion of nerve regeneration was also evident on stereographic analysis of axon density, myelin thickness, and axonal cross-sectional surface area. Most importantly, the results observed in EiPSCs are similar to that of the embryonic stem cell group. A roughly ten-fold increase in neurotrophin-3 levels was seen in EiPSCs which could have contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery. No abnormal masses or adverse effects were noted with EiPSC administration after one year of follow-up. We have hence shown that functional recovery of the transected peripheral nerve can be improved with the use of EiPSC therapy, which holds promise for the future of nerve regeneration.

  14. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Właszczuk, Adam; Gendosz, Daria; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Kapustka, Bartosz; Łączyński, Mariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.

  15. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat's Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, C Y; Yao, C H; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W C; Bau, D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Resu...

  16. A prospective randomised controlled trial of ultrasound guided versus nerve stimulation guided distal sciatic nerve block at the popliteal fossa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, G.J. van; Broek, E. van den; Braak, G.J.J.; Giele, J.L.P.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The direct visualisation of nerves and adjacent anatomical structures may make ultrasonography the preferred method for nerve localisation. In this prospective randomised study, we investigated whether, for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa, an ultrasound guided technique would

  17. Intrinsic microvasculature of the sciatic nerve in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Mair; Twynstra, Jasna; Vercnocke, Andrew J; Welch, Ian; Jorgensen, Steve M; Ritman, Erik L; Holdsworth, David W; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Microvasculature associated with the sciatic nerve was examined using high-resolution micro-CT scanning in one group of rats and surgical exploration in another. The results indicate that blood supply to the sciatic nerve is an "open-ended" system in which the vessels run longitudinally within the epineurium and connect with external vasculature primarily at junction points. Although the range of vasculature found extended down to 4-5 μ, only a few isolated vessels of this size were found, with no capillary "mesh" as such, possibly because of the close proximity of the intrinsic vessel to nerve fibers within the epineurium. While the study did not include direct measurements of flow or nerve function, the "open-ended" pattern of vasculature found has important implications regarding the relationship between the two. Specifically, the nerve is less vulnerable to a severe or complete disruption in blood supply than it would be under a close-ended system such as that of the heart or brain, where a severe disruption can occur with the obstruction of only a single vessel. Indeed, the pattern of vasculature found, subject to further study of vasculature at the capillary level, suggests that flow within the intrinsic vessels may be in either direction, depending on circumstances, somewhat like flow within the circle of Willis in the cerebral circulation. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  18. A rare case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocchia, Aron; Reyes, Alma; Wilson, Jon; Les, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (NF-5) is an extremely rare variant of neurofibromatosis involving a single extremity without pathologic features beyond the midline. A case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve and its branches is presented with a detailed description of the patient's preoperative findings plus postoperative course through 1-year follow-up. Clinical, histologic, and genetic findings are given along with a brief review of the literature on segmental neurofibromatosis. Last, treatment options and postoperative care recommendations are provided.

  19. Sciatic nerve block performed with nerve stimulation technique in an amputee a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, C.; Kristensen, Billy

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a sciatic nerve block performed with the nerve stimulation technique. This technique is normally not used in amputees because detection of a motor response to an electrical stimulation is impossible. In our patient the stimulation provoked a phantom sensation of movement...

  20. Detection and prevalence of variant sciatic nerve anatomy in relation to the piriformis muscle on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varenika, Vanja; Bucknor, Matthew D. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lutz, Amelie M.; Beaulieu, Christopher F. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether known variant anatomical relationships between the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle can be identified on routine MRI studies of the hip and to establish their imaging prevalence. Hip MRI studies acquired over a period of 4 years at two medical centers underwent retrospective interpretation. Anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle was categorized according to the Beaton and Anson classification system. The presence of a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity was also recorded. A total of 755 consecutive scans were reviewed. Conventional anatomy (type I), in which an undivided sciatic nerve passes below the piriformis muscle, was identified in 87% of cases. The remaining 13% of cases demonstrated a type II pattern in which one division of the sciatic nerve passes through the piriformis whereas the second passes below. Only two other instances of variant anatomy were identified (both type III). Most variant cases were associated with a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity (73 out of 111, 65.8%). By contrast, only 6% of cases demonstrated a split sciatic nerve at this level in the context of otherwise conventional anatomy. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course in relation to the piriformis muscle are frequently identified on routine MRI of the hips, occurring in 12-20% of scans reviewed. Almost all variants identified were type II. The ability to recognize variant sciatic nerve courses on MRI may prove useful in optimal treatment planning. (orig.)

  1. Dexmedetomidine to Help Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DXM, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, also has neuroprotective effects. However, its effect on impaired peripheral nerve regeneration has not been studied. Materials and Methods. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 (control SHAM, group 2 (sciatic nerve injury + normal saline, and group 3 (sciatic nerve injury + DXM. The rats of group 3 were subdivided into the following three groups: DXM 0.5, 6, and 20 μg·kg−1 (groups 3A, 3B, and 3C, resp.. The sciatic nerve injury was assessed for nerve regeneration at 2 and 6 weeks. Results. There were no differences between groups 2 and 3 in their sciatic functional index (SFI values or histological findings at 2 weeks postinjury. However, SFI differences were statistically significant at 6 weeks postinjury in group 3. The gross findings with H&E staining showed that the number of axons was higher in group 3 than in group 2. There was no histological difference according to the DXM concentration. Conclusion. The coincidental functional and histological assessment results of this study suggest that DXM for 6 weeks positively affects damaged peripheral nerves.

  2. Excursion of the Sciatic Nerve During Nerve Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Cross-sectional Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppieters, M.W.J.; Andersen, L.S.; Johansen, R.; Giskegjerde, P.K.; Høivik, M.; Vestre, S.; Nee, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory crosssectional study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether different types of neurodynamic techniques result in differences in longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. BACKGROUND: Large differences in nerve biomechanics have

  3. Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tae-beom SEO In-sun HAN Jin-hwan YOON In-chan SEOL Yun-sik KIM Hyun-kyung JO Joung-jo AN Kwon-eui HONG Young-bae SEO Dong-hee KIM Seung-kiel PARK Deok-chun YANG Uk NAMGUNG

    2006-01-01

    .... The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury. Methods...

  4. Effects of Ozone on Sciatic Nerve in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Q.; Chen, H.; Lu, C.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; He, X.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O3) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O2 was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone ge...

  5. Nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Adami, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    To describe the nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis. Prospective clinical trial. Five captive raptors (Falco peregrinus) aged 6.7 ± 1.3 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The sciatic-femoral nerve block was performed with 2% lidocaine (0.05 mL kg(-1) per nerve) as the sole intra-operative analgesic treatment. Intraoperative physiological variables were recorded every 10 minutes from endotracheal intubation until the end of anaesthesia. Assessment of intraoperative nociception was based on changes in physiological variables above baseline values, while evaluation of postoperative pain relied on species-specific behavioural indicators. The sciatic-femoral nerve block was feasible in raptors and the motor responses following electrical stimulation of both nerves were consistent with those reported in mammalian species. During surgery no rescue analgesia was required. The anaesthesia plane was stable and cardiorespiratory variables did not increase significantly in response to surgical stimulation. Iatrogenic complications, namely nerve damage and local anaesthetic toxicity, did not occur. Recovery was smooth and uneventful. The duration (mean ± SD) of the analgesic effect provided by the nerve block was 130 ± 20 minutes. The sciatic-femoral nerve block as described in dogs and rabbits can be performed in raptors as well. Further clinical trials with a control groups are required to better investigate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of this technique in raptors. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) ...

  7. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) administration of ...

  8. Concentration-dependent neurotoxicity of articaine: an electrophysiological and stereological study of the rat sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Bakke, Merete; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to quantify the detrimental effect of intraneural injection of 50 μL of saline, articaine 2%, or articaine 4% in the rat sciatic nerve.......We performed this study to quantify the detrimental effect of intraneural injection of 50 μL of saline, articaine 2%, or articaine 4% in the rat sciatic nerve....

  9. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after ultrasound-guided blockade of the sciatic nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Kadic, L.; Driessen, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study, we assessed the relationship between subgluteal sciatic nerve blocking and skin temperature by infrared thermography in the lower extremity. We hypothesized that blocking the sciatic nerve will lead to an increase in temperature, and that this will correlate with

  10. Anatomical variations in the level of bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sciatic nerve, the largest nerve in the body is derived from the sacral plexus. It is composed of tibial and common fibular nerves; the division of this nerve varies; it may occur within the pelvis, gluteal region, upper, mid and lower part of thigh. Injury of the nerve may lead to loss of sensation in posterior thigh, ...

  11. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowen; Ma, Jun; Wei, Qingwei; Feng, Xinxin; Qiao, Lu; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Binqing; Yu, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI), expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:27143985

  12. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI, expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  13. [Distal sciatic nerve blocks: randomized comparison of nerve stimulation and ultrasound guided intraepineural block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R; Natge, U; Schulz, J

    2013-03-01

    The design of this study is related to an important current issue: should local anesthetics be intentionally injected into peripheral nerves? Answering this question is not possible without better knowledge regarding classical methods of nerve localization (e.g. cause of paresthesias and nerve stimulation technique). Have intraneural injections ever been avoided? This prospective, randomized comparison of distal sciatic nerve block with ultrasound guidance tested the hypothesis that intraneural injection of local anesthetics using the nerve stimulation technique is common and associated with a higher success rate. In this study 250 adult patients were randomly allocated either to the nerve stimulation group (group NS, n = 125) or to the ultrasound guidance group (group US, n = 125). The sciatic nerve was anesthetized with 20 ml prilocaine 1% and 10 ml ropivacaine 0.75%. In the US group the goal was an intraepineural needle position. In the NS group progress of the block was observed by a second physician using ultrasound imaging but blinded for the investigator performing the nerve stimulation. The main outcome variables were time until readiness for surgery (performance time and onset time), success rate and frequency of paresthesias. In the NS group needle positions and corresponding stimulation thresholds were recorded. In both groups seven patients were excluded from further analysis because of protocol violation. In the NS group (n = 118) the following needle positions were estimated: intraepineural (NS 1, n = 51), extraparaneural (NS 2, n = 33), needle tip dislocation from intraepineural to extraparaneural while injecting local anesthetic (NS 3, n = 19) and other or not determined needle positions (n = 15). Paresthesias indicated an intraneural needle position with an odds ratio of 27.4 (specificity 98.8%, sensitivity 45.9%). The success rate without supplementation was significantly higher in the US group (94.9% vs. 61.9%, p

  14. A unique quadrifurcation of the sciatic nerve in the lower leg | Russa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciatic nerve is the largest nerve of the body supplying the entire posterior aspect of the lower limb. Taking its origin from the lumbosacral plexus, the nerve divides into its terminal branches at the superior angle of the popliteal fossa. Variant division patterns of the nerve especially those occurring in the thigh and the ...

  15. The effect of aloe vera on ischemia--Reperfusion injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Aslan, Esra; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Cosar, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Aloe vera is compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of aloe vera treatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury. Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups; Control group (no surgical procedure or medication), sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group, sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+aloe vera group and sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+methylprednisolone group. Ischemia was performed by clamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta. 24 hours after ischemia, all animals were sacrificed. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically and biochemically. Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly decreased in the pre-treated with aloe vera and treated with methylprednisolone groups, especially in the pre-treated with aloe vera group, compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group (paloe vera group was not statistically different compared to the MP group (p>0.05). Aloe vera is effective neuroprotective against sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Also aloe vera was found to be as effective as MP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Excursion of the Sciatic Nerve During Nerve Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Cross-sectional Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Michel W; Andersen, Line S; Johansen, Runar; Giskegjerde, Per K; Høivik, Mona; Vestre, Siv; Nee, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Controlled laboratory cross-sectional study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. To determine whether different types of neurodynamic techniques result in differences in longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. Large differences in nerve biomechanics have been demonstrated for different neurodynamic techniques for the upper limb (median nerve), but recent findings for the sciatic nerve have only revealed small differences in nerve excursion that may not be clinically meaningful. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to quantify longitudinal sciatic nerve movement in the thigh of 15 asymptomatic participants during 6 different mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerve involving the hip and knee. Healthy volunteers were selected to demonstrate normal nerve biomechanics and to eliminate potentially confounding variables associated with dysfunction. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to analyze the data. The techniques resulted in markedly different amounts of nerve movement (Pneurodynamic exercises for the lower limb resulted in markedly different sciatic nerve excursions. Considering the continuity of the nervous system, the movement and position of adjacent joints have a large impact on nerve biomechanics.

  17. Sciatic nerve injury caused by a stretching exercise in a trained dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ho Yong; Lim, Oh Kyung; Bae, Keun Hwan; Park, Seok Min; Lee, Ju Kang; Park, Ki Deok

    2013-12-01

    Sciatic nerve injury after stretching exercise is uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old female trained dancer who developed sciatic neuropathy primarily involving the tibial division after routine stretching exercise. The patient presented with dysesthesia and weakness of the right foot during dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The mechanism of sciatic nerve injury could be thought as hyperstretching alone, not caused by both hyperstretching and compression. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of the right sciatic neuropathy from the gluteal fold to the distal tibial area, and partial tear of the left hamstring origin and fluid collection between the left hamstring and ischium without left sciatic nerve injury. Recovery of motor weakness was obtained by continuous rehabilitation therapy and some evidence of axonal regeneration was obtained by follow-up electrodiagnostic testing performed at 3, 5, and 12 months after injury.

  18. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Macher Teodori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1, those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14, injured rats not submitted to swimming (C, and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S. After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P0.05. Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury.

  19. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  20. Recording nerve signals in canine sciatic nerves with a flexible penetrating microelectrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Donghak; Cho, Sung-Joon; Lee, Byeong Han; Min, Joongkee; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. Approach. For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves. The uniformity of tip exposure and in vitro electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterized. The capability of the device to acquire in vivo electrophysiological signals was evaluated by implanting the FPMA assembly in canine sciatic nerves acutely as well as chronically for 4 weeks. We also examined the histology of implanted tissues to evaluate the damage caused by the device. Main results. Throughout recording sessions, we observed successful multi-channel recordings (up to 73% of viable electrode channels) of evoked afferent and spontaneous nerve unit spikes with high signal quality (SNR  >  4.9). Also, minor influences of the device implantation on the morphology of nerve tissues were found. Significance. The presented results demonstrate the viability of the developed FPMA device in the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, thereby bringing us a step closer to human applications. Furthermore, the obtained data provide a driving force toward a further study for device improvements to be used as a bidirectional neural interface in humans.

  1. Slow-releasing rapamycin-coated bionic peripheral nerve scaffold promotes the regeneration of rat sciatic nerve after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tan; Zhu, Chao; Yin, Jun-Bin; Zhang, Ting; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Ren, Jun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of locally slow-released rapamycin (RAPA) from the bionic peripheral nerve scaffold on rat sciatic nerve regeneration in the early phase of nerve injury. Slow-releasing RAPA-polyhydroxy alcohol (PLGA) microspheres were prepared and tested for microsphere diameter and slow-release effect in vitro after loading onto nerve scaffold. A total of 48 male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and 3 experimental groups as follows: group 1: RAPA-PLGA scaffold; group 2: RAPA scaffold; and group 3: scaffold alone. In the control group, a 15mm sciatic nerve was excised and religated reversely. In the experimental groups, the scaffolds were used to bridge a defect of 15mm sciatic nerve. The outcome of nerve regeneration was evaluated using neurophysiological and neuromuscular morphological techniques. The RAPA-PLGA microspheres displayed a smooth exterior. The slow-release of RAPA in group 1 lasted for 14days. The sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and electrophysiological and morphological features were examined 12weeks after the surgery in all groups to reveal various degrees of ipsilateral sciatic nerve regeneration. The SFI values at 12weeks showed no significant difference between the RAPA-PLGA scaffold and control groups; morphological observations revealed that the outcomes of nerve regeneration in the above 2 groups were similar and significantly better than those in the RAPA scaffold and scaffold alone groups. RAPA-PLGA microsphere-loaded bionic peripheral nerve scaffold gradually released RAPA locally in the early phase of sciatic nerve regeneration, reduced the secondary nerve injury, and evidently promoted the regeneration of peripheral nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Yurie

    Full Text Available Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological, tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit.We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6 and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6. Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery.Kinematic analysis revealed that the toe angle to the metatarsal bone at the final segment of the swing phase was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (-35.78 ± 10.68 versus -62.48 ± 6.15, respectively; p < 0.01. Electrophysiological studies revealed significantly higher compound muscle action potential in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (53.60 ± 26.36% versus 2.93 ± 1.84%; p < 0.01. Histological and morphological studies revealed neural cell expression in all regions of the regenerated nerves and the presence of many well-myelinated axons in the Bio 3D group. The wet muscle weight of the tibialis anterior muscle was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (0.544 ± 0.063 versus 0.396 ± 0.031, respectively; p < 0.01.We confirmed that scaffold-free Bio 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

  3. Case Report: Sciatic nerve schwannoma - a rare cause of sciatica [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report a rare case of a sciatic nerve schwannoma causing sciatica in a 69-year-old female. Sciatic nerve schwannoma is a rare entity. It should always be considered as a possible cause of sciatica in patients that present with symptoms of sciatica with no prolapsed disc in the lumbar spine and a negative crossed straight leg raise test. Timely diagnosis and complete excision of the lesion leads to complete resolution of the symptoms of such patients.

  4. Lateral Supratrochanteric Approach to Sciatic and Femoral Nerve Blocks in Children: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Albokrinov, Andrew A.; Fesenko, Ulbolhan A.; Huz, Taras B.; Perova-Sharonova, Valentyna M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sciatic and femoral nerve blocks (SNB and FNB) result in effective lower limb analgesia. Classical SNB and FNB require patient repositioning which can cause pain and discomfort. Alternative approaches to sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in supine patients can be useful. Materials and Methods. Neurostimulator-guided SNB and FNB from the lateral supratrochanteric approach were performed. Local anesthetic spread in SNB and FNB after radiographic opacification was analyzed. Time and n...

  5. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Shows Transneuronal Tracing after Injection in an Injured Sciatic Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Qin Lai

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB has been extensively used in the past for monosynaptic mapping. For decades, it was thought to lack the ability of transneuronal tracing. In order to investigate whether biotin conjugates of CTB (b-CTB would pass through transneurons in the rat spinal cord, it was injected into the crushed left sciatic nerve. For experimental control, the first order afferent neuronal projections were defined by retrograde transport of fluorogold (FG, a non-transneuronal labeling marker as an experimental control injected into the crushed right sciatic nerve in the same rat. Neurons containing b-CTB or FG were observed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG at the L4-L6 levels ipsilateral to the tracer injection. In the spinal cord, b-CTB labeled neurons were distributed in all laminae ipsilaterally between C7 and S1 segments, but labeling of neurons at the cervical segment was abolished when the T10 segment was transected completely. The interneurons, distributed in the intermediate gray matter and identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic, were labeled by b-CTB. In contrast, FG labeling was confined to the ventral horn neurons at L4-L6 spinal segments ipsilateral to the injection. b-CTB immunoreactivity remained to be restricted to the soma of neurons and often appeared as irregular patches detected by light and electron microscopy. Detection of monosialoganglioside (GM1 in b-CTB labeled neurons suggests that GM1 ganglioside may specifically enhance the uptake and transneuronal passage of b-CTB, thus supporting the notion that it may be used as a novel transneuronal tracer.

  6. Omental pedicle transposition and suture repair of peripheral nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the primary epineural repair group or control group (CG), the left sciatic nerve was skeletonized from the sciatic notch till the point of bifurcation. The nerve was transected at the mid shaft of the femoral bone and repaired with six epineural sutures. In the treatment group (TG), the epineural repaired sciatic nerve was ...

  7. Topographic anatomical study of the sciatic nerve relationship to the posterior portal in hip arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berliet Assad Gomes

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anatomic topographic relation between the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriform muscle and the posterior portal for the establishment of hip arthroscopy.Methods: We dissected 40 hips of 20 corpses of adult Brazilians, 17 male and three female, six black, six brown and eight white. We studied the anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle with their variations and the distance between the lateral edge of the sciatic nerve and the posterior portal used in hip arthroscopy. We then classified the anatomical alterations found in the path of the sciatic nerve on the piriform muscle.Results: Seventeen corpses had bilateral relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle, i.e., type A. We found the following anatomical variations: 12.5% of variant type B; and an average distance between the sciatic nerve and the portal for arthroscopy of 2.98cm. One body had type B anatomical variation on the left hip and type A on the right.Conclusion: the making of the posterior arthroscopic portal to the hip joint must be done with careful marking of the trochanter massive; should there be difficult to find it, a small surgical access is recommended. The access point to the portal should not exceed two centimeters towards the posterior superior aspect of the greater trochanter, and must be made with the limb in internal rotation of 15 degrees.

  8. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat's Transected Median Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Yao, C H; Chen, W C; Shen, W C; Bau, D T

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw's ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance. Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients.

  9. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

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    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  10. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, Adrien; Treguier, Catherine; Bruneau, Bertrand; Marin, Franck; Gandon, Yves; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hopital Sud, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, Rennes cedex 2 (France); Riffaud, Laurent [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Violas, Philippe [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Michel, Anne [University Hospital, Department of Neurological Functional Explorations, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France)

    2012-08-15

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  11. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  12. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury.

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    Kızılay, Zahir; Erken, Haydar Ali; Çetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Aktaş, Serdar; Abas, Burçin İrem; Yılmaz, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I), and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions.

  13. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

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    Yurie, Hirofumi; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Tajino, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Hisataka; Akieda, Shizuka; Tsuji, Manami; Nakayama, Koichi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological, tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit. We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6) and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6). Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery. Kinematic analysis revealed that the toe angle to the metatarsal bone at the final segment of the swing phase was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (-35.78 ± 10.68 versus -62.48 ± 6.15, respectively; p Bio 3D group than the silicone group (53.60 ± 26.36% versus 2.93 ± 1.84%; p Bio 3D group. The wet muscle weight of the tibialis anterior muscle was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (0.544 ± 0.063 versus 0.396 ± 0.031, respectively; p Bio 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

  14. Improvement of sciatic nerve regeneration using laminin-binding human NGF-beta.

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    Wenjie Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. We reported here by fusing with the N-terminal domain of agrin (NtA, NGF-beta could target to nerve cells and improve nerve regeneration. METHODS: Laminin-binding assay and sustained release assay of NGF-beta fused with NtA (LBD-NGF from laminin in vitro were carried out. The bioactivity of LBD-NGF on laminin in vitro was also measured. Using the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, the nerve repair and functional restoration by utilizing LBD-NGF were tested. FINDINGS: LBD-NGF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain NGF activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, we found that LBD-NGF could be retained and concentrated at the nerve injury sites to promote nerve repair and enhance functional restoration following nerve damages. CONCLUSION: Fused with NtA, NGF-beta could bind to laminin specifically. Since laminin is the major component of nerve extracellular matrix, laminin binding NGF could target to nerve cells and improve the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

  15. Reduced inflammatory factor expression facilitates recovery after sciatic nerve injury in TLR4 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoqing; Yao, Jia; Shen, Ruowu; Ji, Aiyu; Ma, Kai; Cong, Beibei; Wang, Fang; Zhu, Lingyu; Wang, Xuan; Ding, Yingqiao; Zhang, Bei

    2018-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are extremely significant pattern recognition receptors. When nerve injury occurs, a variety of inflammatory factors are generated, leading to an exceedingly complex micro-environment. TLRs recognize damage-associated molecular patterns. To investigate the correlation between TLR4 and recovery after sciatic nerve injury, the model of sciatic nerve injury was conducted using TLR4-mutated mice (C3H/HeJ) and wild mice (C3H/HeN). Our goal was to identify short-stage and long-stage changes after sciatic nerve injury, mainly by checking the expression changes of inflammation factors in the short-stage and the differences in the recovery of the injured sciatic nerve in the long-stage. The results show that the increase of changes in the HeN group of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 are more obvious than in the HeJ group, with caspase1 expression higher and Nlrp3 expression lower in the former group. Further results reveal intense inflammation occurred in the HeN group showing more neutrophils and macrophages. Nlrp3 and caspase1 showed little difference by Immunohistochemistry, with Nlrp6 expression differing between the HeJ group and the HeN group. The results led us to conclude that better recovery of the injured sciatic nerve occurred in the HeJ group because the expression of GAP-43 and p75NTR was higher and had a better SFI figure. TLR4 mutation can decrease the expression of inflammatory factors and enhance the speed of recovery after sciatic nerve injury. The changes in the expression of Nlrp6, which are related to the TLR4 mutation, may influence recovery of the injured sciatic nerve. Further studies will be conducted to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sensory sciatic nerve afferent inputs to the dorsal lateral medulla in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioto, Olavo Egídio; Lindsey, Charles Julian; Koepp, Janice; Caous, Cristofer André

    2008-06-01

    Investigations show the paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) as an input site for sensory information from the sciatic nerve field. Functional or physical disruption of the Pa5 alters behavioral and somatosensory responses to nociceptive hindpaw stimulation or sciatic nerve electrostimulation (SNS), both contralateral to the affected structure. The nucleus, an input site for cranial and spinal nerves, known for orofacial nociceptive sensory processing, has efferent connections to structures associated with nociception and cardiorespiratory functions. This study aimed at determining the afferent sciatic pathway to dorsal lateral medulla by means of a neuronal tract-tracer (biocytin) injected in the iliac segment of the sciatic nerve. Spinal cord samples revealed bilateral labeling in the gracile and pyramidal or cuneate tracts from survival day 2 (lumbar L1/L2) to day 8 (cervical C2/C3 segments) following biocytin application. From day 10 to day 20 medulla samples showed labeling of the contralateral Pa5 to the injection site. The ipsilateral paratrigeminal nucleus showed labeling on day 10 only. The lateral reticular nucleus (LRt) showed fluorescent labeled terminal fibers on day 12 and 14, after tracer injection to contralateral sciatic nerve. Neurotracer injection into the LRt of sciatic nerve-biocytin-treated rats produced retrograde labeled neurons soma in the Pa5 in the vicinity of biocytin labeled nerve terminals. Therefore, Pa5 may be considered one of the first sites in the brain for sensory/nociceptive inputs from the sciatic nerve. Also, the findings include Pa5 and LRt in the neural pathway of the somatosympathetic pressor response to SNS and nocifensive responses to hindpaw stimulation.

  17. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-Yue; Zhang, Ze-Peng; Mo, Zhou-Yun; Chen, Shi-Jie; Xiang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Xue, Min

    2015-09-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  18. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

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    Filiz Ozyigit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group. Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (P < 0.01, levels of MDA, NO, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively, and increased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively compared with the I/R group that did not receive ebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and MDA and NO levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and decreased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.05 compared with the sham group. The results of this study suggest that ebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects.

  19. Therapeutic results of sciatic nerve repair in Iran-Iraq war casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousheh, Jamal; Arasteh, Ehsan; Beikpour, Hadi

    2008-03-01

    The sciatic nerve is composed of two independent divisions: tibial and peroneal. The results of the repair of these two nerves are not identical. This retrospective study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the results of different therapeutic procedures for sciatic nerve injuries and conducting a comparative evaluation of peroneal and tibial nerve recovery. A total of 648 Iranian casualties of the 1980 to 1988 Iran-Iraq war with sciatic nerve injury were treated with nerve grafting, direct end-to-end coaptation, and neurolysis. Patients were subdivided according to nerve injury site into three groups of upper, middle, and lower thirds of the thigh, and followed from 5 to 12 years. In 77.8 percent of patients, the tibial nerve was injured, and in 88.9 percent, the common peroneal nerve was injured. Protective sensation recovery of the sole was evaluated as good in 69.1 percent of those with upper third injuries, 74.4 percent of those with middle third injuries, and 89.3 percent of those with lower third repairs (p war casualties were generally satisfactory. Tibial nerve injury repair in the upper thigh has a higher priority than the peroneal nerve. Motor deficits of the common peroneal nerve can be overcome by tendon transfer or orthopedic devices.

  20. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats,

  1. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chengdong; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Yang, Kun

    2013-11-25

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  2. Influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J. F.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Wondergem, J.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.; Haveman, J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia was investigated. Rats received 1.7 mg/kg cisplatin i.p., twice a week for 6 weeks, up to a cumulative dose of 20.4 mg/kg. After termination of cisplatin treatment, a 5 mm segment of the nerve was locally

  3. In vivo Photonic Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve with a 1470 nm Laser

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    Marie Dautrebande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photonic stimulation is a new modality of nerve stimulation, which could overcome some of the electrical stimulation limitations. In this paper, we present the results of photonic stimulation of rodent sciatic nerve with a 1470 nm laser. Muscle activation was observed with radiant exposure of 0.084 J/cm2.

  4. Magnesium supplement promotes sciatic nerve regeneration and down-regulates inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2011-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) supplements have been shown to significantly improve functional recovery in various neurological disorders. The essential benefits of Mg supplementation in peripheral nerve disorders have not been elucidated yet. The effect and mechanism of Mg supplementation on a sciatic nerve crush injury model was investigated. Sciatic nerve injury was induced in mice by crushing the left sciatic nerve. Mice were randomly divided into three groups with low-, basal- or high-Mg diets (corresponding to 10, 100 or 200% Mg of the basal diet). Neurobehavioral, electrophysiological and regeneration marker studies were conducted to explore nerve regeneration. First, a high Mg diet significantly increased plasma and nerve tissue Mg concentrations. In addition, Mg supplementation improved neurobehavioral, electrophysiological functions, enhanced regeneration marker, and reduced deposits of inflammatory cells as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, reduced Schwann cell apoptosis was in line with the significant expression of bcl-2, bcl-X(L) and down-regulated expression of active caspase-3 and cytochrome C. In summary, improved neurological function recovery and enhanced nerve regeneration were found in mice with a sciatic nerve injury that were fed a high- Mg diet, and Schwann cells may have been rescued from apoptosis by the suppression of inflammatory responses.

  5. Preferential and comprehensive reconstitution of severely damaged sciatic nerve using murine skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    Full Text Available Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk

  6. Preferential and Comprehensive Reconstitution of Severely Damaged Sciatic Nerve Using Murine Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Soeda, Shuichi; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Nakazato, Kenei; Okada, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Mochida, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs) was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk-MSCs. Therefore, Sk-MSCs can

  7. Immediate and short-term pain relief by acute sciatic nerve press: a randomized controlled trial

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    Zhang Wenlong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite much research, an immediately available, instantly effective and harmless pain relief technique has not been discovered. This study describes a new manipulation: a "2-minute sciatic nerve press", for rapid short-term relief of pain brought on by various dental and renal diseases. Methods This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial ran in three hospitals in Anhui Province, China, with an enrollment of 66 out of 111 solicited patients aged 16 to 74 years. Patients were recruited sequentially, by specific participating physicians at their clinic visits to three independent hospitals. The diseases in enrolled dental patients included dental caries, periodontal diseases and dental trauma. Renal diseases in recruits included kidney infections, stones and some other conditions. Patients were randomly assigned to receive the "2-minute sciatic nerve press" or the "placebo press". For the "2-minute sciatic nerve press", pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay prone. For the "placebo press", pressure was applied simultaneously to a parallel spot on the front of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay supine. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 to 20 kg for 2 minutes, after which, patients arose to rate pain. Results The "2-minute sciatic nerve press" produced greater pain relief than the "placebo press". Within the first 10 minutes after sciatic pressure, immediate pain relief ratings averaged 66.4% (p Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves can produce immediate significant conduction analgesia, providing a convenient, safe and powerful way to overcome clinical pain brought on by dental diseases and renal diseases for short term purposes. Trial registration ACTR 12606000439549

  8. Prevention of Axonal Degeneration by Perineurium Injection of Mitochondria in a Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chung; Su, Hong-Lin; Chang, Tzu-Lin; Chiang, Chien-Yi; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Sheehan, Jason; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Axon degeneration leads to cytoskeletal disassembly, metabolism imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration or nerve injury. In this study, we assess the possibility of mitigating axon degeneration by local injection of mitochondria in a crushed sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve explants cocultured with mitochondria were assessed for the optimal dosage in local injection and nerve regeneration potential. The left sciatic nerve was crushed in Sprague-Dawley rats and then local injection of mitochondria into the distal end of the injured nerve was conducted for further assessment. Mitochondrial coculture attenuated cytoskeletal loss and oxidative stress in isolated nerve explants. In Vivo analyses also showed that mitochondrial transplantation improved animal neurobehaviors, electrophysiology of nerve conduction, and muscle activities. Mitochondria injection significantly attenuated the oxidative stress and increased the expression of neurotrophic factors both in injured nerves and denervated muscles, as well as restored muscular integrity, and increased the pool of muscular progenitor cells and total muscle weight. Mitochondria injection can protect injured nerves from axonal degeneration both in Vitro and in Vivo. This improvement was accompanied with the expression of neurotrophic factors as well as the reduction of oxidative stress, which may account for the functional recovery of both injured nerves and denervated muscles.

  9. Deep gluteal space problems: piriformis syndrome, ischiofemoral impingement and sciatic nerve release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Luis Perez; Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Navarro, Ivan Saenz; Fernandez, Ana Alfonso; Castillo, Alexander Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included “piriformis syndrome”, a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. Methods This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist and orthopaedic surgeons in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments. Conclusion DGS is an under-recognized and multifactorial pathology. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. The whole sciatic nerve trajectory in the deep gluteal space can be addressed by an endoscopic surgical technique. Endoscopic decompression of the sciatic nerve appears useful in improving function and diminishing hip pain in sciatic nerve entrapments, but requires significant experience and familiarity with the gross and endoscopic anatomy. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066745

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: xinchunli@163.com; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B. [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China)

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The SIR of the distal portion of crushed nerves was higher than that of the proximal nerve portion; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Whereas, the SIR at proximal nerve portions of crushed nerve was similar to control nerves (P > 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B

  11. Chitosan conduit combined with hyaluronic acid prevent sciatic nerve scar in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runxin; Liu, Huawei; Huang, Haitao; Bi, Wenting; Yan, Rongzeng; Tan, Xinying; Wen, Weisheng; Wang, Chao; Song, Wenling; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Min

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with chitosan conduit on peripheral nerve scarring and regeneration were investigated in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups (15 rats in each group), in which the nerve was either not treated (control group) or treated with chitosan conduit, hyaluronic acid, or chitosan conduit coupled with hyaluronic acid following clamp injury to the sciatic nerve. The surgical sites were evaluated by assessing the sciatic functional index, the degree of scar adhesions, the numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the average diameter of myelinated nerve fibers and the myelin sheath thickness. Larger epineurial scar thickness was observed in the control groups compared with the treatment groups at 4, 8 and 12 weeks following surgery. There was no significant difference in scar adhesion among the four groups at 4 weeks following surgery. However, animals receiving chitosan coupled with HA demonstrated better neural recovery, as measured by reduced nerve adherence to surrounding tissues, less scar adhesion, increased number of axons, nerve fiber diameter and myelin thickness. In conclusion, the application of chitosan conduit combined with HA, to a certain extent, inhibited sciatic nerve extraneural scaring and adhesion, and promoted neural regeneration and recovery.

  12. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

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    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  13. Phase-contrast tomography of sciatic nerves: image quality and experimental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpperwien, M.; Krenkel, M.; Ruhwedel, T.; Möbius, W.; Pacureanu, A.; Cloetens, P.; Salditt, T.

    2017-06-01

    We present propagation-based phase-contrast tomography of mouse sciatic nerves stained with osmium, leading to an enhanced contrast in the myelin sheath around the axons, in order to visualize the threedimensional (3D) structure of the nerve. We compare different experimental parameters and show that contrast and resolution are high enough to identify single axons in the nerve, including characteristic functional structures such as Schmidt-Lanterman incisures.

  14. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

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    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  15. External iliac artery thrombus masquerading as sciatic nerve palsy in anterior column fracture of the acetabulum

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    Narender Kumar Magu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ischemic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in a patient with an anterior column fracture of the acetabulum operated by ilioinguinal approach. It resulted from occlusion of the blood supply to the sciatic nerve. There were no signs of a vascular insult until ischemic changes ensued on the 6 th postoperative day on the lateral part of great toe. The patient underwent crossover femoro-femoral bypass grafting and there was a complete reversal of the ischemic changes at 6 months. The sciatic nerve palsy continued to recover until the end of 1 year; by which time the only deficit was a Grade 4 power in the extensor hallucis longus (EHL and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL. There was no further recovery at 2 years followup.

  16. A disturbed macrocirculatory supply as a determinant for a reduced sciatic nerve blood flow in diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Buren, Th. van; Kappelle, A.C.; Kasbergen, C.M.; Wildt, D.J. de

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate macrocirculatory disturbances in relation to the reduced sciatic nerve blood flow seen in diabetic rats. Therefore, both femoral blood flow, the macrocirculatory arterial blood supply to the sciatic nerve, and the microcirculatory neuronal blood flow were

  17. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Helders, P.J.M.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min

  18. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

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    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  19. Transport of myo-inositol into endoneurial preparations of sciatic nerve from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillon, K R; Hawthorne, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    myo-Inositol transport by a viable rat sciatic-nerve preparation is described. Such 'endoneurial' nerve preparations accumulated myo-inositol by an energy-dependent saturable system. Streptozotocin-diabetes reduced myo-inositol transport into sciatic nerve by approx. 40%. Elevated medium glucose concentration reduced myo-inositol transport into control nerves to a similar extent. Fructose and sorbitol did not inhibit myo-inositol transport. Inclusion of an aldose reductase inhibitor in the me...

  20. Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury

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    Zhang F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feng Zhang,1,2 Xiangzhi Meng,2 Fang Lu,2 Aixian Liu,2 Hongyun Huang1,2 1Cell Therapy Center, Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, 2Neurorehabilitation Center, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To observe the result of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC transplantation in a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury. Case report: A 53-year-old male patient with chronic (1 year sciatic nerve injury on left side received OEC transplantation at the lesion site. He received follow-up assessment according to the American Spinal Injury Association standard at 10 days, 6 months, and 1 year after OEC therapy. The muscle strength of his left lower limb increased and numbness decreased during the early stage of cell therapy. His motor function improved with each evaluation. His limp walking gait recovered, and numbness sensation got nearly normal after 1 year of follow-up. There were no side effects. Conclusion: OEC transplantation may be an option for chronic peripheral (sciatic nerve injury. Keywords: olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation, sciatic nerve injury, peripheral nerve injury, function improvement, neurorestoration

  1. Dynamic observation of biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoguo; Zhang, Peixun; Yan, Jiazhi; Zhang, Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    To observe the biomechanic properties of the sciatic nerve at the suture site following repairing in rats. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300~350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures with four stitches, laced in the epineurium 0, 1, 3, and 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, and the data analyzed statistically. The load elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had similar shape. There were significant differences between the tensile strength of the 0th and the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves recovered 48% of the normal nerve in the 1st week and 54% in 6 weeks after repairing. It may be concluded that the injured nerves can acquire mostly tensile strength stability in 1 week quickly and can maintain this relative tensile strength stability in 6 weeks.

  2. A novel artificial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects: a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghai; Pan, Mengjie; Wen, Jinkun; Tang, Yinjuan; Hamilton, Audra D.; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Changhui; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel artificial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implantation group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of regenerated axons and a greater thickness of the myelin sheath in the conduit. Furthermore, there was an increase in the size of the neuromuscular junction and myofiber diameter in the target muscle. These findings suggest that the novel artificial SPC nerve graft can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination in the transected peripheral nerve and can be used for repairing peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25657734

  3. injection-induced sciatic nerve injury among children managed in an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    SUMMARY. Injection-induced sciatic nerve injury is a well-known complication of intra-muscular gluteus muscle injections. Affected individuals usually present with foot drop and this results in varying degrees of motor disability depending on the timing, quality and duration of the remedial measures instituted. This study was ...

  4. Hemodynamic changes during a combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block for elective orthopedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.A.; Slagt, C.; Hoeksema, M.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hemodynamic variables can theoretically be influenced by a combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block (CPCSNB) owing to a relatively high systemic absorption of local anesthetics and extended vasodilatation in the anesthetized limb (hemisympatectomy). In this study we assessed and

  5. Heat shock proteins (HSP-72 kd) in thermotolerant rat sciatic nerves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J. F.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Localized heating of the rat sciatic nerve over a length of 5 mm for 30 min at 43 degrees C resulted in the production of heat shock protein 72 kd in every nucleated cell and in the induction of thermotolerance in the heated area. HSP-72 kd was never detected in axons. Heat treatment (30 min, 45

  6. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, N.; Geffen, G.J. van; Bruhn, J.; Chan, V.W.; Groen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy

  7. Correlation Among Ultrasound, Cross-Sectional Anatomy, and Histology of the Sciatic Nerve A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J.; Bruhn, Jorgen; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy

  8. Sequential imaging of intraneural sciatic nerve endometriosis provides insight into symptoms of cyclical sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, Benjamin M; Collins, Mark S; Sandroni, Paola; Cheville, John C; Spinner, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis of the nerve often remains an elusive diagnosis. We report the first case of intraneural lumbosacral plexus endometriosis with sequential imaging at different phases of the menstrual cycle: during the luteal phase and menstruation. Compared to the first examination, the examination performed during the patient's period revealed the lumbosacral plexus larger and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. The intraneural endometriosis cyst was also larger and showed recent hemorrhage. Additionally, this case represents another example of perineural spread of endometriosis from the uterus to the lumbosacral plexus along the autonomic nerves and then distally to the sciatic nerve and proximally to the spinal nerves.

  9. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  10. The use of laminin modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds loaded with laminin-binding ciliary neurotrophic factor for sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiani; Sun, Changkai; Zhao, Hui; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Tiezheng; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Jingyu; Dai, Jianwu

    2011-06-01

    Nerve conduit provides a promising strategy for nerve injury repair in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, simply bridging the transected nerve with an empty conduit is hard to satisfy functional recovery. The regenerated axons may disperse during regeneration in the empty lumen, limiting the functional recovery. Our previous work had reported that linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) could be used as a nerve guidance material. Here we cross-linked LOCS fibers with laminin which was a major component of the extracellular matrix in nervous system. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. But the lack of efficient CNTF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. To retain CNTF on the scaffold, a laminin binding domain (LBD) was fused to the N-terminal of CNTF. Compared with NAT-CNTF, LBD-CNTF exhibited specific laminin-binding ability and comparable neurotrophic bioactivity. We combined LBD-CNTF with the laminin modified LOCS fibers to construct a double-functional bio-scaffold. The functional scaffold was filled in silicon conduit and tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Results showed that this functional biomaterial could guide the axon growth, retain more CNTF on the scaffolds and enhance the nerve regeneration as well as functional recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Spatial Relationship and Surface Projection of Canine Sciatic Nerve and Sacrotuberous Ligament: A Perineal Hernia Repair Perspective.

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    Nabin Khatri-Chhetri

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve entrapment can occur as post-operative complication of perineal hernia repair when sacrotuberous ligament is incorporated during hernia deficit closure. This results in sciatic sensory loss and paralysis of the hind leg. This study investigated the spatial relationship of sciatic nerve and sacrotuberous ligament and their surface topographic projection of 68 cadavers (29 Beagles and 39 Taiwanese mongrels with various heights (25-56 cm. By gross dissection, the sacrotuberous ligament and sciatic nerve were exposed and their distance in between was measured along four parts (A, B, C, D of sacrotuberous ligament. The present study revealed that the C was the section of sacrotuberous ligament where the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament are closest to each other. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between C and height of the dogs. From the present study, we found that the C in smaller dogs has the shortest distance between the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament, and thus the most vulnerable to sciatic nerve entrapment, and needs to be avoided or approached cautiously during perineal hernia repair.

  12. The Effect of Sildenafil on Recuperation from Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Parlakpınar, Hakan; Ceylan, Mehmet Fethi; Ediz, Levent; Şamdancı, Emine; Kekilli, Ersoy; Sağır, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe functional and anatomical defects can be detected after the peripheral nerve injury. Pharmacological approaches are preferred rather than surgical treatment in the treatment of nerve injuries. Aims: The aim of this study is to perform histopathological, functional and bone densitometry examinations of the effects of sildenafil on nerve regeneration in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: The study included a total of thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were divided into three groups of ten rats each. In all rats, a crush injury was created by clamping the right sciatic nerve for one minute. One day before the procedure, rats in group 1 were started on a 28-day treatment consisting of a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate given orally via a nasogastric tube, while the rats in group 2 were started on an every-other-day dose of 10 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate. Rats from group 3 were not administered any drugs. Forty-two days after the nerve damage was created, functional and histopathological examination of both sciatic nerves and bone densitometric evaluation of the extremities were conducted. Results: During the rotarod test, rats from group 3 spent the least amount of time on the rod compared to the drug treatment groups at speeds of 20 rpm, 30 rpm and 40 rpm. In addition, the duration for which each animal could stay on the rod throughout the accelerod test significantly reduced in rats from group 3 compared to rats from groups 1 and 2 in the 4-min test. For the hot-plate latency time, there were no differences among the groups in either the basal level or after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the static sciatic index (SSI) on the 42nd day (p=0.147). The amplitude was better evaluated in group 1 compared to the other two groups (p<0.05). Under microscopic evaluation, we observed the greatest amount of

  13. A prospective randomised controlled trial of ultrasound guided versus nerve stimulation guided distal sciatic nerve block at the popliteal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, G J; van den Broek, E; Braak, G J J; Giele, J L P; Gielen, M J; Scheffer, G J

    2009-01-01

    The direct visualisation of nerves and adjacent anatomical structures may make ultrasonography the preferred method for nerve localisation. In this prospective randomised study, we investigated whether, for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa, an ultrasound guided technique would result in the use of less local anaesthetic without changing block characteristics and quality. Using electrical nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance, the nerve was identified in two groups of 20 patients scheduled for lower limb surgery. Hereafter lignocaine 1.5% with adrenaline 5 microg/ml was injected. The attending anaesthesiologist assessed the injected volume. Significantly less local anaesthetic was injected in the ultrasound group compared to the nerve stimulation group (17 vs. 37 ml, P success rate was increased (100% vs. 75%; P = 0.017). We conclude that the use of ultrasound localisation for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa reduces the required dose of local anaesthetic significantly, and is associated with a higher success rate compared to nerve stimulation without changing block characteristics.

  14. Stereological analysis of sciatic nerve in chickens following neonatal pinealectomy: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Bünyamin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the injury to the peripheral nervous system is a common clinical problem, understanding of the role of melatonin in nerve degeneration and regeneration is incomplete. Methods The current study investigated the effects of neonatal pinealectomy on the sciatic nerve microarchitecture in the chicken. The chickens were divided into two equal groups: unpinealectomized controls and pinealectomized chickens. At the end of the study, biochemical examination of 10 sciatic nerve samples from both groups was performed and a quantitative stereological evaluation of 10 animals in each group was performed. The results were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results In this study, the results of axon number and thickness of the myelin sheath of a nerve fiber in newly hatched pinealectomy group were higher than those in control group. Similarly, surgical pinealectomy group had significantly larger axonal cross-sectional area than the control group (p Conclusion In the light of these results from present animal study, changes in sciatic nerve morphometry may be indicative of neuroprotective feature of melatonin, but this suggestion need to be validated in the human setting.

  15. Model study of combined electrical and near-infrared neural stimulation on the bullfrog sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mengxian; Mou, Zongxia

    2017-07-01

    This paper implemented a model study of combined electrical and near-infrared (808 nm) neural stimulation (NINS) on the bullfrog sciatic nerve. The model includes a COMSOL model to calculate the electric-field distribution of the surrounding area of the nerve, a Monte Carlo model to simulate light transport and absorption in the bullfrog sciatic nerve during NINS, and a NEURON model to simulate the neural electrophysiology changes under electrical stimulus and laser irradiation. The optical thermal effect is considered the main mechanism during NINS. Therefore, thermal change during laser irradiation was calculated by the Monte Carlo method, and the temperature distribution was then transferred to the NEURON model to stimulate the sciatic nerve. The effects on thermal response by adjusting the laser spot size, energy of the beam, and the absorption coefficient of the nerve are analyzed. The effect of the ambient temperature on the electrical stimulation or laser stimulation and the interaction between laser irradiation and electrical stimulation are also studied. The results indicate that the needed stimulus threshold for neural activation or inhibition is reduced by laser irradiation. Additionally, the needed laser energy for blocking the action potential is reduced by electrical stimulus. Both electrical and laser stimulation are affected by the ambient temperature. These results provide references for subsequent animal experiments and could be of great help to future basic and applied studies of infrared neural stimulation (INS).

  16. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Li, Zheng-Wei; Luo, Min; Li, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Ke-Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was

  17. Inhibition of KLF7-Targeting MicroRNA 146b Promotes Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Yong-Xia; Liu, Yan-Cui; Zhai, Feng-Guo; Sun, Ping; Li, Hui-Ting; Deng, Ling-Xiao; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Ying

    2018-01-22

    A previous study has indicated that Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7), a transcription factor that stimulates Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, is a promising therapeutic transcription factor in nerve injury. We aimed to identify whether inhibition of microRNA-146b (miR-146b) affected SC proliferation, migration, and myelinated axon regeneration following sciatic nerve injury by regulating its direct target KLF7. SCs were transfected with miRNA lentivirus, miRNA inhibitor lentivirus, or KLF7 siRNA lentivirus in vitro. The expression of miR146b and KLF7, as well as SC proliferation and migration, were subsequently evaluated. In vivo, an acellular nerve allograft (ANA) followed by injection of GFP control vector or a lentiviral vector encoding an miR-146b inhibitor was used to assess the repair potential in a model of sciatic nerve gap. miR-146b directly targeted KLF7 by binding to the 3'-UTR, suppressing KLF7. Up-regulation of miR-146b and KLF7 knockdown significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of SCs, whereas silencing miR-146b resulted in increased proliferation and migration. KLF7 protein was localized in SCs in which miR-146b was expressed in vivo. Similarly, 4 weeks after the ANA, anti-miR-146b increased KLF7 and its target gene nerve growth factor cascade, promoting axonal outgrowth. Closer analysis revealed improved nerve conduction and sciatic function index score, and enhanced expression of neurofilaments, P0 (anti-peripheral myelin), and myelinated axon regeneration. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation of KLF7 by miR-146b during peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve injury.

  18. Electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy improve the recovery of injured sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; He, Wei; Zhang, Yingze; Tian, Dehu; Zhao, Hongfang; Yu, Kunlun; Bai, Jiangbo

    2013-07-25

    Drug treatment, electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy have been shown to promote the repair and regeneration of the peripheral nerves at the injured site. This study prepared a Mackinnon's model of rat sciatic nerve compression. Electric stimulation was given immediately after neurolysis, and decimeter wave radiation was performed at 1 and 12 weeks post-operation. Histological observation revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy could improve the local blood circulation of repaired sites, alleviate hypoxia of compressed nerves, and lessen adhesion of compressed nerves, thereby decreasing the formation of new entrapments and enhancing compressed nerve regeneration through an improved microenvironment for regeneration. Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave could promote the expression of S-100 protein. Motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and sciatic functional index were significantly increased in the treated rats. These results verified that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy contributed to the regeneration and the recovery of the functions in the compressed nerves.

  19. Sciatic nerve injury: a simple and subtle model for investigating many aspects of nervous system damage and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Luis E; Laurito, Sergio R; Fitt, Marcos R; Rasmussen, Jorge A; Gonzalez Polo, Virginia; Patterson, Sean I

    2014-04-30

    Sciatic nerve injury has been used for over a century to investigate the process of nerve damage, to assess the absolute and relative capacity of the central and peripheral nervous systems to recover after axotomy, and to understand the development of chronic pain in many pathologies. Here we provide a historical review of the contributions of this experimental model to our current understanding of fundamental questions in the neurosciences, and an assessment of its continuing capacity to address these and future problems. We describe the different degrees of nerve injury - neurapraxia, axonotmesis, neurotmesis - together with the consequences of selective damage to the different functional and anatomic components of this nerve. The varied techniques used to model different degrees of nerve injury and their relationship to the development of neuropathic pain states are considered. We also provide a detailed anatomical description of the sciatic nerve from the spinal cord to the peripheral branches in the leg. A standardized protocol for carrying out sciatic nerve axotomy is proposed, with guides to assist in the accurate and reliable dissection of the peripheral and central branches of the nerve. Functional, histological, and biochemical criteria for the validation of the injury are described. Thus, this paper provides a review of the principal features of sciatic nerve injury, presents detailed neuroanatomical descriptions of the rat's inferior limb and spine, compares different modes of injury, offers material for training purposes, and summarizes the immediate and longterm consequences of damage to the sciatic nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-invasive assessment of sciatic nerve stiffness during human ankle motion using ultrasound shear wave elastography

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    Andrade, R.J.; Nordez, A.; Hug, F.; Coppieters, M.W.J.; Pezarat-Correia, P.; de Freitas, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are exposed to mechanical stress during movement. However the in vivo mechanical properties of nerves remain largely unexplored. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the effect of passive dorsiflexion on sciatic nerve shear wave velocity (an index of stiffness) when

  1. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

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    Yilmaz, Saim, E-mail: ysaim@akdeniz.edu.tr; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur [Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  2. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

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    Wang Wenxue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p p p Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  3. An inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeong; Jeon, Woo Joo; Kim, Dong Hwee; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Young Hwan; Youn, Inchan; Park, Jong Woong

    2014-07-15

    Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An inside-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better improved than that of rats with a simple inside-out vein autograft. At 6 and 8 weeks, the sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better than that of rats undergoing nerve autografting. Compared with the sciatic nerve repaired with a simple inside-out vein autograft, the number of myelinated axons was higher, axon diameter and myelin sheath were greater in the sciatic nerve repaired with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma and they were similar to those in the sciatic nerve repaired with nerve autograft. These findings suggest that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma can substitute nerve autograft to repair short sciatic nerve defects.

  4. Prechiasmatic transection of the optic nerve in optic nerve glioma: technical description and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei-Razavi, Hamid; Shibao, Shunsuke; Schick, Uta

    2017-01-01

    Optic pathway glioma (OPG) encompasses a spectrum of findings ranging from lesions confined to the optic nerve only, lesions affecting the optic chiasm and hypothalamus, and lesions with diffuse involvement of a large part of the optic pathway and neighboring structures. The majority of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas in the optic/chiasmatic region are typical pilocytic astrocytoma. The rest of them (10 %) may be other gliomas such as fibrillary pilomyxoid astrocytoma (grade 2 WHO). The postsurgical local recurrence rate of 55 to 76 % has been reported in some histological subtypes such as pilomyxoid astrocytoma (grade 2). Performing a prechiasmatic transection might offer a new surgical option to avoid further tumor growth toward the chiasm in the optic nerve glioma with predominantly orbital manifestations. In this retrospective study, four patients (three children, two without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and one with NF1 and one adult without NF1) with optic nerve glioma without involvement of the chiasm but blindness, disfiguring proptosis, and pain of the affected eye were included. The surgical approach was performed as a combined approach from pterional extradural and intradural. Without any exceptions, vision of the contralateral eye could be preserved and did not show any deterioration after surgery or during the follow-up time between 17 and 106 months. Furthermore, in all patients, gross total tumor resection could be achieved. During follow-up observation in all patients, no further tumor progress or recurrences could be observed. None of the patients were treated postoperatively by radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Prechiasmatic transection of the optic nerve in optic nerve glioma without affecting the chiasm might offer a surgical treatment option to control tumor growth and to preserve vision of the contralateral eye.

  5. Protective Effects of Beta Glucan and Gliclazide on Brain Tissue and Sciatic Nerve of Diabetic Rats Induced by Streptozosin

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    Harun Alp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have not been yet enough studies about effects of beta glucan and gliclazide on oxidative stress created by streptozotocin in the brain and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. The aim of this paper was to investigate the antioxidant effects of gliclazide and beta glucan on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation created by streptozotosin in brain and sciatic nerve. Total of 42 rats were divided into 6 groups including control, diabetic untreated (DM (only STZ, diabetic, STZ (DM + beta glucan, STZ (DM + gliclazide, only beta glucan treated (no diabetic, and only gliclazide treated (no diabetic. The brain and sciatic nerve tissue samples were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA, total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS, oxidative stress index (OSI, and paraoxonase (PON-1 levels. We found a significant increase in MDA, TOS, and OSI along with a reduction in TAS level, catalase, and PON-1 activities in brain and sciatic nerve of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Also, this study shows that in terms of these parameters both gliclazide and beta glucan have a neuroprotective effect on the brain and sciatic nerve of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Our conclusion was that gliclazide and beta glucan have antioxidant effects on the brain and sciatic nerve of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

  6. Non-formation of the main trunk of the sciatic nerve and unusual relationships to the piriformis muscle

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    J. Stoyanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sciatic nerve is the largest branch of the sacral plexus. Variations of its origin, exit from the pelvis, emergence and branching in the posterior region of the thigh, especially in regards to the piriformis muscle, are an object of interest due to the possibility to be involved in the pathogenensis of clinically significant non-discogenic sciatica or piriformis syndrome. Case report: We present a case of variant anatomy of the sciatic nerve, discovered during routine dissection of the left gluteal region of an adult female cadaver. We observed a non-formation of the main trunk of the nerve; rather, the tibial nerve passed inferiorly to the piriformis muscle, while the common peroneal nerve went through the body of the bifid piriformis muscle, immediately next to its tendon. The two branches continued their course in the thigh without joining and forming a proper sciatic nerve. The medical records of the body donor did not reveal any neurological impairment which could be linked to this anatomical peculiarity. Conclusion: The anatomy of the sciatic nerve could be considered to be a factor of clinical significance. The high prevalence of similar anatomical variations should be kept in mind during the diagnostic process of clinical entities involving the sciatic nerve.

  7. Extraskeletal Ewing’s Sarcoma Arising from the Sciatic Nerve: A Diagnostic Challenge

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    Aadhar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma is a common bone tumour of childhood but is a rare occurrence in individuals over 20 years of age. Few cases are reported as originating from peripheral nerves. We present an unusual case of extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma originating from the sciatic nerve in a 66-year-old patient which had the clinical hallmarks of a benign nerve sheath tumour. Following discussion at a multidisciplinary meeting, excision biopsy of the suspected benign nerve sheath tumour was planned. At operation, the mass had malignant features. Histology confirmed the presence of Ewing’s sarcoma. Due to the morbidity of nerve resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were commenced. Ewing’s sarcoma is known to mimic benign pathologies. In this case there were subtle signs of a malignant process in the form of unremitting pain. It is vital to keep in mind the less common tumours that can affect the peripheral nervous system in such cases.

  8. A novel nanoparticle delivery system for in vivo targeting of the sciatic nerve: impact on regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nádia Pereira; Oliveira, Hugo; Pêgo, Ana Paula; Saraiva, Maria João

    2012-08-01

    Innovative solutions in the development of drug delivery systems targeting the nerve tissue are awaited. In this regard, a novel system for the delivery of drugs to the sciatic nerve was created using nanomedical principles. Chitosan was the vehicle material used in the experiment. Heparin bound to growth factors has been administered to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, and since heparin possesses the appropriate charge to be able to form nanoparticles with chitosan, it appears to be a good candidate to base this new delivery system on. Maximal absorption took place throughout the extracellular matrix at day 15. No major inflammatory response was observed, indicating that this is a safe and biocompatible system for drug delivery to nerves. Sensorimotor performance and nerve regeneration of mice receiving these nanoparticles were superior as compared with controls. Our work demonstrates a versatile nanoparticle delivery system that successfully targets drugs 'in vivo' to the sciatic nerve, opening novel avenues in the field of nanomedicine to the design of therapeutic strategies that enhance axonal regeneration.

  9. Our experience of combined femoral sciatic nerve block in the lower extremity surgery

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    Taner Çiftçi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, the effectiveness of the combine femoral and sciatic nerve block in lower-extremity surgery was aimed to be investigated.Materals and methods: The patients with ASA I-III group, aged between 18-70 years, who underwent combinede sciatic femoral nerve block in lower-extremity surgery, were retrospectively evaluated.The study included 110 patients. The patients were divided into four groups according to the local anesthetic drugs used; Group I: 30 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine + 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, Group II: 30 ml 0.5% Levobupivacaine + 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, Group III: 30 ml 0.5% Levobupivacaine +10 ml 2% prilocaine HCl, GrupIV: 20 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine + 2 ml 2% Lidocaine HCl. The demographic data, clinical diagnosis, dose and volume of used local anesthetics, application time of the technique, duration of surgery, rates of block success, hemodynamic parameters before and after intervention, the first postoperative analgesic requirements (the first postoperative analgesic need, the amount of analgesic consumption of postoperative first 24 hours, developing complications during and after the process, patient’s and surgical satisfaction data of were recorded.Results: The demographic data of patient group were similar. No significant differences were found in terms of quality of surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia between different groups. The combined sciatic femoral nerve block was most frequently performed for ankle surgery. Different local anesthetics doses administered to patients were provided adequate anesthesia. Success of process was found to be 96%.Conclusion: The combined femoral sciatic nerve block applied with the success rate of 96%. The mean duration of adequate anesthesia and postoperative analgesia was 426 minutes. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 375-379

  10. Treatment of postoperative sciatic nerve palsy after total hip arthroplasty for postoperative acetabular fracture: A case report

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    Akio Kanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetabular fracture is usually treated with osteosynthesis. However, in the case of an intra-articular fracture, osteosynthesis can result in arthropathy of the hip joint and poor long-term results, hence, total hip arthroplasty is required. However, in total hip arthroplasty for postoperative acetabular fracture, sciatic nerve palsy tends to develop more commonly than after primary total hip arthroplasty. This is a case report of a 57-year-old Japanese male who had internal skeletal fixation for a left acetabular fracture that had occurred 2 years earlier. One year later, he developed coxarthrosis and severe pain of the hip joint and total hip arthroplasty was performed. After the second surgery, he experienced pain along the distribution of the sciatic nerve and weakness of the muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve, indicating sciatic nerve palsy. We performed a third operation, and divided adhesions around the sciatic nerve. Postoperatively, the anterior hip joint pain and the buttocks pain when the hip was flexed were improved. Abduction of the fifth toe was also improved. However, the footdrop and sensory disturbance were not improved. A year after the third operation, sensory disturbance was slightly improved but the footdrop was not improved. We believe the sciatic nerve palsy developed when we dislocated the hip joint as the sciatic nerve was excessively extended as the hip joint flexed and internally rotated. Sciatic nerve adhesion can occur easily in total hip replacement for postoperative acetabular fracture; hence, adhesiotomy should be conducted before performing hip dislocation to prevent injury caused by nerve tension. The patient agreed that the details of this case could be submitted for publication. The work has been reported in line with the CARE criteria and cite.

  11. Vascular Impairment of Epineurial Arterioles of the Sciatic Nerve: Implications for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorek, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of diabetes and its treatment on vascular function with a focus on the reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve. Another focus is the relationship between the dysregulation of neurovascular function and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder that occurs in more than 50 percent of patients with diabetes. The etiology involves metabolic, vascular, and immunologic pathways besides neurohormonal growth factor deficiency and extracellular matrix remodeling. In the light of this complex etiology, an effective treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy has not yet been identified. Current opinion postulates that any effective treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy will require a combination of life style and therapeutic interventions. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the factors contributing to neurovascular and neural dysfunction in diabetes is needed before such a treatment strategy can be developed. After reading this review, the reader should have gained insight into the complex regulation of vascular function and blood flow to the sciatic nerve, and the impact of diabetes on numerous elements of vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. PMID:26676659

  12. Monopolar radiofrequency use in deep gluteal space endoscopy: sciatic nerve safety and fluid temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal David; Palmer, Ian James; Hatem, Munif

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature at the sciatic nerve when using a monopolar radiofrequency (RF) probe to control bleeding in deep gluteal space endoscopy, as well as assess the fluid temperature profile. Ten hips in 5 fresh-frozen human cadaveric specimens from the abdomen to the toes were used for this experiment. Temperatures were measured at the sciatic nerve after 2, 5, and 10 seconds of continuous RF probe activation over an adjacent vessel, a branch of the inferior gluteal artery. Fluid temperatures were then measured at different distances from the probe (3, 5, and 10 mm) after 2, 5, and 10 seconds of continuous probe activation. All tests were performed with irrigation fluid flow at 60 mm Hg allowing outflow. After 2, 5, or 10 seconds of activation over the crossing branch of the inferior gluteal artery, the mean temperature increased by less than 1°C on the surface and in the perineurium of the sciatic nerve. Considering the fluid temperature profile in the deep gluteal space, the distance and duration of activation influenced temperature (P deep gluteal space endoscopy with fluid inflow and outflow. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing Autophagy in Sciatic Nerves of a Rat Model that Develops Inflammatory Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies

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    Susana Brun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rat sciatic nerve has attracted widespread attention as an excellent model system for studying autophagy alterations in peripheral neuropathies. In our laboratory, we have developed an original rat model, which we used currently in routine novel drug screening and to evaluate treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP and other closely related diseases. Lewis rats injected with the S-palmitoylated P0(180-199 peptide develop a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease. Our model fulfills electrophysiological criteria of demyelination with axonal degeneration, confirmed by immunohistopathology and several typical features of CIDP. We have set up a series of techniques that led us to examine the failures of autophagy pathways in the sciatic nerve of these model rats and to follow the possible improvement of these defects after treatment. Based on these newly introduced methods, a novel area of investigation is now open and will allow us to more thoroughly examine important features of certain autophagy pathways occurring in sciatic nerves.

  14. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  15. An Investigation of Correlation between Electrophysiological and Functional Recovery after the Sciatic Nerve Injury

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    Mustafa Guven

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Video or photo assisted footprint analysis method is used to determine the motor and sensorial development instead of classic walking track footprint analysis in experimental peripheral nerve injury. Besides, the sucrose-gap method is used for measuring the electrophysiological activity in the sciatic nerves in-vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between functional and electrophysiological recovery during the nerve regeneration in Wistar rats. Methods: In the experiments, after the unilateral sciatic nerve crushing, the rats were evaluated at the preoperative and 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks postoperative using the sucrose gap method, and photo assisted footprint method. The compound action potentials (CAP, the Peak- time (PT and the ½ Falling- time (1/2FT were measured, and compared to functional results. Results: Two weeks after being crushed sciatic nerves, complete function loss was seen operated legs in all rats. The amplitude of CAP was determined too small. The PT and the 1/2FT values were three fold longer than intact. However, following 4th – 8th weeks, the amplitude of CAP and other parameters of CAP were closed to intact values. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the results of the functional recovery were correlated to electrophysiological results. However, functional results showed almost full functional recovery in the 4th week, the electrophysiological results did not reach to intact values in the 8th week. We conclude that photo assisted footprint analysis method and sucrose-gap technique, which are useful functional and electrophysiological methods to produce complementary knowledge with each other in the investigation of experimental peripheral nerve regeneration. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 177-185

  16. NEUROLOGIC OUTCOME AFTER INTRANEURAL AND PERINEURAL SCIATIC NERVE BLOCK IN PIGS

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    Eldan Kapur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies in animals have suggested that intraneural application of local anesthetics may cause mechanical injury and pressure ischemia of nerve fascicles. Previous studies, however, have used small animal models and clinically irrelevant injection speed or equipment. Our hypothesis is that an intraneural injection is heralded by higher injection pressure and leads to neurologic impairment in pigs. Ten pigs of mixed breed were studied. After general anesthesia, the sciatic nerves (n = 20 were exposed bilaterally. Under direct vision, a 25-gauge insulated nerve block needle was placed either extraperineurally (n = 10 or subperineurially (n = 10, and 4 ml of preservative-free lidocaine 2% was injected using an automated infusion pump (15 ml / min. Injection pressure data were acquired using an in-line manometer coupled to a computer via an analog-to-digital conversion board. After injection, the animals were awakened and subjected to serial neurologic examinations during the 24 post-intervention hours. All but two perineural injections resulted in injection pressures below 20 psi. In contrast, intraneural injections resulted in significantly higher peak pressures. In 7 (70% intraneural injections, the injections pressures were over 20 psi (20-50 psi. Neurologic function returned to baseline within 24 hours in all sciatic nerve receiving perineural injections. In contrast, residual neurologic impairment was present in 7 sciatic nerves after intraneural injection; residual neurologic impairment was associated with injection pressures > 20 psi. The results indicate that high injection pressure during intraneural injection may be indicative of intrafascicular injection and may predict the development of neurologic injury.Key words: nerve block, injection pressure, neurologic injury, pigs

  17. Altered protein phosphorylation in sciatic nerve from rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes

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    Schrama, L.H.; Berti-Mattera, L.N.; Eichberg, J.

    1987-11-01

    The effect of experimental diabetes on the phosphorylation of proteins in the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Nerves from animals made diabetic with streptozocin were incubated in vitro with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate and divided into segments from the proximal to the distal end, and proteins from each segment were then separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The principal labeled species were the major myelin proteins, P0, and the basic proteins. After 6 wk of diabetes, the incorporation of isotope into these proteins rose as a function of distance along the nerve in a proximal to distal direction and was significantly higher at the distal end compared with incorporation into nerves from age-matched controls. The overall level of isotope uptake was similar in nerves from diabetic animals and weight-matched controls. The distribution of /sup 32/P among proteins also differed in diabetic nerve compared with both control groups in that P0 and the small basic protein accounted for a greater proportion of total label incorporated along the entire length of nerve. In contrast to intact nerve, there was no significant difference in protein phosphorylation when homogenates from normal and diabetic nerve were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-gamma-ATP. The results suggest that abnormal protein phosphorylation, particularly of myelin proteins, is a feature of experimental diabetic neuropathy and that the changes are most pronounced in the distal portion of the nerve.

  18. Bilateral sciatic nerve block after orthopedic surgery in a pediatric patient

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    Levent Şahin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Early postoperative pain is one of the most important problems in pediatric orthopedic surgery. Introduction of the use of ultrasound (US has led to very important developments in pediatric regional anesthesia. We aimed to present with the literature data about that we applied the bilateral US-guided sciatic nerve block to the patient who was operated under bilateral knee disarticulation because of congenital tibia agenesis and talipes equinovarus. In conclusion we entertain that US-guided peripheral nerve blocks are effective and safety for postoperative pain in pediatric orthopedic surgery.

  19. Primo-vessels and primo-nodes in rat brain, spine and sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Eom, Ki-Hoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2010-06-01

    We report a method using Trypan blue staining to detect primo-vessels in the nervous system on internal organs or in the skin of rat. We applied this technique to visualize the primo-vessels and primo-nodes in the brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of a rat. Primo-vessels and primo-nodes were preferentially stained at nerves, blood vessels, or fascia-like membranes and turned blue after the spread and washing of Trypan blue. The physiological role of the primo-vessels within the nervous system is an important question warranting further investigation. Copyright 2010 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  20. [Dynamic observation of the biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jia-zhi; Jiang, Bao-guo; Zhao, Fu-qiang; Wei, Guang-ru; Shang, Yong-gang; Zhang, Pei-xun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hong-bo

    2005-06-15

    To observe the biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300-350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, laced in the epineurium. 0, 1, 3, 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, the data analyzed statistically. The load-elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had the similar shape. The tensile strength of the 0 week was significant difference to 1, 3 and 6 weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among 1, 3 and 6 weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves are recovered in the first week and resistant in 6 weeks after repairing.

  1. Increased electrical nerve stimulation threshold of the sciatic nerve in patients with diabetic foot gangrene: a prospective parallel cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyl, Cornelius; Held, Tanja; Albiez, Georg; Schmack, Astrid; Wiesenack, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    Peripheral neuropathy may affect nerve conduction in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the electrical stimulation threshold for a motor response of the sciatic nerve is increased in patients suffering from diabetic foot gangrene compared to non-diabetic patients. Prospective non-randomised trial with two parallel groups. Two university-affiliated hospitals. Patients scheduled for surgical treatment of diabetic foot gangrene (n = 30) and non-diabetic patients (n = 30) displaying no risk factors for neuropathy undergoing orthopaedic foot or ankle surgery. The minimum current intensity required to elicit a typical motor response (dorsiflexion or eversion of the foot) at a pulse width of 0.1 ms and a stimulation frequency of 1 Hz when the needle tip was positioned under ultrasound control directly adjacent to the peroneal component of the sciatic nerve. The non-diabetic patients were younger [64 (SD 12) vs. 74 (SD 7) years] and predominantly female (23 vs. 8). The geometric mean of the motor stimulation threshold was 0.26 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.24 to 0.28] mA in non-diabetic and 1.9 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.2) mA in diabetic patients. The geometric mean of the electrical stimulation threshold was significantly (P diabetic compared to non-diabetic patients. The electrical stimulation threshold for a motor response of the sciatic nerve is increased by a factor of 7.2 in patients with diabetic foot gangrene, which might hamper nerve identification.

  2. Wallerian degeneration and axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve crush are altered in ICAM-1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Matthias; Campos Friz, Marianella; Vougioukas, Vassilios I; Hofmann, Hans-Dieter

    2009-10-01

    The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the recruitment of immune cells during inflammatory processes. Previous studies investigating its involvement in the process of Wallerian degeneration and focusing on its potential role in macrophage recruitement have come to controversial conclusions. To examine whether Wallerian degeneration is altered in the absence of ICAM-1, we have analyzed changes in the expression of axonal and Schwann cell markers following sciatic nerve crush in wildtype and ICAM-1-deficient mice. We report that the lack of ICAM-1 leads to impaired axonal degeneration and regeneration and to alterations in Schwann cell responses following sciatic nerve crush. Degradation of neurofilament protein, the collapse of axonal profiles, and the re-expression of neurofilament proteins are substantially delayed in the distal nerve segment of ICAM-1(-/-) mice. In contrast, the degradation of myelin, as determined by immunostaining for myelin protein zero, is unaltered in the mutants. Upregulation of GAP-43 and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) expression, characteristic for Schwann cells dedifferentiating in response to nerve injury, is differentially altered in the mutant animals. These results indicate that ICAM-1 is essential for the normal progression of axonal degeneration and regeneration in distal segments of injured peripheral nerves.

  3. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  4. Early decline and late restoration of spinal cord binding and transganglionic transport of isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I after peripheral nerve transection or crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, C; Wang, H F; Rivero-Melián, C; Grant, G

    1996-01-01

    Isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I (B4) has a high binding affinity to a large population of unmyelinated primary sensory neurons (Wang et al., Neuroscience 62 (1994) 539-551). Using immunohistochemical techniques, binding and transganglionic transport of B4 in the spinal cord was investigated, both at short and long survival times, after sciatic nerve transection and ligation or crush in the adult rat. Nerve transection and ligation resulted in nearly complete disappearance of B4 immunolabelling in the sciatic nerve territory of the superficial dorsal horn after B4 binding, as well as after transganglionic transport of B4 by 2 weeks postinjury. Partial recovery of both B4 binding and B4 transport was found by 8 months, and nearly complete recovery by 16 months, indicating that reappearance of B4 binding is not critically dependent on peripheral reinnervation. Crush injury made by jeweller's forceps resulted in partial depletion of binding and transport by 2 weeks and a nearly complete recovery by 10 weeks. The results show that binding and transganglionic transport of B4 can be used to label dorsal horn connections of unmyelinated primary afferents during the process of regeneration after crush injury. Furthermore, as B4 binding and transport recover at long survival times in the absence of reestablished peripheral connections, the same techniques can be used to study central primary afferent connections at long survival times after nerve transection. Binding and transganglionic transport of B4 offer alternatives to the use of previous techniques such as transganglionic transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) to study central connections of fine primary afferents after injury.

  5. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations.

  6. A prospective, randomized comparison between single- and multiple-injection techniques for ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroto; Sakura, Shinichi; Wada, Minori; Shido, Akemi

    2014-12-01

    It is believed that local anesthetic injected to obtain circumferential spread around nerves produces a more rapid onset and successful blockade after some ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks. However, evidence demonstrating this point is limited only to the popliteal sciatic nerve block, which is relatively easy to perform by via a high-frequency linear transducer. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that multiple injections of local anesthetic to make circumferential spread would improve the rate of sensory and motor blocks compared with a single-injection technique for ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic nerve block, which is considered a relatively difficult block conducted with a low-frequency, curved-array transducer. Ninety patients undergoing knee surgery were divided randomly into 2 groups to receive the ultrasound-guided subgluteal approach to sciatic nerve block with 20 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine with epinephrine. For group M (the multiple-injection technique), the local anesthetic was injected to create circumferential spread around the sciatic nerve without limitation on the number of needle passes. For group S (the single-injection technique), the number of needle passes was limited to 1, and the local anesthetic was injected to create spread along the dorsal surface of the sciatic nerve, during which no adjustment of the needle tip was made. Sensory and motor blockade were assessed in double-blind fashion for 30 minutes after completion of the block. The primary outcome was sensory blockade of all sciatic components tested, including tibial, superficial peroneal, and sural nerves at 30 minutes after injection. Data from 86 patients (43 in each group) were analyzed. Block execution took more time for group M than group S. The proportion of patients with complete sensory blockade of all sciatic components at 30 minutes after injection was significantly larger for group M than group S (41.9% vs 16.3%, P = 0.018). Complete motor blockade of

  7. Effect of ozone and methylprednisolone treatment following crush type sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Omur; Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Adali, Yasemen; Yıldırım, Can Hakan; Aksoy, Ozgur; Yagmurdur, Hatice; Bilge, Ali

    2016-11-01

    To assess and compare the histopathological effects of ozone therapy and/or methylprednisolone (MPS) treatment on regeneration after crush type sciatic nerve injury. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups. Four groups received the following regimens intraperitoneally every day for 14 days after formation of crush type injury on sciatic nerve: Group I: ozone (20mcg/ml); Group II: methylprednisolone (2mg/kg); Group III: ozone (20 mcg/ml) and methylprednisolone (2mg/kg); Group IV: isotonic saline (0.9%). The histomorphological evaluation was made after biopsies were obtained from the sites of injury. Significant differences were noted between groups in terms of degeneration (p=0.019), nerve sheath cell atrophy (p=0.012), intraneural inflammatory cellular infiltration (p=0.002), perineural granulation tissue formation (p=0.019), perineural vascular proliferation (p=0.004), perineural inflammatory cellular infiltration (pozone treatment can have beneficial effects for regeneration after crush type nerve injury.

  8. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Sen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350 g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%, levobupivacaine group 3 (15%, and lidocaine group 6 (30%. CONCLUSION: In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency.

  9. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphometric analysis of the fiber populations of the rat sciatic nerve, its spinal roots, and its major branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodanov, D.P.; Feierabend, H.K.P.

    2007-01-01

    Correspondence between the nerve composition and the functional characteristics of its fiber populations is not always evident. To investigate such correspondence and to give a systematic picture of the morphology of the rat hind limb nerves, extensive morphometric study was performed on the sciatic

  11. Extra-osseous Ewing′s sarcoma of sciatic nerve masquerading as an infected hemangioma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan K Dhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-osseous Ewing′s Sarcoma (EES arising from the peripheral nerve is rarely reported in children. Here, we report an instance of EES arising from the left sciatic nerve mimicking an infected hemangioma. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion and early histological diagnosis to avoid diagnostic delay.

  12. Coblation of Femoral and Sciatic Nerve for Stump Pain and Phantom Limb Pain: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuanjie; Wang, Xiaoping; Guo, Yuna; He, Liangliang; Ni, Jiaxiang

    2016-02-01

    There is currently no reliable treatment for stump pain and phantom limb pain. Peripheral factors play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stump pain and phantom limb pain. Coblation technology is a relatively new technology that has shown promise in treating neuropathic pain. This report describes the use of coblation technology on femoral and sciatic nerve for stump pain and phantom limb pain. An ultrasound-guided perineural infiltration anesthesia surrounding the neuroma was first performed and achieved approximately 60% stump pain relief that lasted for 2 hours, but no relief of the phantom limb pain. An ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve block was performed to obtain longer pain relief. The patient reported approximately 80% pain relief in both stump pain and phantom limb pain that lasted for 40 hours. This finding suggested other factors in addition to the ultrasound-detected neuroma in the residual limb generating pain for this patient. Coblation of femoral and sciatic nerves was performed. The stump pain was completely relieved immediately after operation. At 1, 3, and 6 months postoperative review, 80% relief of both stump and phantom limb pain was achieved. Overall activity was improved and there was no need for pain medications. The analgesic effect was stable during the 6-month follow-up period. Our report suggests that coblation technology may be useful treatment for stump pain and phantom limb pain. Treatments focusing on peripheral nerves may be more effective than those focusing on the neuroma. This finding needs additional study for confirmation. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Swimming Behavior and Calcium Incorporation into inner Ear Otoliths of Fish after vestibular Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium-tracer alizarin- complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated: Like neonate swordtails, type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetrical. In type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetrical. These results stongly suggest that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. Thus, it is assumed that the mechanisms regulating otolith growth and equlibibrium differ in the two types of cichlid fish. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  14. Ameliorative potential of Vernonia cinerea on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENKATA R.K. THIAGARAJAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the ameliorative potential of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Vernonia cinerea in the chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Behavioral parameters such as a hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal, chemical and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. Biochemical changes in sciatic nerve tissue were ruled out by estimating thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels. Ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea and pregabalin were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI of sciatic nerve has been shown to induce significant changes in behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments when compared to the sham control group. Vernonia cinerea attenuated in a dose dependent manner the above pathological changes induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve, which is similar to attenuation of the pregabalin pretreated group. The ameliorating effect of ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea against CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain may be due to the presence of flavonoids and this effect is attributed to anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulator actions of these compounds.

  15. Effects of Jinmaitong Capsule () on ciliary neurotrophic factor in sciatic nerves of diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yue; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Qun-Li; Sun, Lian-Qing; Qu, Ling; Zhao, Li; Wang, Pu-Yan

    2013-02-01

    To study the effects of the Chinese medicine Jinmaitong Capsule (, JMT) on the pathomorphology of sciatic nerves, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and the mRNA expressions of CNTF in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM). The animal model was established by one time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The rats were simply divided by random into 5 groups including model group, low-dose JMT group (JL), medium-dose JMT group (JM), high-dose JMT group (JH) and neurotropin group. For each of the above 5 groups, a group of 10 normal Wistar rats matched in body weight, age and gender were set as normal group. Intragastric administrations were started after the animal model established. The JL group were administered with five times the JMT dose recommended for a human adult; the JM group were administered with ten times the JMT dose recommended for a human adult; the JH group were administered with twenty times the JMT dose recommended for a human adult. The neurotropin group was administered with ten times the neurotropin dose recommended for a human adult. All rats were given intragastric administration for 16 weeks and then killed. In the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th week, body weight and blood glucose level were detected before and after the intervention. The morphologic changes of the sciatic nerves were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. The CNTFmRNA expressions were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain protein, and the CNTF protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemical method. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-DM rats were much higher than normal group (P0.05). Before and after the intervention in the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th week, there were no significant differences in the body weight among all the groups (P>0.05). The sciatic nerves of STZ-DM rats might have pathomorphological changes in axons, myelin sheaths, and interstitium. The levels of CNTF and CNTF

  16. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fagang; Li, Haiyan; Qiao, Guangxi; Chen, Feng; Tao, Hao; Ji, Aiyu; Hu, Yanling

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits, culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells. Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL, prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit. Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group). Controls were established using fibrin as the seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells at identical density to construct tissue-engineered nerves (fibrin group). Twelve weeks after implantation, toluidine blue staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate an increase in the number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling revealed that the number of Fluoro-gold-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and the spinal cord anterior horn was greater in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the fibrin group. Electrophysiological examination confirmed that compound muscle action potential and nerve conduction velocity were superior in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. These results indicate that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel can effectively serve as a seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells to construct tissue-engineered nerves to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25538751

  17. Effects of early and late diabetic neuropathy on sciatic nerve block duration and neurotoxicity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirk, P; Verhamme, C; Boeckh, R; Stevens, M F; ten Hoope, W; Gerner, P; Blumenthal, S; de Girolami, U; van Schaik, I N; Hollmann, M W; Picardi, S

    2015-02-01

    The neuropathy of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. We aimed to test the hypothesis that in a rodent model of type II DM, neuropathy would lead to increased neurotoxicity and block duration after lidocaine-induced sciatic nerve block when compared with control animals. Experiments were carried out in Zucker diabetic fatty rats aged 10 weeks (early diabetic) or 18 weeks (late diabetic, with or without insulin 3 units per day), and age-matched healthy controls. Left sciatic nerve block was performed using 0.2 ml lidocaine 2%. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and F-wave latency were used to quantify nerve function before, and 1 week after nerve block, after which sciatic nerves were used for neurohistopathology. Early diabetic animals did not show increased signs of nerve dysfunction after nerve block. In late diabetic animals without insulin vs control animals, NCV was 34.8 (5.0) vs 41.1 (4.1) ms s(-1) (Pneuropathy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that neuropathy due to type II DM increases the risk of nerve injury after nerve block. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Intraperitoneal Alpha-Lipoic Acid to prevent neural damage after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbag Davut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Crush injury to the sciatic nerve causes oxidative stress. Alfa Lipoic acid (a-LA is a neuroprotective metabolic antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with a-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve. Methods Forty rats were randomized into four groups. Group I and Group II received saline (2 ml, intraperitoneally and a-LA (100 mg/kg, 2 ml, intraperitoneally in the groups III and IV at the 24 and 1 hour prior to the crush injury. In groups II, III and IV, the left sciatic nerve was exposed and compressed for 60 seconds with a jeweler's forceps. In Group I (n = 10, the sciatic nerve was explored but not crushed. In all groups of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in samples of sciatic nerve tissue. Results Compared to Group I, Group II had significantly decreased tissue SOD and CAT activities and elevated MDA levels indicating crush injury (p < 0.05. In the a-LA treatment groups (groups III and IV, tissue CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased at the first hour (p < 0.05 and on the 3rd day (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between a-LA treatment groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion A-LA administered before crush injury of the sciatic nerve showed significant protective effects against crush injury by decreasing the oxidative stress. A-LA should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  19. The effect of spinal position on sciatic nerve excursion during seated neural mobilisation exercises: an in vivo study using ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard; Osborne, Samantha; Whitfield, Janessa; Parmar, Priya; Hing, Wayne

    2017-05-01

    Research has established that the amount of inherent tension a peripheral nerve tract is exposed to influences nerve excursion and joint range of movement (ROM). The effect that spinal posture has on sciatic nerve excursion during neural mobilisation exercises has yet to be determined. The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of different sitting positions (slump-sitting versus upright-sitting) on the amount of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement during different neural mobilisation exercises commonly used in clinical practice. High-resolution ultrasound imaging followed by frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion. Thirty-four healthy participants each performed three different neural mobilisation exercises in slump-sitting and upright-sitting. Means comparisons were used to examine the influence of sitting position on sciatic nerve excursion for the three mobilisation exercises. Linear regression analysis was used to determine whether any of the demographic data represented predictive variables for longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. There was no significant difference in sciatic nerve excursion (across all neural mobilisation exercises) observed between upright-sitting and slump-sitting positions (P = 0.26). Although greater body mass index, greater knee ROM and younger age were associated with higher levels of sciatic nerve excursion, this model of variables offered weak predictability (R(2) = 0.22). Following this study, there is no evidence that, in healthy people, longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion differs significantly with regards to the spinal posture (slump-sitting and upright-sitting). Furthermore, although some demographic variables are weak predictors, the high variance suggests that there are other unknown variables that may predict sciatic nerve excursion. It can be inferred from this research that clinicians can individualise the design of seated neural mobilisation exercises

  20. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Moisés Fernández; Cerezal, Luis; Pérez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included "piriformis syndrome," a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation.

  1. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

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    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana [Diagnostico Medico Cantabria (DMC), Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery Department Clinica Mompia (L.P.C.), Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-03-05

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  2. Autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid1 receptor-mediated demyelination of dorsal root fibers by sciatic nerve injury and intrathecal lysophosphatidylcholine

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    Aoki Junken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neuropathic pain is frequently observed in demyelinating diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis, the molecular basis for the relationship between demyelination and neuropathic pain behaviors is poorly understood. Previously, we found that lysophosphatidic acid receptor (LPA1 signaling initiates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and demyelination. Results In the present study, we have demonstrated that sciatic nerve injury induces marked demyelination accompanied by myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG down-regulation and damage of Schwann cell partitioning of C-fiber-containing Remak bundles in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root, but not in the spinal nerve. Demyelination, MAG down-regulation and Remak bundle damage in the dorsal root were abolished in LPA1 receptor-deficient (Lpar1-/- mice, but these alterations were not observed in sciatic nerve. However, LPA-induced demyelination in ex vivo experiments was observed in the sciatic nerve, spinal nerve and dorsal root, all which express LPA1 transcript and protein. Nerve injury-induced dorsal root demyelination was markedly attenuated in mice heterozygous for autotaxin (atx+/-, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC to LPA. Although the addition of LPC to ex vivo cultures of dorsal root fibers in the presence of recombinant ATX caused potent demyelination, it had no significant effect in the absence of ATX. On the other hand, intrathecal injection of LPC caused potent dorsal root demyelination, which was markedly attenuated or abolished in atx+/- or Lpar1-/- mice. Conclusions These results suggest that LPA, which is converted from LPC by ATX, activates LPA1 receptors and induces dorsal root demyelination following nerve injury, which causes neuropathic pain.

  3. Comparison of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement with different mobilization exercises: an in vivo study utilizing ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard F; Hing, Wayne A; McNair, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a single-group, within-subjects comparison. To determine whether different types of neural mobilization exercises are associated with differing amounts of longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion measured in vivo at the posterior midthigh region. Recent research focusing on the upper limb of healthy subjects has shown that nerve excursion differs significantly between different types of neural mobilization exercises. This has not been examined in the lower limb. It is important to initially examine the influence of neural mobilization on peripheral nerve excursion in healthy people to identify peripheral nerve excursion impairments under conditions in which nerve excursion may be compromised. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region. Four different neural mobilization exercises were performed in 31 healthy participants. These neural mobilization exercises used combinations of knee extension and cervical spine flexion and extension. Frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis of the ultrasound images was used to calculate nerve excursion. A repeated-measures analysis of variance and isolated means comparisons were used for data analysis. Different neural mobilization exercises induced significantly different amounts of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region (Ptensioner exercise (simultaneous cervical spine flexion and knee extension). The single-joint neck flexion exercise resulted in the least amount of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh (mean ± SD, -0.1 ± 0.1 mm), which was significantly smaller than the other 3 exercises (P<.001). These findings are consistent with the results of previous research that has examined median nerve excursion associated with different neural mobilization exercises. Such nerve excursion supports theories of nerve motion associated with cervical spine and extremity movement, as generalizable to the lower

  4. Effects of vestibular nerve transection on the calcium incorporation of fish otoliths

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    Anken, Ralf H.; Edelmann, Elke; Rahmann, Hinrich

    2001-08-01

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was transected unilaterally in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  5. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

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    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  6. Bioabsorbable nerve conduits coated with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurospheres enhance axonal regeneration in sciatic nerve defects in aged mice.

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    Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Takamatsu, Kiyohito; Shintani, Kosuke; Onode, Ema; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Hidaka, Noriaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-09-09

    Aging influences peripheral nerve regeneration. Nevertheless, most basic research of bioabsorbable nerve conduits including commercial products have been performed in very young animals. Results from these studies may not provide information about axonal regeneration in aged tissue, because young nerve tissue holds sufficient endogenous potential for axonal regeneration. The clinical target age for nerve conduit application is most likely going to increase with a rapidly growing elderly population. In the present study, we examined axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve defects in aged and young mice. 5-mm sciatic nerve defects in young (6 weeks old) and aged (92 weeks old) mice were reconstructed using nerve conduits (composed of a poly lactide and caprolactone) or autografts. In addition, in aged mice, sciatic nerve defects were reconstructed using nerve conduits coated with mouse induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSc)-derived neurospheres. Using electrophysiological and histological techniques, we demonstrated axonal regeneration was significantly less effective in aged than in young mice both for nerve conduits and for nerve autografts. However, despite the low regenerative capacity of the peripheral nerve in aged mice, axonal regeneration significantly increased when nerve conduits coated with iPSc-derived neurospheres, rather than nerve conduits alone, were used. The present study shows that aging negatively affects peripheral nerve regeneration based on nerve conduits in mice. However, axonal regeneration using nerve conduits was improved when supportive iPSc-derived neurospheres were added in the aged mice. We propose that tissue-engineered bioabsorbable nerve conduits in combination with iPSc-derived neurospheres hold therapeutic potential both in young and elderly patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of Adrenal Medulla and Sciatic Nerve Co-Grafts in Rats with Unilateral Substantia Nigra Lesions

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    Freed, William J.; Willingham, George; Heim, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Major limitations of adrenal medulla transplantation in animal models of Parkinson's disease have been the relatively small behavioral effects and the poor or inconsistent graft survival. Transplantation of fragments of sural nerve in combination with adrenal medulla has been reported to increase the survival of chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla grafts in primates. In the present study, the possibility was tested that peripheral nerve co-grafts would increase the functional effects of adrenal medulla grafts in a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model. Animals received unilateral substantia nigra lesions, and subsequently received intraventricular grafts of adrenal medulla, sciatic nerve, adrenal medulla plus sciatic nerve, or sham grafts consisting of medium only. Functional effects of the grafts were tested using apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The sciatic nerve co-grafts did not increase the survival of TH-immunoreactive chromaffin cells. The co-grafting treatment also did not augment the overall effect of adrenal medulla grafts on rotational behavior. In the animals with substantial numbers of surviving chromaffin cells, however, the animals with sciatic nerve co-grafts showed greater decreases in rotational behavior as compared to the animals with adrenal medulla grafts alone, even though the number of surviving cells was not increased. PMID:1355367

  8. Do Resin Cements Alter Action Potentials of Isolated Rat Sciatic Nerve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Ahmet Atila; Beriat, Nilufer Celebi; Onur, Mehmet Ali; Tan, Gamze; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects dual-cure resin cements on nerve conduction. Methods: Panavia F, RelyX ARC, and Variolink II polymerized either by light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) were used in the study (n=10). The conductance of sciatic nerves of 50 rats were measured before and after contact with the specimens for 1 h. Results: The time-dependent change in nerve conductance and the comparison of LED versus QTH showed that differences between groups are significant (P<.05). For both polymerization techniques, pair-wise comparisons of resin cements showed that the nerve conductance between groups is different (P<.05). RelyX ARC elicited irreversible inhibition of compound action potentials (more than 50% change) and Panavia F and Variolink II polymerized by LED and QTH did not alter nerve conduction beyond physiologic limits. Conclusions: Resin cements may alter nerve conductance and even lead to neurotoxic effects. PMID:21494389

  9. Linear ordered collagen scaffolds loaded with collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factor facilitate recovery of sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fukai; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Hou, Xianglin; Dai, Jianwu; Xu, Ruxiang

    2014-04-01

    Natural biological functional scaffolds, consisting of biological materials filled with promoting elements, provide a promising strategy for the regeneration of peripheral nerve defects. Collagen conduits have been used widely due to their excellent biological properties. Linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) fibers are good lumen fillers that can guide nerve regeneration in an ordered direction. In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is important in the recovery of nerve injury. However, the traditional method for delivering bFGF to the lesion site has no long-term effect because of its short half-life and rapid diffusion. Therefore, we fused a specific collagen-binding domain (CBD) peptide to the N-terminal of native basic fibroblast growth factor (NAT-bFGF) to retain bFGF on the collagen scaffolds. In this study, a natural biological functional scaffold was constructed using collagen tubes filled with collagen-binding bFGF (CBD-bFGF)-loaded LOCS to promote regeneration in a 5-mm rat sciatic nerve transection model. Functional evaluation, histological investigation, and morphometric analysis indicated that the natural biological functional scaffold retained more bFGF at the injury site, guided axon growth, and promoted nerve regeneration as well as functional restoration.

  10. Femoral and sciatic nerve blockades and incision site infiltration in rabbits undergoing stifle joint arthrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, K; Larenza Menzies, M P; Kloeppel, H; Pearce, S G; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R; Kutter, A P N

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether perineural injections of local anaesthetics decreases intraoperative nociception and improves postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits undergoing experimental stifle arthrotomy. All animals were anaesthetized using isoflurane and received morphine intramuscularly. The sciatic and femoral nerves of the leg to be operated on were located using a nerve stimulator (1 Hz, 0.5 mA). Rabbits were assigned to a treatment group (LB; n = 12) or a placebo group (P; n = 12) in a randomized blinded fashion. Group LB received lidocaine 2% (1 mg/kg) combined with bupivacaine 0.5% (0.25 mg/kg) injections around the sciatic and femoral nerves (0.1 mL/kg total volume per site) and subcutaneous infiltration of the incision site with lidocaine 1% (1.25 mg/kg). Group P received the same volume of 0.9% NaCl. Rabbits in group P required higher doses of intraoperative fentanyl and propofol to reduce heart rate and suppress increase in systolic blood pressure, and maintain an adequate anaesthetic plane. Interventional analgesia (buprenorphine and carprofen) was required significantly earlier in rabbits in group P (2 and 6 h after the first nerve blockade, respectively) based on assessment of their pain-related behaviour and range of motion. Using a visual analogue scale (0 mm= no pain to 100 mm= maximal possible pain), rabbits in group LB were judged to show significantly less pain compared with rabbits in group P (14 ± 10 mm and 37 ± 25 mm, respectively) 2 h after nerve blockade. In conclusion, this technique of perineural analgesia combined with incision site infiltration reduced intraoperative fentanyl requirements and improved postoperative analgesia in rabbits.

  11. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats. Nerves, mounted in a moist chamber, were stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 50-100-µs duration at 10-20 V, and evoked CAP were monitored on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. CAP control parameters were: peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA, 9.9 ± 0.55 mV (N = 15, conduction velocity, 92.2 ± 4.36 m/s (N = 15, chronaxy, 45.6 ± 3.74 µs (N = 5, and rheobase, 3.9 ± 0.78 V (N = 5. Estragole induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 0.6 mM, estragole had no demonstrable effect. At 2.0 and 6.0 mM estragole, PPA was significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug to 85.6 ± 3.96 and 13.04 ± 1.80% of control, respectively. At 4.0 mM, estragole significantly altered PPA, conduction velocity, chronaxy, and rheobase (P <= 0.05, ANOVA; N = 5 to 49.3 ± 6.21 and 77.7 ± 3.84, 125.9 ± 10.43 and 116.7 ± 4.59%, of control, respectively. All of these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon a 300-min wash-out. The data show that estragole dose-dependently blocks nerve excitability.

  12. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxue; Tan, Wei; Luo, Danping; Lin, Jianhua; Yu, Yaoqing; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Wangyeng; Wu, Buling; Chen, Jun; He, Jiman

    2012-12-04

    Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 160-280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  13. A randomized comparison between bifurcation and prebifurcation subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, De Q H; González, Andrea P; Bernucci, Francisca; Pham, Kevin; Finlayson, Roderick J

    2013-05-01

    In this prospective, randomized, observer-blinded trial, we compared ultrasound-guided subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve blocks performed either at or proximal to the neural bifurcation (B). We hypothesized that the total anesthesia-related time (sum of performance and onset times) would be decreased with the prebifurcation (PB) technique. Ultrasound-guided posterior popliteal sciatic nerve block was performed in 68 patients. All subjects received an identical volume (30 mL) and mix of local anesthetic agent (1% lidocaine-0.25% bupivacaine-5 µg/mL epinephrine). In the PB group, the local anesthetic solution was deposited at the level of the common sciatic trunk, just distal to the intersection between its circular and elliptical sonographic appearances, inside the paraneural sheath. In the B group, the injection was performed inside the sheath between the tibial and peroneal divisions. A blinded observer recorded the success rate (complete tibial and peroneal sensory block at 30 minutes) and onset time. The performance time, number of needle passes, and adverse events (paresthesia, neural edema) were also recorded. All subjects were contacted 7 days after the surgery to inquire about the presence of persistent numbness or motor deficit. Both techniques resulted in comparable success rates (85%-88%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the intergroup difference, -14% to 19%) and required similar performance times (8.1 minutes; 95% CI of the difference, -1.65 to 1.71 minutes), onset times (15.0-17.7 minutes; 95% CI of the difference, -7.65 to 2.31 minutes), and total anesthesia-related times (23.4-26.0 minutes; 95% CI of the difference, -7.83 to 2.74 minutes). The number of needle passes and incidence of paresthesia (25%-34%) were also similar between the 2 groups. Sonographic neural swelling was detected in 2 and 3 subjects in the PB and B groups, respectively. In all 5 cases, the needle was carefully withdrawn and the injection completed uneventfully. Patient

  14. Crosstalk between p38, Hsp25 and Akt in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Ul Haq, I.; Hill, C.; Park, E.; Smith, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Goldberg, D. J.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for induction of Hsp25 expression. Furthermore, Hsp25 formed a complex with Akt, a member of PI-3 kinase pathway that prevents neuronal cell death. Together, our observations implicate Hsp25 as a central player in a complex system of signaling that may both promote regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent neuronal cell death in the injured spinal cord.

  15. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

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    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  16. Lateral Supratrochanteric Approach to Sciatic and Femoral Nerve Blocks in Children: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Sciatic and femoral nerve blocks (SNB and FNB) result in effective lower limb analgesia. Classical SNB and FNB require patient repositioning which can cause pain and discomfort. Alternative approaches to sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in supine patients can be useful. Materials and Methods Neurostimulator-guided SNB and FNB from the lateral supratrochanteric approach were performed. Local anesthetic spread in SNB and FNB after radiographic opacification was analyzed. Time and number of attempts to perform blocks, needle depth, and clinical efficacy were assessed. Results Mean needle passes number and procedure time for SNB were 2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.2 min, respectively. Mean needle passes number and procedure time for FNB were 2.7 ± 0.27 and 2.59 ± 0.23 min, respectively. Mean skin to nerve distance was 9.1 ± 0.45 cm for SNB and 8.8 ± 0.5 cm for FNB. Radiographic opacification of SNB showed local anesthetic spread close to the sacrum and involvement of sacral plexus nerve roots. Spread of local anesthetic in FNB was typical. Intraoperative fentanyl administration was required in 2 patients (9.5%) with mean dose 1.8 ± 0.2 mcg/kg. Mean postoperative pain score was 0.34 ± 0.08 of 10. Conclusion The lateral supratrochanteric approach to SNB and FNB in children can be an effective lower limb analgesic technique in supine patients. The trial is registered with ISRCTN70969666.

  17. Lateral Supratrochanteric Approach to Sciatic and Femoral Nerve Blocks in Children: A Feasibility Study

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    Andrew A. Albokrinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sciatic and femoral nerve blocks (SNB and FNB result in effective lower limb analgesia. Classical SNB and FNB require patient repositioning which can cause pain and discomfort. Alternative approaches to sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in supine patients can be useful. Materials and Methods. Neurostimulator-guided SNB and FNB from the lateral supratrochanteric approach were performed. Local anesthetic spread in SNB and FNB after radiographic opacification was analyzed. Time and number of attempts to perform blocks, needle depth, and clinical efficacy were assessed. Results. Mean needle passes number and procedure time for SNB were 2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.2 min, respectively. Mean needle passes number and procedure time for FNB were 2.7 ± 0.27 and 2.59 ± 0.23 min, respectively. Mean skin to nerve distance was 9.1 ± 0.45 cm for SNB and 8.8 ± 0.5 cm for FNB. Radiographic opacification of SNB showed local anesthetic spread close to the sacrum and involvement of sacral plexus nerve roots. Spread of local anesthetic in FNB was typical. Intraoperative fentanyl administration was required in 2 patients (9.5% with mean dose 1.8 ± 0.2 mcg/kg. Mean postoperative pain score was 0.34 ± 0.08 of 10. Conclusion. The lateral supratrochanteric approach to SNB and FNB in children can be an effective lower limb analgesic technique in supine patients. The trial is registered with ISRCTN70969666.

  18. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

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    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi, E-mail: kumamote@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  19. Transection of Omohyoid Muscle as an Aid During Vagus Nerve Stimulator Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowtak, June; Jenkins, Patrick; Giller, Cole

    2017-03-01

    Exposure of the carotid sheath during vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation is usually straightforward but can be difficult for patients with a large body habitus. In addition, the exposure must be done with care if the surgeon wants to keep the vagus nerve in situ without using retractors that might impair access. We describe the use of the omohyoid muscle as a landmark for the jugular vein and report how transection of the omohyoid can facilitate rapid and wide exposure of the carotid sheath. We review the records of 59 consecutive patients undergoing VNS implantation from 2009-2015 and describe our technique incorporating omohyoid transection. We also summarize complications such as postoperative hoarseness, cough, dysphagia, or wound issues. Forty-two of the 59 patients (29 adults and 13 children) underwent omohyoid transection during implantation. In all cases, the carotid sheath and jugular vein were immediately visible after transection. One patient developed permanent hoarseness and coughing due to left vocal cord paresis, requiring further surgery. This result was most likely due to manipulation of the vagus nerve rather than division of the omohyoid muscle. Omohyoid transection provides excellent exposure of the carotid sheath during VNS implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of laser (660 nm) on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Ana Carulina Guimarães; dos Reis, Filipe Abdalla; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Perreira, Daniel M; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2009-11-01

    With the aim of accelerating the regenerative processes, the objective was to study the influence of gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser (660 nm) on functional and histomorphological recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. The sciatic nerves of 12 Wistar rats were crushed divided into two groups: control and laser therapy. For the latter, GaAlAs laser was utilized (660 nm, 4 J/cm(2), 26.3 mW and 0.63 cm(2) beam), at three equidistant points on the lesion, for 20 days. Comparison of the sciatic functional index (SFI) showed that there was a significant difference only between the pre-lesion value of the laser therapy group and that after the 21st day in the control group. It was concluded that the parameters and methods utilized demonstrated positive results regarding the SFI over the time period evaluated.

  1. Topography of synchronization of somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rat

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    Xuefeng eQu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traditionally, the topography of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs is generated based on amplitude and latency. However, this operation focuses on the physical morphology and field potential-power, so it suffers from difficulties in performing identification in an objective manner. In this study, measurement of the synchronization of SEPs is proposed as a method to explore brain functional networks as well as the plasticity after peripheral nerve injury. Method: SEPs elicited by unilateral sciatic nerve stimulation in twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats in the normal group were compared with SEPs evoked after unilateral sciatic nerve hemisection in four peripheral nerve injured SD rats. The characterization of synchronized networks from SEPs was conducted using equal-time correlation, correlation matrix analysis, and comparison to randomized surrogate data. Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix were used to identify the clusters of functionally synchronized neuronal activity, and the participation index (PI was calculated to indicate the involvement of each channel in the cluster. The PI value at the knee point of the PI histogram was used as a threshold to demarcate the cortical boundary. Results: Ten out of the twelve normal rats showed only one synchronized brain network. The remaining two normal rats showed one strong and one weak network. In the peripheral nerve injured group, only one synchronized brain network was found in each rat. In the normal group, all network shapes appear regular and the network is largely contained in the posterior cortex. In the injured group, the network shapes appear irregular, the network extends anteriorly and posteriorly, and the network area is significantly larger. There are considerable individual variations in the shape and location of the network after peripheral nerve injury. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect functional brain networks. Compared to the results of the

  2. Partial epineural burying of nerve grafts with different sizes next to or distant from neurorrhaphy?s site: histological and electrophysiological studies in rat sciatic nerves

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    Cunha Marco Túlio Rodrigues da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare and correlate histologically and electromyographically the effects of partial epineural burying of sural nerve segments in sectioned and sutured rat sciatic nerves. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were operated on 3 groups: Group 1, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, placed next to neurorrhaphy; Group 2, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, buryied 10mm distant from neurorrhaphy; Group 3, sural nerve graft, 18mm long, set next to neurorrhaphy. The morphological features were examined at light microscope after 3 months in 45 rats. The elements observed were: vascularization, vacuoles in nerve fibers, mastocytes and inflammatory infiltrate. The morphometry was made after 6 months in 15 rats from Group 1, 2 and 3, measuring external nerve fiber diameters and counting myelinated nerve fibers/mm². The electrophysiological study was perfomed after 6 months, registering maximum amplitude and frequency of EMG pontentials, at rest, in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Group 3 rats presented sciatic nerves better conserved morphologically and mean external nerve fiber diameters greater than those from Groups 1 and 2. There were no significant differences in density of nerve fibers/mm², and in the electrophysiological study in rats from Group 1, 2 and 3. The epineural burying of sural nerve grafts with greater length and placed next to the neurorrhaphy?s site had a significantly better regeneration of the histological features than the smaller ones distant from neurorrhaphy.

  3. Inhibition of the TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels through Hypericum perforatum in Sciatic Nerve Injury-induced Rats Demonstrates their Key Role in Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress of Sciatic Nerve and Dorsal Root Ganglion

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    Fuat Uslusoy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve injury (SNI results in neuropathic pain, which is characterized by the excessive Ca2+ entry, reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis processes although involvement of antioxidant Hypericum perforatum (HP through TRPM2 and TRPV1 activation has not been clarified on the processes in SNI-induced rat, yet. We investigated the protective property of HP on the processes in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN of SNI-induced rats. The rats were divided into five groups as control, sham, sham+HP, SNI, and SNI+HP. The HP groups received 30 mg/kg HP for 4 weeks after SNI induction. TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels were activated in the neurons by ADP-ribose or cumene peroxide and capsaicin, respectively. The SNI-induced TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents and intracellular free Ca2+ and ROS concentrations were reduced by HP, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl anthranilic acid (ACA, and capsazepine (CapZ. SNI-induced increase in apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization in sciatic nerve and DRGN of SNI group were decreased by HP, ACA, and CapZ treatments. PARP-1, caspase 3 and 9 expressions in the sciatic nerve, DRGN, skin, and musculus piriformis of SNI group were also attenuated by HP treatment. In conclusion, increase of mitochondrial ROS, apoptosis, and Ca2+ entry through inhibition of TRPM2 and TRPV1 in the sciatic nerve and DRGN neurons were decreased by HP treatment. The results may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of SNI by HP.

  4. Acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Lower Limb Symptoms—The Relation between Acupuncture or Electroacupuncture Stimulation and Sciatic Nerve Blood Flow

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    Motohiro Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc and to clarify the mechanisms in an animal experiment that evaluated acupuncture on sciatic nerve blood flow. In the clinical trial, patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis or herniated lumbar disc were divided into three treatment groups; (i Ex-B2 (at the disordered level, (ii electrical acupuncture (EA on the pudendal nerve and (iii EA at the nerve root. Primary outcome measurements were pain and dysesthesia [evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS] and continuous walking distance. In the animal study, sciatic nerve blood flow was measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry at, before and during three kinds of stimulation (manual acupuncture on lumber muscle, electrical stimulation on the pudendal nerve and electrical stimulation on the sciatic nerve in anesthetized rats. For the clinical trial, approximately half of the patients who received Ex-B2 revealed amelioration of the symptoms. EA on the pudendal nerve was effective for the symptoms which had not improved by Ex-B2. Considerable immediate and sustained relief was observed in patients who received EA at the nerve root. For the animal study, increase in sciatic nerve blood flow was observed in 56.9% of the trial with lumber muscle acupuncture, 100% with pudendal nerve stimulation and 100% with sciatic nerve stimulation. Sciatic nerve stimulation sustained the increase longer than pudendal nerve stimulation. One mechanism of action of acupuncture and electrical acupuncture stimulation could be that, in addition to its influence on the pain inhibitory system, it participates in causing a transient change in sciatic nerve blood blow, including circulation to the cauda equine and nerve root.

  5. Effects of early and late diabetic neuropathy on sciatic nerve block duration and neurotoxicity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Verhamme, C.; Boeckh, R.; Stevens, M. F.; ten Hoope, W.; Gerner, P.; Blumenthal, S.; de Girolami, U.; van Schaik, I. N.; Hollmann, M. W.; Picardi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The neuropathy of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. We aimed to test the hypothesis that in a rodent model of type II DM, neuropathy would lead to increased neurotoxicity and block duration after lidocaine-induced sciatic nerve block when compared with control

  6. Homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia during sciatic nerve regeneration: is regeneration a recapitulation of development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Vogelaar, C.F.; Hoekman, M.F.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    After damage of the sciatic nerve, a regeneration process is initiated. Neurons in the dorsal root ganglion regrow their axons and functional connections. The molecular mechanisms of this neuronal regenerative process have remained elusive, but a relationship with developmental processes has been

  7. Kinetics of Uptake and Washout of Lidocaine in Rat Sciatic Nerve In Vitro

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    Leeson, Stanley; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background The potency and efficacy of local anesthetics injected clinically for peripheral nerve block depends strongly on the rate of neural drug uptake. However, since diffusion into surrounding tissues and removal by the vascular system are major factors in the overall distribution of lidocaine in vivo, true kinetics of drug/neural tissue interactions must be studied in the absence of those confounding factors. Methods Uptake: Ensheathed or desheathed isolated rat sciatic nerves were exposed to [14C]-lidocaine for 0-180min and then removed and the lidocaine content of nerve and sheath analyzed. Washout: Isolated nerves were soaked in [14C]-lidocaine for 60min and then placed in lidocaine-free solution for 0-30min, with samples removed at different times to assess the drug content. Experimental variables included the effects of the ensheathing epineurium, lidocaine concentration, pH, presence of CO2-bicarbonate, and incubation duration. Results The equilibrium uptake of lidocaine increased with incubation time, concentration and the fraction of molecules in the non-ionized form. The uptake rate was unaffected by drug concentration, but was about halved by the presence of the epineurial sheath, with the washout rate slowed less. Slight alkalinization, from pH 6.8 to pH 7.4, by bicarbonate-CO2 buffer or a non-bicarbonate buffer, enhanced the neural uptake, and to the same degree. The washout of lidocaine was faster after shorter incubations at high concentrations than when equal amounts of lidocaine were taken up after long incubations at low lidocaine concentrations. Conclusion Lidocaine enters a nerve by a process other than free diffusion, through an epineurial sheath that is a slight obstacle. Given the rapid entry in vitro compared to the much smaller and transient content measured in vivo, it seems highly unlikely that lidocaine equilibrates with the nerve during a peripheral blockade. PMID:23400993

  8. A new analgesic method, two-minute sciatic nerve press, for immediate pain relief: a randomized trial

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    Zhang Fenglin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current analgesics have drawbacks such as delays in acquisition, lag-times for effect, and side effects. We recently presented a preliminary report of a new analgesic method involving a two-minute sciatic nerve press, which resulted in immediate short-term relief of pain associated with dental and renal diseases. The present study investigated whether this technique was effective for pain associated with other disease types, and whether the relief was effective for up to one hour. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted in four hospitals in Anhui Province, China. Patients with pain were sequentially recruited by participating physicians during clinic visits, and 135 patients aged 15 – 80 years were enrolled. Dental disease patients included those with acute pulpitis and periapical abscesses. Renal disease patients included those with kidney infections and/or stones. Tumor patients included those with nose, breast, stomach and liver cancers, while Emergency Room patients had various pathologies. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a "sciatic nerve press" in which pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of both thighs, or a "placebo press" in which pressure was applied to a parallel region on the front of the thighs. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 – 20 kg for 2 minutes. Patients rated their level of pain before and after the procedure. Results The "sciatic nerve press" produced immediate relief of pain in all patient groups. Emergency patients reported a 43.5% reduction in pain (p th minutes, and the relief decreased 47% by the 60th minutes. Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves produced immediate significant short-term conduction analgesia. This technique is a convenient, safe and powerful method for the short-term treatment of clinical pain associated with a diverse range of pathologies. Trial registration Current

  9. Recurrent rectal cancer causing lumbosacral plexopathy with perineural spread to the spinal nerves and the sciatic nerve: an anatomic explanation.

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    Capek, Stepan; Sullivan, Patrick S; Howe, Benjamin M; Smyrk, Thomas C; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J; Dozois, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Several groups have reported cases of rectal cancer with carcinomatous involvement of the lumbosacral plexus and sciatic, obturator, pudendal, or spinal nerves. To our best knowledge, clear examples of perineural tumor spread in rectal carcinoma have not yet been described. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data and imaging studies of three patients with primary or recurrent rectal cancer involving the lumbosacral plexus. Imaging studies included MRI and (18)FDG PET/CT scans in all (n = 3) patients, histological samples were available in two (n = 2). Imaging studies demonstrated distinct features of tumor spread from the organ to the plexus and beyond in all cases (n = 3), histological specimens demonstrated perineural involvement thus supporting our theory (n = 2). We present these three cases of perineural tumor spread in rectal cancer as a proof of concept. We hypothesize that not only our cases, but other similar reported cases can be explained anatomically by extension of the rectal cancer to the inferior hypogastric plexus with perineural tumor spread to the lumbosacral plexus using the pelvic and sacral splanchnic nerves as conduits. Once the tumor reaches the lumbosacral plexus, it can continue to spread proximally or distally. We believe that perineural spread of colon cancer represents an important, under-recognized mechanism of recurrence to neighboring major nerves in the pelvis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

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    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  11. Effects of tapentadol on mechanical hypersensitivity in rats with ligatures of the infraorbital nerve versus the sciatic nerve.

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    Michot, B; Bourgoin, S; Kayser, V; Hamon, M

    2013-07-01

    Convergent data showed that neuropathic pain has specific characteristics at cephalic versus extra-cephalic level, where single-targeted drugs differentially alleviate pain. Because the novel analgesic drug, tapentadol, is acting at two targets, μ-opioid receptors (as agonist) and noradrenaline reuptake (as inhibitor), we tested its effects on neuropathic pain at both cephalic and extra-cephalic levels. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral constriction injury (CCI) to the infraorbital nerve (ION; cephalic territory) or the sciatic nerve (SN; extra-cephalic territory), and alleviation of nerve lesion-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia was assessed after acute or repeated (for 4 days) treatment with tapentadol compared with morphine and/or reboxetine (noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) 2 weeks after surgery. Possible changes in the expression of the neuroinflammatory markers activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by repeated tapentadol treatment were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in ganglia and central tissues. Acute administration of tapentadol (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced allodynia in both CCI-SN and CCI-ION rats. Although morphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) or reboxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was only marginally active, the combination of both drugs produced supra-additive effects like those observed with tapentadol. In contrast to repeated morphine whose effects vanished, the anti-allodynic effects of tapentadol remained unchanged after a 4-day treatment. However, the latter treatment with tapentadol did not affect nerve lesion-evoked overexpression of ATF3, IL-6 and BDNF transcripts. The dual synergistic pharmacological properties of tapentadol, which result in clear-cut anti-neuropathic pain effects at both cephalic and extra-cephalic levels, probably involve mechanisms downstream of nerve injury-induced neuroinflammatory reaction.

  12. In vivo introduction of transgenes into mouse sciatic nerve cells in situ using viral vectors.

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    Gonzalez, Sergio; Fernando, Ruani N; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The myelin sheath is essential for the rapid and efficient propagation of action potentials. However, our understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms that regulate myelination, demyelination and remyelination is limited. Schwann cells produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system and remain associated with the axons of peripheral neurons throughout axonal migration to the target. Owing to the intimate relationship between these cell types it is difficult to fully reproduce their function in vitro. For this reason, we developed an approach based on the injection of an engineered virus into the sciatic nerve of mice to locally transduce peripheral nerve cells. This approach can be used as an alternative to germline transgenesis to facilitate the investigation of peripheral nerve biology in vivo. The detailed protocol, described here, requires 3 weeks to complete. In comparison with genetic modification strategies, this protocol is a fast, reproducible and straightforward method for introducing exogenous factors into myelinating Schwann cells and myelinated axons in vivo to investigate specific molecular mechanisms.

  13. Localization and irregular distribution of Na,K-ATPase in myelin sheath from rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Sandra; Gregório, Elisa Aparecida; Spadella, César Tadeu; Cojocel, Constantin

    2007-06-01

    Sodium, potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) is a membrane-bound enzyme that maintains the Na(+) and K(+) gradients used in the nervous system for generation and transmission of bioelectricity. Recently, its activity has also been demonstrated during nerve regeneration. The present study was undertaken to investigate the ultrastructural localization and distribution of Na,K-ATPase in peripheral nerve fibers. Small blocks of the sciatic nerves of male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were excised, divided into two groups, and incubated with and without substrate, the para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). The material was processed for transmission electron microscopy, and the ultra-thin sections were examined in a Philips CM 100 electron microscope. The deposits of reaction product were localized mainly on the axolemma, on axoplasmic profiles, and irregularly dispersed on the myelin sheath, but not in the unmyelinated axons. In the axonal membrane, the precipitates were regularly distributed on the cytoplasmic side. These results together with published data warrant further studies for the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathies with compromised Na,K-ATPase activity.

  14. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J; Bruhn, Jörgen; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2010-01-01

    Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy matched with ultrasound views of the major SN block sites will be helpful in pattern recognition, especially when combined with images that show the internal architecture of the nerve. From 1 cadaver, consecutive parts of the upper leg corresponding to the 4 major blocks sites were sectioned and deeply frozen. Using cryomicrotomy, consecutive transverse sections were acquired and photographed at 78-microm intervals, along with histologic sections at 5-mm intervals. Multiplanar reformatting was done to reconstruct the optimal planes for an accurate comparison of ultrasonography and gross anatomy. The anatomic and histologic images were matched with ultrasound images that were obtained from 2 healthy volunteers. By simulating the exact position and angulation as in the ultrasonographic images, detailed anatomic overviews of SN and adjacent structures were reconstructed in the gluteal, subgluteal, midfemoral, and popliteal regions. Throughout its trajectory, SN contains numerous fascicles with connective and adipose tissues. In this study, we provide an optimal matching between histology, anatomic cross sections, and short-axis ultrasound images of SN. Reconstructing ultrasonographic planes with this high-resolution digitized anatomy not only enables an overview but also shows detailed views of the architecture of internal SN. The undulating course of the nerve fascicles within SN may explain its varying echogenic appearance during probe manipulation.

  15. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

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    Natalia Perussi Biscola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

  16. The application of graphene oxidized combining with decellularized scaffold to repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats

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    Qiaoling Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper combined the decellularized scaffold of sciatic nerve of rats with graphene oxidized (GO, studied and facilitated the regeneration of sciatic nerve of rats, and provided the basis for the clinical application of nanomaterials. GO was prepared through improving Hammer’s Method. Fourier Infrared Spectrum was used to scan and detect the functional groups in GO of sample by using the pellet method, the microcosmic morphological appearance of GO was observed by using the scanning electron microscope. The GO/decellularized scaffold were prepared and operation bridging of injured sciatic nerve was conducted by using the oscillation mixing method. BL-420F Biofunctional Experiment System was used to detect nerve action potential and the maximum tension value of muscles, and the fiber structure of nerve was observed under H-7650 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM. Scanning electron microscope observed that GO presented a folded and curly single-layer sheet structure. It was soluble in water through ultrasound, brownish, the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer detected the absorption peaks of carbonyl, hydroxy and carboxy, proving that the surface of GO material had many functional groups containing oxygen. Decellularized scaffold combining with GO was applied to repair injury of sciatic nerve, the nerve action potential, maximum tension value of muscle, wet weight value of gastrocnemius, thickness of gastrocnemius, thickness of myelin sheath and diameter of axon of the decellularized scaffold combining with GO group were obviously higher than the decellularized scaffold group and the self-rotating group, approaching to the normal value. All the data were represented by means ± standard deviation (x¯±s and processed by adopting SPSS 11.0 software. Comparisons among groups were analyzed by variance, and the comparison of two means was detected by student t. The detection level adopted α = 0.05, when P < 0.05, it could be

  17. Liposomal Bupivacaine Versus Continuous Popliteal Sciatic Nerve Block in Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ryan P; Morash, Joel G; DeOrio, James K; Parekh, Selene G

    2017-11-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is widely used in joint arthroplasty, but there is little reported on the use of LB in foot and ankle surgery. Continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block (CPSNB) is more commonly used for major foot and ankle reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to compare use of intraoperative LB injection to CPSNB as a regional anesthetic for total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), with attention to postoperative pain scores, narcotic use, and complications. Retrospective review of TAA patients of 2 fellowship-trained orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons was performed. Patients received either preoperative single-shot popliteal sciatic nerve block with 0.2% ropivacaine followed by intraoperative injection of LB or preoperative CPSNB alone. Outcomes examined were visual analog scale (VAS) pain score at 8 hours, 24 hours, 1 week, and 3 weeks following surgery; need for opioid pain medication refill; physician office notification for pain issues or other adverse events; and complications within the first 90 days following surgery. Standard statistical analysis was performed, and P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy-five patients were identified who underwent TAA and met inclusion criteria. Forty-one received LB, and 34 received CPSNB. No statistical difference was seen between groups with regard to complications, emergency department visits, readmissions, reoperations, VAS pain score at any time point, physician office contacts, and narcotic refills. Sixteen of 41 (39%) LB patients had narcotic refills, versus 12 of 34 (35%) CPSNB patients ( P = .81). Two of 41 (5%) LB patients had a complication postoperatively, versus 4 of 34 (12%) CPSNB patients. There were no complications specific to the anesthetic used in either group. This is the first study evaluating the use of LB for total ankle arthroplasty. Liposomal bupivacaine was safe and effective as an option for regional anesthetic and postoperative pain control, with comparable results to CPSNB

  18. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

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    A.M. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  19. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.M.; Ashmawi, H.A.; Costa, L.S.; Posso, I.P. [LIM-08 - Anestesiologia Experimental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Slullitel, A. [Departamento de Anestesiologia, Hospital Santa Paula, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg) increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s) and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN) at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg) blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  20. The effect of experimental glaucoma and optic nerve transection on amacrine cells in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielczewski, Jennifer L; Pease, Mary Ellen; Quigley, Harry A

    2005-09-01

    To detect alterations in amacrine cells associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) depletion caused by experimental optic nerve transection and glaucoma. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated unilaterally in 18 rats by translimbal trabecular laser treatment, and eyes were studied at 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 5), and 3 (n = 7) months. Complete optic nerve transection was performed unilaterally in nine rats with survival for 1 (n = 4) and 3 (n = 5) months. Serial cryosections (five per eye) were immunohistochemically labeled with rabbit anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and anti-glycine antibodies. Cells in the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers that labeled for GABA or glycine were counted in a masked fashion under bright-field microscopy. Additional labeling with other RGC and amacrine antigens was also performed. RGC loss was quantified by axon counts. Amacrine cells identified by GABA and glycine labeling were not significantly affected by experimental glaucoma, with a mean decrease of 15% compared with bilaterally untreated control cells (557 +/- 186 neurons/mm [glaucoma] versus 653.9 +/- 114.4 neurons/mm [control] of retina; P = 0.15, t-test). There was no significant trend for amacrine cell counts to be lower in eyes with fewer RGCs (r = -0.39, P = 0.11). By contrast, there was highly significant loss of GABA and glycine staining 3 months after nerve transection, both in the treated and the fellow eyes (P neurotransmitters. After nerve transection, neurotransmitter presence declines, but many amacrine cell bodies remain. Differences among optic nerve injury models, as well as effects on "untreated" fellow eyes, should be recognized.

  1. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat’s Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

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    C. Y. Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw’s ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance. Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients.

  2. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  3. Blocking LINGO-1 function promotes retinal ganglion cell survival following ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection.

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    Fu, Qing-Ling; Hu, Bing; Wu, Wutian; Pepinsky, R Blake; Mi, Sha; So, Kwok-Fai

    2008-03-01

    LINGO-1 is a functional member of the Nogo66 receptor (NgR1)/p75 and NgR1/TROY signaling complexes that prevent axonal regeneration through RhoA in the central nervous system. LINGO-1 also promotes cell death after neuronal injury and spinal cord injury. The authors sought to examine whether blocking LINGO-1 function with LINGO-1 antagonists promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection. An experimental ocular hypertension model was induced in adult rats using an argon laser to photocoagulate the episcleral and limbal veins. LINGO-1 expression in the retinas was investigated using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Soluble LINGO-1 protein (LINGO-1-Fc) and anti-LINGO-1 mAb 1A7 were injected into the vitreous body to examine their effects on RGC survival after ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection. Signal transduction pathways mediating neuroprotective LINGO-1-Fc effects were characterized using Western blotting and specific kinase inhibitors. LINGO-1 was expressed in RGCs and up-regulated after intraocular pressure elevation. Blocking LINGO-1 function with LINGO-1 antagonists, LINGO-1-Fc and 1A7 significantly reduced RGC loss 2 and 4 weeks after ocular hypertension and also promoted RGC survival after optic nerve transection. LINGO-1-Fc treatment blocked the RhoA, JNK pathway and promoted Akt activation. LINGO-1-Fc induced Akt phosphorylation, and the survival effect of LINGO-1 antagonists was abolished by Akt phosphorylation inhibitor. The authors demonstrated that blocking LINGO-1 function with LINGO-1 antagonists rescues RGCs from cell death after ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection. They also delineated the RhoA and PI-3K/Akt pathways as the predominant mediator of LINGO-1-Fc neuroprotection in this paradigm of RGC death.

  4. Change in hen sciatic nerve calcium after a single oral dose of tri-o-tolyl phosphate.

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    Luttrell, W E; Olajos, E J; Pleban, P A

    1993-02-01

    Six trace elements were monitored in neural tissue homogenates from White Leghorn hens orally dosed with tri-o-tolyl phosphate (TOTP) or tri-m-tolyl phosphate (TMTP) (200 mg/kg). Treated birds were monitored daily for development of delayed neurotoxicity, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc were measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy at the time of maximal locomotor impairment (27-35 days postdosing). TOTP-treated birds manifested motor deficit by 15 days postdosing, while hens administered TMTP exhibited no signs of delayed neurotoxicity. Total calcium content in the sciatic nerve homogenates from TOTP-dosed hens was significantly less (P < 0.05) at the time of maximal locomotor impairment, while no shifts in the other trace elements were found. Therefore, the ortho isomer of tritolylphosphate elicited symptoms of delayed neurotoxicity in the hen (i.e., organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity or OPIDN) and caused a decrease in total calcium content in the sciatic nerve homogenates, in contrast to effects of the meta isomer. Analysis of neural homogenates at time of maximal locomotor impairment reflected secondary events in the degradative processes, since the initial assault of TOTP happens early after administration. Therefore, at fully developed OPIDN alteration of calcium balance in sciatic nerves is an indicator of axonopathy in a degenerated nerve following chemical injury.

  5. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    M.R. Moreira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 ± 0.22 mV and 33.5 ± 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 ± 0.51 mV and 26.2 ± 4.55 m/s. At 600 µM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 ± 0.55 mV and 32.8 ± 3.91 m/s to 0.24 ± 0.23 mV and 2.72 ± 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5. All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  6. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  7. Sciatic nerve repair with tissue engineered nerve: Olfactory ensheathing cells seeded poly(lactic-co-glygolic acid conduit in an animal model

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    C W Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Synthetic nerve conduits have been sought for repair of nerve defects as the autologous nerve grafts causes donor site morbidity and possess other drawbacks. Many strategies have been investigated to improve nerve regeneration through synthetic nerve guided conduits. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs that share both Schwann cell and astrocytic characteristics have been shown to promote axonal regeneration after transplantation. The present study was driven by the hypothesis that tissue-engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA seeded with OECs would improve peripheral nerve regeneration in a long sciatic nerve defect. Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve gap of 15 mm was created in six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted with PLGA seeded with OECs. The nerve regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically at 2, 4 and 6 weeks following implantation. Histopathological examination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed at the end of the study. Results: Nerve conduction studies revealed a significant improvement of nerve conduction velocities whereby the mean nerve conduction velocity increases from 4.2 ΁ 0.4 m/s at week 2 to 27.3 ΁ 5.7 m/s at week 6 post-implantation ( P < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed presence of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated the expression of S100 protein in both cell nucleus and the cytoplasm in these cells, hence confirming their Schwann-cell-like property. Under SEM, these cells were found to be actively secreting extracellular matrix. Conclusion: Tissue-engineered PLGA conduit seeded with OECs provided a permissive environment to facilitate nerve regeneration in a small animal model.

  8. Methods for experimental manipulations after optic nerve transection in the Mammalian CNS.

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    Magharious, Mark M; D'Onofrio, Philippe M; Koeberle, Paulo D

    2011-05-12

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are CNS neurons that output visual information from the retina to the brain, via the optic nerve. The optic nerve can be accessed within the orbit of the eye and completely transected (axotomized), cutting the axons of the entire RGC population. Optic nerve transection is a reproducible model of apoptotic neuronal cell death in the adult CNS (1-4). This model is particularly attractive because the vitreous chamber of the eye acts as a capsule for drug delivery to the retina, permitting experimental manipulations via intraocular injections. The diffusion of chemicals through the vitreous fluid ensures that they act upon the entire RGC population. Viral vectors, plasmids or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can also be delivered to the vitreous chamber in order to infect or transfect retinal cells (5-12). The high tropism of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) vectors is beneficial to target RGCs, with an infection rate approaching 90% of cells near the injection site (6, 7, 13-15). Moreover, RGCs can be selectively transfected by applying siRNAs, plasmids, or viral vectors to the cut end of the optic nerve (16-19) or injecting vectors into their target the superior colliculus (10). This allows researchers to study apoptotic mechanisms in the injured neuronal population without confounding effects on other bystander neurons or surrounding glia. RGC apoptosis has a characteristic time-course whereby cell death is delayed 3-4 days postaxotomy, after which the cells rapidly degenerate. This provides a window for experimental manipulations directed against pathways involved in apoptosis. Manipulations that directly target RGCs from the transected optic nerve stump are performed at the time of axotomy, immediately after cutting the nerve. In contrast, when substances are delivered via an intraocular route, they can be injected prior to surgery or within the first 3 days after surgery, preceding the initiation of apoptosis in axotomized RGCs. In the

  9. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

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    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9 cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect: stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional fnite element simulation model

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    Cheng-dong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  11. In vivo study of acute effects of hip and knee positions on blood flow in canine sciatic nerve.

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    Koga, Kei; Naito, Masatoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuichiro; Asayama, Isao; Shiramizu, Kei; Abe, Tatunobu; Kanbe, Taichi

    2002-01-01

    We studied blood flow in the canine sciatic nerve using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Blood flow was measured in 20 hind limbs of ten adult dogs at varying angles of hip flexion, hip rotation and knee flexion. Blood flow decreased as flexion and internal rotation of the hip increased and also with only slight flexion of the knee. With 90 degrees knee flexion, the mean blood flow did not change significantly when the hip was internally rotated from 0 degrees to 30 degrees. When the knee was straight, the blood flow changed significantly during the same procedure. To prevent sciatic nerve palsy, attention should be paid to the positioning of the hip and knee during total hip arthroplasty.

  12. An artery accompanying the sciatic nerve (arteria comitans nervi ischiadici) and the position of the hip joint: a comparative histological study using chick, mouse, and human foetal specimens.

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    Ishizawa, A; Hayashi, S; Nasu, H; Abe, H; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Murakami, G

    2013-02-01

    Birds and reptiles always carry a long and thick artery accompanying the sciatic nerve (i.e., the sciatic artery), whereas mammals do not. We attempted to demonstrate a difference in courses of the nerve and artery in fetuses in relation with the hip joint posture. Eight mid-term human fetuses (15-18 weeks), five mouse fetuses (E18) and five chick embryos (11 days after incubation) were examined histologically. Thin feeding arteries in the sciatic nerve were consistently observed in human fetuses in spite of the long, inferiorly curved course of the nerve around the ischium. The tissue around the human sciatic nerve was not so tight because of the medial and inferior shift of the nerve away from the hip joint. The fetal hip joint position differed among the species, being highly flexed in humans and almost at right angle flexion in mice and chicks. Because of deep adduction of the hip joint in the mouse, the knee was located near the midline of the body. The mouse sciatic nerve ran through the tight tissue along the head of the femur, whereas the chick nerve ran through the loose space even in the gluteal region. In birds, evolution of the pelvis including the hip joint without adduction seemed to make the arterial development possible. In mammals, highly flexed or adducted hip joint seemed to be one of the disturbing factors against development of the long and thick artery. A slight change in posture may cause significant arterial variation.

  13. Immediate Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor-α (Etanercept) Therapy Enhances Axonal Regeneration After Sciatic Nerve Crush

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    Kato, Kinshi; Liu, Huaqing; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Myers, Robert R.; Shubayev, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration begins immediately after injury. Understanding the mechanisms by which early modulators of axonal degeneration regulate neurite outgrowth may affect the development of new strategies to promote nerve repair. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a crucial role in the initiation of degenerative cascades after peripheral nerve injury. Here we demonstrate using real-time Taqman quantitative RT-PCR that, during the time course (days 1–60) of sciatic nerve crush, TNF-α mRNA expression is induced at 1 day and returned to baseline at 5 days after injury in nerve and the corresponding dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Immediate therapy with the TNF-α antagonist etanercept (fusion protein of TNFRII and human IgG), administered systemically (i.p.) and locally (epineurially) after nerve crush injury, enhanced the rate of axonal regeneration, as determined by nerve pinch test and increased number of characteristic clusters of regenerating nerve fibers distal to nerve crush segments. These fibers were immunoreactive for growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and etanercept, detected by anti-human IgG immunofluorescence. Increased GAP-43 expression was found in the injured nerve and in the corresponding DRG and ventral spinal cord after systemic etanercept compared with vehicle treatments. This study established that immediate therapy with TNF-α antagonist supports axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19746434

  14. In vivo evaluation of rabbit sciatic nerve regeneration with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): correlations with histology and behavior.

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    Yamasaki, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Oda, Ryo; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Nagae, Masateru; Shirai, Toshiharu; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Ikoma, Kazuya; Masugi-Tokita, Miwako; Yamada, Kei; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used in the study of the central nervous system. DTI represents a potential diagnostic tool for the peripheral nerve. However, more detailed information is needed for application of DTI in the clinical setting. In this study, peripheral degeneration and regeneration were evaluated using DTI-based analyses in a rabbit model. The changes in DTI parameters were compared to histological and functional changes after nerve injury. We used a high magnetic field (7.04T) MRI system. Japanese white male rabbits were used as the model of sciatic nerve crush injury. MR images were obtained before injury and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injury. The DTI parameters of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (λ||), and radial diffusivity (λ⊥) were calculated. Our results showed decreased FA and increased λ⊥ during the degenerative phase after sciatic nerve injury. In contrast, increased FA and decreased λ⊥ were observed during the regenerative phase. FA changes were correlated with axon number and with motor function recovery, assessed with the toe-spreading index. This study clearly demonstrates the validity of applying DTI parameters to the in vivo evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration. Furthermore, results suggest that DTI can be a potent tool for predicting the extent of functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats

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    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata,Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro,Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. No...

  17. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model.

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    Yuki Yagasaki

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK

  18. AMPK activation by peri-sciatic nerve administration of ozone attenuates CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lijuan; Pan, Cailong; Chen, Lu; Hu, Liang; Wang, Chaoyu; Han, Yuan; Yang, Yanjing; Cheng, Zhixiang; Liu, Wen-Tao

    2017-04-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating clinical condition with few efficacious treatments, warranting development of novel therapeutics. Ozone is widely used as an alternative therapy for many different pain conditions, with exact mechanisms still elusive. In this study, we found that a single peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone decreased mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and normalized the phosphorylation of protein kinase C γ, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rat sciatic nerve. Meanwhile, ozone significantly suppressed CCI-induced activation of spinal microglia. More importantly, the anti-nociceptive effect of ozone depended on the activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was proved by the fact that the phosphorylated AMPK level increased during the ozone therapy and AMPK antagonist abolished the effect of ozone in vivo and in vitro. In addition, direct injection of AMPK agonist could replicate the anti-nociceptive effect of ozone in CCI rats. In conclusion, our observations indicate that peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone activates AMPK to attenuate CCI-induced neuropathic pain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided "Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis" application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE.

  20. The Effects of Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cells on Local Inflammation Microenvironment in the Defected Sciatic Nerve of Rats

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    Yue Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy is a promising strategy for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs. epidermal neural crest stems cells (EPI-NCSCs are thought to be important donor cells for repairing PNI in different animal models. Following PNI, inflammatory response is important to regulate the repair process. However, the effects of EPI-NCSCs on regulation of local inflammation microenviroment have not been investigated extensively. In the present study, these effects were studied by using 10 mm defected sciatic nerve, which was bridged with 15 mm artificial nerve composed of EPI-NCSCs, extracellular matrix (ECM and poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA. Then the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, polarization of macrophages, regulation of fibroblasts and shwann cells (SCs were assessed by western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining at 1, 3, 7 and 21 days after bridging. The structure and the function of the bridged nerve were determined by observation under light microscope and by examination of right lateral foot retraction time (LFRT, sciatic function index (SFI, gastrocnemius wet weight and electrophysiology at 9 weeks. After bridging with EPI-NCSCs, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13 was increased, but decreased for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α compared to the control bridging, which was consistent with increase of M2 macrophages and decrease of M1 macrophages at 7 days after transplantation. Likewise, myelin-formed SCs were significantly increased, but decreased for the activated fibroblasts in their number at 21 days. The recovery of structure and function of nerve bridged with EPI-NCSCs was significantly superior to that of DMEM. These results indicated that EPI-NCSCs could be able to regulate and provide more suitable inflammation microenvironment for the repair of defected sciatic nerve.

  1. Differences Exist in the Left and Right Sciatic Nerves of Naïve Rats and Cats.

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    Christensen, Michael B; Tresco, Patrick A

    2015-08-01

    The sciatic nerve of rats and cats is commonly used in experimental models of peripheral nerve injury and repair, as well as experiments involving peripheral nerve electrode implantation. In such experiments, morphometric parameters from the implanted nerve are commonly evaluated and compared to control values obtained from the contralateral nerves. However, this may not be an appropriate approach as differences may naturally exist in the structure of the two nerves owing to developmental or behavioral asymmetry. Additionally, in the cat, baseline values for standard morphometric parameters are not well established. In this study, we characterized fascicle area, fiber count, fiber density, fiber packing, mean g-ratio, and fiber diameter distributions in the rat and cat, as well as investigated the potential for naturally occurring sided differences in these parameters in both species. We also investigated whether animal age or location along the nerve influenced these parameters. We found that sided or left/right leg differences exist in some parameters in both the rat and the cat, calling into question the validity of using the contralateral nerve as a control. We also found that animal age and location along the nerve can make significant differences in the parameters tested, establishing the importance of using control nerves from age- and behaviorally matched animals whose morphometric parameters are collected and compared from the same location. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

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    Juliana Sobral Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury, exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise, lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise, and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise. LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p=0.012 and larger than LG and LEG (p<0.001. Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons.

  3. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study

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    van Neerven Sabien GA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals. Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons and spinal cord (motor neurons, respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals. In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  4. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

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    Hao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  5. Dexamethasone as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine Prolongs the Duration of Thermal Antinociception and Prevents Bupivacaine-Induced Rebound Hyperalgesia via Regional Mechanism in a Mouse Sciatic Nerve Block Model

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    An, Ke; Elkassabany, Nabil M.; Liu, Jiabin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been studied as an effective adjuvant to prolong the analgesia duration of local anesthetics in peripheral nerve block. However, the route of action for dexamethasone and its potential neurotoxicity are still unclear. Methods A mouse sciatic nerve block model was used. The sciatic nerve was injected with 60ul of combinations of various medications, including dexamethasone and/or bupivacaine. Neurobehavioral changes were observed for 2 days prior to injection, and then continuously for up to 7 days after injection. In addition, the sciatic nerves were harvested at either 2 days or 7 days after injection. Toluidine blue dyeing and immunohistochemistry test were performed to study the short-term and long-term histopathological changes of the sciatic nerves. There were six study groups: normal saline control, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) only, dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg) only, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with low-dose (0.14mg/kg) dexamethasone, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with high-dose (0.5mg/kg) dexamethasone, and bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with intramuscular dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg). Results High-dose perineural dexamethasone, but not systemic dexamethasone, combined with bupivacaine prolonged the duration of both sensory and motor block of mouse sciatic nerve. There was no significant difference on the onset time of the sciatic nerve block. There was “rebound hyperalgesia” to thermal stimulus after the resolution of plain bupivacaine sciatic nerve block. Interestingly, both low and high dose perineural dexamethasone prevented bupivacaine-induced hyperalgesia. There was an early phase of axon degeneration and Schwann cell response as represented by S-100 expression as well as the percentage of demyelinated axon and nucleus in the plain bupivacaine group compared with the bupivacaine plus dexamethasone groups on post-injection day 2, which resolved on post-injection day 7. Furthermore, we demonstrated that perineural dexamethasone

  6. Morphometric analysis of the diameter and g-ratio of the myelinated nerve fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrenović, Sladjana; Jovanović, Ivan; Vasović, Ljiljana; Kundalić, Braca; Čukuranović, Rade; Stefanović, Vladisav

    2016-06-01

    Myelinated nerve fibers suffer from different degrees of atrophy with age. The success of subsequent regeneration varies. The aim of this research was to analyze myelinated fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process. Morphometric analysis was performed on 17 cases with an age range from 9 to 93 years. The outer and inner diameter of 100 randomly selected nerve fibers was measured in each of the cases evaluated, and the g-ratio (axonal diameter/outer diameter of the whole nerve fiber) of each was calculated. Scatter plots of the diameters and g-ratios of the analyzed fibers were then analyzed. Nerve fibers of each case were classified into three groups according to the g-ratio values: group I (g-ratio lower than 0.6), group II (g-ratio from 0.6 to 0.7) and group III (g-ratio higher than 0.7). Afterwards, nerve fibers of group II were further classified into small and large subgroups. The percentages of each group of nerve fibers were computed for each case and these values were used for correlational and bivariate linear regression analysis. The percentage of myelinated nerve fibers with large diameter and optimal g-ratio of the sciatic nerve declines significantly with age. This is accompanied by a simultaneous significant increase in the percentage of small myelinated fibers with g-ratio values close to 1 that occupy the upper left quadrant of the scatter plot. It can be concluded that aging of the sciatic nerve is associated with significant atrophy of large myelinated fibers. Additionally, a significant increase in regenerated nerve fibers with thinner myelin sheath is observed with age, which, together with the large myelinated fiber atrophy, might be the cause of the age-related decline in conduction velocity. A better understanding of the changes in aging peripheral nerves might improve interpretation of their pathological changes, as well as comprehension of their regeneration in individuals of different age.

  7. Lentiviral vectors enveloped with rabies virus glycoprotein can be used as a novel retrograde tracer to assess nerve recovery in rat sciatic nerve injury models.

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    Wei, Yujun; Gong, Kai; Ao, Qiang; Wang, Aijun; Gong, Yandao; Zuo, Huancong; Zhang, Yuqi; Wang, James; Wang, Guihuai

    2014-02-01

    Retrograde labeling has become the new "gold standard" technique to evaluate the recovery of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, lentiviral vectors with rabies virus glycoprotein envelop (RABV-G-LV) and RFP genes are injected into gastrocnemius muscle to determine the location of RFP in sciatic nerves. We then examine RFP expression in the L4-S1 spinal cord and sensory dorsal root ganglia and in the rat sciatic nerve, isolated Schwann cells, viral dose to expression relationship and the use of RABV-G-LV as a retrograde tracer for regeneration in the injured rat sciatic nerve. VSV-G-LV was used as control for viral envelope specificity. Results showed that RFP were positive in the myelin sheath and lumbar spinal motorneurons of the RABV-G-LV group. RFP gene could be detected both in myelinated Schwann cells and lumbar spinal motor neurons in the RABV-G-LV group. Schwann cells isolated from the RABV-G-LV injected postnatal Sprague Dawley rats were also RFP-gene positive. All the results obtained in the VSV-G-LV group were negative. Distribution of RFP was unaltered and the level of RFP expression increasing with time progressing. RABV-G-LV could assess the amount of functional regenerating nerve fibers two months post-operation in the four models. This method offers an easy-operated and consistent standardized approach for retrograde labeling regenerating peripheral nerves, which may be a significant supplement for the previous RABV-G-LV-related retrograde labeling study.

  8. Response properties of whisker-associated primary afferent neurons following infraorbital nerve transection with microsurgical repair in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Bo; Zanoun, Rami R.; Carvell, George E.; Simons, Daniel J.; Washington, Kia M.

    2016-01-01

    The rodent whisker/trigeminal system, characterized by high spatial and temporal resolution, provides an experimental model for developing new therapies for improving sensory functions of damaged peripheral nerves. Here, we use controlled whisker stimulation and single-unit recordings of trigeminal ganglion cells to examine in detail the nature and time course of functional recovery of mechanoreceptive afferents following nerve transection with microsurgical repair of the infraorbital nerve (...

  9. The Use of Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cocultured with Schwann Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells to Repair Rabbit Sciatic Nerve Defect with Vascularization

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    Hongyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function.

  10. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic transection and repair of an obturator nerve during pelvic lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhat, Farr R; Chang-Jackson, Shao-Chun R; Acholonu, Uchenna C; Vetere, Patrick F

    2012-02-01

    Obturator nerve injury may occur in gynecologic surgery, particularly in cases in which extensive pelvic sidewall retroperitoneal dissection is performed. The lack of tactile feedback from the robotic surgical system may contribute to obturator nerve injury. If surgical division occurs, microsurgical end-to-end anastomosis of the obturator nerve may be performed. A 76-year-old woman with stage IA endometrial adenocarcinoma sustained a left obturator nerve transection during pelvic lymphadenectomy that was recognized immediately. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic repair was performed successfully, with the patient experiencing no residual neuropathy 6 months postoperatively. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic repair is feasible for the treatment of obturator nerve injury.

  11. Piriformis muscle syndrome with assessment of sciatic nerve using diffusion tensor imaging and tractography: a case report

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    Wada, Keizo; Goto, Tomohiro; Takasago, Tomoya; Hamada, Daisuke; Sairyo, Koichi [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is difficult to diagnose by objective evaluation of sciatic nerve injury. Here we report a case of PMS diagnosed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the sciatic nerve, which can assess and visualize the extent of nerve injury. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 2-year history of continuous pain and numbness in the left leg. His symptoms worsened when sitting. Physical examination, including sensorimotor neurologic tests, the deep tendon reflex test, and the straight leg raise test, revealed no specific findings. The hip flexion adduction and internal rotation test and resisted contraction maneuvers for the piriformis muscle were positive. There were no abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine. The transverse diameter of piriformis muscle was slightly thicker in affected side on MRI of the pelvis. A single DTI sequence was performed during MRI of the pelvis. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the sciatic nerve were quantified at three levels using the fiber-tracking method. FA values were significantly lower and ADC values were significantly higher distal to the piriformis muscle. We performed endoscopic-assisted resection of the piriformis tendon. Intraoperatively, the motor-evoked potentials in the left gastrocnemius were improved by resection of the piriformis tendon. The patient's symptoms improved immediately after surgery. There was no significant difference in FA or ADC at any level between the affected side and the unaffected side 3 months postoperatively. MRI-DTI may aid the diagnosis of PMS. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of PVA biodegradable electric conductive membranes for nerve regeneration in axonotmesis injuries: the rat sciatic nerve animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jorge; Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo Alexandre; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Amorim, Irina; Leal Reis, Inês; Amado, Sandra; Santos, José Domingos; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Varejão, Artur Severo Proença; Geuna, Stefano; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2017-05-01

    The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) S/m, 579 ± 0.6 × 10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed. Morphometrical analysis demonstrated that PVA-CNTs group presented higher myelin thickness and lower g-ratio. The tibialis anterior muscle, in the PVA-PPy and PVA-CNTs groups showed a 9% and 19% increase of average fiber size area and a 5% and 10% increase of the "minimal Feret's diameter," respectively. No inflammation, degeneration, fibrosis or necrosis were detected in lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, and regional lymph nodes and absence of carbon deposits was confirmed with Von Kossa and Masson-Fontana stains. In conclusion, the membranes of PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy are biocompatible and have electrical conductivity. The higher electrical conductivity measured in PVA-CNTs membrane might be responsible for the positive results on maturation of myelinated fibers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1267-1280, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Cell Fates of Induced Schwann Cells from Subcutaneous Fat Tissue and Naïve Schwann Cells in the Sciatic Nerve Injury Model

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    Mingzi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. Methods. Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat’s subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat. Results. At 12 weeks after transplantation, nSCs were detected only in the restricted area of cell transplantation site but iSCs were widely distributed all over the sciatic nerve. Based on double fluorescence observations, both iSCs and naïve ones were colocalized with P0-expressing myelin sheath, outbound by laminin-expressing basal membrane, and terminated at contactin-associated protein-expressing doublets. However, some of iSCs were also differentiated to the fibrocyte/fibroblast-like cells. In the histological analysis of repaired sciatic nerves, axon density was higher in iSC-received group than in the nSCs group and normal sciatic nerve. Conclusion. iSCs induced from subcutaneous fat tissues have higher engraftment and migration capacity than nSCs.

  14. Commiphora mukul attenuates peripheral neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

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    Mehta, Ashish K; Tripathi, Chakra D

    2015-04-01

    The management of neuropathic pain remains unsatisfactory till date, despite immense advances in the therapeutic strategies. Commiphora mukul (CM), also known as Commiphora wightii, is well known in the traditional Indian system of medicine, and has been used to treat ailments such as obesity, bone fractures, arthritis, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid disorders. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of CM on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Following this, CM was orally administered for 2 weeks in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, and pain assessment was performed by employing the behavioral tests for thermal hyperalgesia (hot-plate and tail-flick tests) and cold allodynia (acetone test). Following the induction of neuropathic pain, significant development of thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia was observed. The administration of CM (50 mg/kg) did not have any effect on the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, but significant anti-allodynic effect was observed in the acetone test. Furthermore, administration of CM (100 mg/kg) caused significant decrease in pain as observed on the tail-flick and acetone tests, but not in the hot-plate test. CM in a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly modulated neuropathic pain as observed from the increased hot-plate and tail-flick latencies, and decreased paw withdrawal duration (in acetone test). Therefore, the present study suggests that CM may be used in future as a treatment option for neuropathic pain.

  15. Cordycepin Decreases Compound Action Potential Conduction of Frog Sciatic Nerve In Vitro Involving Ca2+-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Li-Hua Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin has been widely used in oriental countries to maintain health and improve physical performance. Compound nerve action potential (CNAP, which is critical in signal conduction in the peripheral nervous system, is necessary to regulate physical performance, including motor system physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, regulatory effects of cordycepin on CNAP conduction should be elucidated. In this study, the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves was investigated. Results revealed that cordycepin significantly decreased CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. At 50 mg/L cordycepin, CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity decreased by 62.18 ± 8.06% and 57.34% ± 6.14% compared with the control amplitude and conductive velocity, respectively. However, the depressive action of cordycepin on amplitude and conductive velocity was not observed in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of Ca2+ channel blockers (CdCl2/LaCl3. Pretreatment with L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist (nifedipine/deltiazem also blocked cordycepin-induced responses; by contrast, T-type and P-type Ca2+ channel antagonists (Ni2+ failed to block such responses. Therefore, cordycepin decreased the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves via L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent mechanism.

  16. Acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Lower Limb Symptoms?The Relation between Acupuncture or Electroacupuncture Stimulation and Sciatic Nerve Blood Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Motohiro; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Yano, Tadashi; Ishizaki, Naoto; Itoi, Megumi; Katsumi, Yasukazu

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc and to clarify the mechanisms in an animal experiment that evaluated acupuncture on sciatic nerve blood flow. In the clinical trial, patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis or herniated lumbar disc were divided into three treatment groups; (i) Ex-B2 (at the disordered level), (ii) electrical acupuncture (EA) on the pudendal nerve and (iii) EA at the nerve root. Primary o...

  17. In vivo study of acute effects of hip and knee positions on blood flow in canine sciatic nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Koga, Kei; Naito, Masatoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuichiro; Asayama, Isao; Shiramizu, Kei; Abe, Tatunobu; Kanbe, Taichi

    2002-01-01

    We studied blood flow in the canine sciatic nerve using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Blood flow was measured in 20 hind limbs of ten adult dogs at varying angles of hip flexion, hip rotation and knee flexion. Blood flow decreased as flexion and internal rotation of the hip increased and also with only slight flexion of the knee. With 90° knee flexion, the mean blood flow did not change significantly when the hip was internally rotated from 0° to 30°. When the knee was straight, the blood flow c...

  18. The effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on physical functions and health of low back pain patients with lower limb radiating pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Park, Young-Han; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on the quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain in the lower limbs accompanied by radiating pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: a group receiving of lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training including sciatic nerve mobilization techniques, which included 8 males and 7 females, and a group receiving lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training, which included 8 males and 7 females. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in comparison of measurement results between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Application of mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves may promote healing of the soft tissues by stimulating the functions of the nervous system to improve nervous system adaptability and decrease sensitivity, helping to alleviate the symptoms.

  19. Transplantation of dental pulp stem cells suppressed inflammation in sciatic nerves by promoting macrophage polarization towards anti-inflammation phenotypes and ameliorated diabetic polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Maiko; Hata, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Miyabe, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Kamiya, Hideki; Nakamura, Jiro; Ozawa, Shogo; Tanaka, Yoshinobu; Takebe, Jun; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Naruse, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are thought to be an attractive candidate for cell therapy. We recently reported that the transplantation of DPSCs increased nerve conduction velocity and nerve blood flow in diabetic rats. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSC transplantation on diabetic peripheral nerves. DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of Sprague-Dawley rats and expanded in culture. Eight weeks after the streptozotocin injection, DPSCs were transplanted into the unilateral hindlimb skeletal muscles. Four weeks after DPSC transplantation, neurophysiological measurements, inflammatory gene expressions and the number of CD68-positive cells in sciatic nerves were assessed. To confirm the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs, the effects of DPSC-conditioned media on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were investigated. Diabetic rats showed significant delays in sciatic nerve conduction velocities and decreased sciatic nerve blood flow, all of which were ameliorated by DPSC transplantation. The number of CD68-positive monocytes/macrophages and the gene expressions of M1 macrophage-expressed cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were increased in the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats. DPSC transplantation significantly decreased monocytes/macrophages and tumor necrosis factor-α messenger ribonucleic acid expression, and increased the gene expression of the M2 macrophage marker, CD206, in the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats. The in vitro study showed that DPSC-conditioned media significantly increased the gene expressions of interleukin-10 and CD206 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that DPSC transplantation promoted macrophages polarization towards anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes, which might be one of the therapeutic mechanisms for diabetic polyneuropathy. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian

  20. The effects of different tensile parameters for the neurodynamic mobilization technique on tricipital muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ming; Tang, Qiang; Zhu, Luwen; Koleini, Melanie; Zou, Dequan

    2015-04-15

    After peripheral nerve injury, muscles without innervation begin to undergo atrophy. Research has suggested that MuRf-1 may play a role in muscle atrophy. The neurodynamic mobilization technique (NMT) is a manual therapy method used to elongate a nerve along its long axis, resulting in improved blood flow to the nerve. However, the nerve can be damaged if elongated too much. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of NMT on muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury. Six adult rabbits were measured to determine the relationship between the joint angle of the lower limb and percent of sciatic nerve elongation to define the tensile parameters of NMT; Thirty adult rabbits were randomly assigned into a sham, model, NMT-A, NMT-B, or NMT-C groups. Four weeks post-treatment, the wet mass of the tricipital muscles and MuRf-1 expression were observed. The wet mass of the tricipital muscles in the NMT-B group was significantly greater than the NMT-A, NMT-C, and model groups. In addition, MuRf-1 expression was significantly reduced in the NMT-B group compared with the NMT-A, NMT-C, and model groups. Elongating the nerve by NMT of 9% in rabbits decreased MuRf-1 expression and decelerated muscle atrophy in the subjects with sciatic nerve injury.

  1. Dexmedetomidine Added to Local Anesthetic Mixture of Lidocaine and Ropivacaine Enhances Onset and Prolongs Duration of a Popliteal Approach to Sciatic Nerve Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiawei; Li, Jinlei; Zhou, Riyong; Wang, Quanguang; Xia, Fangfang; Halaszynski, Thomas; Xu, Xuzhong

    2017-01-01

    A literature review of multiple clinical studies on mixing additives to improve pharmacologic limitation of local anesthetics during peripheral nerve blockade revealed inconsistency in success rates and various adverse effects. Animal research on dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant on the other hand has promising results, with evidence of minimum unwanted results. This randomized, double-blinded, contrastable observational study examined the efficacy of adding dexmedetomidine to a mixture of lidocaine plus ropivacaine during popliteal sciatic nerve blockade (PSNB). Sixty patients undergoing varicose saphenous vein resection using ultrasonography-guided PSNB along with femoral and obturator nerve blocks as surgical anesthesia were enrolled. All received standardized femoral and obturator nerve blocks, and the PSNB group was randomized to receive either 0.5 mL (50 µg) of dexmedetomidine (DL group) or 0.5 mL of saline (SL group) together with 2% lidocaine (9.5 mL) plus 0.75% ropovacaine (10 mL). Sensory onset and duration of lateral sural cutaneous nerve, sural nerve, superficial peroneal nerve, deep peroneal nerve, lateral plantar nerve, and medial plantar nerve were recorded. Motor onset and duration of tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve were also examined. Sensory onset of sural nerve, superficial peroneal nerve, lateral plantar nerve, and medial plantar nerve was significantly quicker in the DL group than in the SL group (P 0.05). Motor onset of tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve was faster in the DL group than in in the SL group (P lidocaine and ropivacaine enhanced efficacy of popliteal approach to sciatic nerve blockade with faster onset and longer duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Response properties of whisker-associated primary afferent neurons following infraorbital nerve transection with microsurgical repair in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Zanoun, Rami R; Carvell, George E; Simons, Daniel J; Washington, Kia M

    2016-03-01

    The rodent whisker/trigeminal system, characterized by high spatial and temporal resolution, provides an experimental model for developing new therapies for improving sensory functions of damaged peripheral nerves. Here, we use controlled whisker stimulation and single-unit recordings of trigeminal ganglion cells to examine in detail the nature and time course of functional recovery of mechanoreceptive afferents following nerve transection with microsurgical repair of the infraorbital nerve (ION) branch of the trigeminal nerve in adult rats. Response measures include rapid vs. slow adaptation, firing rate, interspike intervals, latency, and angular (directional) tuning. Whisker-evoked responses, readily observable by 3 wk post-transection, recover progressively for at least the next 5 wk. All cells in transected animals, as in control cases, responded to deflections of single whiskers only, but topography within the ganglion was clearly disrupted. The time course and extent of recovery of quantitative response measures were receptor dependent. Cells displaying slowly adapting (SA) properties recovered more quickly than rapidly adapting (RA) populations, and for some response measures-notably evoked firing rates-closely approached or attained control levels by 8 wk post-transection. Angular tuning of RA cells was slightly better than control units, whereas SA tuning did not differ from control values. Nerve conduction times and refractory periods, examined separately using electrical stimulation of the ION, were slower than normal in all transected animals and poorly reflected recovery of whisker-evoked response latencies and interspike intervals. Results underscore the need for multiple therapeutic strategies that target different aspects of functional restitution following peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Hesperidin protects brain and sciatic nerve tissues against cisplatin-induced oxidative, histological and electromyographical side effects in rats.

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    Kamisli, Suat; Ciftci, Osman; Kaya, Kursat; Cetin, Asli; Kamisli, Ozden; Ozcan, Cemal

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the beneficial effect of hesperidin (HP), a citrus flavonoid, on cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity was investigated. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups; the first group was kept as control. In the second and third groups, CP and HP were given at the doses of 7 and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the fourth group, CP and HP were given together at the same doses. The results indicated that although CP caused significant induction of lipid peroxidations and reduction in the antioxidant defense system potency in the brain and sciatic nerve, HP prevented these effects of CP. Besides, CP led to histopathological damage, mainly apoptosis, as well as electromyographical (EMG) changes in sciatic nerve. On the other hand, HP treatment reversed histopathological and EMG effects of CP. In conclusion, CP had severe dose-limiting neurotoxic effects and these effects of CP can be prevented by HP treatment. Thus, it appears that coadministration of HP with CP may be a useful approach to attenuate the negative effects of CP on the nervous system. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Critical role of p38 MAPK for regeneration of the sciatic nerve following crush injury in vivo

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    Kato Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of p38α, which is an isoform of p38 MAPK, has been investigated previously in several studies using pharmacological inhibitors. However, the results regarding whether p38α promotes or inhibits nerve regeneration in vivo have been controversial. Methods We generated novel p38α mutant mice (sem mice with a point mutation in the region encoding the p38α substrate-docking-site, which serves as a limited loss-of-function model of p38α. In the present study, we utilized sem mice and wild-type littermates (wt mice to investigate the physiological role of p38α in nerve regeneration following crush injuries. Results At four weeks after crush injury, the average axon diameter and the average axon area in sem mice were significantly smaller than those in wt mice. The average myelin sheath thickness in sem mice was reduced compared to wt mice, but no significant difference was observed in the G-ratio between the two groups. The sciatic functional index value demonstrated that functional nerve recovery in sem mice following crush injury was delayed, which is consistent with the histological findings. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these findings, we examined inflammatory responses of the sciatic nerve by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. At an early phase following crush injury, sem mice showed remarkably lower expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, than wt mice. The expression of Caspase-3 and Tenascin-C were also lower in sem mice. Conversely, at a late phase of the response, sem mice showed considerably higher expression of TNF-α and of IL-1β with lower expression of S-100 than wt mice. Conclusions This is the first study of the physiological role of p38 MAPK in nerve regeneration that does not rely on the use of pharmacological inhibitors. Our results indicate that p38α insufficiency may cause an inflammatory disorder, resulting in a delay of

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Repair of Tibia and Fibula Fractures in a Bennett’s Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus

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    Paolo Monticelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locoregional anesthetic techniques may be a very useful tool for the anesthetic management of wallabies with injuries of the pelvic limbs and may help to prevent capture myopathies resulting from stress and systemic opioids’ administration. This report describes the use of ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus referred for orthopaedic surgery. Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks were attempted at the femoral triangle and proximal thigh level, respectively. Whilst the sciatic nerve could be easily visualised, the femoral nerve could not be readily identified. Only the sciatic nerve was therefore blocked with ropivacaine, and methadone was administered as rescue analgesic. The ultrasound images were stored and sent for external review. Anesthesia and recovery were uneventful and the wallaby was discharged two days postoperatively. At the time of writing, it is challenging to provide safe and effective analgesia to Macropods. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of these species is at the basis of successful locoregional anesthesia. The development of novel analgesic techniques suitable for wallabies would represent an important step forward in this field and help the clinicians dealing with these species to improve their perianesthetic management.

  6. Laparoscopic neurolysis of the sacral plexus and the sciatic nerve for extensive endometriosis of the pelvic wall.

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    Possover, M; Baekelandt, J; Flaskamp, C; Li, D; Chiantera, V

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the feasibility of laparoscopic neurolysis of the plexus sacralis and the sciatic nerve in deep endometriotic infiltration of the lateral pelvic wall. A transperitoneal approach to the pelvic nerves combined with the LANN technique for intraoperative assessment of the function of the exposed nerves permit exposure and sparing of all somatic nerves during resection of the endometriotic lesion. We report on our short experience with 21 patients who underwent this technique for the treatment of endometriotic infiltration of the sacral plexus at different levels. In young patients with chronic unilateral sciatica or unilateral pudendal neuralgia - Alcock's canal syndrome - where no neurological/orthopedic etiologies have been found, endometriotic infiltration of the lateral pelvic wall has to be implicated as a potential etiology and an indication for laparoscopy must be discussed. Laparoscopic neurolysis of the pelvic somatic nerves is a feasible procedure for trained laparoscopic surgeons who have a good knowledge of the retroperitoneal pelvic (neuro)anatomy.

  7. Ginsenoside Re Promotes Nerve Regeneration by Facilitating the Proliferation, Differentiation and Migration of Schwann Cells via the ERK- and JNK-Dependent Pathway in Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury.

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    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Damin; Zhang, Dongmei; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Hongbing; Song, Yan; Tan, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Exploring effective drugs that are capable of promoting nerve regeneration has gained much attention. Ginsenoside Re (Re) is the main ingredient of ginseng berries and roots. Research in the area has shown that ginsenoside Re exhibits multiple pharmacological activities via different mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro. But the potential therapeutic effects of Re on sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC) have been little investigated. Herein, we investigated the protect effect of Re on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat SNC model. Walking track analysis revealed that Re treatment significantly promoted functional recovery of crushed sciatic nerve in rats. The expression of PCNA in rat sciatic nerve was up-regulated by Re treatment, and peaked when the concentration of Re was 2.0 mg/kg. Using immunofluorescent staining, we found that Re greatly increased the expression of GAP-43 and S100 in injured rat sciatic nerve. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of Re on proliferation, differentiation, and migration of Schwann cells in SNC rat models. Our studies reveal that Re promotes nerve regeneration is depend on ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathway. Elevated Oct-6 expression and featured morphological changes indicated that Re facilitated the differentiation of Schwann cells following SNC. Also, transwell and wound-healing assay demonstrated that the migration capabilities of Schwann cell were significantly enhanced after Re treatment.

  8. Effects of collagen membranes enriched with in vitro-differentiated N1E-115 cells on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after end-to-end repair

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    Fornaro Michele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of regeneration is often poor and may benefit from exogenous factors that enhance growth. The use of cellular systems is a rational approach for delivering neurotrophic factors at the nerve lesion site, and in the present study we investigated the effects of enwrapping the site of end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair with an equine type III collagen membrane enriched or not with N1E-115 pre-differentiated neural cells. After neurotmesis, the sciatic nerve was repaired by end-to-end suture (End-to-End group, end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane (End-to-EndMemb group; and end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane previously covered with neural cells pre-differentiated in vitro from N1E-115 cells (End-to-EndMembCell group. Along the postoperative, motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL and ankle kinematics. After 20 weeks animals were sacrificed and the repaired sciatic nerves were processed for histological and stereological analysis. Results showed that enwrapment of the rapair site with a collagen membrane, with or without neural cell enrichment, did not lead to any significant improvement in most of functional and stereological predictors of nerve regeneration that we have assessed, with the exception of EPT which recovered significantly better after neural cell enriched membrane employment. It can thus be concluded that this particular type of nerve tissue engineering approach has very limited effects on nerve regeneration after sciatic end-to-end nerve reconstruction in the rat.

  9. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

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    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  10. Third-Degree Hindpaw Burn Injury Induced Apoptosis of Lumbar Spinal Cord Ventral Horn Motor Neurons and Sciatic Nerve and Muscle Atrophy in Rats

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    Sheng-Hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe burns result in hypercatabolic state and concomitant muscle atrophy that persists for several months, thereby limiting patient recovery. However, the effects of burns on the corresponding spinal dermatome remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether burns induce apoptosis of spinal cord ventral horn motor neurons (VHMNs and consequently cause skeletal muscle wasting. Methods. Third-degree hindpaw burn injury with 1% total body surface area (TBSA rats were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after burn injury. The apoptosis profiles in the ventral horns of the lumbar spinal cords, sciatic nerves, and gastrocnemius muscles were examined. The Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve were marked with S100. The gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to measure the denervation atrophy. Result. The VHMNs apoptosis in the spinal cord was observed after inducing third-degree burns in the hindpaw. The S100 and TUNEL double-positive cells in the sciatic nerve increased significantly after the burn injury. Gastrocnemius muscle apoptosis and denervation atrophy area increased significantly after the burn injury. Conclusion. Local hindpaw burn induces apoptosis in VHMNs and Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, which causes corresponding gastrocnemius muscle denervation atrophy. Our results provided an animal model to evaluate burn-induced muscle wasting, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  11. Effects of Lippia sidoides essential oil, thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene on rat sciatic nerve excitability

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    R. Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lippia sidoides Cham is a typical herb species of Northeast Brazil with widespread use in folk medicine. The major constituents of the essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLs are thymol, p-cymene, myrcene, and caryophyllene. Several studies have shown that the EOLs and its constituents have pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effects of the EOLs and their main constituents on rat sciatic nerve excitability. The sciatic nerves of adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated by square wave pulses, with an amplitude of 40 V, duration of 100 μs to 0.2 Hz. Both EOLs and thymol inhibited compound action potential (CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. Half maximal inhibitory concentration for CAP peak-to-peak amplitude blockade were 67.85 and 40 µg/mL for EOLs and thymol, respectively. CAP peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly reduced by concentrations ≥60 µg/mL for EOLs and ≥30 µg/mL for thymol. EOLs and thymol in the concentration of 60 µg/mL significantly increased chronaxie and rheobase. The conduction velocities of 1st and 2nd CAP components were also concentration-dependently reduced by EOLs and thymol in the range of 30-100 µg/mL. Differently from EOLs and thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene did not reduce CAP in the higher concentrations of 10 mM. These data demonstrated that EOLs and thymol inhibited neuronal excitability and were promising agents for the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.

  12. Effects of Lippia sidoides essential oil, thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene on rat sciatic nerve excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, R; Cruz-Mendes, Y; Silva-Alves, K S; Ferreira-da-Silva, F W; Ribeiro, N M; Morais, L P; Leal-Cardoso, J H

    2017-10-19

    Lippia sidoides Cham is a typical herb species of Northeast Brazil with widespread use in folk medicine. The major constituents of the essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLs) are thymol, p-cymene, myrcene, and caryophyllene. Several studies have shown that the EOLs and its constituents have pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effects of the EOLs and their main constituents on rat sciatic nerve excitability. The sciatic nerves of adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated by square wave pulses, with an amplitude of 40 V, duration of 100 μs to 0.2 Hz. Both EOLs and thymol inhibited compound action potential (CAP) in a concentration-dependent manner. Half maximal inhibitory concentration for CAP peak-to-peak amplitude blockade were 67.85 and 40 µg/mL for EOLs and thymol, respectively. CAP peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly reduced by concentrations ≥60 µg/mL for EOLs and ≥30 µg/mL for thymol. EOLs and thymol in the concentration of 60 µg/mL significantly increased chronaxie and rheobase. The conduction velocities of 1st and 2nd CAP components were also concentration-dependently reduced by EOLs and thymol in the range of 30-100 µg/mL. Differently from EOLs and thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene did not reduce CAP in the higher concentrations of 10 mM. These data demonstrated that EOLs and thymol inhibited neuronal excitability and were promising agents for the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.

  13. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

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    Kaye, Elena A., E-mail: kayee@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Gutta, Narendra Babu, E-mail: gnbabu.aiims@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien, E-mail: monettes@mskcc.org [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Gulati, Amitabh, E-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org; Loh, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffreyloh@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesiology-Critical Care (United States); Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan, E-mail: srimaths@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Ezell, Paula C., E-mail: paula.ezell@intusurg.com [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerj@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org; Maybody, Majid, E-mail: maybodym@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  14. Histological modifications of the rat prostate following transection of somatic and autonomic nerves

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    Rosaura Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that hormones influence significantly the prostate tissue. However, we reported that mating induces an increase in androgen receptors, revealing a neural influence on the gland. These data suggested that somatic afferents (scrotal and genitofemoral nerves and autonomic efferents (pelvic and hypogastric nerves could regulate the structure of the prostate. Here we assessed the role of these nerves in maintaining the histology of the gland. Hence, afferent or efferent nerves of male rats were transected. Then, the ventral and dorsolateral regions of the prostate were processed for histology. Results showed that afferent transection affects prostate histology. The alveoli area decreased and increased in the ventral and dorsolateral prostate, respectively. The epithelial cell height increased in both regions. Efferent denervation produced dramatic changes in the prostate gland. The tissue lost its configuration, and the epithelium became scattered and almost vanished. Thus, afferent nerves are responsible for spinal processes pertaining to the trophic control of the prostate, activating its autonomic innervation. Hence, our data imply that innervation seems to be synergic with hormones for the healthy maintenance of the prostate. Thus, it is suggested that some prostate pathologies could be due to the failure of the autonomic neural pathways regulating the gland.Sabe-se que os hormônios influenciam significativamente o tecido prostático. Entretanto, nós demonstramos que o acasalamento induz um aumento nos receptores androgênicos, revelando uma influência neural sobre a glândula. Esses dados sugerem que os aferentes somáticos (nervos escrotal e genito-femural e os eferentes autonômicos (nervos pélvicos e hipo-gástricos poderiam regular a estrutura da próstata. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a função destes nervos na manutenção da histologia da glândula. Dessa forma, os nervos aferentes e eferentes de ratos machos foram

  15. Effects of gustatory nerve transection and/or ovariectomy on oral capsaicin avoidance in rats.

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    Boucher, Yves; Simons, Christopher T; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of chronic oral pain such as burning mouth syndrome is greater in peri-menopausal females, and was postulated to be associated with gustatory nerve damage. We investigated whether bilateral transection of the chorda tympani, with or without accompanying ovariectomy, affected oral capsaicin avoidance in rats. Female rats had restricted access to 2 bottles, 1 bottle containing capsaicin (concentration range: 0.33-33 μM/L) and the other vehicle. Percent volume of capsaicin consumption and lick counts were measured. The concentration series was tested before and 0.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the following surgical procedures: (a) bilateral transection of the chorda tympani (CTx); (b) ovariectomy (OVx); (3) CTx plus OVx; or (4) sham CT surgery. Before surgery there was a concentration-dependent decrease in licks and volume of capsaicin consumed, with a threshold between 0.1 and 0.3 ppm. The majority of drink licks occurred during the first 9 minutes of access. Over the 12-month test period, the CTx group did not exhibit reduced capsaicin consumption, and consumed significantly more capsaicin at 6 and 9 months postsurgery. Rats in the OVx group consistently consumed significantly less capsaicin and exhibited significantly higher counts of capsaicin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactivity in the dorsomedial trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) compared to all other treatment groups. That CTx, with or without OVx, did not enhance capsaicin avoidance indicates that damage to the gustatory system does not disinhibit trigeminal nociceptive transmission. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An autologously generated platelet-rich plasma suturable membrane may enhance peripheral nerve regeneration after neurorraphy in an acute injury model of sciatic nerve neurotmesis.

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    Giannessi, Elisabetta; Coli, Alessandra; Stornelli, Maria Rita; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Burchielli, Silvia; Vozzi, Giovanni; De Maria, Carmelo; Giorgetti, Margherita

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of suturable platelet-rich plasma (PRP) membrane to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after neurotmesis and neurorraphy. A total of 36 rats were used: 32 animals underwent surgery and were split in two groups. An interim sacrifice was performed at 6 weeks postsurgery and final sacrifice at 12 weeks; four animals did not sustain nerve injury and served as control. Clinical, electromyographic (EMG), gross, and histological changes were assessed. The EMG signal was evaluated for its amplitude and frequency spectrum. Number of regenerating fibers, their diameter, and myelin thickness were histologically analyzed. Both EMG parameters showed a significant (p < 0.05) effect of treatment at 6 and 12 weeks postsurgery. At 6 weeks, the fiber density was statistically different between treated and untreated animals with a higher observed density in treated nerves. No difference in fiber density was observed at 12 weeks postsurgery. The distribution of fiber diameters showed an effect at 12 weeks when only the sections of the nerves sutured with PRP showed fibers with diameters greater than 6 µm. Our data show that the application of a PRP fibrin membrane around the neurorraphy improves the nerve regeneration process in a rat sciatic nerve model. The use of PRP as a suturable membrane could perform an action not only as a source of bioactive proteins but also as a nerve guide to hold the scar reaction and thus improve axonal regeneration. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Acute Compartment Syndrome Which Causes Rhabdomyolysis by Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with It: A Case Report.

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    Ji, Jung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is most frequently caused by soft tissue injury with trauma to the extremities. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis may be caused by alcohol or drug abuse, infection, collagen disease, or intensive exercise, but incidence is low. In particular, rhabdomyolysis resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning is especially rare. If caught before death, carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown to cause severe muscle necrosis and severe muscle damage leading to acute renal failure. In cases of carbon-monoxide-induced rhabdomyolsis leading to acute compartment syndrome in the buttocks and sciatic nerve injury are rare. We have experience treating patients with acute compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis following carbon monoxide poisoning. We report the characteristic features of muscle necrosis observed during a decompression operation and magnetic resonance imaging findings with a one-year follow-up in addition to a review of the literature.

  18. Effect of laser therapy (660 nm) on recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats after injury through neurotmesis followed by epineural anastomosis.

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    dos Reis, Filipe Abdalla; Belchior, Ana Carulina Guimarães; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; da Silva, Baldomero Antônio Kato; Pereira, Daniel Martins; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) laser (660 nm) on the myelin sheath and functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. The sciatic nerves of 12 Wistar rats were subjected to injury through neurotmesis and epineural anastomosis, and the animals were divided into two groups: group 1 was the control and group 2, underwent low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After the injury, AlGaAs laser at 660 nm, 4 J/cm(2), 26.3 mW and beam area of 0.63 cm(2) was administered to three equidistant points on the injury for 20 consecutive days. In the control group the mean area of the myelin impairment was 0.51 (+/- 0.11) on day 21 after the operation, whereas this value was 1.31 (+/- 0.22) in the LLLT group. Student's t-test revealed a P value = 0.0229 for the mean area values of the myelin sheath between the LLLT and control groups. Comparison of the sciatic functional index (SFI) showed that there was no significant difference between the pre-lesion value in the laser therapy group and the control group. The use of AlGaAs laser (660 nm) provided significant changes to the morphometrically assessed area of the myelin sheath, but it did not culminate in positive results for functional recovery in the sciatic nerve of the rats after injury through neurotmesis.

  19. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

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    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  20. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat.

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    Paul J Austin

    Full Text Available Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four 'disability-specific' genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular

  1. Nitric oxide synthase in the frog cerebellum: response of Purkinje neurons to unilateral eighth nerve transection.

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    Pisu, Maria Bonaria; Conforti, Elena; Botta, Laura; Valli, Paolo; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2002-09-01

    When vestibular damage occurs, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in rat cerebellar flocculus is affected. Since compensation for postural symptoms occurs and Purkinje cells play an important role in movement coordination and motor learning, we analyzed in situ the induction of NOS in the Purkinje cell population of the cerebellum (corpus cerebelli) of frog after unilateral transection of the eighth statoacoustic nerve to gain insight into the role of NO in neural plasticity after injury. Three days after neurectomy, the early effects induced NADPH diaphorase reactivity in most of the Purkinje cells on the ipsilateral side, while on the contralateral side the highest labeling was observed at 15 days. This finding can give information on the dynamics of vestibular compensation, in which NOS involvement was investigated. At 30 days, NADPH diaphorase reactivity was present in a large number of Purkinje cells of the whole cerebellum, while at 60 days a down-regulation for NADPH diaphorase reactivity was evident. A similar trend was observed for NOS-immunoreactivity, which was still present at 60 days in a high percentage of Purkinje cells, mainly on the ipsilateral side. On the basis of cell density evaluations, it was proposed that the early induction of NOS after neurectomy was linked to the degeneration of a part of the Purkinje neurons, while the permanence of NOS labeling might be due to a neuroprotective role of NO in the restoration phase of the vestibular compensation process. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Effects of exogenous galanin on neuropathic pain state and change of galanin and its receptors in DRG and SDH after sciatic nerve-pinch injury in rat.

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    Xu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xiuying; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Zhenzhong

    2012-01-01

    A large number of neuroanatomical, neurophysiologic, and neurochemical mechanisms are thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, mechanisms responsible for neuropathic pain have not been completely delineated. It has been demonstrated that neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is upregulated after injury in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH) where it plays a predominantly antinociceptive role. In the present study, sciatic nerve-pinch injury rat model was used to determine the effects of exogenous Gal on the expression of the Gal and its receptors (GalR1, GalR2) in DRG and SDH, the alterations of pain behavior, nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and morphology of sciatic nerve. The results showed that exogenous Gal had antinociceptive effects in this nerve-pinch injury induced neuropathic pain animal model. It is very interesting that Gal, GalR1 and GalR2 change their expression greatly in DRG and SDH after nerve injury and intrathecal injection of exougenous Gal. Morphological investigation displays a serious damage after nerve-pinch injury and an amendatory regeneration after exogenous Gal treatment. These findings imply that Gal, via activation of GalR1 and/or GalR2, may have neuroprotective effects in reducing neuropathic pain behaviors and improving nerve regeneration after nerve injury.

  3. The morphological and functional effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Lucinéia; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats on morphological and functional parameters. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), lesion (L), trained+lesion (TL), lesion+exercise (LE), and training+lesion+exercise (TLE), who underwent right sciatic nerve compression on day 21 of the experiment. The TL and TLE groups were submitted to a jumping exercise in a water environment for 20 days prior to injury and the LE and TLE groups after injury. The functional analysis was carried out using the sciatic functional index (SFI). On the last day of the experiment, the right sciatic nerves were collected, processed and analysed according to morphology and morphometry. The C group showed higher SFI in relation to the other groups. In the morphometric analysis, in comparison to C, all groups showed a decrease in the diameter of the injured nerve fibre, the myelin sheath and an increase in the percentage of connective tissue. There was a decrease in axon diameter in L, TL, and LE groups and a decrease in the density of nerve fibres in the TL and LE groups. The exercise did not affect functional recovery. However, the exercise prior to the injury improved morphology of the nervous tissue, and when performed pre- and postinjury, there was also an improvement in nerve regeneration, but this was not the case with exercise performed after the injury demonstrating worse results.

  4. Sciatic nerve repair using poly(ε-caprolactone) tubular prosthesis associated with nanoparticles of carbon and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Kyl; Leal, Claudenete Vieira; Derami, Mariana Silveira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Ceragioli, Helder Jose; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves generate disconnection between spinal neurons and the target organ. Due to retraction of the nerve stumps, end-to-end neurorrhaphy is usually unfeasible. In such cases, autologous grafts are widely used, nonetheless with some disadvantages, such as mismatching of donor nerve dimensions and formation of painful neuromas at the donor area. Tubulization, using bioresorbable polymers, can potentially replace nerve grafting, although improvements are still necessary. Among promising bioresorbable synthetic polymers, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are the most studied. Carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets have been proposed, however, as adjuvants to improve mechanical and regenerative properties of tubular prostheses. Thus, the present work evaluated nerve tubulization repair following association of PCL with nanoparticles of carbon (NPC) and graphene (NPG). For that, adult Lewis rats were subjected to unilateral sciatic nerve tubulization and allowed to survive for up to 8 and 12 weeks postsurgery. Nanocomposites mechanical/chemical evaluation showed that nanoparticles do not alter PCL crystallinity, yet providing reinforcement of polymer matrix. Thus, there was a decrease in the enthalpy of melting when the mixture of PCL + NPC + NPG was used. Nanocomposites displayed positive changes in molecular mobility in the amorphous phase of the polymer. Also, the loss modulus (E") and the glass transition exhibited highest values for PCL + NPC + NPG. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that PCL + NPC + NPG prostheses showed improved cell adhesion as compared to PCL alone. Surgical procedures with PCL + NPC + NPG were facilitated due to improved flexibility of the prosthesis, resulting in better stump positioning accuracy. In turn, a twofold increased number of myelinated axons was found in such repaired nerves. Consistent with that, target muscle atrophy protection has been observed. Overall

  5. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

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    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  6. Effects of Liposomes Charge on Extending Sciatic Nerve Blockade of N-ethyl Bromide of Lidocaine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qinqin; Ke, Bowen; Chen, Xiaobing; Guan, Yikai; Feng, Ping; Chen, Guo; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Nie, Yu

    2016-12-01

    N-methyl bromide of lidocaine (QX-314) is a potential local anaesthetic with compromised penetration through cell membranes due to its obligated positive charge. Liposomes have been widely used for drug delivery with promising efficacy and safety. Therefore we investigated the local anaesthetic effects and tissue reactions of QX-314 in combination with anionic, cationic or neutral liposomes in rat sciatic nerve block model, and explored the effects of these liposomes on cellular entry of QX-314 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results demonstrated that anionic liposomes substantially prolonged the duration of sensory (25.7 ± 8.3 h) and motor (41.4 ± 6.1 h) blocks of QX-314, while cationic and neutral ones had little effects. Tissue reactions from QX-314 with anionic liposomes were similar to those with commonly used local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Consistent with in vivo results, the anionic liposomes produced the greatest promotion of cellular entry of QX-314 in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, ultra-long lasting nerve blocks were achieved by a mixture of QX-314 and anionic liposomes with a satisfactory safety profile, indicating a potential approach to improve postoperative pain management. The liposome-induced enhancement in cellular uptake of QX-314 may underlie the in vivo effects.

  7. Effect of Locally Administered Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on the Survival of Transected and Repaired Adult Sheep Facial Nerve

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    Rashid Al Abri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine whether the administration of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF at the site of repaired facial nerve enhances regeneration in the adult sheep model. Methods: Ten adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: control and study group (CNTF group. In the CNTF group, the buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected and then repaired by epineural sutures. CNTF was injected over the left depressor labii maxillaris muscle in the vicinity of the transected and repaired nerve for 28 days under local anesthesia. In the CNTF group, the sheep were again anesthetized after nine months and the site of facial nerve repair was exposed. Detailed electrophysiological, tension experiments and morphometric studies were carried out and then analyzed statistically. Results: The skin CV min, refractory period, Jitter and tension parameters were marginally raised in the CNTF group than the control but the difference was statistically insignificant between the two groups. Morphometric indices also did not show any significant changes in the CNTF group. Conclusion: CNTF has no profound effect on neuronal regeneration of adult sheep animal model.

  8. Pharmacological switch in Aβ-fiber stimulation-induced spinal transmission in mice with partial sciatic nerve injury

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    Ma Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that different spinal transmissions are involved in the nociceptive behavior caused by electrical stimulation of Aβ-, Aδ- or C-fibers using a Neurometer® in naïve mice. In this study, we attempted to pharmacologically characterize the alteration in spinal transmission induced by partial sciatic nerve injury in terms of nociceptive behavior and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK in the spinal dorsal horn. Results Aβ-fiber responses (2000-Hz, which were selectively blocked by the AMPA/kainate antagonist CNQX in naïve mice, were hypersensitized but blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and AP-5 in injured mice in an electrical stimulation-induced paw withdrawal (EPW test. Although Aδ-fiber responses (250-Hz were also hypersensitized by nerve injury, there was no change in the pharmacological characteristics of Aδ-fiber responses through NMDA receptors. On the contrary, C-fiber responses (5-Hz were hyposensitized by nerve injury. Moreover, Aδ- and C-, but not Aβ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horns of naïve mice, and corresponding antagonists used in the EPW test inhibited this increase. In mice with nerve injury, Aβ- as well as Aδ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, whereas C-fiber stimulation decreased this number. The nerve injury-specific pERK increase induced by Aβ-stimulation was inhibited by MK-801 and AP-5, but not by CNQX. However, Aβ- and Aδ-stimulations did not affect the number or size of pERK-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, whereas C-fiber-stimulation selectively decreased the number of pERK-positive neurons. Conclusion These results suggest that Aβ-fiber perception is newly transmitted to spinal neurons, which originally receive only Aδ- and C

  9. Internal-specific morphological analysis of sciatic nerve fibers in a radiofrequency-induced animal neuropathic pain model.

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    Samjin Choi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reversible effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF treatment at 42 °C on the ultrastructural and biological changes in nerve and collagen fibers in the progression of neuropathic pain after rat sciatic nerve injury. Assessments of morphological changes in the extracellular matrices by atomic force microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and picrosirius-red staining as well as the expressions of two fibril-forming collagens, types-I and -III, and two inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on day 30 after RF exposure. There were four groups for different RF thermal treatments: no treatment, no current, PRF, and continuous RF (CRF. An RF procedure similar to that used in human clinical trials was used in this study. The CRF treatment at 82 °C led to neural and collagen damage by the permanent blockage of sensory nociceptors. The PRF treatment led to excellent performance and high expandability compared to CRF, with effects including slight damage and swelling of myelinated axons, a slightly decreased amount of collagen fibers, swelling of collagen fibril diameters, decreased immunoreactivity of collagen types-I and -III, presence of newly synthesized collagen, and recovery of inflammatory protein immunoreactivity. These evidence-based findings suggest that PRF-based pain relief is responsible for the temporary blockage of nerve signals as well as the preferential destruction of pain-related principal sensory fibers like the Aδ and C fibers. This suggestion can be supported by the interaction between the PRF-induced electromagnetic field and cell membranes; therefore, PRF treatment provides pain relief while allowing retention of some tactile sensation.

  10. Tramadol, but not its major metabolite (mono-O-demethyl tramadol) depresses compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, R; Fujita, T; Koga, A; Liu, T; Nakatsuka, T; Nakashima, M; Kumamoto, E

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although tramadol is known to exhibit a local anaesthetic effect, how tramadol exerts this effect is not understood fully. Experimental approach: The effects of tramadol and its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1) on compound action potentials (CAPs) were examined by applying the air-gap method to frog sciatic nerves, and the results were compared with those of other local anaesthetics, lidocaine and ropivacaine. Key results: Tramadol reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=2.3 mM). On the other hand, M1 (1–2 mM), which exhibits a higher affinity for μ-opioid receptors than tramadol, did not affect CAPs. These effects of tramadol were resistant to the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the μ-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, did not affect CAPs. This tramadol action was not affected by a combination of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Lidocaine and ropivacaine also concentration-dependently reduced CAP peak amplitudes with IC50 values of 0.74 and 0.34 mM, respectively. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that tramadol reduces the peak amplitude of CAP in peripheral nerve fibres with a potency which is less than those of lidocaine and ropivacaine, whereas M1 has much less effect on CAPs. This action of tramadol was not produced by activation of μ-opioid receptors nor by inhibition of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake. It is suggested that the methyl group present in tramadol but not in M1 may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block. PMID:16921387

  11. Ameliorative potential of Butea monosperma on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract from leaves of Butea monosperma in chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal hyperalgesia, cold chemical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia & allodynia in the left hind paw and tail thermal hyperalgesia. Further on, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the biochemical changes in the sciatic nerve tissue. Histopathological changes were also observed in the sciatic nerve tissue. Ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma leaves and pregabalin (serving as positive control were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI resulted in significant changes in behavioural and biochemical parameters. Pretreatment of Butea monosperma attenuated CCI induced development of behavioural, biochemical and histopathological alterations in a dose dependent manner, which is comparable to that of pregabalin pretreated group. These findings may be attributed to its potential anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulatory actions of Butea monosperma.O presente trabalho visou investigar o papel do extrato etanólico de folhas de Butea monosperma no alívio da dor neuropática pela injúria de constrição crônica (CCI do nervo ciático induzida em ratos. Placa quente, gota de acetona, pressão na pata, testes de imersão de pelo e cauda de Von Frey foram utilizados para acessar o grau de hiperalgesia térmica, alodinia química fria, hiperalgesia mecânica e alodinia na pata trazeira esquerda e hiperalgesia térmica da cauda. Além disso, substâncias reativas com ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, glutatião reduzido (GSH e níveis de cálcio total foram estimados para acessar as altera

  12. Sciatic nerve ligation causes impairment of mitochondria associated with changes in distribution, respiration, and cardiolipin composition in related spinal cord neurons in rats.

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    Keilhoff, Gerburg; Becker, Axel; Kropf, Siegfried; Schild, Lorenz

    2016-10-01

    Sciatic nerve irritation is often associated with disturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis in related neurons of the spinal cord. Since mitochondria substantially contribute to Ca(2+) homeostasis and little information is available, we studied the effects of loose sciatic nerve ligation, a chronic constriction injury (CCI), on neuronal mitochondria of the L3-L6 regions. Three groups of rats (untreated, sham operated, and ligated) were explored. For the characterization of mitochondria, specimens of the L3-L6 spinal cord regions were evaluated with respect to intracellular localization using pyruvate dehydrogenase immunohistochemistry and Mitotracker Red, and the ATP producing machinery by LC-MS/MS technique for the analysis of cardiolipin and high-resolution respirometry for the measurement of oxygen consumption. Therefore, the phospholipid cardiolipin supports electron transfer within the respiratory chain as part of mitochondrial respiration and is of high impact on the physical properties of the mitochondrial membrane system. Histological analysis of spinal cord motor neurons revealed clustering of mitochondria in ipsilateral samples from ligated animals 14 days after the insult. This phenomenon was similarly evident in the respective contralateral side. The intensity of MT-Red staining was enhanced exclusively at the ipsilateral side, indicating increased mitochondrial activity. CCI of the sciatic nerve caused massive changes in the composition of cardiolipin reflecting mitochondrial impairment in the early phase followed by regeneration processes as late response. Sciatic nerve CCI caused decrease in the capacity of mitochondrial ATP production that recovered within 14 days after treatment. In conclusion, we provide evidence that clustering of mitochondria, already verified for the spinal cord sensory neurons after CCI, also occurs in the respective motor neurons. Further we have demonstrated transient impairment of the capacity of mitochondrial ATP production in tissue

  13. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

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    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  14. Dysregulated expression of death, stress and mitochondrion related genes in the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Chrystian Junqueira Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells are the main source of paracrine support to motor neurons. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been correlated to motor neuron death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. Despite the involvement of Schwann cells in early neuromuscular disruption in ALS, detailed molecular events of a dying-back triggering are unknown. Sciatic nerves of presymptomatic (60-day-old SOD1G93A mice were submitted to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. DAVID demonstrated the deregulated genes related to death, stress and mitochondrion, which allowed the identification of Cell cycle, ErbB signaling, Tryptophan metabolism and Rig-I-like receptor signaling as the most representative KEGG pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks based upon deregulated genes have identified the top hubs (TRAF2, H2AFX, E2F1, FOXO3, MSH2, NGFR, TGFBR1 and bottlenecks (TRAF2, E2F1, CDKN1B, TWIST1, FOXO3. Schwann cells were enriched from the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic mice using flow cytometry cell sorting. qPCR showed the up regulated (Ngfr, Cdnkn1b, E2f1, Traf2 and Erbb3, H2afx, Cdkn1a, Hspa1, Prdx, Mapk10 and down-regulated (Foxo3, Mtor genes in the enriched Schwann cells. In conclusion, molecular analyses in the presymptomatic sciatic nerve demonstrated the involvement of death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial pathways in the Schwann cell non-autonomous mechanisms in the early stages of ALS.

  15. Comparative study between standard and inside-out vein graft techniques on sciatic nerve repair of rats. Muscular and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Aparecido, Idvaldo; Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues, Antônio de Castro; Marco, Geraldo

    2017-04-01

    To compare the functional result of standart vein grafts and inside-out vein graft technique on sciatic nerve repair. We used 24 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control group (CG), standard vein graft group (SVG), Inside-out vein graft group (IOVG) and denervated Group (DG). SVG, IOVG and DG underwent total section of the sciatic nerve, SVG and IOVG however underwent nerve repair surgery using a graft with normal jugular vein and inside-out jugular vein, respectively. Histological analysis of the soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL), and Sciatic Functional Index were used to compare the results after 6 weeks. Both grafts acted favorably in muscle recovery and improved functionality; They were similar in all parameters, however, in more points SVG achieved similar to the CG, in the other hand IOVG more times was similar to DG. Fact that makes the graft with normal vein the most viable option between the two options. Both types of grafts acted beneficially wherein the graft normal vein has proved to be the best option.

  16. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided “Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis” application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Methods Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. Results US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. Conclusion US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE. PMID:27900300

  17. Assessing the permeability of the rat sciatic nerve epineural sheath against compounds with local anesthetic activity: an ex vivo electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagiava, Alexia; Theophilidis, George

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that the sciatic nerve epineural sheath acts as a barrier and has a delaying effect on the diffusion of local anesthetics into the nerve fibers and endoneurium. The purpose of this work is to assess and to quantify the permeability of the epineural sheath. For this purpose, we isolated the rat sciatic nerve in a three-chamber recording bath that allowed us to monitor the constant in amplitude evoked nerve compound action potential (nCAP) for over 24 h. For nerves exposed to the compounds under investigation, we estimated the IT50 the time required to inhibit the nCAP to 50% of its initial value. For desheathed nerves, the half-vitality time was denoted as IT50(-) and for the ensheath normal nerves as IT50(+). There was no significant difference between the IT50 of desheathed and ensheathed nerves exposed to normal saline. The IT50(-) for nerves exposed to 40 mM lidocaine was 12.1 ± 0.95 s (n=14) and the IT50(+) was 341.4 ± 2.49 s (n=6). The permeability (P) coefficient of the epineural sheath was defined as the ratio IT50(+)/IT50(-). The P coefficient for 40 mM lidocaine and linalool was 28.2 and 3.48, correspondingly, and for 30 mM 2-heptanone was 4.87. This is an indication that the epineural sheath provided a stronger barrier against lidocaine, compared to natural local anesthetics, linalool and 2-heptanone. The methodology presented here is a useful tool for studying epineural sheath permeability to compounds with local anesthetic properties.

  18. The ErbB2 inhibitor Herceptin (Trastuzumab) promotes axonal outgrowth four weeks after acute nerve transection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placheta, Eva; Hendry, J Michael; Wood, Matthew D; Lafontaine, Christine W; Liu, Edward H; Cecilia Alvarez Veronesi, M; Frey, Manfred; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2014-10-17

    Accumulating evidence suggests that neuregulin, a potent Schwann cell mitogen, and its receptor, ErbB2, have an important role in regulating peripheral nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that Herceptin (Trastuzumab), a monoclonal antibody that binds ErbB2, would disrupt ErbB2 signaling, allowing us to evaluate ErbB2's importance in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the extent of peripheral motor and sensory nerve regeneration and distal axonal outgrowth was analyzed two and four weeks after common peroneal (CP) nerve injury in rats. Outcomes analyzed included neuron counts after retrograde labeling, histomorphometry, and protein analysis. The data analysis revealed that there was no impact of Herceptin administration on either the numbers of motor or sensory neurons that regenerated their axons but histomorphometry revealed that Herceptin significantly increased the number of regenerated axons in the distal repaired nerve after 4 weeks. Protein analysis with Western blotting revealed no difference in either expression levels of ErbB2 or the amount of activated, phosphorylated ErbB2 in injured nerves. In conclusion, administration of the ErbB2 receptor inhibitor after nerve transection and surgical repair did not alter the number of regenerating neurons but markedly increased the number of regenerated axons per neuron in the distal nerve stump. Enhanced axon outgrowth in the presence of this ErbB2 inhibitor indicates that ErbB2 signaling may limit the numbers of axons that are emitted from each regenerating neuron. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cutaneous saphenous nerve graft for the treatment of sciatic neurotmesis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Nicolas; Moissonnier, Pierre; Fanchon, Laurent; Hidalgo, Antoine; Gnirs, Kirsten; Blot, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    Case Description—A 2-year-old Griffon Vendéen was examined because of a 1-month history of right hind limb lameness after a traumatic injury. Clinical Findings—Neurologic examination revealed monoplegia and anesthesia of the right hind limb distal to the stifle (femorotibial) joint except for the area supplied by the cutaneous saphenous nerve. Results of electromyographic testing were consistent with a severe lesion of the tibial and peroneal nerves at the level of the stifle joint. Treatment...

  20. Biocompatible heterogeneous porous gel matrix NeuroGel(TM) promotes regeneration of rat sciatic nerve within tubular silicone prosthesis (experimental study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatskiy, Alexander A; Tretyak, Ihor B; Tsymbaliuk, Vitaliy

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of NeuroGel™ to promote and enhance the regeneration of rat sciatic nerve within a 10-mm gap using silicone tubular prosthesis, and to evaluate and compare the regeneration outcomes versus autologous grafting. The 10-mm gap of rat sciatic nerve was bridged through silicone tubular prosthesis filled with dehydrated NeuroGel™, and NeuroGel™ saturated with rat NGF-B (NG30-NGG60, NGgfB30-NGgfB60). To assess the regeneration of the peripheral nerve we utilized three general and most commonly applied methods: electrophysiologic, hystomorphometric, and functional methods. The average M-wave amplitude (AMW index), or the intermediary index of the number of regenerated axons, in animal groups NGG60 and NGgfB60 60 days post-op was: 2.44 ± 0.57 mV and 1.87 ± 0.48 mV. These indices were statistically lower compared to the indices obtained after autologous grafting. The average impulse conduction velocity along motor fibers (VMF index), or the intermediary index of myelination rate, was: 13.3 mm/ms and 13.3 mm/ms, respectively, statistically equal to indices obtained after autologous grafting. The average density (D) of regenerated fibers (direct numerical indicator in contrast to intermediary AMW index) in animal groups NGG60 and NGgfB60 was: 4,920 ± 178.88 and 5,340 ± 150.33 per mm(2), respectively. These indices were statistically higher versus indices obtained after autologous grafting. Myelination rates of regenerated fibers in animal groups NGG60 and NGgfB60 were 73 and 86 %, respectively. They were also statistically higher. The average sciatic functional index (SFI) in NGG60 and NGgfB60 was: -25.57 ± 3.05 and -24.124 ± 4.8, respectively, which is statistically equal to indices obtained after autologous grafting. Neurogel™ strongly promotes the regeneration of rat sciatic nerve within silicone tubular prosthesis. After bridging a 10-mm gap through silicone prosthesis with

  1. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Medeiros Venancio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP. EOOb and (−-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38±0.2 and 0.17±0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−-LIN, these values were 0.23±0.0 and 0.13±0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−-LIN in the essential oil.

  2. Surface topography of zirconia implants does not alter action potentials of isolated rat sciatic nerves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertan, A.A.; Celebi, N.; Bayolken, M.; Onur, M.A.; Aboushelib, M.N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Cehreli, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of airborne-particle abrasion and selective infiltration etching of a yttrium-partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) implant surfaces on nerve conduction. Particle-abraded Y-TZP (P/Y-TZP), selective infiltration etched Y-TZP

  3. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D G; Sousa, S D G; Silva, R E R; Silva-Alves, K S; Ferreira-da-Silva, F W; Kerntopf, M R; Menezes, I R A; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Barbosa, R

    2015-08-01

    Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  4. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  5. Altered expression of sodium channel distribution in the dorsal root ganglion after gradual elongation of rat sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Katsunori; Yokota, Atsushi; Hirofuji, Shinji; Kanbara, Kiyoto; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic nerve-stretch injury, we gradually lengthened rat femurs by 15 mm at the rate of 0.5 mm/day (group L, n = 13). The control groups comprised sham-operated (group S, n = 10) and naive (group N, n = 8) rats. Immediately after the lengthening, we performed a conduction study on their sciatic nerves and harvested samples. Electrophysiological and histological analyses showed mild conduction slowing and axonal degeneration of unmyelinated fibers in group L rats. Altered mRNA expression of the voltage-gated sodium channels in the dorsal root ganglion was also observed. Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium-channel Nav1.8 mRNA expression was significantly decreased and TTX-R sodium-channel Nav1.9 mRNA expression showed a tendency to decrease when compared with the mRNA expressions in the control groups. However, tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium-channel Nav1.3 mRNA expression remained unaltered. The immunohistochemical alteration of Nav1.8 protein expression was parallel to the results of the mRNA expression. Previous studies involving neuropathic states have suggested that pain/paresthesia is modulated by a subset of sodium channels, including downregulation and/or upregulation of TTX-R and TTX-S sodium channels, respectively. Our findings indicate that Nav1.8 downregulation may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in limb lengthening-induced neuropathy.

  6. Effects of proton irradiation of the lumbar intumescence on intra-axonal transport of acetylcholine and cholinergic enzymes in rat sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeoej, S.; Dahlstroem, A.; Larsson, P.A.; Rosander, K.; Rosengren, B. (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Institutionen foer Neurobiologi)

    1980-01-01

    The content and intra-axonal transport of acetylcholine (ACh) and the cholinergic enzymes cholineacetyl-transferase (CAT) and ACh-esterase (AChE) in sciatic nerve were investigated in rats following single dose proton irradiation of the lumbar intumescence of the spinal cord with 60 Gy or 200 Gy. One, 7 or 30 days after irradiation nerve-crush operations were performed 12 hours before killing and the levels of ACh and enzyme activities in nerve segments relative to the crushes were estimated by biologic (ACh) to chemical (enzyme) methods. The results indicate that alterations in intra-neuronal dynamics of ACh and related enzymes are not a major cause for the development of neurologic symptoms of the motor system after irradiation, and that descending myelinated axons are of minor importance for the regulation of cholinergic substances in rat motor nerves.

  7. Schwann cells and mesenchymal stem cells in laminin- or fibronectin-aligned matrices and regeneration across a critical size defect of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Hernández, Joaquim; Heimann, Claudia; Phillips, James B; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Artificial nerve guides are being developed to substitute for autograft repair after peripheral nerve injuries. However, the use of conduits is limited by the length of the gap that needs to be bridged, with the success of regeneration highly compromised in long gaps. Addition of aligned proregenerative cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components inside the conduit can be a good strategy to achieve artificial grafts that recreate the natural environment offered by a nerve graft. The purpose of this study was to functionalize chitosan devices with different cell types to support regeneration in limiting gaps in the rat peripheral nerve. METHODS The authors used chitosan devices combined with proteins of the ECM and cells in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Combinations of fibronectin and laminin with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or Schwann cells (SCs) were aligned within tethered collagen-based gels, which were placed inside chitosan tubes that were then used to repair a critical-size gap of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiology and algesimetry tests were performed to analyze functional recovery during the 4 months after injury and repair. Histological analysis was performed at the midlevel and distal level of the tubes to assess the number of regenerated myelinated fibers. RESULTS Functional analysis demonstrated that SC-aligned scaffolds resulted in 100% regeneration success in a 15-mm nerve defect in this rat model. In contrast, animals that underwent repair with MSC-aligned constructs had only 90% regeneration success, and those implanted with acellular bridges had only 75% regeneration success. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the combination of chitosan conduits with ECM-enriched cellular gels represents a good alternative to the use of autografts for repairing long nerve gaps.

  8. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Modulates Spinal Cord Neuronal Degeneration by Enhancing Growth-Associated Protein 43, B-Cell Lymphoma 2, and Decreasing B-Cell Lymphoma 2-Associated X Protein Expression after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Rao, Muddanna S.; Khraishah, Haitham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our previous studies have established that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has both neuroprotective and -regenerative capacity after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, this improvement was evident on the behavioral level. The aim of this study was to investigate the central effects of ECGC on spinal cord motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury. Our study showed that administering 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally i.p. of EGCG to sciatic nerve-injured rats improved their performance on different motor functions and mechanical hyperesthesia neurobehavioral tests. Histological analysis of spinal cords of EGCG-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH+ECGC) animals showed an increase in the number of neurons in the anterior horn, when compared to the naïve, sham, and saline-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH) control groups. Additionally, immunohistochemical study of spinal cord sections revealed that EGCG reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and increased the expression of growth-associated protein 43, a marker of regenerating axons. Finally, EGCG reduced the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein/Bcl-2 and increased the expression of survivin gene. This study may shed some light on the future clinical use of EGCG and its constituents in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25025489

  9. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI, decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb. The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  10. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX®) on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, A; Pereira, T; Armada-da-Silva, Pas; Amado, S; Veloso, Ap; Amorim, I; Ribeiro, J; Santos, Jd; Bárcia, Rn; Cruz, P; Cruz, H; Luís, Al; Santos, Jm; Geuna, S; Maurício, Ac

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX(®)), was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal(®), was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX(®) alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX(®) induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC). At opposite toe off (OT) and heel rise (HR), differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either uCx(®) alone or UCX(®) administered with Floseal(®). Overall, the UCX(®) application presented

  11. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX® on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®, was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL, ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX ® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC. At opposite toe off (OT and heel rise (HR, differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either UCX® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented

  12. Investigation into Regeneration Mechanism of Hydroalcoholic Lavender (Lavandula officianalis Extract through the Evaluation of NT3 Gene Expression after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Naderi Allaf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Retrograde transport to the alpha motoneurons causes spinal degeneration. The neurotrophic factor (NT3 increases the number of myelinated axons in the dorsal root, leads to differentiation and survival of sensory neurons, parasympathetic motoneurons and prevents cell death. Lavender is a plant in the family Lamiaceae which is reported to have antioxidant, antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-asthmatic, refrigerant, and antipyretic effects. This study examined NT3 gene expression changes after sciatic nerve compression in rats, in the presence of Lavandula officinalis extract. Materials and Methods: Lavender Soxhlet hydroalcoholic extraction was prepared. 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups including control, compression and treatment (compression group + hydroalcoholic extract of Lavender injections 75mg/kg groups. In controls the muscle was opened without damage to gain access to the sciatic nerve. In compression and treatment groups, the sciatic nerve (right leg was compressed. The extract was injected intraperitoneally in two occasions. A biopsy was taken from the spinal cord segments L4-L6 on day 28, total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and NT3 gene expression changes were analyzed by ANOVA test by using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that NT3 gene expression had a significant reduction in compression group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and it had a significant increase in treatment group compared with the compression group (p<0.001. Conclusion: A significant increase in gene expression shows that Lavandula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract improves nerve regeneration via NT3 gene expression.

  13. The effects of co-administration of pregabalin and vitamin E on neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymandi, Manzumeh-Shamsi; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Abdolsamadi, Mona; Shaabani, Mohammad; Heravi, Gioia; Yazdanpanah, Omid; Aghtaei, Mohammadmehdi-Moeini

    2017-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of pregabalin co-administration with vitamin E in Partial Sciatic Nerve Ligation (PSNL)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated as control, sham, and PSNL groups (n = 8). PSNL was induced by tight ligation of the sciatic nerve with a copper wire. On day 14th, the PSNL and sham operated rats received either pregabalin (1, 3, and 30 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg), or their combination intraperitoneally. An antinociceptive effect was evaluated as latency times and Maximum possible Effect Percent (%MPE) using tail-flick test. Locomotor activity was evaluated by open-field test before PSNL surgery and then twice at the 14th days (before and after drug injection). Ligated nerves were removed on the 28th days after surgery for histological examinations. The time course of latency times and %MPE showed significant decrease in PSNL but not in sham and control groups. Pregabalin (3 and 30 mg/kg) and vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg) caused significant increases in latency time in PSNL (but not sham) group compared to control group. Vitamin E 200 mg/kg increased significantly %MPE in PSNL group compared to sham group. In addition, the %MPE following combination treatment of pregabalin (30 mg/kg) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg) was significantly higher than both vitamin E and control group. Also combination of pregabalin with 100 mg/kg of vitamin E reversed Wallerian degeneration of sciatic nerve and the inflammatory responses to almost similar to sham group. Pregabalin and vitamin E did not affect locomotor activity. Our results showed antinociceptive effects of both vitamin E and pregabalin alone or in combination in PSNL rats and also neuroprotective properties without affecting locomotor activity.

  14. Cupping in the Monkey Optic Nerve Transection Model Consists of Prelaminar Tissue Thinning in the Absence of Posterior Laminar Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Eliesa; Ivers, Kevin M.; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Reynaud, Juan; Cull, Grant; Wang, Lin; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to test the hypothesis that optic nerve head (ONH) “cupping” in the monkey optic nerve transection (ONT) model does not include posterior laminar deformation. Methods Five monkeys (aged 5.5–7.8 years) underwent ONH and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) OCT imaging five times at baseline and biweekly following unilateral ONT until euthanization at ∼40% RNFL loss. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and minimum rim width (MRW) were calculated from each pre- and post-ONT imaging session. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) was delineated within baseline and pre-euthanasia data sets. Significant ONT versus control eye pre-euthanasia change in prelaminar tissue thickness (PLTT), MRW, RNFLT, and ALCS depth (ALCSD) was determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Eye-specific change in each parameter exceeded the 95% confidence interval constructed from baseline measurements. Results Animals were euthanized 49 to 51 days post ONT. Overall ONT eye change from baseline was significant for MRW (−26.2%, P = 0.0011), RNFLT (−43.8%, P cupping involves prelaminar and rim tissue thinning without posterior deformation of the lamina cribrosa. PMID:27168368

  15. Effect of electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve on synaptic plasticity of spinal dorsal horn and spinal c-fos expression in neonatal, juvenile and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Hu, Qisheng; Huang, Deying; Chen, Xueling; Chen, Jie

    2012-04-11

    To explore the response to nociceptive stimuli in spinal cord of immature rat and observe the electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve on synaptic plasticity of the spinal dorsal horn and spinal c-fos expression in rats of different ages, MK-801 was added to the spinal cord of rats, and the resulting changes in field potential as well as c-fos expression were recorded. LTP in neonatal rats was mainly evoked by A-type nerve fibers, whereas LTP in juvenile and adult rats was mainly evoked by C-type nerve fibers. C-fos expression was significantly increased in the superficial and deep layers of the spinal dorsal horn and in the ventral horn in neonatal rats indicating that the pain signal changed with age. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sciatic and femoral nerve blockade using bupivacaine alone, or in combination with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, M C; Doodnaught, G M; Fantoni, D T; Steagall, P V M

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study was to determine the onset and offset of antinociception after sciatic (ScN) and femoral (FN) nerve blocks. Six healthy adult cats (4.8±1.3years; 4.3±0.4 kg) were included in a randomised, crossover, blinded and controlled study. Following sedation with dexmedetomidine (25 µg/kg, intramuscular), each ScN and FN injection was performed using 0.1 ml/kg of saline (CONTROL), bupivacaine (0.46 per cent, 0.46 mg/kg; BUPI), bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; BUPI-DEX) or bupivacaine and buprenorphine (2.5 µg/kg; BUPI-BUPRE). Atipamezole (250 µg/kg) was administered after injections. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) and motor blockade were evaluated before sedation and up to 24 hours. The PWT were significantly increased at half an hour in CONTROL, from two to four hours in BUPI and BUPI-DEX when compared with baseline. Motor blockade was observed between one and three hours in treatments using bupivacaine. Ability to walk was significantly impaired in BUPI at half an hour to two hours, BUPI-DEX at one to two hours and BUPI-BUPRE at two hours. Antinociception was observed in BUPI between one and eight hours, and in BUPI-DEX and BUPI-BUPRE between one and four hours. This study could not demonstrate a benefit of administering bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats. Results in BUPI-DEX may have been biased by the administration of atipamezole. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Localization and expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in postmortem sciatic nerve from patients with motor neuron disease and diabetic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.A. [Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States); Gross, L.; Wittrock, D.A.; Windebank, A.J. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the mature motor system. The factor is found most abundantly in myelinating Schwann cells in the adult sciatic nerve. Lack of neuronal growth factors has been proposed as one possible etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Growth factor replacement therapies are currently being evaluated as a treatment for motor neuron disease. In this report we determined whether the expression of CNTF in sciatic nerve differed in patients with motor neuron disease compared to controls or patients with another form of axonopathy. We identified 8 patients (7 with ALS and 1 with SMA) with motor neuron disease and 6 patients with diabetic motor neuropathy who had autopsy material available. Immunoperoxidase staining showed reduced CNTF expression in nerves of patients with motor neuron disease but not in patients with diabetic motor neuropathy. Decreased CNTF appears be associated with primary motor neuron disease rather than a generalized process of axon loss. This result supports suggestions that CNTF deficiency may be an important factor in the development of motor neuron disease. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A dose-ranging study of 0.5% bupivacaine or ropivacaine on the success and duration of the ultrasound-guided, nerve-stimulator-assisted sciatic nerve block: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Antoun; Kendall, Mark C; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Puri, Lalit; Tureanu, Luminita; Brodskaia, Alina; Asher, Yogen; Parimi, Vamsi; McCarthy, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Before bifurcation, the sciatic nerve is composed of 2 component nerves encased in a common investing extraneural layer (CIEL). We examined the effect of various volumes injected beneath the CIEL on the success and duration of sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound-guided nerve-stimulator-assisted sciatic nerve blocks were performed on 142 subjects. Subjects were randomized into 14 groups (0.5% ropivacaine or bupivacaine) with epinephrine 1:300,000 in volumes ranging from 2.5 to 30 mL. Successful block was defined as a complete sensory and motor block at 60 minutes. The minimum threshold current, time to complete block, duration of sensory and motor block, postoperative pain, and analgesic requirements were recorded. The mean threshold current external to the CIEL was 0.52 (0.15) mA compared to 0.19 (0.09) mA beneath the CIEL (P block was achieved in 30 of 40 subjects that received 5 mL or less of ropivacaine or bupivacaine compared with 97 of 99 that received 10 mL or greater volume (P = 0.006). Injection volumes greater than or equal to 10 mL produced complete sensory and motor block within 30 minutes. Volumes greater than 10 mL did not extend the duration of the sensory or motor block. Injection volumes of 2.5 and 5 mL were associated with delayed onset and decreased block duration and a greater fraction of subjects experiencing pain behind the knee. Injecting 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine or ropivacaine below the CIEL produces comparable onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade as volumes as large as 30 mL.

  19. Effectiveness of cervical sympathetic ganglia block on regeneration of the trigeminal nerve following transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamatsu, Naotoshi; Yamashiro, Mikiko; Sumitomo, Masahito; Furuya, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is one treatment option for human trigeminal nerve injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical sympathetic ganglia blocks (SB) by comparing the recovery of severed nerves in 2 rat models, treated or not treated by SB. The infraorbital nerves (ION) were cut in 108 rats. Fifty-four of them were treated daily by SB for 30 days (SB group). The remainder were left untreated (Control group). The stages of recovery were evaluated neurophysiologically by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and were histologically analyzed via microscopic observation. The neurophysiologic evaluation showed that SEP amplitude was detected 1 month after cutting the ION in the SB group, but not in the Control group. The average recovery after 8 months was almost 100% in the SB group and about 70% in the Control group. The histologic evaluation showed no significant difference in the number of myelinated nerve fibers per unit area between the 2 groups. However, in the SB group, the mean diameter and distribution of diameters of the myelinated fibers were greater, and myelinated fibers of large diameter were observed at an early stage. The findings suggest that cervical sympathetic nerve block may accelerate the recovery and regeneration of severed ION. The clinical correlation in patients with peripheral trigeminal paralysis remains to be established.

  20. A comparison of the onset time of complete blockade of the sciatic nerve in the application of ropivacaine and its equal volumes mixture with lidocaine: a double-blind randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Valery, Piacherski; Aliaksei, Marochkov

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study is to create a new mixture of local anesthetics-one with a short time of block development and short action term (5 ml of 1% lidocaine solution) and another with a longer time of anesthesia development and a long analgetic effect (5 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine)-for use during surgical operations on extremities. The primary end point was the development of the complete sensory block of the sciatic nerve. Methods Sixty blocks of sciatic nerve were used in...

  1. Long-term regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve through a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide: tissue reactions with focus on collagen III/IV reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Koen; Meek, Marcel F; van der Werff, John F A; van Wachem, Pauline B; van Luyn, Marja J A

    2004-05-01

    Long-term studies on nerve-guide regeneration are scarce. Therefore, in rats, long-term (16 months) sciatic nerve regeneration through poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) [poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL)] nerve guides was studied and compared with the nonoperated control side. Poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) degradation and possible long-term foreign body reaction against poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides, as well as the distribution of both collagen type III and IV were studied. In vivo poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) studies have been performed before but not for such long time points; also, a detailed analysis of collagen III/IV has not been presented before. The results demonstrate that biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides yield good nerve regeneration and collagen III/IV deposition relative to the anatomy of the control side. Regenerated nerve showed almost similar collagen type III/IV distribution patterns as compared with the nonoperated control side, although the delineation of matrix was clearer in the control side. The relative amount of collagen III and IV immunostaining in nerve cross-sections did not, however, differ between the control nerve tissue and the operated side after 16 months. After 16 months of implantation, however, some very small fragments of biomaterial could still be found on the edge of the epineurium of the regenerated nerve, indicating remnants of a secondary foreign body reaction. The biomaterial fragments and foreign body reaction did not influence the nerve regeneration process after 16 months. Biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides are useful for long-term bridging of short peripheral nerve gaps. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 69A: 334-341, 2004

  2. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

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    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica standardized extract in partial sciatic nerve injury in rats: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhare, Amit D.; Mukherjee, Anwesha A.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is a common and widely recognized pain syndrome for patients and difficult to manage for physicians. Azadirachta indica (AI) possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of AI standardized extract in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). PSNL was induced in male Wistar rats (180-200 g) with tight ligation of the nerve. Rats received treatment with either vehicle i.e. distilled water (PSNL control), Pyridoxine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or AI (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. Various behavioral parameters, biochemical, molecular and histological parameters were evaluated. PSNL resulted in a significant decrease (p Azadirachta indica exerts its neuroprotection against PSNL induced neuropathic pain via inhibition of oxidative-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis to improve MNCV (graphical abstract, Figure 1(Fig. 1)). PMID:28694757

  4. [A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation-induced Sciatica by Acupuncture Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve Trunk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ling; Hu, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Xue-Yu; Zheng, Xu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Min; He, Liu

    2016-10-25

    To observe the efficacy of acupuncture stimulation of the sciatic nerve trunk in the treatment of patients suffering from sciatica induced by lumbar disc herniation (LDH). A total of 60 LDH sciatica patients met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each. Patients of the treatment group were treated by directly needling the sciatic nerve and routine acupuncture of Ashi -points, Lumbar Jiaji (EX-B 2), Dachangshu (BL 28), etc., and those of the control group treated by simple routine acupuncture. The treatment was conducted once a day, 5 times a week, 4 weeks altogether. The clinical effect was evaluated according to the "Standards for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Effect Evaluation of Syndromes of Chinese Medicine" and the pain intensity was assessed by using simplified Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) containing pain rating index (PRI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and present pain intensity (PPI). After the treatment, of the two 30 cases of LDH sciatica patients in the control and treatment groups, 11 and 18 were cured, 7 and 7 experienced marked improvement, 10 and 4 were effective, 2 and 1 was invalid, with the effective rate being 93.3% and 96.7%, respectively. The cured+markedly effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group ( P sciatica in LDH patients, and is superior to simple routine acupuncture in the clinical efficacy.

  5. Combined Fascia Iliaca and Sciatic Nerve Block for Hip Surgery in the Presence of Severe Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case-Based Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingmin; Liu, Jin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yanzi; Liu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate anesthetic technique for patients with ankylosing spondylitis undergoing hip surgery is challenging because of a potentially difficult airway, the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory complications, and the technical difficulty of performing central neuraxial blocks in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Our objective was to report a case in which combination neural blockade was used successfully in an elderly patient with ankylosing spondylitis undergoing hip fracture surgery. In addition, a literature review of the anesthetic techniques reported for these patients was conducted. A 70-year-old man with severe ankylosing spondylitis and respiratory dysfunction was scheduled for a closed intertrochanteric fracture reduction and internal fixation. Combined fascia iliaca block and parasacral sciatic nerve block were used successfully for the surgery. Postoperative analgesia was accomplished by continuous fascia iliaca block. According to the literature review, general anesthesia is the most commonly performed anesthetic technique for patients with ankylosing spondylitis undergoing hip surgeries. Special intubation techniques and cautious airway management were very important for these patients. Although both general anesthesia and central neuraxial blockade pose considerable risks to the patients, this case report suggests that combined fascia iliaca block and sciatic nerve block might be a promising option.

  6. Effects of Various Antiepileptics Used to Alleviate Neuropathic Pain on Compound Action Potential in Frog Sciatic Nerves: Comparison with Those of Local Anesthetics

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    Yuhei Uemura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABAA-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50=0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.. Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50=0.23 mM. These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  7. Effects of various antiepileptics used to alleviate neuropathic pain on compound action potential in frog sciatic nerves: comparison with those of local anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuhei; Fujita, Tsugumi; Ohtsubo, Sena; Hirakawa, Naomi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiro; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABA(A)-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine) concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50 = 0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.). Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM) reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate) at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50 = 0.23 mM). These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine) as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  8. Sciatic nerve regeneration by transplantation of Schwann cells via erythropoietin controlled-releasing polylactic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/gelatin nanofibrils neural guidance conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Majid; Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Nourani, Mohammdreza; Khojasteh, Arash; Hamidieh, Amir-Ali; Amani, Amir; Farzamfar, Saeed; Ai, Jafar

    2017-07-04

    The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using an electrically conductive biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit for transplantation of allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was produced from polylactic acid (PLA), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) coated with the recombinant human erythropoietin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (rhEpo-CNPs). The PLA/MWCNTs/GNFs/rhEpo-CNPs conduit had the porosity of 85.78 ± 0.70%, the contact angle of 77.65 ± 1.91° and the ultimate tensile strength and compressive modulus of 5.51 ± 0.13 MPa and 2.66 ± 0.34 MPa, respectively. The conduit showed the electrical conductivity of 0.32 S cm(-1) and lost about 11% of its weight after 60 days in normal saline. The produced conduit was able to release the rhEpo for at least 2 weeks and exhibited favorable cytocompatibility towards SCs. For functional analysis, the conduit was seeded with 1.5 × 10(4) SCs and implanted into a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect of Wistar rat. After 14 weeks, the results of sciatic functional index, hot plate latency, compound muscle action potential amplitude, weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle and Histopathological examination using hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining demonstrated that the produced conduit had comparable nerve regeneration to the autograft, as the gold standard to bridge the nerve gaps. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve and F.D.G. PET: case report and review; Neurolymphomatose du nerf sciatique en TEP au FDG: a propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna-Muraille, C.; Papathanassiou, D.; Cuif-Job, A.; Liehn, J.C. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 51 - Reims (France); Job, L. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service de Radiologie, 51 - Reims (France); Kolb, B.; Himberlin, C.; Delmer, A. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, 51 - Reims (France)

    2009-12-15

    We are reporting the case of a woman who has been suffering from sciatica for several months. A neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve was found. In this report, we present the characteristics of this lesion in conventional imaging and in F.D.G. PET. (authors)

  10. Noncovalent Bonding of RGD and YIGSR to an Electrospun Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Conduit through Peptide Self-Assembly to Synergistically Promote Sciatic Nerve Regeneration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Wang, Kai; Ma, Teng; Huang, Liangliang; Xia, Bing; Zhu, Shu; Yang, Yafeng; Liu, Zhongyang; Quan, Xin; Luo, Kai; Kong, Deling; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2017-04-01

    The nerve conduit with biofunctionalities can regulate neurite outgrowth, as well as the migration, proliferation, and myelination activity of Schwann cells. In the present study, polycaprolactone (PCL) conduits are coated with Naphthalene-phenylalanine-phenylalanine-glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic (Nap-FFGRGD) and Naphthalene-phenylalanine-phenylalanine-glycine-cysteine-aspartic-proline-glycine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (Nap-FFGCDPGYIGSR) by self-assembly. In vitro studies demonstrate that arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) and tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) are capable of synergistically enhancing the ability of PCL to support the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells, as well as increasing neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglions explants. This synergistic effect may occur via the activation of both the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathways. RGD/YIGSR modifications demonstrate beneficial effects across a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in axonal regeneration and functional recovery. In addition, increased vascularization is observed in the RGD/YIGSR-PCL group, which might contribute to their beneficial effects on nerve regeneration. These findings indicate the potential of the RGD/YIGSR-PCL conduit to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery, making the RGD/YIGSR-PCL conduit an attractive candidate for the treatment of a critical nerve defect. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tehranipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C: compression+ treatment with 25 mg/kg alcoholic extract, D: compression + treatment with 50 mg/kg extract (n=8. At first, sciatic nerve compression in B, C and D groups was achieved for 60 seconds using locker pincers. Alcoholic extract was injected intra peritoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression, under profusion method, the lumbar spinal cord was sampled and the numerical density in each group was compared with the compression group. The data was analyzed with the use of Minitab 14 software and ANOVA statistical test. Results: Neuronal density showed a meaningful difference in the compression and control groups(P<0.001. Neuronal density in treatment groups(25, 50 mg/kg also had a meaningful increase(P<0.001 as compared to the compression group. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves has a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. This could be due to growth and regeneration factors present in the alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves that induce regeneration process in injured neurons or prevent degeneration.

  12. Inside-out and standard vein grafts associated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in sciatic nerve repair. A histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, José Sidney; Pomini, Karina Torres; Buchaim, Rogério Leone; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Rosa, Geraldo Marco; Moraes, Luis Henrique Rapucci; Viterbo, Fausto

    2017-08-01

    To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap. In the morphological analysis of all groups, myelinated nerve fibers with evident myelin sheath, neoformation of the epineurium and perineurium, organization of intraneural fascicles and blood vessels were observed. In the morphometry of the distal stump fibers, SVPRP group had the highest means regarding fiber diameter (3.63±0.42 μm), axon diameter (2.37±0.31 μm) and myelin sheath area (11.70±0.84 μm2). IOVPRP group had the highest means regarding axon area (4.39±1.16 μm2) and myelin sheath thickness (0.80±0.19 μm). As for values of the fiber area, IOVNF group shows highest means (15.54±0.67 μm2), but are still lower than the values of the Sham group. The graft filled with platelet-rich plasma, with use standard (SVPRP) or inside-out vein (IOVPRP), promoted the improvement in axonal regeneration on sciatic nerve injury.

  13. “Three Methods and Three Points” regulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury

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    Xin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37, Yanglingquan (GB34, and Weizhong (BL40. Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood. This study established rat models of sciatic nerve injury using the crushing method. Rats received Chinese tuina in accordance with the principle of “Three Methods and Three Points,” once daily for 20 days. Tuina intervention reduced paw withdrawal latency and improved wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as promoting morphological recovery of sciatic nerve fibers, Schwann cells, and axons. The protein expression levels of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β also decreased. These findings indicate that “Three Methods and Three Points” promoted morphological recovery and improved behavior of rats with peripheral nerve injury.

  14. Ipsilateral common iliac artery plus femoral artery clamping for inducing sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a reliable and simple method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar-Fallah Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a practical model of sciatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury producing serious neurologic deficits and being technically feasible compared with the current time consuming or ineffective models. Thirty rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 5. Animal were anesthetized by using ketamine (50 mg/kg and xylazine (4 mg/kg. Experimental groups included a sham-operated group and five I/R groups with different reperfusion time intervals (0 h, 3 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d. In I/R groups, the right common iliac artery and the right femoral artery were clamped for 3 hrs. Sham-operated animals underwent only laparotomy without induction of ischemia. Just before euthanasia, behavioral scores (based on gait, grasp, paw position, and pinch sensitivity were obtained and then sciatic nerves were removed for light-microscopy studies (for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD and edema. Behavioral score deteriorated among the ischemic groups compared with the control group (p

  15. Bilateral elevation of interleukin-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar and cervical dorsal root ganglia following unilateral chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Current research implicates interleukin (IL)-6 as a key component of the nervous-system response to injury with various effects. Methods We used unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of rat sciatic nerve as a model for neuropathic pain. Immunofluorescence, ELISA, western blotting and in situ hybridization were used to investigate bilateral changes in IL-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C7-C8) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following CCI. The operated (CCI) and sham-operated (sham) rats were assessed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Withdrawal thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and latencies for thermal hyperalgesia were measured in both ipsilateral and contralateral hind and fore paws. Results The ipsilateral hind paws of all CCI rats displayed a decreased threshold of mechanical hyperalgesia and withdrawal latency of thermal hyperalgesia, while the contralateral hind and fore paws of both sides exhibited no significant changes in mechanical or thermal sensitivity. No significant behavioral changes were found in the hind and fore paws on either side of the sham rats, except for thermal hypersensitivity, which was present bilaterally at 3 days. Unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve induced a bilateral increase in IL-6 immunostaining in the neuronal bodies and satellite glial cells (SGC) surrounding neurons of both lumbar and cervical DRG, compared with those of naive control rats. This bilateral increase in IL-6 protein levels was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. More intense staining for IL-6 mRNA was detected in lumbar and cervical DRG from both sides of rats following CCI. The DRG removed from sham rats displayed a similar pattern of staining for IL-6 protein and mRNA as found in naive DRG, but there was a higher staining intensity in SGC. Conclusions Bilateral elevation of IL-6 protein and mRNA is not limited to DRG homonymous to the injured nerve, but also extended to DRG that are heteronymous to the injured nerve. The

  16. Retinal metabolic changes in an experimental model of optic nerve transection by ex vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Huang, Mingming; Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Xuxia; Chen, Fei; Lei, Hao; Jiang, Fagang

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the retinal metabolic processes in a rat axotomy model. Retinal metabolic changes in optic nerve transection (ONT) rat model were analyzed by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) densities were assessed from retinal whole mounts. The retina was stained immunohistochemically with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The results showed that the retina in ONT rats had significantly decreased concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), taurine (Tau), creatine (Cr) and increased concentrations of alanine (Ala) compared with control. Examination of glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and Glx (Glu + Gln) concentrations disclosed no significant differences. The mean density of RGCs reduced from 2,249 ± 87 cells/mm(2) in control group to 320 ± 56 cells/mm(2) in ONT group. GFAP immunoreactivity was markedly higher in ONT group than that in control group. The retinal metabolism after ONT was associated with neurotransmitter recycling/production perturbation, as well as other metabolic disequilibrium.

  17. Selectivity in the reinnervation of the lateral gastrocnemius muscle after nerve repair with ethylcyanoacrylate in the rat

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    Thomas eLandegren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for complementary surgical techniques that enable rapid and reliable primary repair of transected nerves. Previous studies after peripheral nerve transection and repair with synthetic adhesives have demonstrated regeneration to an extent comparable to that of conventional techniques. The aim of this study was to compare two different repair techniques on the selectivity of muscle reinnervation after repair and completed regeneration. We used the cholera toxin B technique of retrograde axonal tracing to evaluate the morphology, the number and the three-dimensional location of α-motoneurons innervating the lateral gastrocnemius muscle and compared the results after repair with either ethylcyanoacrylate or epineural sutures of the transected parent sciatic nerve. In addition, we recorded the wet weight of the muscle. Six months after transection and repair of the sciatic nerve, the redistribution of the motoneuron pool was markedly disorganised, the motoneurons had apparently increased in number, and they were scattered throughout a larger volume of the spinal cord grey matter with a decrease in the synaptic coverage compared to controls. A reduction in muscle weight was observed as well. No difference in morphometric variables or muscle weight between the two repair methods could be detected. We conclude that the selectivity of motor reinnervation following sciatic nerve transection and subsequent repair with ECA is comparable to that following conventional microsuturing.

  18. Displacement of popliteal sciatic nerve catheters after major foot and ankle surgery: a randomized controlled double-blinded magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauritz, R W; Pedersen, E M; Linde, F S

    2016-01-01

    either with a short-axis in-plane (SAX-IP) approach perpendicular to the nerve or with a short-axis out-of-plane (SAX-OOP) approach parallel to the nerve. Forty patients were randomly allocated to SAX-IP or SAX-OOP PSNC. Ropivacaine 0.75% 20 ml was injected via the catheter followed by ropivacaine 0.......2% 10 ml h(-)1 infusion. Correct primary catheter placement was ensured after initial injection of local anaesthetic via the catheter. Forty-eight hours after insertion, MRI was performed after injection of saline with added contrast (Dotarem) via the catheter. The primary outcome was catheter...... percentage points, 95% CI: 3-53 percentage points). The relative risk of displacement was four times larger (95% CI: 0.8-10, P IP vs the SAX-OOP group. The morphine consumption was 150% greater in the SAX-IP compared with the SAX-OOP group. Popliteal sciatic nerve catheters for major foot...

  19. Impact of Botox-A SNAP-25 protein expression and the mechanism of inhibitory neurotransmitter imbalance in chronic sciatic nerve pain rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu-Dong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhong, Jing; Chen, Hua-Xian

    2017-06-01

    The Botox-A impact on the expression of SNAP-25 protein in rat chronic sciatic nerve pain model was assessed and the mechanism of inhibitory neurotransmitter imbalance was studied. A chronic constriction injury (CCI) model consisted of 30 healthy male rats. The rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, CCI group and BoNT/A intervention group, and during 1, 7 and 14 days we conducted mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) test before and after operation. After 14 days, the animals were sacrificed. SNAP-25 protein expression level, mRNA subunit NR2B within excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate GLT and protein expression level, as well as GAT mRNA, the inhibitory GABA neurotransmitter transporter and protein expression level were studied by RT-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The difference between MWT and TWL at each point in time before and after operation showed no statistical significance (P>0.05) in the sham-operated group. For the CCI group at each time point, MWT and TWL were obviously lower than the sham-operated group and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). The expression level of protein of SNAP-25 and NR2B mRNA in the CCI group was clearly higher than sham-operated group. Additionally, the expression level of GAT-1 mRNA and protein in CCI group was apparently lower than the sham-operated group. In conclusion, Botox-A helped reduce SNAP-25 within rat chronic sciatic nerve pain model thereby relieving pain.

  20. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. Nociception was evaluated in two occasions, before injury and seven after injury. On the last day of the experiment, the right soleus muscles were collected, processed and analyzed as to morphology and morphometry. In the assessment of nociception in the injury site, the Control Group had higher average than the rest, and the Lesion Group was larger than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. The Control Group showed higher nociceptive threshold in paw, compared to the others. In the morphometric analysis, in relation to Control Group, all the injured groups showed decreased muscle fiber area, and in the Lesion Group was lower than in the Lesion + Exercise Group and Trained + Lesion Group. Considering the diameter of the muscle fiber, the Control Group had a higher average than the Trained + Lesion Group and the Trained + Lesion + Exercise Group; and the Lesion Group showed an average lower than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. Resistance exercise produced increased nociception. When performed prior or after nerve damage, it proved effective in avoiding hypotrophy. The combination of the two protocols led to decrease in diameter and area of the muscle fiber. Avaliar os efeitos do salto em meio aquático, na nocicepção e no músculo sóleo, em ratos Wistar treinados e não treinados, no tratamento de neuropatia compressiva do nervo isquiático. Foram distribuídos em cinco grupos 25 ratos Wistar: Controle, Lesão, Treinado + Lesão, Lesão + Exercício e Treinado + Lesão + Exerc

  1. Isotropic resolution diffusion tensor imaging of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves using a phase-corrected diffusion-prepared 3D turbo spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Barbara; Van, Anh T; Weidlich, Dominik; Kooijman, Hendrick; Hock, Andreas; Rummeny, Ernst J; Gersing, Alexandra; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2018-01-29

    To perform in vivo isotropic-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves with a phase-navigated diffusion-prepared (DP) 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) acquisition and modified reconstruction incorporating intershot phase-error correction and to investigate the improvement on image quality and diffusion quantification with the proposed phase correction. Phase-navigated DP 3D TSE included magnitude stabilizers to minimize motion and eddy-current effects on the signal magnitude. Phase navigation of motion-induced phase errors was introduced before readout in 3D TSE. DTI of lower back nerves was performed in vivo using 3D TSE and single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI) in 13 subjects. Diffusion data were phase-corrected per k z plane with respect to T 2 -weighted data. The effects of motion-induced phase errors on DTI quantification was assessed for 3D TSE and compared with ss-EPI. Non-phase-corrected 3D TSE resulted in artifacts in diffusion-weighted images and overestimated DTI parameters in the sciatic nerve (mean diffusivity [MD] = 2.06 ± 0.45). Phase correction of 3D TSE DTI data resulted in reductions in all DTI parameters (MD = 1.73 ± 0.26) of statistical significance (P ≤ 0.001) and in closer agreement with ss-EPI DTI parameters (MD = 1.62 ± 0.21). DP 3D TSE with phase correction allows distortion-free isotropic diffusion imaging of lower back nerves with robustness to motion-induced artifacts and DTI quantification errors. Magn Reson Med, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

  2. Quantitative evaluation of movement and strength of the upper limb after transection of the C-7 nerve: is it possible in an animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Spinner, Robert J; Windebank, Anthony J

    2009-02-01

    Contralateral C-7 nerve transfer has been used clinically for more than 20 years. The increased interest in studies of transfer effectiveness at different target muscles, posttransfer cocontraction, and brain plasticity has prompted the need for an animal model. In addition to the conventional electrophysiological, histomorphometric, and biomechanical evaluation modalities, quantitative functional and behavioral evaluation will be crucial in applying this kind of model. The aim of this study was to establish a C-7 transection animal model and quantify the changes in upper-limb joint movement and muscle power. A C-7 nerve transection model was created in Sprague-Dawley rats, the brachial plexus of which resembles the human brachial plexus. The impact of C-7 transection on donor limb function-namely, strength, movement, and coordination-was evaluated in 6 rats. Muscle strength (power reported in g) was measured as a grasping task. The active range of motion (ROM; angle reported in degrees ) of the elbow, wrist, and metacarpophalangeal joints was quantified by computerized video motion analysis. Antiresistance coordinated movement (speed reported in seconds) was assessed by the vertical rope-climbing test. These tests were carried out before surgery and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after C-7 transection. Repeated-measures 1-way analysis of variance was applied for statistical analysis. When the overall probability value was strength declined from 378.50 +/- 20.55 g to 297.77 +/- 15.04 g. Active elbow extension was impaired, as shown by a significant decrease of the elbow extension angle. The speed of vertical rope climbing was also reduced. Elbow flexion, wrist flexion and extension, and metacarpophalangeal joint flexion and extension were not impaired. Fast recovery of motor function was observed thereafter. Grip strength, range of active elbow extension, and speed of rope climbing returned to baseline values at postoperative Days 4, 8, and 8, respectively

  3. Recovery process of sciatic nerve defect with novel bioabsorbable collagen tubes packed with collagen filaments in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hideki; Hata, Ken-Ichiro; Kagami, Hideaki; Okada, Kunihiko; Ito, Yuki; Narita, Yuji; Hirata, Hitoshi; Sekiya, Isato; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ueda, Minoru

    2010-03-01

    Autologous nerve graft is the most commonly applied treatment for the patients with peripheral nerve defect, while application is limited because of tissue availability and unfavorable donor site morbidity. To overcome this problem, peripheral nerve regeneration using a nerve conduit has been studied. Especially, nerve conduit using biodegradable materials has been considered promising. In this study, a potential of collagen nerve conduit has been studied with special reference to the regenerating process of a peripheral nerve. Twelve adult female Beagle dogs weighting 10-12 kg were used. The peroneal nerve was cut to make a 30-mm defect. The nerve defect was bridged by the collagen artificial nerve conduit. Comprehensive functional, electrophysiological, morphometrical, and histological analyses were performed until one year after operation. The wet weight of tibialis anterior muscles was only 32.4% of the healthy side at 24 weeks, which was recovered to 77.4% at 52 weeks after denervation. Electrophysiological evaluation of tibialis anterior muscle belly showed polyphasic wave at 52 weeks after implantation, which was almost half amplitude as compared with that of control. The diameters of myelinated nerve fibers thickened day by day, and the average diameter was 5.16 microm at PFN, 3.91 microm at CG, and 3.75 microm at DFN, and average thickness of myelin sheath was 0.94 microm at PFN, 0.46 microm at CG, and 0.55 microm at DFN after 52 weeks. The distribution of myelinated nerve fiber size in the 52 weeks group was distinctly bimodal with the major peak at approximately 2-4 microm and the minor peak at 10-12 microm. These findings were consistent with the distribution of the normal nerve fiber. This study proves the feasibility of the collagen artificial nerve conduit for promoting nerve regeneration, raises new possibilities of seeking alternatives to autograft for nerve repair. The results from this study showed detailed process of morphological

  4. Sciatica due to Schwannoma at the Sciatic Notch

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    Yavuz Haspolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rarely seen on the sciatic nerve and can cause sciatica. In this case report we aimed to present an unusual location of schwannoma along sciatic nerve that causes sciatica. A 60-years-old-man was admitted to us with complaints of pain on his thigh and paresthesia on his foot. Radiography of the patient revealed a solitary lesion on the sciatic nerve. The lesion was excised and the symptoms resolved after surgery.

  5. The effect of minocycline on the masticatory movements following the inferior alveolar nerve transection in freely moving rats

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    Mostafeezur Rahman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of inferior alveolar nerve transection (IAN-X on masticatory movements in freely moving rats and to test if microglial cells in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus (prV or motor nucleus (motV may be involved in modulation of mastication, the effects of microglial cell inhibitor minocycline (MC on masticatory jaw movements, microglia (Iba1 immunohistochemistry and the masticatory jaw movements and related masticatory muscle EMG activities were studied in IAN-X rats. Results The number of Iba1-immunoreactive (IR cells both in prV and motV was significantly larger in IAN-X rats compared with sham rats on day 3 after IAN-X. The intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of MC caused a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells both in prV and motV that was evident on day 14 after IAN-X. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the number of Iba1-IR cells could be observed in motV but not in prV after microinjection (m.i. of MC into the motV of IAN-X rats. The rats also exhibited a significant decrease in the head-withdrawal threshold on the side ipsilateral to the IAN-X compared to the threshold before IAN-X and it lasted to day 14. In addition, IAN-X markedly affected the ability to rat to carry out mastication. The number of complete masticatory sequences was significantly decreased. Furthermore, the total masticatory sequence time and food preparatory (PP period duration was significantly elongated in compared to sham rats. Although IAN-X significantly affected the total number of chewing cycles within the RC period of a masticatory sequence, it had no effect on the duration of the chewing cycles. On the other hand, systemic administration of MC (both i.p. and m.i. in IAN-X rats significantly improved decreased head-withdrawal threshold and the impaired masticatory jaw movements. Conclusions The present findings reveal that the strong modulation of masticatory jaw movements occurs following

  6. Origem e distribuição dos nervos isquiáticos do preá Origin and distribuition of sciatic nerves of the Galea

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    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii Wagler, 1831 é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. Pouca literatura é encontrada sobre essa espécie em relação a sua morfologia e seu comportamento ambiental e reprodutivo. Com o objetivo de entender a morfologia geral, em foco, na inervação do membro pélvico dessa espécie, neste trabalho, foi explorado o nervo isquiático, o qual é o maior de todos os nervos do organismo. Foram utilizados 10 preás (cinco machos e cinco fêmeas que vieram a óbito por causas naturais, oriundos do Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido (CEMAS/UFERSA. Os animais foram fixados após o óbito em solução aquosa de formaldeído 10% e, após 48 horas de imersão nessa solução, foram dissecados para exposição do nervo isquiático. Dessa forma, os dados obtidos foram compilados em tabelas e expressos em desenhos esquemáticos e fotografias. Os pares de nervos isquiáticos originaram-se de raízes ventrais de L6L7S1 (70% e de L7S1S2 (30% e distribuíram-se pelos músculos glúteo profundo, bíceps femural, semitendinoso e semimembranoso.The Galea of the semi-arid northeast (Galea spixii Wagler, 1831 is a rodent belonging to the family Caviidae. Little literature is found on this species in relation to morphology, environmental and reproductive behavior. With a view to understanding the general morphology, particularly, in the innervation of the pelvic limb of this species, ponder the sciatic nerve, which is the largest of all the nerves of the body. 10 cavies were used (five males, five females that they had died of natural causes, originating from breeders scientific, legally licensed by IBAMA, the UFRSA, Mossoró, RN. The animals were fixed after the death in an aqueous solution of formaldehyde 10% and after 48 hours of immersion in it, were dissected to expose the sciatic nerve. Thus, the data were compiled in tables and expressed in drawings and

  7. Peptide therapy with pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in traumatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurasin, Miroslav; Miklic, Pavle; Zupancic, Bozidar; Perovic, Darko; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Brcic, Luka; Kolenc, Danijela; Radic, Bozo; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2010-02-25

    We focused on the healing of rat transected sciatic nerve and improvement made by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg, 10ng/kg) applied shortly after injury (i) intraperitoneally/intragastrically/locally, at the site of anastomosis, or after (ii) non-anastomozed nerve tubing (7 mm nerve segment resected) directly into the tube. Improvement was shown clinically (autotomy), microscopically/morphometrically and functionally (EMG, one or two months post-injury, walking recovery (sciatic functional index (SFI)) at weekly intervals). BPC 157-rats exhibited faster axonal regeneration: histomorphometrically (improved presentation of neural fascicles, homogeneous regeneration pattern, increased density and size of regenerative fibers, existence of epineural and perineural regeneration, uniform target orientation of regenerative fibers, and higher proportion of neural vs. connective tissue, all fascicles in each nerve showed increased diameter of myelinated fibers, thickness of myelin sheet, number of myelinated fibers per area and myelinated fibers as a percentage of the nerve transected area and the increased blood vessels presentation), electrophysiologically (increased motor action potentials), functionally (improved SFI), the autotomy absent. Thus, BPC 157 markedly improved rat sciatic nerve healing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

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    Yan Qiongjiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid-co-[(glycolic acid-alt-(L-lysine]} (PLGL was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide and nerve growth factor (NGF for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for

  9. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is present in murine sciatic nerve fibers and is altered in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth-1E neurodegenerative model

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    Laura I. Lafon Hughes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs as a postranslational protein modification and catabolized mainly by poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG. In spite of the existence of cytoplasmic PARPs and PARG, research has been focused on nuclear PARPs and PAR, demonstrating roles in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and the participation in DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation. We have recently detected non-nuclear PAR structurally and functionally associated to the E-cadherin rich zonula adherens and the actin cytoskeleton of VERO epithelial cells. Myelinating Schwann cells (SC are stabilized by E-cadherin rich autotypic adherens junctions (AJ. We wondered whether PAR would map to these regions. Besides, we have demonstrated an altered microfilament pattern in peripheral nerves of Trembler-J (Tr-J model of CMT1-E. We hypothesized that cytoplasmic PAR would accompany such modified F-actin pattern. Methods Wild-type (WT and Tr-J mice sciatic nerves cryosections were subjected to immunohistofluorescence with anti-PAR antibodies (including antibody validation, F-actin detection with a phalloidin probe and DAPI/DNA counterstaining. Confocal image stacks were subjected to a colocalization highlighter and to semi-quantitative image analysis. Results We have shown for the first time the presence of PAR in sciatic nerves. Cytoplasmic PAR colocalized with F-actin at non-compact myelin regions in WT nerves. Moreover, in Tr-J, cytoplasmic PAR was augmented in close correlation with actin. In addition, nuclear PAR was detected in WT SC and was moderately increased in Tr-J SC. Discussion The presence of PAR associated to non-compact myelin regions (which constitute E-cadherin rich autotypic AJ/actin anchorage regions and the co-alterations experienced by PAR and the actin cytoskeleton in epithelium and nerves, suggest that PAR may be a constitutive component of AJ/actin anchorage

  10. Rat Sciatic Nerve Reconstruction Across a 30 mm Defect Bridged by an Oriented Porous PHBV Tube With Schwann Cell as Artificial Nerve Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Mina; Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Doostmohamadpour, Jafar; Janfada, Alireza; Montazeri, Arash

    2014-01-01

    An oriented poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The oriented porous micropatterned artificial nerve conduit was designed onto the micropatterned silicon wafers, and then their surfaces were modified with oxygen plasma to increase cell adhesion. The designed conduits were investigated by cell culture analyses with Schwann cells (SCs). The conduits were implanted into...

  11. 4.7-T diffusion tensor imaging of acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Richard B; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Riley, D Colton; Sexton, Kevin W; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Dortch, Richard D; Nanney, Lillian B; Does, Mark D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2015-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve injury is complicated by the inability to assess microstructural features of injured nerve fibers via clinical examination and electrophysiology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration in crush models of peripheral nerve injury, but no prior studies have been conducted on nerve transection, a surgical emergency that can lead to permanent weakness or paralysis. Acute sciatic nerve injuries were performed microsurgically to produce multiple grades of nerve transection in rats that were harvested 1 hour after surgery. High-resolution diffusion tensor images from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 4.7 T. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced at the injury sites of transected rats compared with sham rats. Additionally, minor eigenvalues and radial diffusivity were profoundly elevated at all injury sites and were negatively correlated to the degree of injury. Diffusion tensor tractography showed discontinuities at all injury sites and significantly reduced continuous tract counts. These findings demonstrate that high-resolution DTI is a promising tool for acute diagnosis and grading of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries.

  12. A comparison of the onset time of complete blockade of the sciatic nerve in the application of ropivacaine and its equal volumes mixture with lidocaine: a double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valery, Piacherski; Aliaksei, Marochkov

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the current study is to create a new mixture of local anesthetics-one with a short time of block development and short action term (5 ml of 1% lidocaine solution) and another with a longer time of anesthesia development and a long analgetic effect (5 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine)-for use during surgical operations on extremities. The primary end point was the development of the complete sensory block of the sciatic nerve. Sixty blocks of sciatic nerve were used in a double-blind randomized research, under ultrasonic guidance, using an electric stimulator with the peripheral nerves. Sixty patients were divided into 3 equal groups. In the first group, a sciatic nerve block was performed with 5 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine solution (37.5 mg); in the second group, 10 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine solution (75 mg) was used and, in the third group, a mixture of 5 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine (as above) and 5 ml of 1% lidocaine solution (50 mg) was used. The assessment of the time required for developing sensory and motor blocks was carried out from the beginning of local anesthetic solution injection in the fascial sheath of the sciatic nerve. Demographic data of patients were identical in the three sample groups. The time required for achieving a complete motor and sensory block was reduced due to the mix of the 1% lidocaine solution with the 0.75% ropivacaine solution. The time required for achieving a complete sensory block in groups treated with 5 and 10 ml ropivacaine was 45 (40-48) and 30 (28-30) min, respectively, in contrast with 12 (10-13) min when the mixture of anesthetics was applied (P 0.05. The mixture of 5 ml of 1% lidocaine with 5 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine leads to a reduction in the time required for the development of complete sensory and motor blocks of the sciatic nerve, without reducing postoperative analgesia time.

  13. Total Retinal Blood Flow in a Nonhuman Primate Optic Nerve Transection Model Using Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler FD-OCT and Microsphere Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Told, Reinhard; Wang, Lin; Cull, Grant; Thompson, Simon J; Burgoyne, Claude F; Aschinger, Gerold C; Schmetterer, Leopold; Werkmeister, René M

    2016-03-01

    We validated noninvasive Doppler-optical coherence tomography (OCT) blood flow measurements against the terminal microsphere method in a surgical induced optic nerve transection nonhuman primate model. In 6 nonhuman primates, total retinal blood flow (TRBF) was measured with a custom-built dual-beam bidirectional Doppler Fourier Domain (FD)-OCT. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured by Spectralis spectral-domain (SD)-OCT. Measurements were performed every 10 to 15 days before and after unilateral optic nerve transection (ONT) until RNFLT was reduced by more than 40% from baseline. Before the animals were killed, TRBF was measured using the microsphere technique. A significant correlation between all arterial and venous Doppler OCT TRBF measurements was found in ONT and contralateral control eyes (both P FD-OCT and the microsphere method. It also was possible to monitor changes over time in TRBF after ONT with Doppler OCT. These findings highlight the accuracy and potential of noninvasive Doppler OCT to provide valuable information for detecting early changes in ocular disease in future.

  14. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis

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    Danial Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9±0.031, p<0.05 and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4±0.031, p<0.05 and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5±0.031, p<0.05. Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.

  15. Neuropathic pain in rats with a partial sciatic nerve ligation is alleviated by intravenous injection of monoclonal antibody to high mobility group box-1.

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    Yoki Nakamura

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. A previous study reported that intravenous injection of anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated brain edema in a rat model of stroke, possibly by attenuating glial activation. Peripheral nerve injury leads to increased activity of glia in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, it is possible that the anti-HMGB1 antibody could also be efficacious in attenuating peripheral nerve injury-induced pain. Following partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL, rats were treated with either anti-HMGB1 or control IgG. Intravenous treatment with anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (2 mg/kg significantly ameliorated PSNL-induced hind paw tactile hypersensitivity at 7, 14 and 21 days, but not 3 days, after ligation, whereas control IgG had no effect on tactile hypersensitivity. The expression of HMGB1 protein in the spinal dorsal horn was significantly increased 7, 14 and 21 days after PSNL; the efficacy of the anti-HMGB1 antibody is likely related to the presence of HMGB1 protein. Also, the injury-induced translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol occurred mainly in dorsal horn neurons and not in astrocytes and microglia, indicating a neuronal source of HMGB1. Markers of astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, microglia (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1 and spinal neuron (cFos activity were greatly increased in the ipsilateral dorsal horn side compared to the sham-operated side 21 days after PSNL. Anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody treatment significantly decreased the injury-induced expression of cFos and Iba1, but not GFAP. The results demonstrate that nerve injury evokes the synthesis and release of HMGB1 from spinal neurons, facilitating the activity of both microglia and neurons, which in turn leads to symptoms of neuropathic pain. Thus, the targeting of HMGB1 could be a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of chronic

  16. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaj, Anna M.; Sławińska, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2–8 and 10–28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol) and 15–29 MUs (EDL) developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol) and 23–33 (EDL) MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24–28 vs 8 and 23–26), showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement. PMID:28095499

  17. Local effect of celecoxib on peripheral nerve repair combined with silicone tubulization in rat

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    Mohammadi Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To assess local effect of celecoxib on nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Methods: Forty-five male healthy white Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15 for each: sham-oper ation (SHAM, control (SIL and celecoxib treated (SIL/CLX groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed and after homeostasis muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibioperoneal bifurcation leaving a 10 mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 µl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/CLX group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 µl celecoxib (0.1 g/L. Results: Functional study and gastrocnemius muscle mass confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/CLX than in SIL group(P<0.05. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed number and diameter of the my elinated fibers in SIL/CLX were significantly greater than those in control group. In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/CLX was clearly more positive than that in SIL group. Conclusion: Response to local treatment of celecoxib demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. Key words: Peripheral nerve; Sciaticnerve; Celecoxib; Nerve regeneration

  18. miR-30c promotes Schwann cell remyelination following peripheral nerve injury

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    Sheng Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential expression of miRNAs occurs in injured proximal nerve stumps and includes miRNAs that are firstly down-regulated and then gradually up-regulated following nerve injury. These miRNAs might be related to a Schwann cell phenotypic switch. miR-30c, as a member of this group, was further investigated in the current study. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sciatic nerve transection and proximal nerve stumps were collected at 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post injury for analysis. Following sciatic nerve injury, miR-30c was down-regulated, reaching a minimum on day 4, and was then upregulated to normal levels. Schwann cells were isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve stumps, then transfected with miR-30c agomir and co-cultured in vitro with dorsal root ganglia. The enhanced expression of miR-30c robustly increased the amount of myelin-associated protein in the co-cultured dorsal root ganglia and Schwann cells. We then modeled sciatic nerve crush injury in vivo in Sprague-Dawley rats and tested the effect of perineural injection of miR-30c agomir on myelin sheath regeneration. Fourteen days after surgery, sciatic nerve stumps were harvested and subjected to immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct injection of miR-30c stimulated the formation of myelin sheath, thus contributing to peripheral nerve regeneration. Overall, our findings indicate that miR-30c can promote Schwann cell myelination following peripheral nerve injury. The functional study of miR-30c will benefit the discovery of new therapeutic targets and the development of new treatment strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  19. The effect of NGF depletion on the neurotropic influence exerted by the distal stump following nerve transection.

    OpenAIRE

    Doubleday, B; Robinson, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following nerve section, regenerating axons from the proximal stump grow preferentially towards the distal stump. It has been postulated that this may result from the release of a neurotropic factor. To investigate whether the protein nerve growth factor (NGF) plays such a role, we immunised adult rats against NGF and examined the effect on regeneration of sectioned nerves through Y-shaped silastic tubes towards either the distal stump or an empty arm. Regeneration through the tubes was asses...

  20. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX®) on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner A; Pereira T; Armada-da-Silva PAS; Amado S; Veloso AP; Amorim I; Ribeiro J.; Santos JD; Bárcia RN; Cruz P; Cruz H; Luís AL; Santos JM; Geuna S; Maurício AC

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs...

  1. Arachidonic acid containing phosphatidylcholine increases due to microglial activation in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn following spared sciatic nerve injury.

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    Tomohiro Banno

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury induces substantial molecular changes in the somatosensory system that leads to maladaptive plasticity and cause neuropathic pain. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for the development of neuropathic pain is essential to the development of novel rationally designed therapeutics. Although lipids make up to half of the dry weight of the spinal cord, their relation with the development of neuropathic pain is poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the regulation of spinal lipids in response to neuropathic peripheral nerve injury in mice by utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, which allows visualization of lipid distribution within the cord. We found that arachidonic acid (AA containing [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ was increased temporarily at superficial ipsilateral dorsal horn seven days after spared nerve injury (SNI. The spatiotemporal changes in lipid concentration resembled microglia activation as defined by ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1 immunohistochemistry. Suppression of microglial function through minocycline administration resulted in attenuation of hypersensitivity and reduces [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ elevation in the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggested that AA containing [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ is related to hypersensitivity evoked by SNI and implicate microglial cell activation in this lipid production.

  2. Assessing the effects of the three herbicides acetochlor, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the compound action potential of the sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda).

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    Zafeiridou, Georgia; Geronikaki, Athina; Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Tryfonos, Melpomeni; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2006-11-01

    To assess the relative toxicity of the herbicides acetochlor and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on the nervous system, the sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda) nerve was incubated in saline inside a specially designed recording chamber. This chamber permits monitoring of the evoked compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve, a parameter that could be used to quantify the vitality of the nerve in normal conditions as well as when the nerve was exposed to the compounds under investigation. Thus, when the nerve was exposed to acetochlor, the EC(50) was estimated to be 0.22mM, while for 2,4,5-T the EC(50) was 0.90mM. Using the identical nerve preparation, the EC(50) of 2,4-D was estimated to be 3.80mM [Kouri, G., Theophilidis, G., 2002. The action of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the isolated sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda). Neurotoxicol. Res. 4, 25-32]. The ratio of the relative toxicity for acetochlor, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D was found to be 1:4:17.2. However, because it is well-known that the action of 2,4-D is dependent on the pH, the relative toxicity of the three compounds was tested at pH 3.3, since it has been found that the sciatic nerve of the frog is tolerant of such a low pH. Under these conditions, the EC(50) was 0.77mM (from 0.22mM at pH 7.2) for acetochlor, 0.20mM (from 0.90mM) for 2,4,5-T and 0.24mM (from 3.80mM at pH 7.2) for 2,4-D. Thus, the relative toxicity of the three compounds changed drastically to 1:0.25:0.31. This change in the relative toxicity is due not only to the increase in the toxicity of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D at low pH levels, but also to the decrease in the toxicity of acetochlor at pH 3.3.

  3. Origem e distribuição do nervo isquiático no veado-catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira Origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in catingueiro-deer (Mazama gouazoubira

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    Tracy Martina M. Martins

    2013-02-01

    úteo superficial, gluteobíceps, bíceps da coxa, semitendinoso, semimembranoso, adutor e gastrocnêmio. Distalmente o nervo isquiático bifurca-se Em nervo tibial e fibular comum, os quais inervam a porção distal do membro pélvico.This study aimed to describe the origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in catingueiro-deer (Mazama gouazoubira. Two animals of the species, obtained post mortem by trampling on the highway, were used for the study meeting the requirements of the Governing Law (1.153/95. By dissection the skin was completely removed and the animals were fixed in aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution. Through dorsolateral access, superficial gluteal muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gluteus medius muscle were cut at their insertion and folded, to view the origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve on both sides of the animals. Images were recorded with a digital camera (Sony a200 Camera, 10.2mpx and results were described based on Veterinary Anatomical Nomina. The source data of the sciatic nerve in both specimens showed that the nerve originates from the ventral branches of S1 and L6, and could have contribution from S2. After its emergence through the greater sciatic foramen on both the sides, the sciatic nerve supplies branches to gluteus medius muscle, gluteus deep muscle, superficial gluteal muscle, gluteobiceps muscle, biceps femoris muscle, semimembranosus muscle, semitendinosus muscle and gastrocnemius muscle. Near the mid-thigh the sciatic nerve divides into the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve which innervate the muscles of the distal hind limb. Moreover, the cutaneous nerve flow can cause the common peroneal nerve or tibial nerve. In conclusion, in Mazama gouazoubira specimens studied, the sciatic nerve originated from the ventral branch of spinal L6 and S1, which may or may not have the contribution from S2. In its distribution stem originate the gluteal nerve, the caudal femoral cutaneous nerve and muscular branches, which together innervate the

  4. Application of a Low-Level Laser Therapy and the Purified Protein from Natural Latex (Hevea brasiliensis in the Controlled Crush Injury of the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: A Morphological, Quantitative, and Ultrastructural Study

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    Fernando José Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of a low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 15 J/cm2, 780 nm wavelength and the natural latex protein (P1, 0.1% in sciatic nerve after crush injury (15 Kgf, axonotmesis in rats. Sixty rats (male, 250 g were allocated into the 6 groups (n=10: CG—control group; EG—nerve exposed; IG—injured nerve without treatment; LG—crushed nerve treated with LLLT; PG—injured nerve treated with P1; and LPG—injured nerve treated with LLLT and P1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the nerve samples were processed for morphological, histological quantification and ultrastructural analysis. After 4 weeks, the myelin density and morphological characteristics improved in groups LG, PG, and LPG compared to IG. After 8 weeks, PG, and LPG were similar to CG and the capillary density was higher in the LG, PG, and LPG. In the ultrastructural analysis the PG and LPG had characteristics that were similar to the CG. The application of LLLT and/or P1 improved the recovery from the nerve crush injury, and in the long term, the P1 protein was the better treatment used, since only the application of LLLT has not reached the same results, and these treatments applied together did not potentiate the recovery.

  5. Malignant Triton Tumor of the Sciatic Nerve as a Secondary Malignancy after Extended Field Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy of Hodgkin's Disease

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    Mirko Nitsche

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Late effects of therapy for Hodgkin's disease include secondary malignancies like leukemia, lymphoma or solid tumors developing after long periods of latency. Ionizing radiation often causes the last group. The highest risks have been described for induced breast and lung cancers. We are the first to report a malignant triton tumor (MTT as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. MTT is a very rare subtype of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and an aggressive course of disease.

  6. Toward a Broader View of Ube3a in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome: Expression in Brain, Spinal Cord, Sciatic Nerve and Glial Cells.

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    Mark D Grier

    Full Text Available Angelman Syndrome (AS is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, speech impairment, movement disorder, sleep disorders and refractory epilepsy. AS is caused by loss of the Ube3a protein encoded for by the imprinted Ube3a gene. Ube3a is expressed nearly exclusively from the maternal chromosome in mature neurons. While imprinting in neurons of the brain has been well described, the imprinting and expression of Ube3a in other neural tissues remains relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the overwhelming deficits in brain function in AS patients, the possibility of disrupted Ube3a expression in the infratentorial nervous system and its consequent disability have been largely ignored. We evaluated the imprinting status of Ube3a in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve and show that it is also imprinted in these neural tissues. Furthermore, a growing body of clinical and radiological evidence has suggested that myelin dysfunction may contribute to morbidity in many neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, findings regarding Ube3a expression in non-neuronal cells of the brain have varied. Utilizing enriched primary cultures of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, we show that Ube3a is expressed, but not imprinted in these cell types. Unlike many other neurodevelopmental disorders, AS symptoms do not become apparent until roughly 6 to 12 months of age. To determine the temporal expression pattern and silencing, we analyzed Ube3a expression in AS mice at several time points. We confirm relaxed imprinting of Ube3a in neurons of the postnatal developing cortex, but not in structures in which neurogenesis and migration are more complete. This furthers the hypothesis that the apparently normal window of development in AS patients is supported by an incompletely silenced paternal allele in developing neurons, resulting in a relative preservation of Ube3a expression during this crucial epoch of early development.

  7. Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve

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    Shunsuke eNishimoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron–SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders.

  8. Gait cycle analysis: parameters sensitive for functional evaluation of peripheral nerve recovery in rat hind limbs.

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    Rui, Jing; Runge, M Brett; Spinner, Robert J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Windebank, Anthony J; Wang, Huan

    2014-10-01

    Video-assisted gait kinetics analysis has been a sensitive method to assess rat sciatic nerve function after injury and repair. However, in conduit repair of sciatic nerve defects, previously reported kinematic measurements failed to be a sensitive indicator because of the inferior recovery and inevitable joint contracture. This study aimed to explore the role of physiotherapy in mitigating joint contracture and to seek motion analysis indices that can sensitively reflect motor function. Data were collected from 26 rats that underwent sciatic nerve transection and conduit repair. Regular postoperative physiotherapy was applied. Parameters regarding step length, phase duration, and ankle angle were acquired and analyzed from video recording of gait kinetics preoperatively and at regular postoperative intervals. Stride length ratio (step length of uninjured foot/step length of injured foot), percent swing of the normal paw (percentage of the total stride duration when the uninjured paw is in the air), propulsion angle (toe-off angle subtracted by midstance angle), and clearance angle (ankle angle change from toe off to midswing) decreased postoperatively comparing with baseline values. The gradual recovery of these measurements had a strong correlation with the post-nerve repair time course. Ankle joint contracture persisted despite rigorous physiotherapy. Parameters acquired from a 2-dimensional motion analysis system, that is, stride length ratio, percent swing of the normal paw, propulsion angle, and clearance angle, could sensitively reflect nerve function impairment and recovery in the rat sciatic nerve conduit repair model despite the existence of joint contractures.

  9. Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tohuman umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) promotescrush-injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

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    Hei, Wei-Hong; Almansoori, Akram A; Sung, Mi-Ae; Ju, Kyung-Won; Seo, Nari; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Bong-Ju; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; He, Hong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-03-16

    This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group. UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat) or BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat)were transplantedinto the rats at the crush site immediately after sciatic nerve injury. Cell tracking was done with PKH26-labeled UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat). The rats were monitored for 4 weeks post-surgery. Results showed that expression of BDNF at both the protein and mRNA levels was higher inthe BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group compared to theUCB-MSC group in vitro.Moreover, BDNF mRNA expression was higher in both UCB-MSC group and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSC group compared tothe control group, and BDNF mRNA expression in theBDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group was higher than inboth other groups 5days after surgeryin vivo. Labeled neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), axon counts, axon density, and sciatic function index were significantly increased in the UCB-MSC and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSCgroupscompared to the controlgroup four weeksaftercell transplantation. Importantly,the BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCgroup exhibited more peripheral nerve regeneration than the other two groups.Our results indicate thatboth UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCscan improve rat sciatic nerve regeneration, with BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCsshowing a greater effectthan UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Guggulipid of Commiphora mukul, with antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activities in both sciatic nerve and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain.

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    Goyal, Sachin; Khilnani, Gurudas; Singhvi, Indrajeet; Singla, Shivali; Khilnani, Ajeet K

    2013-12-01

    Guggulipid is a neutral fraction of ethyl acetate extract of gum resin of the tree Commiphora mukul Engl. (Burseraceae) and used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of neurological disorders. The present study was undertaken to assess the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activities of guggulipid in rats. The screening study included the CCI and L5-L6 SNL models of neuropathic pain. Guggulipid (100 and 50 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally in a blinded, randomized manner from postoperative day (POD) 7 to 13. Paw withdrawal duration (PWD) to spontaneous pain, chemical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were tested before surgery, before and after guggulipid or saline administration (from POD7 to 13) and after the withdrawal of treatment (from POD14 to 20). The activity profiles of the different doses of guggulipid were found to vary with time. In CCI rats, guggulipid (100 and 50 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the spontaneous pain, mechanical allodynia and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia responses and the LD50 of guggulipid was 1600 mg/kg. In SNL rats, both doses of guggulipid were found to be ineffective in reversing the spontaneous pain but showing antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activity. The results demonstrated that guggulipid produce antinociception in the peripheral nerve injury (CCI and SNL) models of neuropathic pain. The underlying mechanisms are expected to be modulating microglial activation occurring due to peripheral nerve injury.

  11. Peripheral Nerve Transplantation Combined with Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Chondroitinase Induces Regeneration and Improves Urinary Function in Complete Spinal Cord Transected Adult Mice.

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    DePaul, Marc A; Lin, Ching-Yi; Silver, Jerry; Lee, Yu-Shang

    2015-01-01

    The loss of lower urinary tract (LUT) control is a ubiquitous consequence of a complete spinal cord injury, attributed to a lack of regeneration of supraspinal pathways controlling the bladder. Previous work in our lab has utilized a combinatorial therapy of peripheral nerve autografts (PNG), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to treat a complete T8 spinal cord transection in the adult rat, resulting in supraspinal control of bladder function. In the present study we extended these findings by examining the use of the combinatorial PNG+aFGF+ChABC treatment in a T8 transected mouse model, which more closely models human urinary deficits following spinal cord injury. Cystometry analysis and external urethral sphincter electromyograms reveal that treatment with PNG+aFGF+ChABC reduced bladder weight, improved bladder and external urethral sphincter histology, and significantly enhanced LUT function, resulting in more efficient voiding. Treated mice's injured spinal cord also showed a reduction in collagen scaring, and regeneration of serotonergic and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive axons across the lesion and into the distal spinal cord. Regeneration of serotonin axons correlated with LUT recovery. These results suggest that our mouse model of LUT dysfunction recapitulates the results found in the rat model and may be used to further investigate genetic contributions to regeneration failure.

  12. Laser de baixa intensidade (830 nm na recuperação funcional do nervo isquiático de ratos Low intensity laser (830 nm functional to recover of the sciatic nerve in rats

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    Alexandre Marcio Marcolino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do laser de baixa intensidade na melhora funcional da marcha de ratos após esmagamento do nervo ciático. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 ratos divididos alea-to-riamente em dois grupos: controle (sham e irradiado com densidade de energia de 40J/cm², em 21 dias consecutivos, utilizando o laser 830nm (AsGaAl. Os animais foram submetidos ao esmagamento do nervo ciático direito com o dispositivo portátil de peso morto e avaliados pelo "Índice Funcional do Ciático" (IFC. As pegadas foram coletadas no pré-operatório, 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do IFC foram significantes quando comparados os grupos no 7º e 14º dia pós-operatório (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity laser on functional improvement of the walking of rats after sciatic nerve axonotmesis. METHODS: We used 18 rats divided randomly in two groups: control (Sham and irradiated with an energy density of 40J/cm² for 21 consecutive days, using 830nm laser (AsGaAl. The animals were subjected to right sciatic nerve crushing by a portable device and assessed by the "Sciatic Functional Index" (SFI at an acrylic platform through video recorded by a digital camera. The footprints were collected preoperatively, and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. RESULTS: The results of the SFI were significant when comparing the groups on the 7th and 14th postoperative day (p<0.05. On the 21st postoperative day there was no difference between groups. There were intra-group differences detected in each evaluated week (p<0.01. The irradiated animals showed improvement in motion pattern, shown by the SFI values in the initial periods, but after 3 weeks, there was a similar recovery. CONCLUSION: The low-intensity laser has shown to be effective in accelerating regeneration of the sciatic nerve of rats after crushing.

  13. Novel flexible nerve conduits made of water-based biodegradable polyurethane for peripheral nerve regeneration.

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    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Chang, Wen-Chi; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2017-05-01

    Peripheral nerve conduits were fabricated from biodegradable polyurethane (PU) which was synthesized by a waterborne process. The biodegradable PU was based on poly(ε-caprolactone) diol and polyethylene butylene adipate diol (2:3 molar ratio) as the soft segment. Conduits formed by the freeze-drying process had asymmetric microporous structure. The PU nerve conduits were used to bridge a 10-mm gap in rat sciatic nerve. Nerve regeneration was evaluated by walking track analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrophysiological, and histological analyses. Results demonstrated that after 6 weeks, walking function was recovered by 40%. MR images showed that the transected nerve was reconnected after 3 weeks and the diameter of the regenerated nerve increased from 3 to 6 weeks. The nerve conduction velocity of the regenerated nerve reached 50% of the normal value after 6 weeks. Histological examination revealed that the cross-sectional area of the regenerated nerve at the midconduit was 0.24 mm2 after 6 weeks. The efficacy of PU nerve conduits based on functional recovery and histology was superior to that of commercial conduits (Neurotube). The PU nerve conduit developed in this study may be a potential candidate for clinical peripheral nerve tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1383-1392, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessing the neurotoxic effects of palytoxin and ouabain, both Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase inhibitors, on the myelinated sciatic nerve fibres of the mouse: an ex vivo electrophysiological study.

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    Kagiava, Alexia; Aligizaki, Katerina; Katikou, Panagiota; Nikolaidis, Georgios; Theophilidis, George

    2012-03-01

    Palytoxin (PlTX) is a marine toxin originally isolated from the zoantharians of the genus Palythoa. It is considered to be one of the most lethal marine toxins that block the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase. This study was designed to investigate the acute effects of PlTX and ouabain, also an Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase blocker, on the mammalian peripheral nervous system using an ex vivo electrophysiological preparation: the isolated mouse sciatic nerve. Amplitude of the evoked nerve compound action potential (nCAP) was used to measure the proper functioning of the sciatic nerve fibres. The half-vitality time of the nerve fibres (the time required to inhibit the nCAP to 50% of its initial value: IT₅₀) incubated in normal saline was 24.5 ± 0.40 h (n = 5). Nerves incubated continuously in 50.0, 10.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.250 and 0.125 nM of PlTX had an IT₅₀ of 0.06 ± 0.00, 0.51 ± 0.00, 2.1 ± 0.10, 8.9 ± 0.30, 15.1 ± 0.30 h, and 19.5 ± 0.20 h, respectively (n = 5, 3, 4, 4, 10). PlTX was extremely toxic to the sciatic nerve fibres, with a minimum effective concentration (mEC) of 0.125 nM (n = 5) and inhibitory concentration to 50% (IC₅₀) of 0.32 ± 0.08 nM (incubation time 24 h). Ouabain was far less toxic, with a mEC of 250.0 μM (n = 5) and IC₅₀ of 370.0 ± 18.00 μM (incubation 24.5 h). Finally, when the two compounds were combined--e.g. pre-incubation of the nerve fibre in 250.0 μM ouabain for 1 h and then exposure to 1.0 nM PlTX--ouabain offered minor a neuroprotection of 9.1-17.6% against PlTX-induced neurotoxicity. Higher concentrations of ouabain (500.0 μM) offered no protection. The mouse sciatic nerve preparation is a simple and low-cost bioassay that can be used to assess and quantify the neurotoxic effects of standard PlTX or PlTX-like compounds, since it appears to have the same sensitivity as the haemolysis of erythrocytes assay--the standard ex vivo test for PlTX toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and pain-related cellular reactions in the spinal cord and midbrain in a rat sciatic nerve injury model

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    Sumizono M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Sumizono,1,2 Harutoshi Sakakima,1 Shotaro Otsuka,1 Takuto Terashi,1 Kazuki Nakanishi,1,2 Koki Ueda,1,2 Seiya Takada,1,2 Kiyoshi Kikuchi3 1Course of Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan; 2Kirishima Orthopedics, Kirishima, Japan; 3Division of Brain Science, Department of Physiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group, CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group, CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group, and naive animals (control group. Rats ran on a treadmill, at a speed of 20 m/min, for 30 min, for 5 (HFE or 3 (LFE days a week, for a total of 5 weeks. The 50% withdrawal threshold was evaluated for mechanical sensitivity. The activation of glial cells (microglia and astrocytes, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and μ-opioid receptor in the spinal dorsal horn and endogenous opioid in the midbrain were examined using immunohistochemistry. Opioid receptor antagonists (naloxone were administered using intraperitoneal injection. Results: The development of neuropathic pain was related to the activation of glial cells, increased BDNF expression, and downregulation of the μ-opioid receptor in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. In the No-Ex group, neuropathic pain showed the highest level of mechanical hypersensitivity at 2 weeks, which improved slightly until 5 weeks after CCI. In both exercise groups, the alleviation of

  16. ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter

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    Coffin Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 and c-Jun by non-neuronal cells during Wallerian degeneration following injury to sciatic nerves, dorsal roots and optic nerves of rats and mice, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Following sciatic nerve injury – transection or transection and reanastomosis – ATF3 was strongly upregulated by endoneurial, but not perineurial cells, of the distal stumps of the nerves by 1 day post operation (dpo and remained strongly expressed in the endoneurium at 30 dpo when axonal regeneration was prevented. Most ATF3+ cells were immunoreactive for the Schwann cell marker, S100. When the nerve was transected and reanastomosed, allowing regeneration of axons, most ATF3 expression had been downregulated by 30 dpo. ATF3 expression was weaker in the proximal stumps of the injured nerves than in the distal stumps and present in fewer cells at all times after injury. ATF3 was upregulated by endoneurial cells in the distal stumps of injured neonatal rat sciatic nerves, but more weakly than in adult animals. ATF3 expression in transected sciatic nerves of mice was similar to that in rats. Following dorsal root injury in adult rats, ATF3 was upregulated in the part of the root between the lesion and the spinal cord (containing Schwann cells, beginning at 1 dpo, but not in the dorsal root entry zone or in the degenerating dorsal column of the spinal cord. Following optic nerve crush in adult rats, ATF3 was found in some cells at the injury site and small numbers of cells within the optic nerve displayed weak immunoreactivity. The pattern of expression of c-Jun in all types of nerve injury was similar to that of ATF3. Conclusion These findings raise the possibility that ATF3/c-Jun heterodimers may play a role in

  17. An example of neural plasticity evoked by putative behavioral demand and early use of vibrissal hairs after facial nerve transection.

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    Tomov, Toma L; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Grosheva, Maria; Streppel, Michael; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Neiss, Wolfram F; Angelov, Doychin N

    2002-12-01

    Abnormally associated movements inevitably occur after surgical repair of the facial nerve. The reason for this postparalytic syndrome is poor navigation of regrowing axons. Despite the valuable functional advantage provided by the easily detected movement of vibrissae in rats, the major investigative tools for establishing the degree of misdirected reinnervation are still electrophysiologic recordings and retrograde tracing. In the present study we complemented data from pre- and postoperative retrograde labeling (FluoroGold, Fast Blue, DiI) of facial motoneurons with an evaluation of whisker movements. Using a video-based motion analysis system, we compared the recovery of vibrissae motor performance in visually normal and blind rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain. The analysis of whisker movement after facial nerve surgery revealed a striking discrepancy between morphologic and functional estimates. Whereas retrograde labeling displayed poor accuracy of target reinnervation and supernumerary axonal branching in both groups, the video-based motion analysis showed a perfect recovery of vibrissae movements in the blind rats. Attributing the complete recovery of whisker movement in the blind rats to an extraordinary plasticity of the facial motoneurons induced by putative behavioral demand and forced overuse, we conclude that the video-based analysis of whisker movement is a valuable tool for studying the progress in functional recovery.

  18. Peripheral nerve repair: monitoring by using gadofluorine M-enhanced MR imaging with chitosan nerve conduits with cultured mesenchymal stem cells in rat model of neurotmesis.

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    Liao, Cheng-De; Zhang, Fang; Guo, Ruo-Mi; Zhong, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Jun; Wen, Xue-Hua; Shen, Jun

    2012-01-01

    To observe the longitudinal changes of nerve repair in rats after tissue-engineered construct implantation at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to determine whether the enhanced nerve regeneration with use of tissue-engineered constructs could be monitored with gadofluorine M-enhanced MR imaging or nerve T2 relaxation time measurement. All experimental protocols were approved by the institutional Animal Use and Care Committee. Tissue-engineered constructs were prepared by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chitosan nerve tubes. Thirty-six rats with sciatic nerve transection injury underwent nerve tube implantation with (n = 18) or without (n = 18) MSC seeding. Sequential T2 measurement, gadofluorine M-enhanced MR imaging, and sciatic function index measurement were performed over an 8-week follow-up period, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and signal intensity at gadofluorine M-enhanced T1-weighted imaging were measured and were compared by using repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by the Student-Neuman-Keuls post-hoc test for multiple pairwise comparisons. Nerve T2 relaxation times and gadofluorine M enhancement, as well as functional changes, showed a similar time course. Nerves implanted with MSC-seeded tubes achieved slightly better functional recovery and enhanced nerve regeneration while showing a slower return to baseline T2 relaxation time and a more rapid decline in gadofluorine M enhancement compared with nerves implanted with chitosan tubes alone. T2 values of the distal portion of transected nerves showed a more rapid return to baseline level than did gadofluorine M enhancement. Peripheral nerve repair with use of tissue-engineered constructs can be monitored by using gadofluorine M-enhanced MR imaging and T2 relaxation time measurements. T2 relaxation time seems more sensitive than gadofluorine M-enhanced MR imaging for detecting nerve regeneration. © RSNA, 2011.

  19. Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration based on tissue engineering strategy using Schwann cells and PLGA: in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Lv, Peizhen; Zhu, Yongjia; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Fuben; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Salidriside (SDS), a phenylpropanoid glycoside derived from Rhodiola rosea L, has been shown to be neuroprotective in many studies, which may be promising in nerve recovery. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of SDS on engineered nerve constructed by Schwann cells (SCs) and Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were studied in vitro. We further investigated the effect of combinational therapy of SDS and PLGA/SCs based tissue engineering on peripheral nerve regeneration based on the rat model of nerve injury by sciatic transection. The results showed that SDS dramatically enhanced the proliferation and function of SCs. The underlying mechanism may be that SDS affects SCs growth through the modulation of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF and CNTF). 12 weeks after implantation with a 12 mm gap of sciatic nerve injury, SDS-PLGA/SCs achieved satisfying outcomes of nerve regeneration, as evidenced by morphological and functional improvements upon therapy by SDS, PLGA/SCs or direct suture group assessed by sciatic function index, nerve conduction assay, HE staining and immunohistochemical analysis. Our results demonstrated the significant role of introducing SDS into neural tissue engineering to promote nerve regeneration.

  20. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors I and II are mitogenic to cultured rat sciatic nerve segments and stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation through their respective receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1996-01-01

    The factors that control proliferation of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve regeneration are not yet known. In this study we investigated the effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), IGF-I analogues, and factors that interfere with their respective receptors......, on [3H]thymidine incorporation into cultured nerve segments from the rat sciatic nerve. Segments cultured in nM (0.1-1.7 nM) concentrations of insulin, truncated IGF-I (tIGF-I), long R3IGF-I, or IGF-II exhibited an increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation compared with control segments. IGF-II was most...... potent. JB1, an IGF-I antagonist, counteracted the effects of tIGF-I and insulin. The results suggest that non-neuronal cells in the nerve segment, probably Schwann cells, possess distinct receptors for insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II and that these receptors may be involved in the control of Schwann cell...

  1. Autocrine fibronectin from differentiating mesenchymal stem cells induces the neurite elongation in vitro and promotes nerve fiber regeneration in transected spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Ma, Yuan-Huan; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Qiu, Xue-Cheng; Wu, Jin-Lang; Ling, Eng-Ang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) expression is temporally and spatially regulated during the development of stem cells. We reported previously that fibronectin (FN) secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was deposited on the surface of gelatin sponge (GS) soon after culture. In this study, we aimed to assess the function of accumulated FN on neuronal differentiating MSCs as induced by Schwann cells (SCs) in three dimensional transwell co-culture system. The expression pattern and amount of FN of differentiating MSCs was examined by immunofluorescence, Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy. The results showed that FN accumulated inside GS scaffold, although its mRNA expression in MSCs was progressively decreased during neural induction. MSC-derived neuron-like cells showed spindle-shaped cell body and long extending processes on FN-decorated scaffold surface. However, after blocking of FN function by application of monoclonal antibodies, neuron-like cells showed flattened cell body with short and thick neurites, together with decreased expression of integrin β1. In vivo transplantation study revealed that autocrine FN significantly facilitated endogenous nerve fiber regeneration in spinal cord transection model. Taken together, the present results showed that FN secreted by MSCs in the early stage accumulated on the GS scaffold and promoted the neurite elongation of neuronal differentiating MSCs as well as nerve fiber regeneration after spinal cord injury. This suggests that autocrine FN has a dynamic influence on MSCs in a three dimensional culture system and its potential application for treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1902-1911, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A comparison of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine, ropivacaine (with epinephrine) and their equal volume mixtures with lidocaine used for femoral and sciatic nerve blocks: a double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillon, Philippe; Nouvellon, Emmanuel; Ripart, Jacques; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Dehour, Laurence; Mahamat, Aba; L'hermite, Joel; Boisson, Christophe; Vialles, Nathalie; Lefrant, Jean Yves; de La Coussaye, Jean Emmanuel

    2009-02-01

    Mixtures of lidocaine with a long-acting local anesthetic are commonly used for peripheral nerve block. Few data are available regarding the safety, efficacy, or pharmacokinetics of mixtures of local anesthetics. In the current study, we compared the effects of bupivacaine 0.5% or ropivacaine 0.75% alone or in a mixed solution of equal volumes of bupivacaine 0.5% and lidocaine 2% or ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% for surgery after femoral-sciatic peripheral nerve block. The primary end point was onset time. In a double-blind, randomized study, 82 adults scheduled for lower limb surgery received a sciatic (20 mL) and femoral (20 mL) peripheral nerve block with 0.5% bupivacaine (200 mg), a mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine 20 mL (100 mg) with 2% lidocaine (400 mg), 0.75% ropivacaine (300 mg) or a mixture of 0.75% ropivacaine 20 mL (150 mg) with 2% lidocaine (400 mg). Each solution contained epinephrine 1:200,000. Times to perform blocks, onset times (end of injection to complete sensory and motor block), duration of sensory and motor block, and morphine consumption via IV patient-controlled analgesia were compared. Venous blood samples of 5 mL were collected for determination of drug concentration at 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min after placement of the block. Patient demographics and surgical times were similar for all four groups. Sciatic onset times (sensory and motor block) were reduced by combining lidocaine with the long-acting local anesthetic. The onset of bupivacaine-lidocaine was 16 +/- 9 min versus 28 +/- 12 min for bupivacaine alone. The onset of ropivacaine-lidocaine was 16 +/- 12 min versus 23 +/- 12 for ropivacaine alone. Sensory blocks were complete for all patients within 40 min for those receiving bupivacaine-lidocaine versus 60 min for those receiving bupivacaine alone and 30 min for those receiving ropivacaine-lidocaine versus 40 min for those receiving ropivacaine alone (P block was significantly shorter in mixture groups. There was no difference

  3. Tail Nerve Electrical Stimulation and Electro-Acupuncture Can Protect Spinal Motor Neurons and Alleviate Muscle Atrophy after Spinal Cord Transection in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI often results in death of spinal neurons and atrophy of muscles which they govern. Thus, following SCI, reorganizing the lumbar spinal sensorimotor pathways is crucial to alleviate muscle atrophy. Tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES has been shown to activate the central pattern generator (CPG and improve the locomotion recovery of spinal contused rats. Electroacupuncture (EA is a traditional Chinese medical practice which has been proven to have a neural protective effect. Here, we examined the effects of TANES and EA on lumbar motor neurons and hindlimb muscle in spinal transected rats, respectively. From the third day postsurgery, rats in the TANES group were treated 5 times a week and those in the EA group were treated once every other day. Four weeks later, both TANES and EA showed a significant impact in promoting survival of lumbar motor neurons and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and ameliorating atrophy of hindlimb muscle after SCI. Meanwhile, the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 in the same spinal cord segment was significantly increased. These findings suggest that TANES and EA can augment the expression of NT-3 in the lumbar spinal cord that appears to protect the motor neurons as well as alleviate muscle atrophy.

  4. Tail Nerve Electrical Stimulation and Electro-Acupuncture Can Protect Spinal Motor Neurons and Alleviate Muscle Atrophy after Spinal Cord Transection in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ting; Jin, Hui; Wang, Jun-Hua; Wen, Lan-Yu; Yang, Yang; Ruan, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Ling, Eng-Ang

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in death of spinal neurons and atrophy of muscles which they govern. Thus, following SCI, reorganizing the lumbar spinal sensorimotor pathways is crucial to alleviate muscle atrophy. Tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES) has been shown to activate the central pattern generator (CPG) and improve the locomotion recovery of spinal contused rats. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a traditional Chinese medical practice which has been proven to have a neural protective effect. Here, we examined the effects of TANES and EA on lumbar motor neurons and hindlimb muscle in spinal transected rats, respectively. From the third day postsurgery, rats in the TANES group were treated 5 times a week and those in the EA group were treated once every other day. Four weeks later, both TANES and EA showed a significant impact in promoting survival of lumbar motor neurons and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and ameliorating atrophy of hindlimb muscle after SCI. Meanwhile, the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the same spinal cord segment was significantly increased. These findings suggest that TANES and EA can augment the expression of NT-3 in the lumbar spinal cord that appears to protect the motor neurons as well as alleviate muscle atrophy. PMID:28744378

  5. Efeito do laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático lesado em ratos Effect of low- power laser (660 nm on regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Inácio Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos são estruturas que, ao sofrerem lesões, podem originar incapacidades motoras e sensitivas importantes. O laser de baixa intensidade é um dos diversos recursos terapêuticos para promover a regeneração nervosa precoce, mas ainda não há consenso sobre sua utilização. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio de avaliação funcional, o efeito da terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático após esmagamento. Foram utilizados 18 ratos (Wistar submetidos à lesão do nervo isquiático divididos em dois grupos, controle e grupo laser, submetido ao tratamento a laser (AsGaAl, 660 nm, 10J/cm2, 30 mW e 0,06 cm² por 21 dias no local da lesão. Para a avaliação funcional, foi aplicado o índice funcional do ciático (IFC no pré-operatório e nos 7º, 14º e 21º dias de pós-operatório. Quando comparados o IFC dos grupos no 14o dia de pós-operatório, foi encontrada melhora significante no grupo laser em relação ao controle. Na amostra analisada e nos parâmetros utilizados, pôde-se constatar que a aplicação do laser foi eficaz na recuperação funcional precoce do nervo ciático esmagado.Peripheral nerves, when injured, may originate important motor and sensitive disability. Studies have used several therapeutic resources in order to achieve early nervous regeneration, such as low-power laser; but there is no consensus on its use, which leads to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of GaAlAs laser (660 nm on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. Sciatic nerves of 18 Wistar rats were crushed and divided into sham group and treated group, the latter submitted to laser therapy (660 nm, 10 J/cm², 30 mW and 0.06 cm2 for 21 days. The sciatic functional index (SFI was measured before surgery and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. A significant difference, showing better regeneration of the treated group, was

  6. An unusual cause of sciatic pain as a result of the dynamic motion of the obturator internus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuaki; Ogata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yoshikazu; Yamagata, Masatsune

    2009-06-01

    It has been reported that compression of the sciatic nerve because of any cause, including endometriosis, piriformis syndrome, abscess, tumor, adjoining uterus provoke sciatic pain. Some of these pathophysiologies have been diagnosed clinically and sometimes by exclusion. To discuss the clinical features of sciatic neuropathy under the belief that dynamic motion of the obturator internus muscle and tendon should be included in the differential diagnosis of sciatic neuropathy. Sciatic neuropathy, which was because of compression of the sciatic nerve caused by dynamic motion of the tendon and muscle of the obturator internus, was reported. We performed surgery to confirm the outlet of the pelvis. Although no compression was provoked by the piriformis muscle, obvious compression was observed on the sciatic nerve by the stretched obturator internus muscle. Although it may not be common, compression of the sacral plexus caused by dynamic motion of the obturator internus muscle should be included as a possible diagnosis for sciatic pain.

  7. [Experimental study on gradient of nerve growth factor immobilized conduits promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Cai, Yangtin; Li, Haoshen

    2014-02-01

    To study the effect of the loaded concentration gradient of nerve growth factor (NGF) immobilized conduit on rat peripheral nerve defect repair. The peripheral nerve conduits made of poly (epsilon-caprolactone)-block-poly (L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) were prepared with uniform loads or concentration gradient loads by combining differential absorption of NGF/silk fibroin (SF) coating, and the gradient of NGF was immobilized in the nerve conduits. ELISA method was used to exam the NGF release for 12 weeks in vitro. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats (weighing, 220-250 g) were selected to establish the right sciatic nerve defect model (14 mm in length) and randomly divided into 4 groups according to repair methods. The transected nerve was bridged by a blank conduit without NGF in group A, by a conduit containing uniform loads of NGF in group B, by a conduit concentration gradient loads of NGF in group C, and by the autogenous nerve segment in group D. The gross observation, electrophysiological examination, histological observation, and transmission electron microscope observation were carried out to assess the nerve regeneration at 12 weeks after surgery. The cumulative release amount of NGF was (14.2 +/- 1.4) ng/mg and (13.7 +/- 1.3) ng/mg in gradient of NGF loaded conduits and uniform NGF loaded conduits respectively at 12 weeks, showing no significant difference (t = 0.564, P=0.570). All the animals survived to completion of the experiment; plantar ulcers occurred at 4 days, which healed at 12 weeks; groups C and D were better than groups A and B in ulcerative healing. At 12 weeks after surgery, the compound muscle action potential of group A was significantly lower than that of groups B, C, and D (P 0.05). The axon density of group C was significantly higher that of groups A, B, and D (P 0.05). Gradient of NGF loaded nerve condnits for rat sciatic nerve defect has similar results to autogenous nerve, with a good bridge, which can promote the sciatic

  8. Electrical stimulation accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in delayed peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Zhang, Yongguang; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of brief electrical stimulation (ES; 3 V, 20 Hz, 20 min) in improving functional recovery in delayed nerve injury repair (DNIR). The sciatic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats was transected, and the repair of nerve injury was delayed for different time durations (2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks). Brief depolarizing ES was applied to the proximal nerve stump when the transected nerve stumps were bridged with a hollow nerve conduit (5 mm in length) after delayed periods. We found that the diameter and number of regenerated axons, the thickness of myelin sheath, as well as the number of Fluoro-Gold retrograde-labeled motoneurons and sensory neurons were significantly increased by ES, suggesting that brief ES to proximal nerve stumps is capable of promoting nerve regeneration in DNIR with different delayed durations, with the longest duration of 24 weeks. In addition, the amplitude of compound muscle action potential (gastrocnemius muscle) and nerve conduction velocity were also enhanced, and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy was partially reversed by brief ES, indicating that brief ES to proximal nerve stump was able to improve functional recovery in DNIR. Furthermore, brief ES was capable of increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the spinal cord in DNIR, suggesting that BDNF-mediated neurotrophin signaling might be one of the contributing factors to the beneficial effect of brief ES on DNIR. In conclusion, the present findings indicate the potential of using brief ES as a useful method to improve functional recovery for delayed repair of peripheral nerve lesions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. O ultrassom terapêutico na medula espinhal acelera a regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos Therapeutic ultrasound on the spinal cord accelerates regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guadallini Jatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade aplicada sobre a medula espinhal na regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos após lesão por esmagamento controlado, avaliando os resultados pelo índice funcional do ciático (SFI, medido nas imagens vídeo-filmadas das plantas das patas. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos foram submetidos a esmagamento controlado (do nervo ciático direito e divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o tratamento: Grupo 1 (n=9, irradiação simulada; Grupo 2 (n=9, irradiação efetiva. Irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade foi iniciada no 7º dia pós-operatório e aplicada diariamente por 6 semanas. Imagens das plantas das patas dos animais foram vídeo-filmadas em uma esteira transparente sob velocidade controlada a intervalos semanais até a 6ª semana de irradiação e o correspondente SFI medido com um programa de computador específico. RESULTADOS: O SFI durante a 1ª e a 6ª semana de tratamento foi de -59,12 e -12,55 no Grupo 1, e -53,31 e -1,32 no Grupo 2, indicando uma melhora de 79% e 97%, respectivamente, mas as diferenças entre os grupos somente foram significantes (pOBJECTIVE: To study the effects of low intensity ultrasound irradiation applied on the spinal cord on the regeneration of the rat's sciatic nerve after a controlled crush injury, evaluating the functional results of the sciatic functional index as measured on the video recorded images of the foot sole. METHODS: Eighteen rats were submitted to a controlled crush injury of the right sciatic nerve and divided into two groups according to the treatment: Group 1 (n=9, simulated irradiation; Group 2 (n=9, effective irradiation. Low-intensity ultrasound irradiation was started on the 7th postoperative day and applied daily for 6 weeks. Images of the animals´ foot sole were video recorded on a see-through treadmill type walking belt machine at weekly intervals until the 6th week of irradiation and the corresponding

  10. Impaired peripheral nerve regeneration in type-2 diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vuong M; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Katano, Tayo; Matsumura, Shinji; Saito, Akira; Yamada, Akihiro; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type-2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and its incidence increases in patients 40 years of age or older. In spite of extensive research over decades, there are few effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy besides glucose control and improved lifestyle. The earliest changes in diabetic neuropathy occur in sensory nerve fibers, with initial degeneration and regeneration resulting in pain. To seek its effective treatment, here we prepared a type-2 diabetic mouse model by giving mice 2 injections of streptozotocin and nicotinamide and examining the ability for nerve regeneration by using a sciatic nerve transection-regeneration model previously established by us. Seventeen weeks after the last injection, the mice exhibited symptoms of type-2 diabetes, that is, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin level, mechanical hyperalgesia, and impaired sensory nerve fibers in the plantar skin. These mice showed delayed functional recovery and nerve regeneration by 2 weeks compared with young healthy mice and by 1 week compared with age-matched non-diabetic mice after axotomy. Furthermore, type-2 diabetic mice displayed increased expression of PTEN in their DRG neurons. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor at the cutting site of the nerve for 4 weeks promoted the axonal transport and functional recovery remarkably. This study demonstrates that peripheral nerve regeneration was impaired in type-2 diabetic model and that its combination with sciatic nerve transection is suitable for the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of early diabetic neuropathy. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effects of different tensile parameters for the neurodynamic mobilization technique on tricipital muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yan WANG; Ma, Ming; Tang, Qiang; Zhu, Luwen; Koleini, Melanie; Zou, Dequan

    2015-01-01

    Background After peripheral nerve injury, muscles without innervation begin to undergo atrophy. Research has suggested that MuRf-1 may play a role in muscle atrophy. The neurodynamic mobilization technique (NMT) is a manual therapy method used to elongate a nerve along its long axis, resulting in improved blood flow to the nerve. However, the nerve can be damaged if elongated too much. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of NMT on muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabb...

  12. Estudo das relações anatômicas e suas variações entre o nervo ciático e o músculo piriforme Study on anatomical relationships and variations between the sciatic nerve and piriform muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJD Vicente

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A síndrome do músculo piriforme pode ter como causa a passagem anormal do nervo ciático ou de uma de suas partes pelo ventre do músculo piriforme. OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações anatômicas e métricas entre o músculo piriforme e o nervo ciático, contribuindo com o conhecimento anátomo-clínico da região glútea. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 20 cadáveres adultos de ambos os sexos. O nervo ciático e o músculo piriforme foram dissecados, medidos e fotodocumentados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 85% das 40 regiões glúteas apresentaram o nervo como tronco único, passando pela borda inferior do músculo piriforme, e 15% mostraram uma variação bilateral, caracterizada pela passagem do nervo fibular comum através do músculo piriforme. Os dados obtidos não revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes.CONTEXT: Piriform muscle syndrome can be caused by abnormal passage of the sciatic nerve or one of its parts through the belly of the piriform muscle. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the anatomical and measurement relationships between the piriform muscle and the sciatic nerve in order to contribute towards better anatomoclinical understanding of the gluteal region. METHOD: Twenty adult cadavers of both sexes were used. The sciatic nerve and piriform muscle were dissected, measured and photodocumented. RESULTS: The sciatic nerve was seen to be a single trunk passing through the lower margin of the piriform muscle in 85% of the 40 gluteal regions, and 15% showed bilateral variation characterized by the passage of the common fibular nerve through the piriform muscle. The data obtained did not show any statistically significant differences.

  13. Efeitos da aplicação do laser de baixa potência na regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos Effects of low-power laser on injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Batagini Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos sofrem constantes lesões de origem traumática, o que resulta em perdas funcionais. A terapia com laser de baixa potência vem sendo utilizada para minimizar os efeitos maléficos da inflamação e acelerar o processo de cicatrização dos tecidos lesados. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da irradiação do laser 830 nm no comportamento do nervo isquiático de ratos submetido a esmagamento. Foram utilizados 20 ratos, todos tendo tido o nervo isquiático esmagado, divididos em 4 grupos (n=5: P7 e P14, tratamento placebo por 7 e 14 dias; L7 e L14, tratamento por laser (dosagem de 4 J/cm² por 7 e 14 dias. Os animais dos grupos P7 e P14 foram submetidos aos mesmos procedimentos, mas com o laser desligado. Os parâmetros analisados foram presença de infiltrado inflamatório e fibroblastos, destruição da bainha de mielina e degeneração axonal. Na análise estatística foi observada diferença estatística com relação a três parâmetros: os animais do grupo L14 apresentaram maior quantidade de fibroblastos (p=0,0001, menor degeneração da bainha de mielina (p=0,007 e menor quantidade de infiltrado inflamatório (p=0,001. A aplicação do laser de baixa potência contribuiu para a redução do processo inflamatório decorrente da lesão do nervo isquiático de ratos.Peripheral nerves are commonly subject to traumatic injuries, leading to functional loss. Low-power laser therapy has been used in order to minimize harmful effects of inflammation and to accelerate healing of injured tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 830 nm-laser irradiation on rat sciatic nerves submitted to crush. Twenty male Wistar rats had their sciatic nerve crushed and were divided into 4 groups (n=5: Sham7 and Sham14, placebo-treated for 7 and 14 days; L7 and L14, laser-treated (at 4 J/cm² for 7 and 14 days. Sham group animals were submitted to the same procedures, but with the laser turned off. Assessed

  14. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a nerve conduit engineering with a membrane derived from natural latex Regeneração do nervo ciático em ratos através de um conduto confeccionado com uma membrana de látex natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Muniz Ganga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the capacity of natural latex membrane to accelerate and improve the regeneration quality of the of rat sciatic nerves. METHODS: Forty male adult Wistar rats were used, anesthetized and operated to cut the sciatic nerve and receive an autograft or a conduit made with a membrane derived from natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis. Four or eight weeks after surgery, to investigate motor nerve recovery, we analyzed the neurological function by walking pattern (footprints analysis and computerized treadmill, electrophysiological evaluation and histological analysis of regenerated nerve (autologous nerve graft or tissue cables between the nerve stumps, and anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles. RESULTS: All functional and morphological analysis showed that the rats transplanted with latex conduit had a better neurological recovery than those operated with autologous nerve: quality of footprints, performance on treadmill (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade de uma membrana de látex natural em acelerar e melhorar a qualidade da regeneração do nervo ciático seccionado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos machos adultos da linhagem Wistar, anestesiados e operados com autoenxerto ou com interposição de um tubo confeccionado com uma membrana derivada do latex natural (Havea brasiliensis. Quatro ou oito semanas após a cirurgia, para investigar a recuperação motora do nervo, foram analisadas a função neurológica através do padrão da marcha (análise das pegadas e esteira computadorizada, avaliação eletrofisiológica e análise histológica do nervo regenerado (enxerto de nervo autólogo ou formação de nervo novo entre os cotos nervosos e músculos gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior. RESULTADOS: Todas as análises morfológicas e funcionais demonstraram que os ratos transplantados com o conduto de látex tiveram recuperação melhor do que aqueles operados com nervo autólogo: qualidade das pegadas impressas, desempenho

  15. Estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem em nervo ciático de ratos: estudo pelo IFC High voltage pulsed current stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rats: analysis by the SFI

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    Anita Sofia Leite Leoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a eficiência do tratamento com a estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem (EEAV em três diferentes locais, aplicada precocemente na regeneração do nervo ciático submetido à lesão por esmagamento, e avaliada através do índice funcional do ciático (IFC, em ratos. MÉTODO: Após o esmagamento, 57 ratos foram submetidos à EEAV catódica nos parâmetros: frequência de 50Hz, 100V de tensão, 20 minutos diários, 5 dias por semana. Os ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em: grupo controle; grupo gânglio; grupo gânglio + músculo; grupo músculo e; grupo simulado. O IFC foi avaliado semanalmente durante sete semanas, partindo do pré-operatório até a 6ª semana pós-operatória. RESULTADOS: Em comparação ao grupo controle, os resultados mostraram desempenho significativamente superior do grupo gânglio nas três primeiras semanas, e do grupo gânglio + músculo na 3ª semana, enquanto o grupo músculo teve desempenho significativamente negativo na 4ª e 6ª semanas. CONCLUSÃO: a EEAV aplicada precocemente, foi positiva no tratamento da região da medula e gânglio da raiz nervosa do ciático com o eletrodo dispersivo na região lombar contralateral ou no músculo gastrocnêmio. Porém, proporcionou efeitos negativos no tratamento com eletrodo ativo no músculo gastrocnêmio e dispersivo na coxa contralateral. Nível de evidência II, Estudo prospectivo comparativo.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficiency of high voltage pulsed current (HVPC with early application in three different sites, in the regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats submitted to crush injury, the sciatic functional index (SFI was used to assess the functional recovery. METHODS: After crushing of the nerve, 57 animals were submitted to cathodal HVPC at frequency of 50Hz and voltage of 100V, 20 minutes per day, 5 days per week. The rats were divided into five groups: control group; ganglion group; ganglion + muscle group; muscle group; and sham group

  16. A bioengineered peripheral nerve construct using aligned peptide amphiphile nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew; Hokugo, Akishige; Yalom, Anisa; Berns, Eric J; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; McClendon, Mark T; Segovia, Luis A; Spigelman, Igor; Stupp, Samuel I; Jarrahy, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries can result in lifelong disability. Primary coaptation is the treatment of choice when the gap between transected nerve ends is short. Long nerve gaps seen in more complex injuries often require autologous nerve grafts or nerve conduits implemented into the repair. Nerve grafts, however, cause morbidity and functional loss at donor sites, which are limited in number. Nerve conduits, in turn, lack an internal scaffold to support and guide axonal regeneration, resulting in decreased efficacy over longer nerve gap lengths. By comparison, peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are molecules that can self-assemble into nanofibers, which can be aligned to mimic the native architecture of peripheral nerve. As such, they represent a potential substrate for use in a bioengineered nerve graft substitute. To examine this, we cultured Schwann cells with bioactive PAs (RGDS-PA, IKVAV-PA) to determine their ability to attach to and proliferate within the biomaterial. Next, we devised a PA construct for use in a peripheral nerve critical sized defect model. Rat sciatic nerve defects were created and reconstructed with autologous nerve, PLGA conduits filled with various forms of aligned PAs, or left unrepaired. Motor and sensory recovery were determined and compared among groups. Our results demonstrate that Schwann cells are able to adhere to and proliferate in aligned PA gels, with greater efficacy in bioactive PAs compared to the backbone-PA alone. In vivo testing revealed recovery of motor and sensory function in animals treated with conduit/PA constructs comparable to animals treated with autologous nerve grafts. Functional recovery in conduit/PA and autologous graft groups was significantly faster than in animals treated with empty PLGA conduits. Histological examinations also demonstrated increased axonal and Schwann cell regeneration within the reconstructed nerve gap in animals treated with conduit/PA constructs. These results indicate that PA nanofibers may

  17. Immediate Enhancement of Nerve Function Using a Novel Axonal Fusion Device After Neurotmesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Deister, Curt A; Pollins, Alonda C; Cardwell, Nancy L; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Does, Mark D; Dortch, Richard D; Bamba, Ravinder; Shack, Robert Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-12-01

    The management of peripheral nerve injuries remains a large challenge for plastic surgeons. With the inability to fuse axonal endings, results after microsurgical nerve repair have been inconsistent. Our current nerve repair strategies rely upon the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/d). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated as a potential axonal fusion agent; however, the percentage of axonal fusion has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to identify a PEG delivery device to standardize outcomes after attempted axonal fusion with PEG. We used a rat sciatic nerve injury model in which we completely transected and repaired the left sciatic nerve to evaluate the efficacy of PEG fusion over a span of 12 weeks. In addition, we evaluated the effectiveness of a delivery device's ability to optimize results after PEG fusion. We found that PEG rapidly (within minutes) restores axonal continuity as assessed by electrophysiology, fluorescent retrograde tracer, and diffusion tensor imaging. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that motor axon counts are significantly increased at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks postoperatively in PEG-treated animals. Furthermore, PEG restored behavioral functions up to 50% compared with animals that received the criterion standard epineurial repair (control animals). The ability of PEG to rapidly restore nerve function after neurotmesis could have vast implications on the clinical management of traumatic injuries to peripheral nerves.

  18. Common peroneal nerve entrapment with the communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciatic nerve divides into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa and variations in its branching pattern are common. The most common nerve entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs is common peroneal nerve entrapment at fibular head. Invariably it can also be trapped in ...

  19. [Changes in the expression of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons after electrical injury in rats' sciatic nerves and its influence on sensory conduction function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangning; Li, Xueyong; Xu, Xiaoli; Ren, Pan

    2016-06-01

    To study the changes in the expression of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after electrical injury in rats' sciatic nerves and its influence on sensory conduction function. One-hundred and thirty-six adult SD rats were divided into normal control group, sham electrical injury group, and 75, 100, 125 V electrical injury groups according to the random number table, with 8 rats in normal control group and 32 rats in each of the rest 4 groups. Rats in normal control group were routinely fed without any treatment. Blunt dissection of the sciatic nerves of left hind leg of rats was performed in sham electrical injury group, while sciatic nerves of left hind leg of rats in electrical injury groups were electrically injured with corresponding voltage. Eight rats of normal control group fed for one week, and 8 rats from each of the rest four groups on post injury day (PID) 3 and in post injury week (PIW) 1, 2, 3 respectively were collected to detect the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT). In addition, rats of 100 V electrical injury group in PIW 1 were collected and intrathecally injected with NS1619 after former PWMT detection, and PWMT was detected per 30 minutes within three hours post injection. The rats in each group at each time point were sacrificed after PWMT detection. The DRG of L4 to L6 segments of spinal cord was sampled to observe the BKCa channels distribution with immunohistochemical staining and to detect the protein and mRNA expressions of BKCa channels with Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, analysis of variance of factorial design, and SNK test. (1) The PWMT values of rats in 75 and 100 V electrical injury groups on PID 3 and in PIW 1, 2, 3 were (5.8±0.6), (5.0±0.8), (4.2±0.3), (5.9±1.1) g; (5.3±1.3), (5.9±2.0), (4.5±2.7), (4.3±1.3) g, respectively, which were

  20. Novel technique for repair of severed peripheral nerves in rats using polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Firouzeh; Gerth, David; Tamula, George-Rudolph M; Phung, Thien-Chuong N; Lynch, Kyle J; Boughter, John D

    2014-10-01

    To design, synthesize, and test in vivo an aerogel-based top-open peripheral nerve scaffold to simultaneously support and guide multiple completely severed peripheral nerves in a rat model. Also, to explore options for immobilizing severed nerves on the aerogel material without the use of sutures resulting in reduced surgical time. A novel material and approach was developed for the reattachment of severed peripheral nerves. Nerve confinement and alignment in this case relies on the surface properties of a lightweight, highly porous, polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel scaffold. The distal and proximal ends of completely transected nerve terminals were positioned inside prefabricated "top-open" corrugated channels that cradled approximately two thirds of the circumference of the nerve trunk and connectivity of the severed nerves was evaluated using sciatic function index (SFI) technique for five months post-surgery on 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats then compared with the gold standard for peripheral nerve repair. The interaction of nerves with the surface of the scaffold was investigated also. Multichannel aerogel-based nerve support scaffold showed similar SFI recovery trend as the case suture repair technique. Usage of an adhesion-promoting coating reduced the friction between the nerve and the scaffold leading to slippage and lack of attachment between nerve and surface. The aerogel scaffold used in this study did not collapse under pressure during the incubation period and allowed for a rapid and non-invasive peripheral nerve repair approach without the demands of microsurgery on both time and surgical expertise. This technique may allow for simultaneous repair and reconnection of multiple severed nerves particularly relevant to nerve branching sites.

  1. Differential effects of lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on regenerating sensory and motor axons in the transected peripheral nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tannemaat, Martijn R; Eggers, Ruben; Hendriks, William T; de Ruiter, Godard C W; van Heerikhuize, Joop J; Pool, Chris W; Malessy, Martijn J A; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Even after reconstructive surgery, major functional impairments remain in the majority of patients with peripheral nerve injuries. The application of novel emerging therapeutic strategies, such as lentiviral (LV) vectors, may help to stimulate peripheral nerve regeneration at a molecular level. In

  2. MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Wen, Xuehua; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

  3. Nerve disorders in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John G; Baxter, Donald E

    2008-04-01

    Dancers are required to perform at the extreme of physiologic and functional limits. Under such conditions, peripheral nerves are prone to compression. Entrapment neuropathies in dance can be related to the sciatic nerve or from a radiculopathy related to posture or a hyperlordosis. The most reproducible and reliable method of diagnosis is a careful history and clinical examination. This article reviews several nerve disorders encountered in dancers, including interdigital neuromas, tarsal tunnel syndrome, medial hallucal nerve compression, anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome, superficial and deep peroneal nerve entrapment, and sural nerve entrapment.

  4. High-frequency electrical stimulation can be a complementary therapy to promote nerve regeneration in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hong Kao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 1 mA of percutaneous electrical stimulation (ES at 0, 2, 20, or 200 Hz augments regeneration between the proximal and distal nerve stumps in streptozotocin diabetic rats. A10-mm gap was made in the diabetic rat sciatic nerve by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. Normal animals were used as the controls. Starting 1 week after transection, ES was applied between the cathode placed at the distal stump and the anode at the proximal stump every other day for 3 weeks. At 4 weeks after surgery, the normal controls and the groups receiving ES at 20, and 200 Hz had a higher success percentage of regeneration compared to the ES groups at 0 and 2 Hz. In addition, quantitative histology of the successfully regenerated nerves revealed that the groups receiving ES at a higher frequency, especially at 200 Hz, had a more mature structure with more myelinated fibers compared to those in the lower-frequency ES groups. Similarly, electrophysiology in the ES group at 200 Hz showed significantly shorter latency, larger amplitude, larger area of evoked muscle action potentials and faster conduction velocity compared to other groups. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ES at a higher frequency could significantly promote calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in lamina I-II regions in the dorsal horn and recruit a higher number of macrophages in the diabetic distal sciatic nerve. The macrophages were found that they could stimulate the secretion of nerve growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β in dissected sciatic nerve segments. The ES at a higher frequency could also increase cutaneous blood flow in the ipsilateral hindpaw to the injury. These results indicated that a high-frequency ES could be necessary to heal severed diabetic peripheral nerve with a long gap to be repaired.

  5. Distal Inside-Out Epineural Sliding Technique to Repair Segmental Nerve Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luokkala, Toni; Ryhänen, Jorma; Näpänkangas, Juha; Karjalainen, Teemu V

    2016-09-01

    Background: The repair of a segmental peripheral nerve injury is a clinical challenge. Several studies have been performed to determine superior methods for overcoming nerve gaps. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the inside-out slided epineurium of the distal segment of an injured nerve can serve as a conduit to bridge a short nerve defect (10 mm). Methods: Nineteen sciatic nerves in Sprague-Dawley rats were transected, and a 10-mm gap was left between the ends. A section of distal epineurium was pulled inside out to bridge the gap. Walking track analysis was performed, and the sciatic function index (SFI) was calculated. Wet muscle mass and withdrawal reflex were measured. The density of axon fibers at different levels of repaired nerves was determined, and histological analysis was performed at 16 weeks. Results: The mean SFI improved from -81.0 at 4 weeks to 36.3 at 16 weeks. The axon densities showed regeneration through the epineural tube, and 5 of the rats demonstrated a withdrawal reflex. The weight of the tibialis anterior muscle of the injured limb at 16 weeks was 59% that of the uninjured side. Conclusions: The distal epineural sheath tube provided a size-matched conduit between the nerve stumps, with no histological donor-site morbidity. Histologically, regeneration occurred through the epineural tube without neuroma formation, and functional recovery was comparable to that of previous studies of nerve repair techniques. Technique may be an addition to the armamentarium of tools used to treat segmental nerve defects.

  6. Fibrin glue: an alternative technique for nerve coaptation--Part I. Wave amplitude, conduction velocity, and plantar-length factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Lorraine; Padilla, Luis; Di Silvio, Mauricio; Schalch, Paul; Esperante, Sandro; Infante, Paul López; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Avalos, Pablo; Varela, Deborah; López, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    The search for better surgical repair of nerve injuries should be aimed at uncovering alternatives that not only are efficient, but also enhance nerve growth. The purpose of this study was to compare functional nerve responses following repair with either a traditional microsuture technique or Quixil human fibrin sealant. Thirty female Lewis rats received transection of the right sciatic nerve. Nerve repair was achieved with either epineurial microsuture (n = 15) or Quixil fibrin glue (n = 15). Functional results were assessed at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively with walking-track analysis. Electrophysiologic nerve recordings were also performed 12 weeks postoperatively. Rats receiving Quixil nerve repair returned to baseline performance on the walking-track analysis significantly faster than those with microsuture repairs (6 and 12 weeks postoperatively; p < 0.0001). Recovery of nerve conduction velocities and wave amplitudes was also significantly better in the nerves repaired with Quixil than in those repaired with microsuture (p's < 0.0001). Quixil human fibrin sealant is a good alternative to traditional microsuture nerve repair techniques.

  7. Multichanneled Nerve Guidance Conduit with Spatial Gradients of Neurotrophic Factors and Oriented Nanotopography for Repairing the Peripheral Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yo-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Hong; Liao, Shih-Yung; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Kuan, Chen-Hsiang; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2017-10-17

    Peripheral nerve injuries, causing sensory and motor impairment, affect a great number of patients annually. It is therefore important to incorporate different strategies to promote nerve healing. Among the treatment options, however, the efficacy of nerve conduits is often compromised by their lack of living cells, insufficient growth factors, and absence of the extracellular matrix (ECM)-like structure. To improve the functional recovery, we aimed to develop a natural biodegradable multichanneled scaffold characterized with aligned electrospun nanofibers and neurotrophic gradient (MC/AN/NG) to guide axon outgrowth. The gelatin-based conduits mimicked the fascicular architecture of natural nerve ECM. The multichanneled (MC) scaffolds, cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase, possessed sustainable mechanical stability. Meanwhile, the release profile of dual neurotrophic factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), exhibited a temporal-controlled manner. In vitro, the differentiated neural stem cells effectively extended their neurites along the aligned nanofibers. Besides, in the treated group, the cell density increased in high NGF concentration regions of the gradient membrane, and the BDNF significantly promoted myelination. In a rabbit sciatic nerve transection in vivo model, the MC/AN/NG scaffold showed superior nerve recovery and less muscle atrophy comparable to autograft. By integrating multiple strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration, the MC/AN/NG scaffolds as nerve guidance conduits showed promising results and efficacious treatment alternatives for autologous nerve grafts.

  8. Experimental peripheral nerve repair: environmental control directed at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellem, R T; Miller, D W; Kenning, J A; Hoenig, E M; Buchheit, W A

    1989-01-01

    This study recognizes recent advances in the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of peripheral nerves at the cellular level. It has reproduced study conditions originally advocated by de Medinaceli and coworkers, with modifications. Eighty-four rats were divided into three groups. Group A underwent sciatic nerve transection and standard perineurial repair. Group B nerves were frozen, severed with a vibrating blade, and reconnected by tubulization with a rubber cuff while bathed in solutions designed to inhibit Ca++-calmodulin activation, maintain colloid osmotic pressure, and mimic ambient electrolytic conditions. Group C underwent a similar procedure as group B, with the rubber cuff replaced by a polyglycolic acid mesh. All animals were randomized and evaluated functionally in terms of a sciatic index. By post-operative day 225, animals of group A recovered 37% of function, group B recovered 74%, and group C recovered 67%. Compound action potential recordings revealed a velocity recovery of 41% in group A, 70% in group B, and 81% in group C. Microscopic evaluation provided evidence for corresponding structural improvement. This new method of nerve repair is uncomplicated, relatively inexpensive, and easily adaptable to other animal models.

  9. BDNF gene delivery within and beyond templated agarose multi-channel guidance scaffolds enhances peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyong; Lu, Paul; Lynam, Dan; Bednark, Bridget; Campana, W. Marie; Sakamoto, Jeff; Tuszynski, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. Approach. 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site. Main results. Twelve weeks after injury, scaffolds supported highly linear regeneration of host axons across the 15 mm lesion gap. The incorporation of BDNF-secreting cells into scaffolds significantly increased axonal regeneration, and additional injection of viral vectors expressing BDNF into the distal segment of the transected nerve significantly enhanced axonal regeneration beyond the lesion. Significance. Combinatorial treatment with multichannel bioengineered scaffolds and distal growth factor delivery significantly improves peripheral nerve repair, rivaling the gold standard of autografts.

  10. Current state of stem cell-mediated therapies for facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiffany V; Delaney, Sean; Pepper, Jon-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Interest in the application of stem cell therapy to nerve injury has grown exponentially in recent years, as the armamentarium of potential stem cell sources has increased. This article reviews literature on the recent developments in the application of stem cell therapy for facial nerve injury. Current stem cell therapy for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury can be generalized into those that either enhance native neural regeneration via an anti-inflammatory effect or growth factor secretion, replace Schwann cells, or replace motor neurons. Animal studies have shown that nerve conduits seeded with stem cells (either undifferentiated or differentiated into Schwann-like cells) in sciatic and facial nerve injury models can promote nerve regeneration with similar efficacy to autologous nerve autografts. In-vivo studies have also shown that induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons, when transplanted into transected mouse tibial nerves, can form functional neuromuscular junctions with the denervated mouse triceps surae. The authors believe that induced pluripotent stem cells have significant therapeutic potential. This source of human stem cells can be harvested with little morbidity, is isogenic to the donor, and has fewer ethical concerns compared with embryonic cellular sources. Further research is required to determine stem cell efficacy and safety. Questions of stem cell fate unpredictability and possible tumorigenesis must be addressed prior to human trials.

  11. Duration of preoperative traction associated with sciatic neuropathy after hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Marius A; de Vries, Mattijs; van der Tol, Anno

    2006-04-01

    An unknown percentage of patients who have internal fixation for hip fractures have sciatic neuropathy develop. In most cases, the cause for this complication is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 2202 consecutive patients treated in our hospital for hip fractures to ascertain whether there was any relationship between duration of preoperative traction and postoperative sciatic neuropathy, and to determine the incidence of sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures. All patients had preoperative skin traction. Patients with and without sciatic neuropathy were compared using nonparametric tests. The median duration of traction was 2.6 days in the group that had sciatic neuropathy develop and 0.9 days in the group that did not. Also, patients in the group that had sciatic palsy develop were older. There seemed to be no other difference between the groups for any of the studied variables. Sixteen patients (0.7 %) had postoperative sciatic neuropathy. Our data suggest sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures may be related to the duration of preoperative traction. Some investigators have reported that there seems to be no evidence of benefit from skeletal or skin traction. A potential for damage to the sciatic nerve may be an argument to stop routine use of preoperative traction. Diagnostic study, Level III (study of nonconsecutive patients; without consistently applied reference "gold" standard).

  12. Allotransplanted neurons used to repair peripheral nerve injury do not elicit overt immunogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Liu

    Full Text Available A major problem hindering the development of autograft alternatives for repairing peripheral nerve injuries is immunogenicity. We have previously shown successful regeneration in transected rat sciatic nerves using conduits filled with allogeneic dorsal root ganglion (DRG cells without any immunosuppression. In this study, we re-examined the immunogenicity of our DRG neuron implanted conduits as a potential strategy to overcome transplant rejection. A biodegradable NeuraGen® tube was infused with pure DRG neurons or Schwann cells cultured from a rat strain differing from the host rats and used to repair 8 mm gaps in the sciatic nerve. We observed enhanced regeneration with allogeneic cells compared to empty conduits 16 weeks post-surgery, but morphological analyses suggest recovery comparable to the healthy nerves was not achieved. The degree of regeneration was indistinguishable between DRG and Schwann cell allografts although immunogenicity assessments revealed substantially increased presence of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ in Schwann cell allografts compared to the DRG allografts by two weeks post-surgery. Macrophage infiltration of the regenerated nerve graft in the DRG group 16 weeks post-surgery was below the level of the empty conduit (0.56 fold change from NG; p<0.05 while the Schwann cell group revealed significantly higher counts (1.29 fold change from NG; p<0.001. Major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I molecules were present in significantly increased levels in the DRG and Schwann cell allograft groups compared to the hollow NG conduit and the Sham healthy nerve. Our results confirmed previous studies that have reported Schwann cells as being immunogenic, likely due to MHC I expression. Nerve gap injuries are difficult to repair; our data suggest that DRG neurons are superior medium to implant inside conduit tubes due to reduced immunogenicity and represent a potential treatment strategy that could be preferable to the current gold

  13. Assessment of vascularization and myelination following peripheral nerve repair using angiographic and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ahhyun S.; Chico-Calero, Isabel; Easow, Jeena M.; Villiger, Martin; Welt, Jonathan; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Randolph, Mark A.; Redmond, Robert W.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2017-02-01

    A severe traumatic injury to a peripheral nerve often requires surgical graft repair. However, functional recovery after these surgical repairs is often unsatisfactory. To improve interventional procedures, it is important to understand the regeneration of the nerve grafts. The rodent sciatic nerve is commonly used to investigate these parameters. However, the ability to longitudinally assess the reinnervation of injured nerves are limited, and to our knowledge, no methods currently exist to investigate the timing of the revascularization in functional recovery. In this work, we describe the development and use of angiographic and polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to visualize the vascularization, demyelination and remyelination of peripheral nerve healing after crush and transection injuries, and across a variety of graft repair methods. A microscope was customized to provide 3.6 cm fields of view along the nerve axis with a capability to track the nerve height to maintain the nerve within the focal plane. Motion artifact rejection was implemented in the angiography algorithm to reduce degradation by bulk respiratory motion in the hindlimb site. Vectorial birefringence imaging methods were developed to significantly enhance the accuracy of myelination measurements and to discriminate birefringent contributions from the myelin and epineurium. These results demonstrate that the OCT platform has the potential to reveal new insights in preclinical studies and may ultimately provide a means for clinical intra-surgical assessment of peripheral nerve function.

  14. Comparison of nerve regenerative efficacy between decellularized nerve graft and nonwoven chitosan conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Hiroki; Terada-Nakaishi, Michiko; Wang, Wei; Itoh, Soichiro; Nozaki, Kosuke; Nagai, Akiko; Ichinose, Shizuko; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2016-05-12

    Recently decellularized nerves with various methods are reported as highly functional nerve grafts for the treatment of nerve defects. To evaluate the efficacy of decellularized allogeneic nerve, compared with oriented chitosan mesh tube, and an autologous nerve. Sciatic nerves harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were decellularized in combination with Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. A graft into the sciatic nerve in Wistar rats was performed with the decellularized SD rat sciatic nerves or oriented chitosan nonwoven nanofiber mesh tubes (15 mm in length, N=5 in each group). A portion of sciatic nerve of Wistar rat was cut, reversed and re-sutured in-situ as a control. Nerve functional and histological evaluations were performed 25 weeks postoperatively. It was revealed that functional, electrophysiological and histological recoveries in the decellularized nerve group match those in the autograft group. Recovery of sensory function and nerve maturation in the decellularized nerve group were superior to those in the chitosan mesh tube group. Nerve regeneration in the decellularized nerves could match that in the autografts and is somehow superior to artificial chitosan mesh tube. Detergents wash of SDS and Triton X-100 could obtain highly functional nerve grafts from allografts.

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Enhance Axonal Regeneration through Cross-Facial Nerve Grafting in a Rat Model of Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ozan L; Borman, Hüseyin; Uysal, Çağri A; Gönen, Zeynep B; Aydin, Leyla; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Ilhan, Şebnem; Yazici, Ayşe C

    2016-08-01

    Cross-face nerve grafting combined with functional muscle transplantation has become the standard in reconstructing an emotionally controlled smile in complete irreversible facial palsy. However, the efficacy of this procedure depends on the ability of regenerating axons to breach two nerve coaptations and reinnervate endplates in denervated muscle. The current study tested the hypothesis that adipose-derived stem cells would enhance axonal regeneration through a cross-facial nerve graft and thereby enhance recovery of the facial nerve function. Twelve rats underwent transection of the right facial nerve, and cross-facial nerve grafting using the sciatic nerve as an interpositional graft, with coaptations to the ipsilateral and contralateral buccal branches, was carried out. Rats were divided equally into two groups: a grafted but nontreated control group and a grafted and adipose-derived stem cell-treated group. Three months after surgery, biometric and electrophysiologic assessments of vibrissae movements were performed. Histologically, the spectra of fiber density, myelin sheath thickness, fiber diameter, and g ratio of the nerve were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the evaluation of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junctions. The data from the biometric and electrophysiologic analysis of vibrissae movements, immunohistochemical analysis, and histologic assessment of the nerve showed that adipose-derived stem cells significantly enhanced axonal regeneration through the graft. These observations suggest that adipose-derived stem cells could be a clinically translatable route toward new methods to enhance recovery after cross-facial nerve grafting.

  16. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate

  17. Patterns of production of collagen-rich deposits in peripheral nerves in response to injury: A pilot study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Michael; Miller, Andrew; Tulipan, Jacob; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Wang, Mark L; Fertala, Jolanta; Steplewski, Andrzej; Kostas, James; Fertala, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Although collagen-rich deposits are the main component of neural scars, the patterns of their formation are ill defined. Essential to the biosynthesis of collagen fibrils are enzymes catalyzing posttranslational modifications and chaperones that control the formation of the collagen triple helix. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) and heat shock protein-47 (HSP47) play a key role, and their production is upregulated during scar formation in human tissues. Alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) is also produced during fibrotic processes in myofibroblasts that participate in fibrotic response. In injured peripheral nerves, however, the distribution of cells that produce these markers is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine the distribution of the αSMA-positive, HSP47-positive, and the P4H-positive cells to better understand the formation of collagen-rich fibrotic tissue (FT) in response to peripheral nerve injury. To reach this goal, we employed a rabbit model of crush-injury and partial-transection injury of the sciatic nerves. Our study demonstrated that αSMA is expressed in a relatively small number of cells seen in neural FT. In contrast, cells producing P4H and HSP47 are ubiquitously present in sites of injury of the sciatic nerves. We contemplate that these proteins may serve as valuable markers that define fibrotic activities in the injured peripheral nerves.

  18. Exercício imediato versus tardio na regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos após axoniotmese: análise histomorfométrica e funcional Immediate versus later exercises for rat sciatic nerve regeneration after axonotmesis: histomorphometric and functional analyses

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    LL Sobral

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Devido à controvérsia sobre o melhor momento para iniciar o exercício físico, bem como sua influência sobre a regeneração nervosa periférica, este estudo realizou uma análise histomorfométrica e funcional para avaliar a influência do exercício físico em esteira, aplicado nas fases imediata e tardia da regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos, após axoniotmese. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar machos (229,05±18,02g foram divididos nos grupos: controle (CON; desnervado (D; desnervado+exercício+gaiola (DEG e desnervado+ gaiola+exercício (DGE. Após 24 horas da axoniotmese, o grupo DEG iniciou o exercício, enquanto o grupo DGE iniciou no 14º dia, com o seguinte protocolo: velocidade=8m/min, inclinação=0%, 30min/dia, durante 14 dias. Em seguida, a porção distal do nervo isquiático foi retirada para análise histomorfométrica. Realizou-se o registro da marcha (pré-operatório e 7º, 14º, 21º, 28º dias pós-operatório (PO, através do índice funcional do ciático (IFC. RESULTADOS: O número de axônios regenerados nos grupos D foi maior que no CON (pOBJECTIVE: Considering the controversies regarding the best period to begin physical exercise in relation to peripheral nerve regeneration, along with its influence on regeneration, this study accomplished a histomorphometric and functional analysis to evaluate the influence of physical exercise on a treadmill, applied to the immediate and late stages of sciatic nerve regeneration in rats following crushing injury. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats (229.05±18.02g were divided into the following groups: control (CON; denervated (D; denervated+exercise+cage (DEC and denervated+cage+exercise (DCE. The DEC group started the exercise 24 hours after the nerve injury, while the DCE group started on the 14th day after the injury, with the following protocol: speed=8m/min, inclination=0%, 30min/day, for 14 days. The distal segment of the sciatic nerve was then removed for

  19. Effects of sciatic-conditioned medium on neonatal rat retinal cells in vitro

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    Torres P.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells produce and release trophic factors that induce the regeneration and survival of neurons following lesions in the peripheral nerves. In the present study we examined the in vitro ability of developing rat retinal cells to respond to factors released from fragments of sciatic nerve. Treatment of neonatal rat retinal cells with sciatic-conditioned medium (SCM for 48 h induced an increase of 92.5 ± 8.8% (N = 7 for each group in the amount of total protein. SCM increased cell adhesion, neuronal survival and glial cell proliferation as evaluated by morphological criteria. This effect was completely blocked by 2.5 µM chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC. These data indicate that PKC activation is involved in the effect of SCM on retinal cells and demonstrate that fragments of sciatic nerve release trophic factors having a remarkable effect on neonatal rat retinal cells in culture.

  20. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration

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    Marcela Fernandes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs have phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs. To compare the effects of venous grafts containing BMSCs or ADSCs on sciatic nerve injury, in this study, rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham (only sciatic nerve exposed, Matrigel (MG; sciatic nerve injury + intravenous transplantation of MG vehicle, ADSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing ADSCs, and BMSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing BMSCs groups. Sciatic functional index was calculated to evaluate the function of injured sciatic nerve. Morphologic characteristics of nerves distal to the lesion were observed by toluidine blue staining. Spinal motor neurons labeled with Fluoro-Gold were quantitatively assessed. Compared with sham-operated rats, sciatic functional index was lower, the density of small-diameter fibers was significantly increased, and the number of motor neurons significantly decreased in rats with sciatic nerve injury. Neither ADSCs nor BMSCs significantly improved the sciatic nerve function of rats with sciatic nerve injury, increased fiber density, fiber diameters, axonal diameters, myelin sheath thickness, and G ratios (axonal diameter/fiber diameter ratios in the sciatic nerve distal to the lesion site. There was no significant difference in the number of spinal motor neurons among ADSCs, BMSCs and MG groups. These results suggest that neither BMSCs nor ADSCs provide satisfactory results for peripheral nerve repair when using MG as the conductor for

  1. High-voltage electrical stimulation improves nerve regeneration after sciatic crush injury Estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem favorece a regeneração nervosa após compressão do nervo isquiático

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    Rosana M. Teodori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury causes prolonged functional limitation being a clinical challenge to identify resources that accelerates its recovery. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-voltage electrical stimulation (HVES on the morphometric and functional characteristics of the regenerated nerve after crush injury in rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Control (CON - without injury and without HVES; Denervated (D - sciatic nerve crush only; Denervated + HVES - sciatic nerve crush and HVES; SHAM - without injury but HVES. The HVES and SHAM groups were stimulated (100 Hz; minimum voltage of 100 V, 20 μs, 100 μs interpulse interval for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. The sciatic functional index (SFI was evaluated before the injury and at the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperatory (PO days. Neural components and the area density of connective tissue, blood vessels and macrophages were analyzed. RESULTS: Axonal diameter was higher on the HVES than on D group, reaching almost 80% above the control values after 21 days (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Lesões nervosas periféricas provocam limitação funcional prolongada, sendo um desafio para a clínica identificar recursos que acelerem sua recuperação. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a influência da estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem (EEAV sobre a morfologia e a função do nervo regenerado após esmagamento em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos: controle (CON - sem lesão e sem EEAV; desnervado (D - esmagamento do nervo isquiático; desnervado + EEAV (EEAV - esmagamento do nervo e EEAV; SHAM - sem lesão, porém submetido à EEAV. Os grupos EEAV e SHAM foram estimulados (100 Hz, tensão mínima de 100 V; 20 μs e 100 μs interpulso 30 min/dia, 5 dias/semana. O índice funcional do ciático (IFC foi avaliado antes da lesão, nos 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório (PO. Componentes neurais, densidade de área de tecido conjuntivo, de

  2. Os efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico nas lesões por esmagamento do nervo ciático de ratos: análise funcional da marcha Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on injuries due to crushing of the sciatic nerve in rats: functional evaluation of gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VV Monte-Raso

    2006-01-01

    primeira medida e a última. As diferenças entre os grupos foram significativas no 14º e no 21º dia (p=0,02 e p=0,002, respectivamente. Conclusão: O ultra-som terapêutico de baixa intensidade acelerou a regeneração do nervo ciático do rato, demonstrável com maior significância no 21º dia pós-operatório.Background: The effects of therapeutic ultrasound irradiation on peripheral nerve regeneration are not well known, particularly regarding functional recovery. However, in rats, footprint evaluation is a well-systematized method for measuring the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI, showing close correlation with morphological regeneration of damaged sciatic nerves. Objective: To analyze the influence of therapeutic ultrasound on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to controlled crushing. Method: 20 Wistar rats (mean body weight: 300 g were divided into two experimental groups: 1 crushing only (n=10; 2 crushing followed by ultrasound irradiation (n=10. Under general anesthesia, a 5-mm segment of sciatic nerve proximal to its bifurcation in the right thigh was exposed and crushed with constant loading of 15 kg for 10 minutes, using a specially-built device. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound irradiation (1:5, 0.4 W/cm², 1 MHz, 2 minutes was started on the first postoperative day and administered for ten consecutive days. Footprints were obtained weekly (postoperative weeks 13 using a specially-designed walkway, and evaluated using specifically-developed software, according to a previously-tested method, with automatic SFI calculation. Results: The SFI progressively increased in both groups: Group 2, from 101 in the first week to 59.21 (second and 26.68 (third, i.e. 73% improvement overall; Group 1, from 98.2 (first to 79.5 (second and 44 (third, i.e. 55% improvement overall. The differences between the groups were significant for the second and third weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound accelerates the

  3. Effect of CO2 milliwatt laser on peripheral nerves: Part I. A dose-response study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; van den Bergh Weerman, M.; Beek, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    In order to explore further the role of laser for microneural repair, the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on intact rat sciatic nerves was investigated. In total 40 rat sciatic nerves were exposed to 12 different combinations of laser power (50, 100, and 150 mW) and pulse duration (0.1 to 3 s)

  4. Peripheral nerve injury and TRPV1-expressing primary afferent C-fibers cause opening of the blood-brain barrier

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    Salter Michael W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood-brain barrier (BBB plays the crucial role of limiting exposure of the central nervous system (CNS to damaging molecules and cells. Dysfunction of the BBB is critical in a broad range of CNS disorders including neurodegeneration, inflammatory or traumatic injury to the CNS, and stroke. In peripheral tissues, the vascular-tissue permeability is normally greater than BBB permeability, but vascular leakage can be induced by efferent discharge activity in primary sensory neurons leading to plasma extravasation into the extravascular space. Whether discharge activity of sensory afferents entering the CNS may open the BBB or blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB remains an open question. Results Here we show that peripheral nerve injury (PNI produced by either sciatic nerve constriction or transecting two of its main branches causes an increase in BSCB permeability, as assessed by using Evans Blue dye or horseradish peroxidase. The increase in BSCB permeability was not observed 6 hours after the PNI but was apparent 24 hours after the injury. The increase in BSCB permeability was transient, peaking about 24-48 hrs after PNI with BSCB integrity returning to normal levels by 7 days. The increase in BSCB permeability was prevented by administering the local anaesthetic lidocaine at the site of the nerve injury. BSCB permeability was also increased 24 hours after electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at intensity sufficient to activate C-fibers, but not when A-fibers only were activated. Likewise, BSCB permeability increased following application of capsaicin to the nerve. The increase in permeability caused by C-fiber stimulation or by PNI was not anatomically limited to the site of central termination of primary afferents from the sciatic nerve in the lumbar cord, but rather extended throughout the spinal cord and into the brain. Conclusions We have discovered that injury to a peripheral nerve and electrical stimulation of C

  5. Ureteral sciatic hernia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, So Young; Han, Hyun Young; Park, Suk Jin; Choe, Hyoung Shim; Kim, Eun Tak [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    A ureteral hernia that occurs through the sciatic foramen is very rare. We present a case of a ureteral sciatic hernia with hydronephrosis. Intravenous urography (IVU) showed the presence of a curved, laterally displaced ureter, and computed tomography (CT) clearly depicted the herniated ureter through the sciatic foramen. The patient was treated transiently with a double J catheter.

  6. MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Wen, Xuehua; Shen, Jun

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. • TLR4 activation had additional beneficial effects on neurotmesis beyond surgical repair. • TLR4 activation had a characteristic time course of T2 values. • T2 measurements can help detect beneficial effects with TLR4 activation.

  7. Controle da dor pós-operatória da artroplastia total do joelho: é necessário associar o bloqueio do nervo isquiático ao bloqueio do nervo femoral? Control del dolor postoperatorio de la artroplastia total de la rodilla: ¿es necesario asociar el bloqueo del nervio isquiático al bloqueo del nervio femoral? Control of postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: is it necessary to associate sciatic nerve block to femoral nerve block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso H. Zugliani

    2007-10-01

    ón del bloqueo de los nervios isquiático y femoral. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 17 pacientes sometidos a ATR bajo raquianestesia, divididos en dos grupos: A y B. En el Grupo A (n = 9 fue realizado bloqueo del nervio femoral y en el Grupo B (n = 8 bloqueo de los nervios femoral e isquiático. Los bloqueos fueron realizados en el postoperatorio inmediato utilizando 20 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% en cada uno. El dolor se comprobó en las primeras 24 horas a través de la Escala Analógica Visual y escala verbal. Fue observado el tiempo transcurrido entre los bloqueos y el primer quejido de dolor (M1. RESULTADOS: La mediana del tiempo de analgesia (M1 en el Grupo A fue de 110 min y en el Grupo B de 1.285 min (p = 0,0001. No fueron observadas complicaciones atribuibles a las técnicas utilizadas. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo del nervio isquiático, cuando se asocia al bloqueo del nervio femoral, e las condiciones de este estudio, mejoró de manera significativa la calidad de la analgesia en postoperatorio de la ATR.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA causes severe tissue trauma, leading to severe postoperative pain. Good postoperative analgesia is fundamental and one should consider that early mobilization of the joint is an important aspect to obtain good results. There is a controversy in the literature on the efficacy of isolated femoral nerve block. The objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative analgesia with the association of sciatic and femoral nerve block. METHODS: Seventeen patients undergoing TKA under spinal anesthesia were divided in two groups: A and B. In Group A (n = 9, femoral nerve block was performed, while in Group B (n = 8, femoral and sciatic nerve block were done. The blockades were done in the immediate postoperative period with 20 mL of 0.5% of ropivacaine. Pain was evaluated in the first 24 hours using the Visual Analog Scale and the verbal scale. The length of time between the nerve block and the first complaint of pain (M1

  8. Omental pedicle transposition and suture repair of peripheral nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abu wael

    histological, morphometric criteria and relative gastrocnemius muscle weight. The results of the examination show that the treated group had better regeneration and functional recovery. Key words: Omental pedicle, regeneration, hispathological, morphometric, sciatic nerve. INTRODUCTION. The peripheral nervous system ...

  9. Using Eggshell Membrane as Nerve Guide Channels in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

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    Gholam Hossein Farjah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the final outcome of nerve regeneration across the eggsell membrane (ESM tube conduit in comparison with autograft. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats (250-300 g were randomized into (1 ESM conduit, (2 autograft, and (3 sham surgery groups. The eggs submerged in 5% acetic acid. The decalcifying membranes were cut into four pieces, rotated over the teflon mandrel and dried at   37°C. The left sciatic nerve was surgically cut. A 10-mm nerve segment was cut and removed. In the ESM group, the proximal and distal cut ends of the sciatic nerve were telescoped into the nerve guides. In the autograft group, the 10 mm nerve segment was reversed and used as an autologous nerve graft. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI and electrophysiology testing.  Results:The improvement in SFI from the first to the last evalution in ESM and autograft groups were evaluated. On days 49 and 60 post-operation, the mean SFI of ESM group was significantly greater than the autograft group (P 0.05. Conclusion:These findings demonstrate that ESM effectively enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery in injured sciatic nerve of rat.

  10. Using Eggshell Membrane as Nerve Guide Channels in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjah, Gholam Hossein; Heshmatian, Behnam; Karimipour, Mojtaba; Saberi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate the final outcome of nerve regeneration across the eggsell membrane (ESM) tube conduit in comparison with autograft. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats (250-300 g) were randomized into (1) ESM conduit, (2) autograft, and (3) sham surgery groups. The eggs submerged in 5% acetic acid. The decalcifying membranes were cut into four pieces, rotated over the teflon mandrel and dried at 37°C. The left sciatic nerve was surgically cut. A 10-mm nerve segment was cut and removed. In the ESM group, the proximal and distal cut ends of the sciatic nerve were telescoped into the nerve guides. In the autograft group, the 10 mm nerve segment was reversed and used as an autologous nerve graft. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI) and electrophysiology testing. Results: The improvement in SFI from the first to the last evalution in ESM and autograft groups were evaluated. On days 49 and 60 post-operation, the mean SFI of ESM group was significantly greater than the autograft group (P 0.05). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that ESM effectively enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery in injured sciatic nerve of rat. PMID:24106593

  11. Anomalous common peroneal nerve supplying the gluteus maximus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On dissection of a 60-year-old adult male cadaver, a high division of the sciatic nerve was observed on the right side along with an accessory slip of the piriformis. In this case, the common peroneal nerve pierced through and the tibial nerve passed below the accessory slip of the piriformis. Additionally, there was an ...

  12. Nerve identification and prevention of intraneural injection in regional anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with techniques to more reliably identify nervous structures and subsequently prevent intraneural injection in the practice of regional anesthesia. To identify nerves of the brachial plexus and sciatic nerve, both conventional techniques such as nerve stimulation, as well as

  13. Electrophysiologic assessment of regeneration in rat sciatic nerve repair using suture, fibrin glue or a combination of both techniques Avaliação eletrofisiológica da eficácia de três tipos de reparo após a secção do nervo ciático do rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sergio Martins

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the repair of seccioned rat sciatic nerve by the comparison of electrophysiologic parameters. The repair was effected with suture (group A, fibrin glue (group B or a combination of both techniques (group C. The amplitude, latency and conduction velocity of the motor and nerve action potentials were assessed before the nerve section and at reoperation after 24 weeks. There was no difference between the groups when the nerve action potential was evaluated. Rats of group B presented better results than those of group A (pForam comparados os parâmetros obtidos na avaliação eletrofisiológica do potencial de ação do nervo e do potencial de ação motor antes e após 24 semanas do reparo no nervo ciático do rato previamente seccionado no lado direito com a utilização de sutura (grupo A, adesivo de fibrina (grupo B ou uma combinação das duas técnicas (grupo C. Não houve diferença entre os grupos na avaliação do potencial de ação do nervo. Quando consideradas a latência e a velocidade de condução mensurados na reoperação e a razão entre a velocidade de condução medida na reoperação e o mesmo parâmetro antes da secção do nervo, durante a mensuração do potencial de ação motor, os animais do grupo B apresentaram melhores resultados em relação aos do grupo A (p<0,05. Os animais do grupo C apresentaram melhores resultados em comparação com os do grupo A quando considerada a razão entre a velocidade de condução medida 24 semanas do reparo e antes da secção do nervo durante a avaliação do potencial de ação motor. Conclui-se que os animais em que o reparo dos nervos foi realizado com o adesivo de fibrina apresentaram melhores resultados em comparação com a sutura quando considerados os parâmetros obtidos na mensuração do potencial de ação motor.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis and truncular sciatic pain. MRI study of 2 cases; Rhabdomyolyse et sciatique tronculaire. Deux cas etudies en IRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Friant, G.; Brinquin, L.; Soulie, D.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-02-01

    We report two cases of acute rhabdomyolysis in pelvic girdle muscles with sciatic palsy secondary to compression of the sciatic nerve trunk, with clinical and MRI correlation. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis is based on clinical and biological data, but diagnosis of compression complications secondary to swelling of the muscles, especially the compression of nerve trunk, is done by imaging. T2 weighted images give a definite anatomical evaluation. They show enlarged high signal intensity muscles and anatomic relationship with the sciatic nerve from its emergence out of pelvis, giving a good correlation between rhabdomyolysis and the compressed nervous trunk. It helps for planning a possible surgical fasciotomy. However, MRI provides only morphological informations, but not differentiates edema from necrosis in involved muscles. (authors). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Walking transect path

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We designed a 12.2 km walking transect so that an observer would pass within 50m of all habitat in the estuary and also minimize fording large channels. This...

  16. Treadmill Training Enhances Axon Regeneration In Injured Mouse Peripheral Nerves Without Increased Loss of Topographic Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Arthur W.; Cucoranu, Delia; Mulligan, Amanda; Sabatier, Manning

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the extent of misdirection of regenerating axons when that regeneration was enhanced using treadmill training. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were applied to the cut proximal stumps of the tibial and common fibular nerves two or four weeks after transection and surgical repair of the mouse sciatic nerve. The spatial locations of retrogradely labeled motoneurons were studied in untreated control mice and in mice receiving two weeks of treadmill training, either according to a continuous protocol (10 m/min, one hour/day, five day/week) or an interval protocol (20 m/min for two minutes, followed by a five minute rest, repeated 4 times, five days/week). More retrogradely labeled motoneurons were found in both treadmill trained groups. The magnitude of this increase was as great as or greater than that found after using other enhancement strategies. In both treadmill trained groups, the proportions of motoneurons labeled from tracer applied to the common fibular nerve that were found in spinal cord locations reserved for tibial motoneurons in intact mice was no greater than in untreated control mice and signi