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Sample records for schwinger source theory

  1. The sources of Schwinger's Green's functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, Silvan S

    2005-05-31

    Julian Schwinger's development of his Green's functions methods in quantum field theory is placed in historical context. The relation of Schwinger's quantum action principle to Richard Feynman's path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics is reviewed. The nonperturbative character of Schwinger's approach is stressed as well as the ease with which it can be extended to finite temperature situations.

  2. Schwinger-Fronsdal Theory of Abelian Tensor Gauge Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Guttenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the Schwinger and Fronsdal theory of Abelian tensor gauge fields. The theory describes the propagation of free massless gauge bosons of integer helicities and their interaction with external currents. Self-consistency of its equations requires only the traceless part of the current divergence to vanish. The essence of the theory is given by the fact that this weaker current conservation is enough to guarantee the unitarity of the theory. Physically this means that only waves with transverse polarizations are propagating very far from the sources. The question whether such currents exist should be answered by a fully interacting theory. We also suggest an equivalent representation of the corresponding action.

  3. Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

  4. Schwinger α-PARAMETRIC Representation of Finite Temperature Field Theories:. Renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, M.; Kassou-Ou-Ali, A.

    We present the extension of the zero temperature Schwinger α-representation to the finite temperature scalar field theories. We give, in a compact form, the α-integrand of Feynman amplitudes of these theories. Using this representation, we analyze short-range divergences, and recover in a simple way the known result that the counterterms are temperature-independent.

  5. Canonical field anticommutators in the extended gauged Rarita-Schwinger theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Henneaux, Marc; Pais, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    We reexamine canonical quantization of the gauged Rarita-Schwinger theory using the extended theory, incorporating a dimension 1/2 auxiliary spin-1/2 field Λ , in which there is an exact off-shell gauge invariance. In Λ =0 gauge, which reduces to the original unextended theory, our results agree with those found by Johnson and Sudarshan, and later verified by Velo and Zwanziger, which give a canonical Rarita-Schwinger field Dirac bracket that is singular for small gauge fields. In gauge covariant radiation gauge, the Dirac bracket of the Rarita-Schwinger fields is nonsingular, but does not correspond to a positive semidefinite anticommutator, and the Dirac bracket of the auxiliary fields has a singularity of the same form as found in the unextended theory. These results indicate that gauged Rarita-Schwinger theory is somewhat pathological, and cannot be canonically quantized within a conventional positive semidefinite metric Hilbert space. We leave open the questions of whether consistent quantizations can be achieved by using an indefinite metric Hilbert space, by path integral methods, or by appropriate couplings to conventional dimension 3/2 spin-1/2 fields.

  6. Transcendental equations in the Schwinger-Keldysh nonequilibrium theory and nonvanishing correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldi, Filippo [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal and National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South Africa and Gruppo Nazionale per la Fisica Matematica (GNFM-INdAM), c/o Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica Francesco Severi, Città Universitaria, Piazza Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The Schwinger-Keldysh nonequilibrium theory allows the description of various transport phenomena involving bosons (fermions) embedded in bosonic (fermionic) environments. The retarded Green’s function obeys the Dyson equation and determines via its non-vanishing asymptotic behavior the dissipationless open dynamics. The appearance of this regime is conditioned by the existence of the solution of a general class of transcendental equations in complex domain that we study. Particular cases consist in transcendental equations containing exponential, hyperbolic, power law, logarithmic, and special functions. The present analysis provides an analytical description of the thermal and temporal correlation function of two general observables of a quantum system in terms of the corresponding spectral function. Special integral properties of the spectral function guarantee non-vanishing asymptotic behavior of the correlation function.

  7. Quantum statistical field theory an introduction to Schwinger's variational method with Green's function nanoapplications, graphene and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern Horing, Norman J

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the methods of coupled quantum statistical field theory and Green's functions. The methods of coupled quantum field theory have played a major role in the extensive development of nonrelativistic quantum many-particle theory and condensed matter physics. This introduction to the subject is intended to facilitate delivery of the material in an easily digestible form to advanced undergraduate physics majors at a relatively early stage of their scientific development. The main mechanism to accomplish this is the early introduction of variational calculus and the Schwinger Action Principle, accompanied by Green's functions. Important achievements of the theory in condensed matter and quantum statistical physics are reviewed in detail to help develop research capability. These include the derivation of coupled field Green's function equations-of-motion for a model electron-hole-phonon system, extensive discussions of retarded, thermodynamic and nonequilibrium Green's functions...

  8. Inverse scattering theory: renormalization of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for acoustic scattering in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Donald J; Vijay, Amrendra

    2003-04-01

    The most robust treatment of the inverse acoustic scattering problem is based on the reversion of the Born-Neumann series solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An important issue for this approach to inversion is the radius of convergence of the Born-Neumann series for Fredholm integral kernels, and especially for acoustic scattering for which the interaction depends on the square of the frequency. By contrast, it is well known that the Born-Neumann series for the Volterra integral equations in quantum scattering are absolutely convergent, independent of the strength of the coupling characterizing the interaction. The transformation of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation from a Fredholm to a Volterra structure by renormalization has been considered previously for quantum scattering calculations and electromagnetic scattering. In this paper, we employ the renormalization technique to obtain a Volterra equation framework for the inverse acoustic scattering series, proving that this series also converges absolutely in the entire complex plane of coupling constant and frequency values. The present results are for acoustic scattering in one dimension, but the method is general. The approach is illustrated by applications to two simple one-dimensional models for acoustic scattering.

  9. Dryson equations, Ward identities, and the infrared behavior of Yang-Mills theories. [Schwinger-Dyson equations, Slavnov-Taylor identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown using the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Slavnov-Taylor identities of Yang-Mills theory that no inconsistency arises if the gluon propagator behaves like (1/p/sup 2/)/sup 2/ for small p/sup 2/. To see whether the theory actually contains such singular long range behavior, a nonperturbative closed set of equations was formulated by neglecting the transverse parts of GAMMA and GAMMA/sub 4/ in the Schwinger-Dyson equations. This simplification preserves all the symmetries of the theory and allows the possibility for a singular low-momentum behavior of the gluon propagator. The justification for neglecting GAMMA/sup (T)/ and GAMMA/sub 4//sup (T)/ is not evident but it is expected that the present study of the resulting equations will elucidate this simplification, which leads to a closed set of equations.

  10. Solution of the Dyson-Schwinger-Equations of the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills-Theory in Coulomb-gauge; Loesung der Dyson-Schwinger-Gleichungen des Hamilton-Zugangs zur Yang-Mills-Theorie in Coulomb-Eichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epple, Mark Dominik

    2008-12-03

    time, which produces a lineary rising static quark potential. We also obtain a running coupling which shows the correct infrared fixpoint with very high precision. Further numerical studies were made for the fully coupled system without horizon condition. We confirm the analytically predicted result that the system cannot be solved using the horizon condition. But it is a noval result that we can obtain solutions which show for a certain range (but not for arbitrarily large distances) a linearly rising static quark potential. In the last large part of this work we use the newly obtained results to calculate the 't Hoof loop which is a (dis-)order parameter of the confinement phase transition of Yang-Mills theory. We examine analytically and compute numerically a continuum representation for the 't Hooft loop operator that has been given recently. We can show that the 't Hooft loop shows a perimeter law and thus indicates confinement if the relevant renormalization parameter is set to the value representing the minimal vacuum energy. Thus we further reduce the number of renormalization parameters in the Dyson-Schwinger-equations by one. (orig.)

  11. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  12. The Schwinger α-PARAMETRIC Representation of the Finite-Temperature Field Theory:. Renormalization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, Mabrouk; Kassou-Ou-Ali, Ahmed

    We extend to finite-temperature field theories, involving charged scalar or nonvanishing spin particles, the α parametrization of field theories at zero temperature. This completes a previous work concerning the scalar theory. As there, a function θ, which contains all temperature dependence, appears in the α integrand. The function θ is an extension of the usual theta function. The implications of the α parametrization for the renormalization problem are discussed.

  13. The inverse problem for Schwinger pair production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hebenstreit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of electron–positron pairs in time-dependent electric fields (Schwinger mechanism depends non-linearly on the applied field profile. Accordingly, the resulting momentum spectrum is extremely sensitive to small variations of the field parameters. Owing to this non-linear dependence it is so far unpredictable how to choose a field configuration such that a predetermined momentum distribution is generated. We show that quantum kinetic theory along with optimal control theory can be used to approximately solve this inverse problem for Schwinger pair production. We exemplify this by studying the superposition of a small number of harmonic components resulting in predetermined signatures in the asymptotic momentum spectrum. In the long run, our results could facilitate the observation of this yet unobserved pair production mechanism in quantum electrodynamics by providing suggestions for tailored field configurations.

  14. Combined study of Schwinger-boson mean-field theory and linearized tensor renormalization group on Heisenberg ferromagnetic mixed spin (S, σ chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Schwinger-boson mean-field theory (SBMFT and the linearized tensor renormalization group (LTRG methods are complementarily applied to explore the thermodynamics of the quantum ferromagnetic mixed spin (S, σ chains. It is found that the system has double excitations, i.e. a gapless and a gapped excitation; the low-lying spectrum can be approximated by ω k ∼ S σ 2 ( S + σ J k 2 with J the ferromagnetic coupling; and the gap between the two branches is estimated to be △ ∼ J. The Bose-Einstein condensation indicates a ferromagnetic ground state with magnetization m tot z = N ( S + σ . At low temperature, the spin correlation length is inversely proportional to temperature (T, the susceptibility behaviors as χ = a 1 ∗ 1 T 2 + a 2 ∗ 1 T , and the specific heat has the form of C = c 1 ∗ T − c 2 ∗ T + c 3 ∗ T 3 2 , with ai (i = 1, 2 and ci (i = 1, 2, 3 the temperature independent constants. The SBMFT results are shown to be in qualitatively agreement with those by the LTRG numerical calculations for S = 1 and σ = 1/2. A comparison of the LTRG results with the experimental data of the model material MnIINiII(NO24(en2(en = ethylenediamine, is made, in which the coupling parameters of the compound are obtained. This study provides useful information for deeply understanding the physical properties of quantum ferromagnetic mixed spin chain materials.

  15. Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation approach to the emission of radiation by sources located inside finite-sized dielectric structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, T.; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    A full-vectorial integral equation method is presented for calculating near fields and far fields generated by a given distribution of sources located inside finite-sized dielectric structures. Special attention is given to the treatment of the singularity of the dipole source field. A method.......g., an excited atom located inside a dieletric structure....

  16. The Feynman-Schwinger representation in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu. A. Simonov; J.A. Tjon

    2002-05-01

    The proper time path integral representation is derived explicitly for Green's functions in QCD. After an introductory analysis of perturbative properties, the total gluonic field is separated in a rigorous way into a nonperturbative background and valence gluon part. For nonperturbative contributions the background perturbation theory is used systematically, yielding two types of expansions,illustrated by direct physical applications. As an application, we discuss the collinear singularities in the Feynman-Schwinger representation formalism. Moreover, the generalization to nonzero temperature is made and expressions for partition functions in perturbation theory and nonperturbative background are explicitly written down.

  17. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Frankfurt am Main Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing (NIC); Jansen, K.; Saito, H. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing (NIC)

    2015-10-15

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  18. Schwinger effect for non-Abelian gauge bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the Schwinger effect for the gauge bosons in an unbroken non-Abelian gauge theory (e.g. the gluons of QCD). We consider both constant “color electric” fields and “color magnetic” fields as backgrounds. As in the Abelian Schwinger effect we find there is production of “gluons” for the color electric field, but no particle production for the color magnetic field case. Since the non-Abelian gauge bosons are massless there is no exponential suppression of particle production due to the mass of the electron/positron that one finds in the Abelian Schwinger effect. Despite the lack of an exponential suppression of the gluon production rate due to the masslessness of the gluons, we find that the critical field strength is even larger in the non-Abelian case as compared to the Abelian case. This is the result of the confinement phenomenon on QCD.

  19. Schwinger-Dyson operators as invariant vector fields on a matrix model analog of the group of loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswami, Govind S.

    2008-06-01

    For a class of large-N multimatrix models, we identify a group G that plays the same role as the group of loops on space-time does for Yang-Mills theory. G is the spectrum of a commutative shuffle-deconcatenation Hopf algebra that we associate with correlations. G is the exponential of the free Lie algebra. The generating series of correlations is a function on G and satisfies quadratic equations in convolution. These factorized Schwinger-Dyson or loop equations involve a collection of Schwinger-Dyson operators, which are shown to be right-invariant vector fields on G, one for each linearly independent primitive of the Hopf algebra. A large class of formal matrix models satisfying these properties are identified, including as special cases, the zero momentum limits of the Gaussian, Chern-Simons, and Yang-Mills field theories. Moreover, the Schwinger-Dyson operators of the continuum Yang-Mills action are shown to be right-invariant derivations of the shuffle-deconcatenation Hopf algebra generated by sources labeled by position and polarization.

  20. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, Albert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  1. Julian Schwinger — Personal Recollections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul C.

    We're gathered here today to salute Julian Schwinger, a towering figure of the golden age of physics — and a kind and gentle human being. Even at our best universities, people with Julian's talent and his passion for discovery and perfection are rare — so rare that neither they nor the rest of us know how to take best advantage of their genius. The failure to find a happier solution to this dilemma in recent years has concerned many of us. It should not becloud the fact that over their lifetimes, few physicists, if any, have surmounted this impedance mismatch more effectively than Julian, conveying not only knowledge but lofty values and aspirations directly and indirectly to thousands of physicists…

  2. Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Part II: thermal equivariant cohomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2017-06-01

    Causally ordered correlation functions of local operators in near-thermal quantum systems computed using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism obey a set of Ward identities. These can be understood rather simply as the consequence of a topological (BRST) algebra, called the universal Schwinger-Keldysh superalgebra, as explained in our compan-ion paper [1]. In the present paper we provide a mathematical discussion of this topological algebra. In particular, we argue that the structures can be understood in the language of extended equivariant cohomology. To keep the discussion self-contained, we provide a ba-sic review of the algebraic construction of equivariant cohomology and explain how it can be understood in familiar terms as a superspace gauge algebra. We demonstrate how the Schwinger-Keldysh construction can be succinctly encoded in terms a thermal equivariant cohomology algebra which naturally acts on the operator (super)-algebra of the quantum system. The main rationale behind this exploration is to extract symmetry statements which are robust under renormalization group flow and can hence be used to understand low-energy effective field theory of near-thermal physics. To illustrate the general prin-ciples, we focus on Langevin dynamics of a Brownian particle, rephrasing some known results in terms of thermal equivariant cohomology. As described elsewhere, the general framework enables construction of effective actions for dissipative hydrodynamics and could potentially illumine our understanding of black holes.

  3. SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manu; Raychowdhury, Indrakshi; Anishetty, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    We construct SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons satisfying certain U(N-1) constraints which implement the symmetries of SU(N) Young tableaues. As a result all SU(N) irreducible representations are simple monomials of (N -1) types of SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons. Further, we show that these representations are free of multiplicity problems. Thus, all SU(N) representations are made as simple as SU(2).

  4. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  5. Resurgent transseries & Dyson–Schwinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: klacz@mathematik.hu-berlin.de

    2016-09-15

    We employ resurgent transseries as algebraic tools to investigate two self-consistent Dyson–Schwinger equations, one in Yukawa theory and one in quantum electrodynamics. After a brief but pedagogical review, we derive fixed point equations for the associated anomalous dimensions and insert a moderately generic log-free transseries ansatz to study the possible strictures imposed. While proceeding in various stages, we develop an algebraic method to keep track of the transseries’ coefficients. We explore what conditions must be violated in order to stay clear of fixed point theorems to eschew a unique solution, if so desired, as we explain. An interesting finding is that the flow of data between the different sectors of the transseries shows a pattern typical of resurgence, i.e. the phenomenon that the perturbative sector of the transseries talks to the nonperturbative ones in a one-way fashion. However, our ansatz is not exotic enough as it leads to trivial solutions with vanishing nonperturbative sectors, even when logarithmic monomials are included. We see our result as a harbinger of what future work might reveal about the transseries representations of observables in fully renormalised four-dimensional quantum field theories and adduce a tentative yet to our mind weighty argument as to why one should not expect otherwise. This paper is considerably self-contained. Readers with little prior knowledge are let in on the basic reasons why perturbative series in quantum field theory eventually require an upgrade to transseries. Furthermore, in order to acquaint the reader with the language utilised extensively in this work, we also provide a concise mathematical introduction to grid-based transseries.

  6. Resurgent transseries & Dyson-Schwinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    We employ resurgent transseries as algebraic tools to investigate two self-consistent Dyson-Schwinger equations, one in Yukawa theory and one in quantum electrodynamics. After a brief but pedagogical review, we derive fixed point equations for the associated anomalous dimensions and insert a moderately generic log-free transseries ansatz to study the possible strictures imposed. While proceeding in various stages, we develop an algebraic method to keep track of the transseries' coefficients. We explore what conditions must be violated in order to stay clear of fixed point theorems to eschew a unique solution, if so desired, as we explain. An interesting finding is that the flow of data between the different sectors of the transseries shows a pattern typical of resurgence, i.e. the phenomenon that the perturbative sector of the transseries talks to the nonperturbative ones in a one-way fashion. However, our ansatz is not exotic enough as it leads to trivial solutions with vanishing nonperturbative sectors, even when logarithmic monomials are included. We see our result as a harbinger of what future work might reveal about the transseries representations of observables in fully renormalised four-dimensional quantum field theories and adduce a tentative yet to our mind weighty argument as to why one should not expect otherwise. This paper is considerably self-contained. Readers with little prior knowledge are let in on the basic reasons why perturbative series in quantum field theory eventually require an upgrade to transseries. Furthermore, in order to acquaint the reader with the language utilised extensively in this work, we also provide a concise mathematical introduction to grid-based transseries.

  7. Rotating hybrid stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.-B.; Chen, H.; Burgio, G. F.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2017-08-01

    We study rapidly rotating hybrid stars with the Dyson-Schwinger model for quark matter and the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory with realistic two-body and three-body forces for nuclear matter. We determine the maximum gravitational mass, equatorial radius, and rotation frequency of stable stellar configurations by considering the constraints of the Keplerian limit and the secular axisymmetric instability, and compare with observational data. We also discuss the rotational evolution for constant baryonic mass and find a spin-up phenomenon for supramassive stars before they collapse to black holes.

  8. A Dyson-Schwinger approach to finite temperature QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Jens Andreas

    2011-10-26

    The different phases of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature are studied. To this end the nonperturbative quark propagator in Matsubara formalism is determined from its equation of motion, the Dyson-Schwinger equation. A novel truncation scheme is introduced including the nonperturbative, temperature dependent gluon propagator as extracted from lattice gauge theory. In the first part of the thesis a deconfinement order parameter, the dual condensate, and the critical temperature are determined from the dependence of the quark propagator on the temporal boundary conditions. The chiral transition is investigated by means of the quark condensate as order parameter. In addition differences in the chiral and deconfinement transition between gauge groups SU(2) and SU(3) are explored. In the following the quenched quark propagator is studied with respect to a possible spectral representation at finite temperature. In doing so, the quark propagator turns out to possess different analytic properties below and above the deconfinement transition. This result motivates the consideration of an alternative deconfinement order parameter signaling positivity violations of the spectral function. A criterion for positivity violations of the spectral function based on the curvature of the Schwinger function is derived. Using a variety of ansaetze for the spectral function, the possible quasi-particle spectrum is analyzed, in particular its quark mass and momentum dependence. The results motivate a more direct determination of the spectral function in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. In the two subsequent chapters extensions of the truncation scheme are considered. The influence of dynamical quark degrees of freedom on the chiral and deconfinement transition is investigated. This serves as a first step towards a complete self-consistent consideration of dynamical quarks and the extension to finite chemical potential. The goodness of the truncation is verified first

  9. ERG and Schwinger-Dyson Equations - Comparison in Formulations and Applications -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Haruhiko

    The advantageous points of ERG in applications to non-perturbative analyses of quantum field theories are discussed in comparison with the Schwinger-Dyson equations. First we consider the relation between these two formulations specially by examining the large N field theories. In the second part we study the phase structure of dynamical symmetry breaking in three dimensional QED as a typical example of the practical application.

  10. Massive Schwinger model at finite θ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcoiti, Vicente; Follana, Eduardo; Royo-Amondarain, Eduardo; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Vaquero Avilés-Casco, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Using the approach developed by V. Azcoiti et al. [Phys. Lett. B 563, 117 (2003), 10.1016/S0370-2693(03)00601-4], we are able to reconstruct the behavior of the massive one-flavor Schwinger model with a θ term and a quantized topological charge. We calculate the full dependence of the order parameter with θ . Our results at θ =π are compatible with Coleman's conjecture on the phase diagram of this model.

  11. Holographic Schwinger effect with a moving D3-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Chen, Gang [China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), School of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan (China); Hou, De-fu [Central China Normal University, Institute of Particle Physics and Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOS), Wuhan (China)

    2017-03-15

    We study the Schwinger effect with a moving D3-brane in a N = 4 SYM plasma with the aid of AdS/CFT correspondence. We discuss the test particle pair moving transverse and parallel to the plasma wind, respectively. It is found that for both cases the presence of velocity tends to increase the Schwinger effect. In addition, the velocity has a stronger influence on the Schwinger effect when the pair moves transverse to the plasma wind rather than parallel. (orig.)

  12. Schwinger variational calculation of ionization of hydrogen atoms for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schwinger variational calculation of ionization of hydrogen atoms for large momentum transfers. K CHAKRABARTI. Department of Mathematics, Scottish Church College, 1 & 3 Urquhart Square,. Kolkata 700 006, India. MS received 7 July 2001; revised 10 October 2001. Abstract. Schwinger variational principle is used here ...

  13. CrasyDSE: A framework for solving Dyson-Schwinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Markus Q.; Mitter, Mario

    2012-11-01

    Dyson-Schwinger equations are important tools for non-perturbative analyses of quantum field theories. For example, they are very useful for investigations in quantum chromodynamics and related theories. However, sometimes progress is impeded by the complexity of the equations. Thus automating parts of the calculations will certainly be helpful in future investigations. In this article we present a framework for such an automation based on a C++ code that can deal with a large number of Green functions. Since also the creation of the expressions for the integrals of the Dyson-Schwinger equations needs to be automated, we defer this task to a Mathematica notebook. We illustrate the complete workflow with an example from Yang-Mills theory coupled to a fundamental scalar field that has been investigated recently. As a second example we calculate the propagators of pure Yang-Mills theory. Our code can serve as a basis for many further investigations where the equations are too complicated to tackle by hand. It also can easily be combined with DoFun, a program for the derivation of Dyson-Schwinger equations.language: Mathematica 8 and higher, C++. Computer: All on which Mathematica and C++ are available. Operating system: All on which Mathematica and C++ are available (Windows, Unix, Mac OS). Classification: 11.1, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6. Nature of problem: Solve (large) systems of Dyson-Schwinger equations numerically. Solution method: Create C++ functions in Mathematica to be used for the numeric code in C++. This code uses structures to handle large numbers of Green functions. Unusual features: Provides a tool to convert Mathematica expressions into C++ expressions including conversion of function names. Running time: Depending on the complexity of the investigated system solving the equations numerically can take seconds on a desktop PC to hours on a cluster.

  14. Quark Propagator with electroweak interactions in the Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Walid Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    To asses the impact, we study the influence of especially parity violation on the propagator for various masses. For this purpose the functional methods in form of Dyson-Schwinger-Equations are employed. We find that explicit isospin breaking leads to a qualitative change of behavior even for a slight explicit breaking, which is in contrast to the expectations from perturbation theory. Our results thus suggest that non-perturbative backcoupling effects could be larger than expected.

  15. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  16. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, Hana [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences

    2016-03-15

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the Matrix Product States (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the non-zero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chiral symmetry breaking in the massless and massive cases and show that the method works very well and gives good control over a broad range of temperatures, essentially from zero to infinite temperature.

  17. Multifaceted Schwinger effect in de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramkishor; Singh, Suprit

    2017-07-01

    We investigate particle production à la the Schwinger mechanism in an expanding, flat de Sitter patch as is relevant for the inflationary epoch of our Universe. Defining states and particle content in curved spacetime is certainly not a unique process. There being different prescriptions on how that can be done, we have used the Schrödinger formalism to define instantaneous particle content of the state, etc. This allows us to go past the adiabatic regime to which the effect has been restricted in the previous studies and bring out its multifaceted nature in different settings. Each of these settings gives rise to contrasting features and behavior as per the effect of the electric field and expansion rate on the instantaneous mean particle number. We also quantify the degree of classicality of the process during its evolution using a "classicality parameter" constructed out of parameters of the Wigner function to obtain information about the quantum to classical transition in this case.

  18. Schwinger-Keldysh diagrammatics for primordial perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2017-12-01

    We present a systematic introduction to the diagrammatic method for practical calculations in inflationary cosmology, based on Schwinger-Keldysh path integral formalism. We show in particular that the diagrammatic rules can be derived directly from a classical Lagrangian even in the presence of derivative couplings. Furthermore, we use a quasi-single-field inflation model as an example to show how this formalism, combined with the trick of mixed propagator, can significantly simplify the calculation of some in-in correlation functions. The resulting bispectrum includes the lighter scalar case (m3H/2) that has not been explicitly computed for this model. The latter provides a concrete example of quantum primordial standard clocks, in which the clock signals can be observably large.

  19. Random matrix theory with an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    This is a first book to show that the theory of the Gaussian random matrix is essential to understand the universal correlations with random fluctuations and to demonstrate that it is useful to evaluate topological universal quantities. We consider Gaussian random matrix models in the presence of a deterministic matrix source. In such models the correlation functions are known exactly for an arbitrary source and for any size of the matrices. The freedom given by the external source allows for various tunings to different classes of universality. The main interest is to use this freedom to compute various topological invariants for surfaces such as the intersection numbers for curves drawn on a surface of given genus with marked points, Euler characteristics, and the Gromov–Witten invariants. A remarkable duality for the average of characteristic polynomials is essential for obtaining such topological invariants. The analysis is extended to nonorientable surfaces and to surfaces with boundaries.

  20. The bosonized version of the Schwinger model in four dimensions: A blueprint for confinement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurilia, Antonio; Gaete, Patricio; Helayël-Neto, José A.; Spallucci, Euro

    2017-03-01

    For a (3 + 1)-dimensional generalization of the Schwinger model, we compute the interaction energy between two test charges. The result shows that the static potential profile contains a linear term leading to the confinement of probe charges, exactly as in the original model in two dimensions. We further show that the same 4-dimensional model also appears as one version of the B ∧ F models in (3 + 1) dimensions under dualization of Stueckelberg-like massive gauge theories. Interestingly, this particular model is characterized by the mixing between a U(1) potential and an Abelian 3-form field of the type that appears in the topological sector of QCD.

  1. Density induced phase transitions in the Schwinger model. A study with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-02-15

    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  2. The mass spectrum of the Schwinger model with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics

    2013-07-15

    We show the feasibility of tensor network solutions for lattice gauge theories in Hamiltonian formulation by applying matrix product states algorithms to the Schwinger model with zero and non-vanishing fermion mass. We introduce new techniques to compute excitations in a system with open boundary conditions, and to identify the states corresponding to low momentum and different quantum numbers in the continuum. For the ground state and both the vector and scalar mass gaps in the massive case, the MPS technique attains precisions comparable to the best results available from other techniques.

  3. Julian Schwinger the physicist, the teacher, and the man

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In the post-quantum-mechanics era, few physicists, if any, have matched Julian Schwinger in contributions to and influence on the development of physics. A deep and provocative thinker, Schwinger left his indelible mark on all areas of theoretical physics; an eloquent lecturer and immensely successful mentor, he was gentle, intensely private, and known for being "modest about everything except his physics". This book is a collection of talks in memory of him by some of his contemporaries and his former students: A Klein, F Dyson, B DeWitt, W Kohn, D Saxon, P C Martin, K Johnson, S Deser, R Fin

  4. Short-distance Schwinger-mechanism and chiral symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.; Brogård, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Schwinger pair production of charged massless particles in constant electric fields of finite-extent. Exploiting a map from the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equation to the harmonic oscillator, we find exact pair production rates for massless fermions and scalars. Pair productio...

  5. From the Dyson-Schwinger to the transport equation in the background field gauge of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Qun; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    The non-equilibrium quantum field dynamics is usually described in the closed-time-path formalism. The initial state correlations are introduced into the generating functional by non-local source terms. We propose a functional approach to the Dyson-Schwinger equation, which treats the non-local and local source terms in the same way. In this approach, the generating functional is formulated for the connected Green functions and one-particle-irreducible vertices. The great advantages of our approach over the widely used two-particle-irreducible method are that it is much simpler and that it is easy to implement the procedure in a computer program to automatically generate the Feynman diagrams for a given process. The method is then applied to a pure gluon plasma to derive the gauge-covariant transport equation from the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the background-covariant gauge. We discuss the structure of the kinetic equation and show its relationship with the classical one. We derive the gauge-covariant colli...

  6. Pair production by three fields dynamically assisted Schwinger process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitiwaldi, Ibrahim; Xie, Bai-Song

    2018-02-01

    The dynamically assisted Schwinger mechanism for vacuum pair production from two fields to three fields is proposed and examined. Numerical results for enhanced electron-positron pair production in the combination of three fields with different time scales are obtained using the quantum Vlasov equation. The significance of the combination of three fields in the regime of super low field strength is verified. Although the strengths of each of the three fields are far below the critical field strength, we obtain a significant enhancement of the production rate and a considerable yields in this combination, where the nonperturbative field is dynamically assisted by two oscillating fields. The number density depending on field parameters are also investigated. It is shown that the field threshold to detect the Schwinger effect can be lowered significantly if the configuration of three fields with different time scales are chosen carefully.

  7. Chiral perturbation theory with tensor sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cata, Oscar; Cata, Oscar; Mateu, Vicent

    2007-05-21

    We construct the most general chirally-invariant Lagrangian for mesons in the presence of external sources coupled to the tensor current \\bar psi sigma_mu nu psi. In order to have only even terms in the chiral expansion, we consider the new source of O(p2). With this choice, we build the even-parity effective Lagrangian up to the p6-order (NLO). While there are only 4 new terms at the p4-order, at p6-order we find 78 terms for n_f=2 and 113 terms for n_f=3. We provide a detailed discussion on the different mechanisms that ensure that our final set of operators is complete and non-redundant. We also examine the odd-parity sector, to conclude that the first operators appear at the p8-order (NNLO).

  8. Complex space source theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, SR

    2013-01-01

    The author highlights that there is a need obtain exact full-wave solutions that reduce to the paraxial beams in the appropriate limit. Complex Space Source Theory of Spatially Localized Electromagnetic Waves treats the exact full-wave generalizations of all the basic types of paraxial beam solutions. These are developed by the use of Fourier and Bessel transform techniques and the complex space source theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves is integrated as a branch of Fourier optics.

  9. On the Finite Line Source Problem in Diffusion Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Troen, Ib; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1982-01-01

    A simple formula for calculating dispersion from a continuous finite line source, placed at right angles to the mean wind direction, is derived on the basis of statistical theory. Comparison is made with the virtual source concept usually used and this is shown to be correct only in the limit whe...

  10. Global Sourcing of Heterogeneous Firms: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    to Antràs & Helpman (2004). This model invokes the property rights theory of the firm in order to pin down firm boundaries as the outcome of an interaction between firm heterogeneity and the industry's sourcing intensity (i.e. the importance of inputs sourced from suppliers relative to headquarter inputs...

  11. Thermal evolution of the one-flavour Schwinger model using matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H.; Jansen, K. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann Institute for Computing; Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Frankfurt am Main Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics

    2015-11-15

    The Schwinger model, or 1+1 dimensional QED, offers an interesting object of study, both at zero and non-zero temperature, because of its similarities to QCD. In this proceeding, we present the a full calculation of the temperature dependent chiral condensate of this model in the continuum limit using Matrix Product States (MPS). MPS methods, in general tensor networks, constitute a very promising technique for the non-perturbative study of Hamiltonian quantum systems. In the last few years, they have shown their suitability as ansatzes for ground states and low-lying excitations of lattice gauge theories. We show the feasibility of the approach also for finite temperature, both in the massless and in the massive case.

  12. Quark Propagator with electroweak interactions in the Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Walid Ahmed; Maas, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the non-negligible dynamical backcoupling of the electroweak interactions with the strong interaction during neutron star mergers, we study the effects of the explicit breaking of C, P and flavor symmetry on the strong sector. The quark propagator is the simplest object which encodes the consequences of these breakings. To asses the impact, we study the influence of especially parity violation on the propagator for various masses. For this purpose the functional methods in form of Dyson-Schwinger-Equations are employed. We find that explicit isospin breaking leads to a qualitative change of behavior even for a slight explicit breaking, which is in contrast to the expectations from perturbation theory. Our results thus suggest that non-perturbative backcoupling effects could be larger than expected.

  13. How to solve the Schwinger-Dyson equations once and for all gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, A [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacan 58040 (Mexico); Raya, A [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima. Bernal DIaz del Castillo hashmark 340, Col. Villa San Sebastian, Colima, Colima 28045 (Mexico)

    2006-05-15

    Study of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) for the fermion propagator to obtain dynamically generated chirally asymmetric solution in any covariant gauge is a complicated numerical exercise specially if one employs a sophisticated form of the fermion-boson interaction complying with the key features of a gauge field theory. However, constraints of gauge invariance can help construct such a solution without having the need to solve the SDE for every value of the gauge parameter. Starting from the Landau gauge where the computational complications are still manageable, we apply the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformation (LKFT) on the dynamically generated solution and find approximate analytical results for arbitrary value of the covariant gauge parameter. We also compare our results with exact numerical solutions.

  14. Probability Theory as Logic: Data Assimilation for Multiple Source Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Eugene

    2012-03-01

    Probability theory as logic (or Bayesian probability theory) is a rational inferential methodology that provides a natural and logically consistent framework for source reconstruction. This methodology fully utilizes the information provided by a limited number of noisy concentration data obtained from a network of sensors and combines it in a consistent manner with the available prior knowledge (mathematical representation of relevant physical laws), hence providing a rigorous basis for the assimilation of this data into models of atmospheric dispersion for the purpose of contaminant source reconstruction. This paper addresses the application of this framework to the reconstruction of contaminant source distributions consisting of an unknown number of localized sources, using concentration measurements obtained from a sensor array. To this purpose, Bayesian probability theory is used to formulate the full joint posterior probability density function for the parameters of the unknown source distribution. A simulated annealing algorithm, applied in conjunction with a reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, is used to draw random samples of source distribution models from the posterior probability density function. The methodology is validated against a real (full-scale) atmospheric dispersion experiment involving a multiple point source release.

  15. Pion transition form factor through Dyson-Schwinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Khépani

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), we compute the γ*γ→π0 transition form factor, G(Q2). For the first time, in a continuum approach to quantun chromodynamics (QCD), it was possible to compute G(Q2) on the whole domain of space-like momenta. Our result agrees with CELLO, CLEO and Belle collaborations and, with the well- known asymptotic QCD limit, 2ƒπ. Our analysis unifies this prediction with that of the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude (PDA) and elastic electromagnetic form factor.

  16. Schwinger mechanism in electromagnetic field in de Sitter spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarsad, Ehsan; Pyo Kim, Sang; Stahl, Clément; Xue, She-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We investigate Schwinger scalar pair production in a constant electromagnetic field in de Sitter (dS) spacetime. We obtain the pair production rate, which agrees with the Hawking radiation in the limit of zero electric field in dS. The result describes how a cosmic magnetic field affects the pair production rate. In addition, using a numerical method we study the effect of the magnetic field on the induced current. We find that in the strong electromagnetic field the current has a linear response to the electric and magnetic fields, while in the infrared regime, is inversely proportional to the electric field and leads to infrared hyperconductivity.

  17. Alien calculus and a Schwinger-Dyson equation: two-point function with a nonperturbative mass scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.; Clavier, Pierre J.

    2017-10-01

    Starting from the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the renormalization group equation for the massless Wess-Zumino model, we compute the dominant nonperturbative contributions to the anomalous dimension of the theory, which are related by alien calculus to singularities of the Borel transform on integer points. The sum of these dominant contributions has an analytic expression. When applied to the two-point function, this analysis gives a tame evolution in the deep euclidean domain at this approximation level, making doubtful the arguments on the triviality of the quantum field theory with positive β -function. On the other side, we have a singularity of the propagator for timelike momenta of the order of the renormalization group invariant scale of the theory, which has a nonperturbative relationship with the renormalization point of the theory. All these results do not seem to have an interpretation in terms of semiclassical analysis of a Feynman path integral.

  18. Alien calculus and a Schwinger-Dyson equation: two-point function with a nonperturbative mass scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.; Clavier, Pierre J.

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the renormalization group equation for the massless Wess-Zumino model, we compute the dominant nonperturbative contributions to the anomalous dimension of the theory, which are related by alien calculus to singularities of the Borel transform on integer points. The sum of these dominant contributions has an analytic expression. When applied to the two-point function, this analysis gives a tame evolution in the deep euclidean domain at this approximation level, making doubtful the arguments on the triviality of the quantum field theory with positive β -function. On the other side, we have a singularity of the propagator for timelike momenta of the order of the renormalization group invariant scale of the theory, which has a nonperturbative relationship with the renormalization point of the theory. All these results do not seem to have an interpretation in terms of semiclassical analysis of a Feynman path integral.

  19. In Theory: Dark Energy as a Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Russell, David; Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2017-01-01

    In theory, it is possible to use the dark energy of the universe as a power source. In practice, the amount of energy that could be liberated in a local setting is many orders of magnitude too small to be useful or even detectable. Nevertheless, in the interests of education and amusement, simple machines that could, in theory, extract local power from the gravitationally repulsive cosmological constant are discussed. The gravitational neutral buoyancy distance -- the distance where local Newtonian gravity balances cosmological dark energy in a concordance cosmology -- is computed between two point objects of low mass.

  20. An overview of gravitational waves theory, sources and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    This book describes detection techniques used to search for and analyze gravitational waves (GW). It covers the whole domain of GW science, starting from the theory and ending with the experimental techniques (both present and future) used to detect them. The theoretical sections of the book address the theory of general relativity and of GW, followed by the theory of GW detection. The various sources of GW are described as well as the methods used to analyse them and to extract their physical parameters. It includes an analysis of the consequences of GW observations in terms of astrophysics as well as a description of the different detectors that exist and that are planned for the future. With the recent announcement of GW detection and the first results from LISA Pathfinder, this book will allow non-specialists to understand the present status of the field and the future of gravitational wave science

  1. Point sources and multipoles in inverse scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Potthast, Roland

    2001-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, the growing availability of computing power has had an enormous impact on the classical fields of direct and inverse scattering. The study of inverse scattering, in particular, has developed rapidly with the ability to perform computational simulations of scattering processes and led to remarkable advances in a range of applications, from medical imaging and radar to remote sensing and seismic exploration. Point Sources and Multipoles in Inverse Scattering Theory provides a survey of recent developments in inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering theory. Focusing on methods developed over the last six years by Colton, Kirsch, and the author, this treatment uses point sources combined with several far-reaching techniques to obtain qualitative reconstruction methods. The author addresses questions of uniqueness, stability, and reconstructions for both two-and three-dimensional problems.With interest in extracting information about an object through scattered waves at an all-ti...

  2. Dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect in inhomogeneous electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Christian; Schützhold, Ralf [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen,Lotharstrasse 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-02-24

    Via the world-line instanton method, we study electron-positron pair creation by a strong (but sub-critical) electric field of the profile E/cosh{sup 2} (kx) superimposed by a weaker pulse E{sup ′}/cosh{sup 2} (ωt). If the temporal Keldysh parameter γ{sub ω}=mω/(qE) exceeds a threshold value γ{sub ω}{sup crit} which depends on the spatial Keldysh parameter γ{sub k}=mk/(qE), we find a drastic enhancement of the pair creation probability — reporting on what we believe to be the first analytic non-perturbative result for the interplay between temporal and spatial field dependences E(t,x) in the Sauter-Schwinger effect. Finally, we speculate whether an analogous effect (drastic enhancement of tunneling probability) could occur in other scenarios such as stimulated nuclear decay, for example.

  3. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  4. Color-superconductivity from a Dyson-Schwinger perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, M.D.J.

    2007-12-20

    Color-superconducting phases of quantum chromodynamics at vanishing temperatures and high densities are investigated. The central object is the one-particle Green's function of the fermions, the so-called quark propagator. It is determined by its equation of motion, the Dyson-Schwinger equation. To handle Dyson-Schwinger equations a successfully applied truncation scheme in the vacuum is extended to finite densities and gradually improved. It is thereby guaranteed that analytical results at asymptotically large densities are reproduced. This way an approach that is capable to describe known results in the vacuum as well as at high densities is applied to densities of astrophysical relevance for the first time. In the first part of the thesis the framework of the investigations with focus on the extension to finite densities is outlined. Physical observables are introduced which can be extracted from the propagator. In the following a minimal truncation scheme is presented. To point out the complexity of our approach in comparison to phenomenological models of quantum chromodynamics the chirally unbroken phase is discussed first. Subsequently color-superconducting phases for massless quarks are investigated. Furthermore the role of finite quark masses and neutrality constraints at moderate densities is studied. In contrast to phenomenological models the so-called CFL phase is found to be the ground state for all relevant densities. In the following part the applicability of the maximum entropy method for the extraction of spectral functions from numerical results in Euclidean space-time is demonstrated. As an example the spectral functions of quarks in the chirally unbroken and color-superconducting phases are determined. Hereby the results of our approach are presented in a new light. For instance the finite width of the quasiparticles in the color-superconducting phase becomes apparent. In the final chapter of this work extensions of our truncation scheme in

  5. Multiloop Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangians, Schwinger Pair Creation, and the Photon S-Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, I.; de Traubenberg, M. R.; Schubert, C.

    2017-03-01

    Although the perturbation series in quantum electrodynamics has been studied for eighty years concerning its high-order behavior, our present understanding is still poorer than for many other field theories. An interesting case is Schwinger pair creation in a constant electric field, which may possibly provide a window to high loop orders; simple non-perturbative closed-form expressions have been conjectured for the pair creation rate in the weak field limit, for scalar QED in 1982 by Affleck, Alvarez, and Manton, and for spinor QED by Lebedev and Ritus in 1984. Using Borel analysis, these can be used to obtain non-perturbative information on the on-shell renormalized N-photon amplitudes at large N and low energy. This line of reasoning also leads to a number of nontrivial predictions for the effective QED Lagrangian in either four or two dimensions at any loop order, and preliminary results of a calculation of the three-loop Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian in two dimensions are presented.

  6. Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Part I: BRST symmetries and superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2017-06-01

    We review the Schwinger-Keldysh, or in-in, formalism for studying quantum dynamics of systems out-of-equilibrium. The main motivation is to rephrase well known facts in the subject in a mathematically elegant setting, by exhibiting a set of BRST symmetries inherent in the construction. We show how these fundamental symmetries can be made manifest by working in a superspace formalism. We argue that this rephrasing is extremely efficacious in understanding low energy dynamics following the usual renormalization group approach, for the BRST symmetries are robust under integrating out degrees of freedom. In addition we discuss potential generalizations of the formalism that allow us to compute out-of-time-order correlation functions that have been the focus of recent attention in the context of chaos and scrambling. We also outline a set of problems ranging from stochastic dynamics, hydrodynamics, dynamics of entanglement in QFTs, and the physics of black holes and cosmology, where we believe this framework could play a crucial role in demystifying various confusions. Our companion paper [1] describes in greater detail the mathematical framework embodying the topological symmetries we uncover here.

  7. Revisiting the equation of state of hybrid stars in the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach to QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhan; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yu-xin

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the equation of state (EoS) and the effect of the hadron-quark phase transition of strong interaction matter in compact stars. The hadron matter is described with the relativistic mean field theory, and the quark matter is described with the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD. The complete EoS of the hybrid star matter is constructed with not only the Gibbs construction but also the 3-window interpolation. The mass-radius relation of hybrid stars is also investigated. We find that, although the EoS of both the hadron matter with hyperon and Δ -baryon and the quark matter are generally softer than that of the nucleon matter, the 3-window interpolation construction may provide an EoS stiff enough for a hybrid star with mass exceeding 2 M⊙ and, in turn, solve the so-called "hyperon puzzle."

  8. The multi-flavor Schwinger model with chemical potential. Overcoming the sign problem with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, Hana [AISIN AW Co., Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the application of matrix product states, and more generally tensor networks, to lattice gauge theories. This non-perturbative method is sign problem free and has already been successfully used to compute mass spectra, thermal states and phase diagrams, as well as real-time dynamics for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge models. In previous work we showed the suitability of the method to explore the zero-temperature phase structure of the multi-flavor Schwinger model at non-zero chemical potential, a regime where the conventional Monte Carlo approach suffers from the sign problem. Here we extend our numerical study by looking at the spatially resolved chiral condensate in the massless case. We recover spatial oscillations, similar to the theoretical predictions for the single-flavor case, with a chemical potential dependent frequency and an amplitude approximately given by the homogeneous zero density condensate value.

  9. On the application of quantum transport theory to electron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kevin L

    2003-01-01

    Electron sources (e.g., field emitter arrays, wide band-gap (WBG) semiconductor materials and coatings, carbon nanotubes, etc.) seek to exploit ballistic transport within the vacuum after emission from microfabricated structures. Regardless of kind, all sources strive to minimize the barrier to electron emission by engineering material properties (work function/electron affinity) or physical geometry (field enhancement) of the cathode. The unique capabilities of cold cathodes, such as instant ON/OFF performance, high brightness, high current density, large transconductance to capacitance ratio, cold emission, small size and/or low voltage operation characteristics, commend their use in several advanced devices when physical size, weight, power consumption, beam current, and pulse repletion frequency are important, e.g., RF power amplifier such as traveling wave tubes (TWTs) for radar and communications, electrodynamic tethers for satellite deboost/reboost, and electric propulsion systems such as Hall thrusters for small satellites. The theoretical program described herein is directed towards models to evaluate emission current from electron sources (in particular, emission from WBG and Spindt-type field emitter) in order to assess their utility, capabilities and performance characteristics. Modeling efforts particularly include: band bending, non-linear and resonant (Poole-Frenkel) potentials, the extension of one-dimensional theory to multi-dimensional structures, and emission site statistics due to variations in geometry and the presence of adsorbates. Two particular methodologies, namely, the modified Airy approach and metal-semiconductor statistical hyperbolic/ellipsoidal model, are described in detail in their present stage of development.

  10. Novel Approaches To Numerical Solutions Of Quantum Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, D

    2005-01-01

    Two new approaches to numerically solving Quantum Field Theories are presented. The Source Galerkin technique is a direct approach to determining the generating functional of a theory by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations. The properties of the Source Galerkin technique are tested by using it to determine the phase structure of the Ultralocal &phis;4 theory. A framework for applying this approach to solving O( N) Nonlinear Sigma model is constructed. The Sinc Function approximation is a highly efficient method of numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams. In the present dissertation the Sinc Function approximation is applied to fermionic fields. The Sinc expanded versions of fermion and photon propagators are derived. The accuracy of this approximation is tested by a direct comparison of the Sinc expanded propagators with exact propagators and by performing several sample calculations of one loop QED diagrams. An analysis of computational properties of the Sinc Function approach is presented.

  11. Dissecting the hadronic contributions to $(g-2)_\\mu $ by Schwinger's sum rule

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical uncertainty of $(g-2)_\\mu $ is currently dominated by hadronic contributions. In order to express those in terms of directly measurable quantities, we consider a sum rule relating $g-2$ to an integral of a photo-absorption cross section. The sum rule, attributed to Schwinger, can be viewed as a combination of two older sum rules: Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) and Burkhardt-Cottingham (BC). The Schwinger sum rule has an important feature, distinguishing it from the other two: the...

  12. Towards a model of pion generalized parton distributions from Dyson-Schwinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutarde, H. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-04-10

    We compute the pion quark Generalized Parton Distribution H{sup q} and Double Distributions F{sup q} and G{sup q} in a coupled Bethe-Salpeter and Dyson-Schwinger approach. We use simple algebraic expressions inspired by the numerical resolution of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. We explicitly check the support and polynomiality properties, and the behavior under charge conjugation or time invariance of our model. We derive analytic expressions for the pion Double Distributions and Generalized Parton Distribution at vanishing pion momentum transfer at a low scale. Our model compares very well to experimental pion form factor or parton distribution function data.

  13. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics.

  14. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  15. Schwinger representation for the symmetric group: Two explicit constructions for the carrier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Marmo, G.; Mukunda, N.; Simon, R.

    2008-05-01

    We give two explicit constructions for the carrier space for the Schwinger representation of the group S. While the first relies on a class of functions consisting of monomials in antisymmetric variables, the second is based on the Fock space associated with the Greenberg algebra.

  16. Schwinger Model and String Percolation in Hadron-Hadron and Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dias De Deus, J; Ferreiro, E. G.; Pajares, C.; Ugoccioni, R.

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the Schwinger Model for percolating strings we establish a general relation between multiplicity and transverse momentum square distributions in hadron-hadron and heavy ion collisions. Some of our results agree with the Colour Glass Condensate model.

  17. Sourcing Premia with Incomplete Contracts: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We identify general conditions that result in an unambiguous mapping of a firm's productivity level into the organizational form and location of its input sourcing. We then explore a Spanish firm-level data set in order to establish a number of stylized facts about firm-level heterogeneity in sou...... in sourcing strategies that have largely gone unnoticed in existing literature. We explore this heterogeneity through estimation of productivity premia associated with different sourcing strategies....

  18. A Balanced Theory of Sourcing, Collaboration and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn a synthesis of recent advances, this article gives a fresh, balanced theory of inter-organizational relations. It integrates competence and governance perspectives. It considers the choice between mergers/acquisitions and alliances. It offers a toolbox of instruments to govern

  19. Acoustic Source Localization and Beamforming: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Joe C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the theoretical and practical aspects of locating acoustic sources using an array of microphones. A maximum-likelihood (ML direct localization is obtained when the sound source is near the array, while in the far-field case, we demonstrate the localization via the cross bearing from several widely separated arrays. In the case of multiple sources, an alternating projection procedure is applied to determine the ML estimate of the DOAs from the observed data. The ML estimator is shown to be effective in locating sound sources of various types, for example, vehicle, music, and even white noise. From the theoretical Cramér-Rao bound analysis, we find that better source location estimates can be obtained for high-frequency signals than low-frequency signals. In addition, large range estimation error results when the source signal is unknown, but such unknown parameter does not have much impact on angle estimation. Much experimentally measured acoustic data was used to verify the proposed algorithms.

  20. A Balanced Theory of Sourcing, Collaboration and Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nooteboom, Bart

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn a synthesis of recent advances, this article gives a fresh, balanced theory of inter-organizational relations. It integrates competence and governance perspectives. It considers the choice between mergers/acquisitions and alliances. It offers a toolbox of instruments to govern relational risk, and the contingencies for their selection. Relationships can last too long. Therefore, the article also looks at how to end relationships. Beyond dyads of collaborating firms, it includes...

  1. Global Sourcing of Heterogeneous Firms: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The share of international trade within firm boundaries varies greatly across countries. This column presents new evidence on how the productivity of a firm affects the choice between vertical integration and outsourcing, as well as between foreign and domestic sourcing. The productivity effects ...... found in Spanish firm-level data suggest that contractual imperfections distort the sourcing of inputs in the global economy, and that firm boundaries emerge in response to mitigate this distortion.......The share of international trade within firm boundaries varies greatly across countries. This column presents new evidence on how the productivity of a firm affects the choice between vertical integration and outsourcing, as well as between foreign and domestic sourcing. The productivity effects...

  2. Comparing Erlang Distribution and Schwinger Mechanism on Transverse Momentum Spectra in High Energy Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the transverse momentum spectra of J/ψ and Υ mesons by using two methods: the two-component Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. The results obtained by the two methods are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of proton-proton (pp, proton-lead (p-Pb, and lead-lead (Pb-Pb collisions measured by the LHCb and ALICE Collaborations at the large hadron collider (LHC. The related parameters such as the mean transverse momentum contributed by each parton in the first (second component in the two-component Erlang distribution and the string tension between two partons in the first (second component in the two-component Schwinger mechanism are extracted.

  3. Lattice Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. Precise extraction of the mass gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Szyniszewski, Marcin [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). NOWNano DTC

    2012-12-15

    We present results of applying the Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. A finite basis is constructed using the strong coupling expansion to a very high order. Using exact diagonalization, the continuum limit can be reliably approached. This allows to reproduce the analytical results for the ground state energy, as well as the vector and scalar mass gaps to an outstanding precision better than 10{sup -6} %.

  4. Blind source separation advances in theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Blind Source Separation intends to report the new results of the efforts on the study of Blind Source Separation (BSS). The book collects novel research ideas and some training in BSS, independent component analysis (ICA), artificial intelligence and signal processing applications. Furthermore, the research results previously scattered in many journals and conferences worldwide are methodically edited and presented in a unified form. The book is likely to be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in computer science and electronics who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of BSS. Dr. Ganesh R. Naik works at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; Dr. Wenwu Wang works at University of Surrey, UK.

  5. Field theory

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-11-08

    In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.

  6. Schwinger-type parametrization of open string worldsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Playle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A parametrization of (super moduli space near the corners corresponding to bosonic or Neveu–Schwarz open string degenerations is introduced for worldsheets of arbitrary topology. With this parametrization, Feynman graph polynomials arise as the α′→0 limit of objects on moduli space. Furthermore, the integration measures of string theory take on a very simple and elegant form.

  7. Modeling Source Water Threshold Exceedances with Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, B.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Variability in surface water quality, influenced by seasonal and long-term climate changes, can impact drinking water quality and treatment. In particular, temperature and precipitation can impact surface water quality directly or through their influence on streamflow and dilution capacity. Furthermore, they also impact land surface factors, such as soil moisture and vegetation, which can in turn affect surface water quality, in particular, levels of organic matter in surface waters which are of concern. All of these will be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change. While some source water quality parameters, particularly Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and bromide concentrations, are not directly regulated for drinking water, these parameters are precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which are regulated in drinking water distribution systems. These DBPs form when a disinfectant, added to the water to protect public health against microbial pathogens, most commonly chlorine, reacts with dissolved organic matter (DOM), measured as TOC or dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and inorganic precursor materials, such as bromide. Therefore, understanding and modeling the extremes of TOC and Bromide concentrations is of critical interest for drinking water utilities. In this study we develop nonstationary extreme value analysis models for threshold exceedances of source water quality parameters, specifically TOC and bromide concentrations. In this, the threshold exceedances are modeled as Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) whose parameters vary as a function of climate and land surface variables - thus, enabling to capture the temporal nonstationarity. We apply these to model threshold exceedance of source water TOC and bromide concentrations at two locations with different climate and find very good performance.

  8. Quantum Sensors for the Generating Functional of Interacting Quantum Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, A.; Aarts, G.; Müller, M.

    2017-10-01

    Difficult problems described in terms of interacting quantum fields evolving in real time or out of equilibrium abound in condensed-matter and high-energy physics. Addressing such problems via controlled experiments in atomic, molecular, and optical physics would be a breakthrough in the field of quantum simulations. In this work, we present a quantum-sensing protocol to measure the generating functional of an interacting quantum field theory and, with it, all the relevant information about its in- or out-of-equilibrium phenomena. Our protocol can be understood as a collective interferometric scheme based on a generalization of the notion of Schwinger sources in quantum field theories, which make it possible to probe the generating functional. We show that our scheme can be realized in crystals of trapped ions acting as analog quantum simulators of self-interacting scalar quantum field theories.

  9. Magnetic point sources in three dimensional Brans-Dicke gravity theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Lemos, Jose' P. S.

    2002-01-01

    We obtain geodesically complete spacetimes generated by static and rotating magnetic point sources in an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory of the Brans-Dicke type in three dimensions (3D). The theory is specified by three fields, the dilaton, the graviton and the electromagnetic field, and two parameters, the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke parameter, w. When the Brans-Dicke parameter is infinity, our solution reduces to the magnetic counterpart of the BTZ solution, while the w=0 case...

  10. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.B. [China University of Geosciences, School of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan (China); Schulze, H.J. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 x 10{sup 53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars. (orig.)

  11. Delta and Omega electromagnetic form factors in a Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana Nicmorus, Gernot Eichmann, Reinhard Alkofer

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic form factors of the Delta and the Omega baryons within the Poincare-covariant framework of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The three-quark core contributions of the form factors are evaluated by employing a quark-diquark approximation. We use a consistent setup for the quark-gluon dressing, the quark-quark bound-state kernel and the quark-photon interaction. Our predictions for the multipole form factors are compatible with available experimental data and quark-model estimates. The current-quark mass evolution of the static electromagnetic properties agrees with results provided by lattice calculations.

  12. Holographic description of the Schwinger effect in electric and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2013-04-01

    We consider a generalization of the holographic Schwinger effect proposed by Semenoff and Zarembo to the case with constant electric and magnetic fields. There are two ways to turn on magnetic fields, i) the probe D3-brane picture and ii) the string world-sheet picture. In the former picture, magnetic fields both perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are activated by a Lorentz transformation and a spatial rotation. In the latter one, the classical solutions of the string world-sheet corresponding to circular Wilson loops is generalized to contain two additional parameters encoding the presence of magnetic fields.

  13. Complex source point theory of paraxial and nonparaxial cosine-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J R

    2013-02-15

    It shown how cosine-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss beams can be generated using the complex source point theory. Paraxial beams are treated first. An analytic expression is derived for the nonparaxial cosine-Gaussian beam, based on the complex source point approach, and numerical results are presented to illustrate its behavior. A way to generate nonparaxial Bessel-Gauss beams is also indicated.

  14. Resolution of point sources of light as analyzed by quantum detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helstrom, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    The resolvability of point sources of incoherent thermal light is analyzed by quantum detection theory in terms of two hypothesis-testing problems. In the first, the observer must decide whether there are two sources of equal radiant power at given locations, or whether there is only one source of twice the power located midway between them. In the second problem, either one, but not both, of two point sources is radiating, and the observer must decide which it is. The decisions are based on optimum processing of the electromagnetic field at the aperture of an optical instrument. In both problems the density operators of the field under the two hypotheses do not commute. The error probabilities, determined as functions of the separation of the points and the mean number of received photons, characterize the ultimate resolvability of the sources.

  15. Information theory: Sources, Dirichlet series, and realistic analyses of data structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Roux

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the text algorithms build data structures on words, mainly trees, as digital trees (tries or binary search trees (bst. The mechanism which produces symbols of the words (one symbol at each unit time is called a source, in information theory contexts. The probabilistic behaviour of the trees built on words emitted by the same source depends on two factors: the algorithmic properties of the tree, together with the information-theoretic properties of the source. Very often, these two factors are considered in a too simplified way: from the algorithmic point of view, the cost of the Bst is only measured in terms of the number of comparisons between words --from the information theoretic point of view, only simple sources (memoryless sources or Markov chains are studied. We wish to perform here a realistic analysis, and we choose to deal together with a general source and a realistic cost for data structures: we take into account comparisons between symbols, and we consider a general model of source, related to a dynamical system, which is called a dynamical source. Our methods are close to analytic combinatorics, and our main object of interest is the generating function of the source Lambda(s, which is here of Dirichlet type. Such an object transforms probabilistic properties of the source into analytic properties. The tameness of the source, which is defined through analytic properties of Lambda(s, appears to be central in the analysis, and is precisely studied for the class of dynamical sources. We focus here on arithmetical conditions, of diophantine type, which are sufficient to imply tameness on a domain with hyperbolic shape.

  16. Princípio de ação quântica de Schwinger

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,C.A.M. de; Pimentel,B.M.; Ramirez,J.A.

    2013-01-01

    O princípio de ação quântica de Schwinger é uma caracterização dinâmica das funções de transformação e está fundamentado na estrutura algébrica derivada da análise cinemática dos procesos de medida em nível quântico. Como tal, este princípio variacional permite derivar as relações de comutação canônicas numa forma totalmente consistente. Além disso, propociona as descrições dinâmicas de Schrödinger, Heisenberg e uma equação de Hamilton-Jacobi em nível quântico. Implementaremos este formalismo...

  17. Serendipitous discoveries in nonlocal gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2012-05-01

    We present a class of generally covariant nonlocal gravity models which have a flat-space general relativistic limit and also possess a stable de Sitter or anti-de Sitter (AdS) background with an arbitrary value of its cosmological constant. The nonlocal action of the theory is formulated in the Euclidean signature spacetime and is understood as an approximation to the quantum effective action (generating functional of one-particle irreducible diagrams) originating from fundamental quantum gravity theory. Using the known relation between the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values and the Euclidean quantum field theory we derive from this action the causal effective equations of motion for mean value of the metric field in the physical Lorentzian-signature spacetime. Thus we show that the (A)dS background of the theory carries as free propagating modes massless gravitons having two polarizations identical to those of the Einstein theory with a cosmological term. The on-shell action of the theory is vanishing both for the flat-space and (A)dS backgrounds which play the role of stable vacua underlying, respectively, the ultraviolet and infrared phases of the theory. We also obtain linearized gravitational potentials of compact matter sources and show that in the infrared (A)dS phase their effective gravitational coupling Geff can be essentially different from the Newton gravitational constant GN of the short-distance general relativistic phase. When Geff≫GN the (A)dS phase can be regarded as a strongly coupled infrared modification of Einstein theory not only describing the dark energy mechanism of cosmic acceleration but also simulating the dark matter phenomenon by enhanced gravitational attraction at long distances.

  18. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  19. Neutralizing substitutes for leadership theory: leadership effects and common-source bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Shelley D; Yammarino, Francis J; Atwater, Leanne E; James, Lawrence R

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine alternative models of substitutes for leadership theory given the general lack of empirical support for the moderating effects postulated by the theory. On this basis, the research posited that the effects of substitutes also could be conceptualized as mediated relations. The research examined moderated and mediated relations for several sets of leader behaviors and substitutes that have been examined in the literature. The research design sampled 49 organizations, with 940 subordinates rating 156 leaders. Results, although generally not supportive of the moderator or mediator hypotheses, essentially demonstrated that leadership matters. The findings also suggest that prior significant effects in substitutes literature may be merely a statistical artifact, resulting from common-source bias.

  20. On diffusion theory in inhomogeneous media: Thin-film source of diffusant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarev, A. G.; Kondrat'ev, V. V.; Lomaev, I. L.

    2017-09-01

    Using asymptotic methods in the theory of differential equations, the original solution of the atomic diffusion problem in the semi-infinite inhomogeneous medium has been obtained for the thin-film (instantaneous) source of diffusant and arbitrary coordinate dependence of the diffusion coefficient. We have mathematically estimated the applicability of this solution and compared it numerically with the known exact solution for a particular case of the exponential coordinate dependence of the diffusion coefficient and a trivial case of the constant diffusion coefficient. Based on our analysis, the ranges of annealing times and depths of diffusant penetration for which the suggested approach proves to be correct have been established.

  1. Time-dependent boundary source term for advanced nodal diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.E.; Gho, C.J

    1999-08-01

    An extension to nodal diffusion theory was developed to deal with time-dependent boundary source terms. It is shown that this extension is easily introduced in advanced, full-functional diffusion theory by means of Dirac's delta spatially-dependent functions at the nodal boundaries, and allows the evaluation of reactor transients showing the propagation of neutron waves or the effects of pulsed neutron sources. A model problem with exact solutions for both the diffusion and the P{sub 1} (telegrapher's) equations was developed to test the capabilities of the theoretical extension. The larger discrepancies occur at the earliest times computed showing, at t=50 {mu}s, mean-square deviations between the exact diffusion solution and the numerical approximations of 2.95, 1.72, 0.32, and 0.16% for the fourth, sixth, eighth, and tenth polynomial expansion order, respectively. The availability of the exact telegrapher's solution, however, demonstrates that improved accuracy is meaningless since the mean-square deviation between the exact diffusion and exact telegrapher's solution is very similar to the mean-square deviation between the exact diffusion and the poorer (fourth-order) diffusion approximation.

  2. Challenges in inflationary magnetogenesis: Constraints from strong coupling, backreaction, and the Schwinger effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramkishor; Jagannathan, Sandhya; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Models of inflationary magnetogenesis with a coupling to the electromagnetic action of the form f2Fμ νFμ ν , are known to suffer from several problems. These include the strong coupling problem, the backreaction problem and also strong constraints due to the Schwinger effect. We propose a model which resolves all these issues. In our model, the coupling function, f , grows during inflation and transits to a decaying phase post-inflation. This evolutionary behavior is chosen so as to avoid the problem of strong coupling. By assuming a suitable power-law form of the coupling function, we can also neglect backreaction effects during inflation. To avoid backreaction post-inflation, we find that the reheating temperature is restricted to be below ≈1.7 ×104 GeV . The magnetic energy spectrum is predicted to be nonhelical and generically blue. The estimated present day magnetic field strength and the corresponding coherence length taking reheating at the QCD epoch (150 MeV) are 1.4 ×10-12 G and 6.1 ×10-4 Mpc , respectively. This is obtained after taking account of nonlinear processing over and above the flux-freezing evolution after reheating. If we consider also the possibility of a nonhelical inverse transfer, as indicated in direct numerical simulations, the coherence length and the magnetic field strength are even larger. In all cases mentioned above, the magnetic fields generated in our models satisfy the γ -ray bound below a certain reheating temperature.

  3. Realization of Massive Relativistic Spin- 3 / 2 Rarita-Schwinger Quasiparticle in Condensed Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Luo, Xi; Du, Yongping; Yu, Yue; Wan, Xiangang

    Very recently, there has been significant progress in realizing high-energy particles in condensed matter system (CMS) such as the Dirac, Weyl and Majorana fermions. Besides the spin-1/2 particles, the spin-3/2 elementary particle, known as the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) fermion, has not been observed or simulated in the laboratory. The main obstacle of realizing RS fermion in CMS lies in the nontrivial constraints that eliminate the redundant degrees of freedom in its representation of the Poincaré group. In this Letter, we propose a generic method that automatically contains the constraints in the Hamiltonian and prove the RS modes always exist and can be separated from the other non-RS bands. Through symmetry considerations, we show that the two dimensional (2D) massive RS (M-RS) quasiparticle can emerge in several trigonal and hexagonal lattices. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that the thin film of CaLiX (X=Ge and Si) may host 2D M-RS excitations near the Fermi level. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093, China.

  4. First-principles calculation method for electron transport based on the grid Lippmann-Schwinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Ono, Tomoya; Hirose, Kikuji

    2015-09-01

    We develop a first-principles electron-transport simulator based on the Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation within the framework of the real-space finite-difference scheme. In our fully real-space-based LS (grid LS) method, the ratio expression technique for the scattering wave functions and the Green's function elements of the reference system is employed to avoid numerical collapse. Furthermore, we present analytical expressions and/or prominent calculation procedures for the retarded Green's function, which are utilized in the grid LS approach. In order to demonstrate the performance of the grid LS method, we simulate the electron-transport properties of the semiconductor-oxide interfaces sandwiched between semi-infinite jellium electrodes. The results confirm that the leakage current through the (001 )Si -SiO2 model becomes much larger when the dangling-bond state is induced by a defect in the oxygen layer, while that through the (001 )Ge -GeO2 model is insensitive to the dangling bond state.

  5. Quantum Yang-Mills field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We show that the Dyson-Schwinger set of equations for the Yang-Mills theory can be exactly solved till the two-point function. This is obtained given a set of nonlinear waves solving the classical equations of motion. Translation invariance is maintained by the proper choice of the solution of the equation for the two-point function as devised by Coleman. The computation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is performed in the same way as devised by Bender, Milton and Savage providing a set of partial differential equations whose proof of existence of the solutions is standard. So, the correlation functions of the theory could be proved to exist and the two-point function manifests a mass gap.

  6. U(1) Wilson lattice gauge theories in digital quantum simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschik, Christine; Heyl, Markus; Martinez, Esteban; Monz, Thomas; Schindler, Philipp; Vogell, Berit; Dalmonte, Marcello; Hauke, Philipp; Blatt, Rainer; Zoller, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Lattice gauge theories describe fundamental phenomena in nature, but calculating their real-time dynamics on classical computers is notoriously difficult. In a recent publication (Martinez et al 2016 Nature 534 516), we proposed and experimentally demonstrated a digital quantum simulation of the paradigmatic Schwinger model, a U(1)-Wilson lattice gauge theory describing the interplay between fermionic matter and gauge bosons. Here, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis of the performance and the potential of this protocol. Our strategy is based on analytically integrating out the gauge bosons, which preserves exact gauge invariance but results in complicated long-range interactions between the matter fields. Trapped-ion platforms are naturally suited to implementing these interactions, allowing for an efficient quantum simulation of the model, with a number of gate operations that scales polynomially with system size. Employing numerical simulations, we illustrate that relevant phenomena can be observed in larger experimental systems, using as an example the production of particle–antiparticle pairs after a quantum quench. We investigate theoretically the robustness of the scheme towards generic error sources, and show that near-future experiments can reach regimes where finite-size effects are insignificant. We also discuss the challenges in quantum simulating the continuum limit of the theory. Using our scheme, fundamental phenomena of lattice gauge theories can be probed using a broad set of experimentally accessible observables, including the entanglement entropy and the vacuum persistence amplitude.

  7. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  8. Phase diagram of two-color QCD in a Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Pascal Joachim

    2014-04-28

    We investigate two-color QCD with N{sub f}=2 at finite temperatures and chemical potentials using a Dyson-Schwinger approach. We employ two different truncations for the quark loop in the gluon DSE: one based on the Hard-Dense/Hard-Thermal Loop (HDTL) approximation of the quark loop and one based on the back-coupling of the full, self-consistent quark propagator (SCQL). We compare results for the different truncations with each other as well as with other approaches. As expected, we find a phase dominated by the condensation of quark-quark pairs. This diquark condensation phase overshadows the critical end point and first-order phase transition which one finds if diquark condensation is neglected. The phase transition from the phase without diquark condensation to the diquark-condensation phase is of second order. We observe that the dressing with massless quarks in the HDTL approximation leads to a significant violation of the Silver Blaze property and to a too small diquark condensate. The SCQL truncation, on the other hand, is found to reproduce all expected features of the μ-dependent quark condensates. Moreover, with parameters adapted to the situation in other approaches, we also find good to very good agreement with model and lattice calculations in all quark quantities. We find indictions that the physics in recent lattice calculations is likely to be driven solely by the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Discrepancies w.r.t. the lattice are, however, observed in two quantities that are very sensitive to the screening of the gluon propagator, the dressed gluon propagator itself and the phase-transition line at high temperatures.

  9. The current algebra on the circle as a germ of local field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Mack, Gerhard; Todorov, Ivan

    1988-12-01

    Methods of algebraic quantum field theory are used to classify all field- and observable algebras, whose common germ is the U(1)-current algebra. An elementary way is described to compute characters of such algebras. It exploits the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger condition for Gibbs states..

  10. Coalescent: an open-source and scalable framework for exact calculations in coalescent theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewari Susanta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is no open-source, cross-platform and scalable framework for coalescent analysis in population genetics. There is no scalable GUI based user application either. Such a framework and application would not only drive the creation of more complex and realistic models but also make them truly accessible. Results As a first attempt, we built a framework and user application for the domain of exact calculations in coalescent analysis. The framework provides an API with the concepts of model, data, statistic, phylogeny, gene tree and recursion. Infinite-alleles and infinite-sites models are considered. It defines pluggable computations such as counting and listing all the ancestral configurations and genealogies and computing the exact probability of data. It can visualize a gene tree, trace and visualize the internals of the recursion algorithm for further improvement and attach dynamically a number of output processors. The user application defines jobs in a plug-in like manner so that they can be activated, deactivated, installed or uninstalled on demand. Multiple jobs can be run and their inputs edited. Job inputs are persisted across restarts and running jobs can be cancelled where applicable. Conclusions Coalescent theory plays an increasingly important role in analysing molecular population genetic data. Models involved are mathematically difficult and computationally challenging. An open-source, scalable framework that lets users immediately take advantage of the progress made by others will enable exploration of yet more difficult and realistic models. As models become more complex and mathematically less tractable, the need for an integrated computational approach is obvious. Object oriented designs, though has upfront costs, are practical now and can provide such an integrated approach.

  11. Coalescent: an open-source and scalable framework for exact calculations in coalescent theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Susanta; Spouge, John L

    2012-10-03

    Currently, there is no open-source, cross-platform and scalable framework for coalescent analysis in population genetics. There is no scalable GUI based user application either. Such a framework and application would not only drive the creation of more complex and realistic models but also make them truly accessible. As a first attempt, we built a framework and user application for the domain of exact calculations in coalescent analysis. The framework provides an API with the concepts of model, data, statistic, phylogeny, gene tree and recursion. Infinite-alleles and infinite-sites models are considered. It defines pluggable computations such as counting and listing all the ancestral configurations and genealogies and computing the exact probability of data. It can visualize a gene tree, trace and visualize the internals of the recursion algorithm for further improvement and attach dynamically a number of output processors. The user application defines jobs in a plug-in like manner so that they can be activated, deactivated, installed or uninstalled on demand. Multiple jobs can be run and their inputs edited. Job inputs are persisted across restarts and running jobs can be cancelled where applicable. Coalescent theory plays an increasingly important role in analysing molecular population genetic data. Models involved are mathematically difficult and computationally challenging. An open-source, scalable framework that lets users immediately take advantage of the progress made by others will enable exploration of yet more difficult and realistic models. As models become more complex and mathematically less tractable, the need for an integrated computational approach is obvious. Object oriented designs, though has upfront costs, are practical now and can provide such an integrated approach.

  12. Connecting source aggregating areas with distributive regions via Optimal Transportation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzoni, S.; Putti, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the application of Optimal Transport (OT) theory to the transfer of water and sediments from a distributed aggregating source to a distributing area connected by a erodible hillslope. Starting from the Monge-Kantorovich equations, We derive a global energy functional that nonlinearly combines the cost of constructing the drainage network over the entire domain and the cost of water and sediment transportation through the network. It can be shown that the minimization of this functional is equivalent to the infinite time solution of a system of diffusion partial differential equations coupled with transient ordinary differential equations, that closely resemble the classical conservation laws of water and sediments mass and momentum. We present several numerical simulations applied to realstic test cases. For example, the solution of the proposed model forms network configurations that share strong similiratities with rill channels formed on an hillslope. At a larger scale, we obtain promising results in simulating the network patterns that ensure a progressive and continuous transition from a drainage drainage area to a distributive receiving region.

  13. Chemical Reaction Network Theory elucidates sources of multistability in interferon signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Muras, Irene; Yordanov, Pencho; Stelling, Joerg

    2017-04-01

    Bistability has important implications in signaling pathways, since it indicates a potential cell decision between alternative outcomes. We present two approaches developed in the framework of the Chemical Reaction Network Theory for easy and efficient search of multiple steady state behavior in signaling networks (both with and without mass conservation), and apply them to search for sources of bistability at different levels of the interferon signaling pathway. Different type I interferon subtypes and/or doses are known to elicit differential bioactivities (ranging from antiviral, antiproliferative to immunomodulatory activities). How different signaling outcomes can be generated through the same receptor and activating the same JAK/STAT pathway is still an open question. Here, we detect bistability at the level of early STAT signaling, showing how two different cell outcomes are achieved under or above a threshold in ligand dose or ligand-receptor affinity. This finding could contribute to explain the differential signaling (antiviral vs apoptotic) depending on interferon dose and subtype (α vs β) observed in type I interferons.

  14. Recognition memory, self-other source memory, and theory-of-mind in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E; Bowler, Dermot M

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated semantic and episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a task which assessed recognition and self-other source memory. Children with ASD showed undiminished recognition memory but significantly diminished source memory, relative to age- and verbal ability-matched comparison children. Both children with and without ASD showed an "enactment effect", demonstrating significantly better recognition and source memory for self-performed actions than other-person-performed actions. Within the comparison group, theory-of-mind (ToM) task performance was significantly correlated with source memory, specifically for other-person-performed actions (after statistically controlling for verbal ability). Within the ASD group, ToM task performance was not significantly correlated with source memory (after controlling for verbal ability). Possible explanations for these relations between source memory and ToM are considered.

  15. Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bei Lok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein-Langevin equation, which has in addition sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bi-tensor which describes the fluctuations of quantum matter fields in curved spacetimes. In the first part, we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to their correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman-Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods which are convenient for computations. It also brings out the open systems concepts and the statistical and stochastic contents of the theory such as dissipation, fluctuations, noise, and decoherence. We then focus on the properties of the stress-energy bi-tensor. We obtain a general expression for the noise kernel of a quantum field defined at two distinct points in an arbitrary curved spacetime as products of covariant derivatives of the quantum field's Green function. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity theory. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime. We offer an analytical solution of the Einstein-Langevin equation and compute the two-point correlation functions for the linearized Einstein tensor and for the metric perturbations. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, we discuss the backreaction

  16. Leading-order calculation of hadronic contributions to the Muon g-2 using the Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goecke, Tobias [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Fischer, Christian S., E-mail: christian.fischer@theo.physik.uni-giessen.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Williams, Richard [Dept. Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-13

    We present a calculation of the hadronic vacuum polarisation (HVP) tensor within the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. To this end we use a well-established phenomenological model for the quark-gluon interaction with parameters fixed to reproduce hadronic observables. From the HVP tensor we compute both the Adler function and the HVP contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a{sub {mu}}. We find a{sub {mu}}{sup HVP}=6760x10{sup -11} which deviates about two percent from the value extracted from experiment. Additionally, we make comparison with a recent lattice determination of a{sub {mu}}{sup HVP} and find good agreement within our approach. We also discuss the implications of our result for a corresponding calculation of the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to a{sub {mu}.}

  17. Comparing lattice Dirac operators with Random Matrix Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farchioni, F.; Hipt, I.; Lang, C.B

    2000-03-01

    We study the eigenvalue spectrum of different lattice Dirac operators (staggered, fixed point, overlap) and discuss their dependence on the topological sectors. Although the model is 2D (the Schwinger model with massless fermions) our observations indicate possible problems in 4D applications. In particular misidentification of the smallest eigenvalues due to non-identification of the topological sector may hinder successful comparison with Random Matrix Theory (RMT)

  18. Theory and technique of spark source mass spectrometry; Theorie et technique de la spectrometrie de masse a etincelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Trace analysis in solids by spark source mass spectrometry involves complicated phenomena: element ionization in spark and blacking of sensitive emulsion by focused ion beam. However the principal risk of selectivity lies in analyser system, which realizes double focusing only for a part of the ions. Therefore, each analyst has to known ionic optics of his apparatus, for ensuring the transmission of mean energetic ions, which are representative of sample composition. By a careful photometry of mass spectrum, good reproducibility can be obtained. Thereafter accuracy depends on the knowledge of sensitivity coefficients proper to this apparatus. (author) [French] L'analyse de traces dans les solides par spectrometrie de masse a etincelles met en jeu des phenomenes complexes qui sont l'ionisation des elements dans l'etincelle, et le noircissement de l'emulsion sensible par les faisceaux ioniques focalises. Cependant, le risque majeur de selectivite provient de l'ensemble analyseur, qui realise la double focalisation sur une fraction seulement du faisceau d'ions. L'analyste doit donc connaitre en detail l'optique ionique de son appareil, pour assurer le passage de la bande d'energie moyenne des ions, qui seule caracterise quantitativement la composition chimique de l'echantillon. Une exploitation photometrique soignee du spectrogramme donne alors des resultats reproductibles, dont la justesse ne depend plus que des coefficients de sensibilite propres a ce type d'instrument. (auteur)

  19. Towards the full information chain theory: answer depth and source models

    CERN Document Server

    Perevalov, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A problem of optimal information acquisition for its use in general decision making problems is considered. This motivates the need for developing quantitative measures of information sources' capabilities for supplying accurate information depending on the particular content of the latter. A companion article developed the notion of a question difficulty functional for questions concerning input data for a decision making problem. Here, answers which an information source may provide in response to such questions are considered. In particular, a real valued answer depth functional measuring the degree of accuracy of such answers is introduced and its overall form is derived under the assumption of isotropic knowledge structure of the information source. Additionally, information source models that relate answer depth to question difficulty are discussed. It turns out to be possible to introduce a notion of an information source capacity as the highest value of the answer depth the source is capable of provid...

  20. Language as a source of evidence for theories of spatial representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackendoff, Ray

    2012-01-01

    David Marr's metatheory emphasized the importance of what he called the computational level of description--an analysis of the task the visual system performs. In the present article I argue that this task should be conceived of not just as object recognition but as spatial understanding, and that the mental representations responsible for spatial understanding are not exclusively visual in nature. In particular, a theory of the visual system must interact with a theory of the language faculty to explain how we talk about what we see--and how we see all the things we talk about as though they are part of the perceived world. An examination of spatial language both raises the bar for theories of vision and provides important hints for how spatial understanding is structured.

  1. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  2. Hamiltonian Constraints and Dirac's Observables: from Relativistic Particles towards Field Theory and General Relativity.

    OpenAIRE

    Lusanna, Luca

    1995-01-01

    A review is given of the presymplectic approach to relativistic physical systems and of the determination of their Dirac's observables. After relativistic mechanics and Nambu string, the Dirac's observables of Yang-Mills theory with fermions are given for the case of massless vector bosons (like in QED). A Dirac-Yukawa-like intrinsic ultraviolet cut-off is identified from the study of the covariantization of Hamiltonian classical field theory in the Dirac-Tomonaga-Schwinger sens. The implicat...

  3. Conflict quantum theory and gravity as a source of particle stability

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We build a regular core of the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution and considered it as an extended soliton or bag model of spinning particle creating external gravitational and electromagnetic field of an electron. The known conflict between Quantum Theory and Gravity is solved by formation of a domain wall boundary separating zones of their influence. Gravity controls external classical (KN) spacetime, while Quantum theory is responsible for the flat zone of supersymmetric core. We show that Bogomolnyi bound determines precise boundary between these zones, controlling the shape, dynamics and stability of the particle.

  4. Examples of reflection positive field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchero, R.

    The requirement of reflection positivity (RP) for Euclidean field theories is considered. This is done for the cases of a scalar field, a higher derivative scalar field theory and the scalar field theory defined on a non-integer dimensional space (NIDS). It is shown that regarding RP, the analytical structure of the corresponding Schwinger functions plays an important role. For the higher derivative scalar field theory, RP does not hold. However for the scalar field theory on a NIDS, RP holds in a certain range of dimensions where the corresponding Minkowskian field is defined on a Hilbert space with a positive definite scalar product that provides a unitary representation of the Poincaré group. In addition, and motivated by the last example, it is shown that, under certain conditions, one can construct non-local reflection positive Euclidean field theories starting from the corrected two point functions of interacting local field theories.

  5. Kajian Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Dalam Penggunaan Open Source Software Database Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sonny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan perangkat lunak computer dewasa ini terjadi sedemikian pesatnya, perkembangan tidak hanya terjadi pada perangkat lunak yang memiliki lisensi tertentu, perangkat open source pun demikian. Perkembangan itu tentu saja sangat menggembirakan bagi pengguna computer khususnya di kalangan pendidikan maupun di kalangan mahasiswa, karena pengguna mempunyai beberapa pilihan untuk menggunakan aplikasi. Perangkat lunak open source juga menawarkan produk yang umumnya gratis, diberikan kode programnya, kebebasan untuk modifikasi dan mengembangkan. Meneliti aplikasi berbasis open source tentu saja sangat beragam seperti aplikasi untuk pemrograman (PHP, Gambas, Database Management System (MySql, SQLite, browsing (Mozilla, Firefox, Opera. Pada penelitian ini di kaji penerimaan aplikasi DBMS (Database Management System seperti MySql dan SQLite dengan menggunakan sebuah model yang dikembangkan oleh Venkantes(2003 yaitu UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Faktor – faktor tertentu juga mempengaruhi dalam melakukan kegiatan pembelajaran aplikasi open source ini, salah satu faktor atau yang disebut dengan moderating yang bisa mempengaruhi efektifitas dan efisiensi. Dengan demikian akan mendapatkan hasil yang bisa membuat kelancaran dalam pembelajaran aplikasi berbasis open source ini.   Kata kunci— open source, Database Management System (DBMS, Modereting

  6. Density of state in a complex random matrix theory with external source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikami, S. [Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Komaba, Tokyo (Japan); Pnini, R. [Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Komaba, Tokyo (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (Japan)

    1998-09-04

    The density of state for a complex NxN random matrix coupled to an external deterministic source is considered for a finite N, and a compact expression in an integral representation is obtained. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  7. Discrimination and Well-being: Testing the differential source and Organizational Justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.

    2013-01-01

    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on

  8. MEG-EEG Information Fusion and Electromagnetic Source Imaging: From Theory to Clinical Application in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Zerouali, Younes; Hedrich, Tanguy; Heers, Marcel; Kobayashi, Eliane; Lina, Jean-Marc; Grova, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and quantitatively assess whether fusion of EEG and MEG (MEEG) data within the maximum entropy on the mean (MEM) framework increases the spatial accuracy of source localization, by yielding better recovery of the spatial extent and propagation pathway of the underlying generators of inter-ictal epileptic discharges (IEDs). The key element in this study is the integration of the complementary information from EEG and MEG data within the MEM framework. MEEG was compared with EEG and MEG when localizing single transient IEDs. The fusion approach was evaluated using realistic simulation models involving one or two spatially extended sources mimicking propagation patterns of IEDs. We also assessed the impact of the number of EEG electrodes required for an efficient EEG-MEG fusion. MEM was compared with minimum norm estimate, dynamic statistical parametric mapping, and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. The fusion approach was finally assessed on real epileptic data recorded from two patients showing IEDs simultaneously in EEG and MEG. Overall the localization of MEEG data using MEM provided better recovery of the source spatial extent, more sensitivity to the source depth and more accurate detection of the onset and propagation of IEDs than EEG or MEG alone. MEM was more accurate than the other methods. MEEG proved more robust than EEG and MEG for single IED localization in low signal-to-noise ratio conditions. We also showed that only few EEG electrodes are required to bring additional relevant information to MEG during MEM fusion.

  9. Generalization of the optical theorem to multipole sources in the scattering theory of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, Yu. A.; Sveshnikov, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Energy relations are used to generalize the Optical Theorem to the case of a local body excited by a multipole source, including in the presence of a half-space. It is shown that the extinction cross section can be represented in an explicit analytical form. This circumstance considerably facilitates the computation of the fluorescence quantum yield or the efficiency of an optical antenna.

  10. Microeconomic theory and computation applying the maxima open-source computer algebra system

    CERN Document Server

    Hammock, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a step-by-step tutorial for using Maxima, an open-source multi-platform computer algebra system, to examine the economic relationships that form the core of microeconomics in a way that complements traditional modeling techniques.

  11. A One-Dimensional Thermoelastic Problem due to a Moving Heat Source under Fractional Order Theory of Thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhu He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of a one-dimensional problem for a thermoelastic rod with finite length is investigated in the context of the fractional order theory of thermoelasticity in the present work. The rod is fixed at both ends and subjected to a moving heat source. The fractional order thermoelastic coupled governing equations for the rod are formulated. Laplace transform as well as its numerical inversion is applied to solving the governing equations. The variations of the considered temperature, displacement, and stress in the rod are obtained and demonstrated graphically. The effects of time, velocity of the moving heat source, and fractional order parameter on the distributions of the considered variables are of concern and discussed in detail.

  12. Theory of a modified wadsworth monochromator matched to a low energy storage ring source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Malcolm R.

    1982-04-01

    The concave diffraction grating in the Wadsworth mounting has been popular with synchrotron radiation spectroscopists because of its use of parallel light. This is well mathced to experimental stations which are a great distance away from the source as would be the case in using a high energy synchrotron. For low energy storage rings the working distance is quite small and in this case it is appropriate to use a collimating mirror. Large collection angles are possible with this arrangement and reasonable resolution can be obtained using spherical surfaces. Astigmatism is much lower than for Rowland circle mountings. These questions are analyzed using an optical path function development and calculations are presented which include the aberrations both in the two optics and those caused by the large extension of the source in the direction of the radiation emission.

  13. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each ...

  14. Quark number fluctuations at finite temperature and finite chemical potential via the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xian-yin; Qin, Si-xue; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quark number fluctuations up to the fourth order in the matter composed of two light flavor quarks with isospin symmetry and at finite temperature and finite chemical potential using the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD. In order to solve the quark gap equation, we approximate the dressed quark-gluon vertex with the bare one and adopt both the Maris-Tandy model and the infrared constant (Qin-Chang) model for the dressed gluon propagator. Our results indicate that the second, third, and fourth order fluctuations of net quark number all diverge at the critical endpoint (CEP). Around the CEP, the second order fluctuation possesses obvious pump while the third and fourth order ones exhibit distinct wiggles between positive and negative. For the Maris-Tandy model and the Qin-Chang model, we give the pseudocritical temperature at zero quark chemical potential as Tc=146 MeV and 150 MeV, and locate the CEP at (μEq,TE)=(120,124) MeV and (124,129) MeV, respectively. In addition, our results manifest that the fluctuations are insensitive to the details of the model, but the location of the CEP shifts to low chemical potential and high temperature as the confinement length scale increases.

  15. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  16. Sixty years of interest in flow and transport theories: Sources of inspiration and a few results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raats, Peter A. C.

    2016-04-01

    By choosing to major in soil physics at Wageningen now exactly 60 years ago, I could combine my interest in exact sciences with my experience of growing up on a farm. I never regretted that choice. In the first twenty years, I profited much from close contacts with members of the immediate post-WW II generation of soil physicists (especially Jerry Bolt, Arnold Klute, Ed Miller, Champ Tanner, Wilford Gardner, John Philip, and Jan van Schilfgaarde), chemical engineers (especially at UW Madison the trio Bob Bird, Warren Stewart and Ed Lightfoot) and experts in continuum mechanics (especially at Johns Hopkins Clifford Truesdell and Jerald Ericksen). As graduate student at Illinois with Klute, to describe flow and transport theories in soil science I initially explored as possible framework thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP), but soon switched to the continuum theory of mixtures (CTM), initiated by Truesdell in 1957. In CTM, the balance of forces gave a rational basis for flux equations. CTM allowed me to deal with swelling/shrinkage, role of inertia, boundary conditions, and structured soils. Later, I did use TIP to deal with certain aspects of transfer of water and heat in soils and selective uptake of water and nutrients by plant roots. Recently, a variety of theories for upscaling from the pore scale to the Darcy scale have clarified the potential, limits and common ground of CTM and TIP. A great advantage of CTM is that it provides geometric tools suited for kinematic aspects of flow, transport, and growth/decay processes. In particular, the concept of material coordinates of the solid phase that I used in my PhD thesis to cope with large deformation due to swelling/shrinkage of soils, later also turned to be useful to deal with simultaneous shrinkage and decay in peat soils and compost heaps, and the growth of plant tissues. Also, by focusing on the material coordinates for the water, it became possible to describe transport of solutes in unsaturated

  17. Unified theory of whispering gallery multilayer microspheres with single dipole or active layer sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan M M; Reynolds, Tess; Henderson, Matthew R; Riesen, Nicolas; Monro, Tanya M; Afshar, Shahraam

    2017-03-20

    The development of a fast and reliable whispering gallery mode (WGM) simulator capable of generating spectra that are comparable with experiment is an important step forward for designing microresonators. We present a new model for generating WGM spectra for multilayer microspheres, which allows for an arbitrary number of concentric dielectric layers, and any number of embedded dipole sources or uniform distributions of dipole sources to be modeled. The mode excitation methods model embedded nanoparticles, or fluorescent dye coatings, from which normalized power spectra with accurate representation of the mode coupling efficiencies can be derived. In each case, the emitted power is expressed conveniently as a function of wavelength, with minimal computational load. The model makes use of the transfer-matrix approach, incorporating improvements to its stability, resulting in a reliable, general set of formulae for calculating whispering gallery mode spectra. In the specific cases of the dielectric microsphere and the single-layer coated microsphere, our model simplifies to confirmed formulae in the literature.

  18. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G

    2015-11-25

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species.

  19. Models of collapsing and expanding anisotropic gravitating source in f(R, T) theory of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Ahmed, Riaz [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); University of the Central Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, we have formulated the exact solutions of the non-static anisotropic gravitating source in f(R, T) gravity which may lead to expansion and collapse. By assuming there to be no thermal conduction in gravitating source, we have determined parametric solutions in f(R, T) gravity with a non-static spherical geometry filled using an anisotropic fluid. We have examined the ranges of the parameters for which the expansion scalar becomes negative and positive, leading to collapse and expansion, respectively. Further, using the definition of the mass function, the conditions for the trapped surface have been explored, and it has been investigated that there exists a single horizon in this case. The impact of the coupling parameter λ has been discussed in detail in both cases. For the various values of the coupling parameter λ, we have plotted the energy density, anisotropic pressure and anisotropy parameter in the cases of collapse and expansion. The physical significance of the graphs has been explained in detail. (orig.)

  20. Source selection problem of competitive power plants under government intervention: a game theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Pollution and environmental protection in the present century are extremely significant global problems. Power plants as the largest pollution emitting industry have been the cause of a great deal of scientific researches. The fuel or source type used to generate electricity by the power plants plays an important role in the amount of pollution produced. Governments should take visible actions to promote green fuel. These actions are often called the governmental financial interventions that include legislations such as green subsidiaries and taxes. In this paper, by considering the government role in the competition of two power plants, we propose a game theoretical model that will help the government to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies. The numerical examples demonstrate how government could intervene in a competitive market of electricity to achieve the environmental objectives and how power plants maximize their utilities in each energy source. The results also reveal that the government's taxes and subsidiaries effectively influence the selected fuel types of power plants in the competitive market.

  1. Coherence properties of third and fourth generation X-ray sources. Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Andrej

    2013-06-15

    Interference effects are among the most fascinating optical phenomena. For instance, the butterflies and soap bubbles owe their beautiful colors to interference effects. They appear as a result of the superposition principle, valid in electrodynamics due to the linearity of the wave equation. If two waves interfere, the total radiation field is a sum of these two fields and depends strongly on the relative phases between these fields. While the oscillation frequency of individual fields is typically too large to be observed by a human eye or other detection systems, the phase differences between these fields manifest themselves as relatively slowly varying field strength modulations. These modulations can be detected, provided the oscillating frequencies of the superposed fields are similar. As such, the interference provides a superb measure of the phase differences of optical light, which may carry detailed information about a source or a scattering object. The ability of waves to interfere depends strongly on the degree of correlation between these waves, i.e. their mutual coherence. Until the middle of the 20th century, the coherence of light available to experimentalists was poor. A significant effort had to be made to extend the degree of coherence, which made the electromagnetic field determination using of the interference principle very challenging. Coherence is the defining feature of a laser, whose invention initiated a revolutionary development of experimental techniques based on interference, such as holography. Important contributions to this development were also provided by astronomists, as due to enormous intergalactic distances the radiation from stars has a high transverse coherence length at earth. With the construction of third generation synchrotron sources, partially coherent X-ray sources have become feasible. New areas of research utilizing highly coherent X-ray beams have emerged, including X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), X

  2. Using a laser source to measure the refractive index of glass beads and Debye theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shui-Yan; Qin, Shuang; Li, Da-Hai; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2015-11-20

    Using a monochromatic laser beam to illuminate a homogeneous glass bead, some rainbows will appear around it. This paper concentrates on the study of the scattering intensity distribution and the method of measuring the refractive index for glass beads based on the Debye theory. It is found that the first rainbow due to the scattering superposition of backward light of the low-refractive-index glass beads can be explained approximately with the diffraction, the external reflection plus the one internal reflection, while the second rainbow of high-refractive-index glass beads is due to the contribution from the diffraction, the external reflection, the direct transmission, and the two internal reflections. The scattering intensity distribution is affected by the refractive index, the radius of the glass bead, and the incident beam width. The effects of the refractive index and the glass bead size on the first and second minimum deviation angle position are analyzed in this paper. The results of the measurements agree very well with the specifications.

  3. The Relation Between Ground Acceleration and Earthquake Source Parameters: Theory and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lior, Itzhak; Ziv, Alon

    2017-04-01

    A simple relation between the root-mean-square of the ground acceleration and earthquake spectral (or source) parameters is introduced: 2 ----f20---- Arms = (2π )Ω0 √--( πκf0-)2, πκT 1 + 1.50.25 where Ω0 is the low frequency displacement spectral plateau, f0 is the corner frequency, κ is an attenuation parameter, and T is the data interval. This result uses the omega-squared model for far-field radiation, and accounts for site-specific attenuation. The main advantage of the new relation with respect to that of Hanks' (Hanks, 1979) is that it relaxes the simplifying assumption that the spectral corner frequency is much smaller than the maximum corner frequency resulting from attenuation, and that the spectrum may be approximated as being perfectly flat between the two frequencies. The newly proposed relation is tested using a composite dataset of earthquake records from Japan, California, Mexico and Taiwan. Excellent agreement is found between observed and predicted ground acceleration for any combination of corner frequencies. Thus, use of the above relation enables the extrapolation of ground motion prediction equation inferred from the frequent small magnitude earthquakes to the rare large magnitudes. This capacity is extremely useful near slow-slip plate boundaries, where the seismic moment release rates are low. Reference Hanks, T. C. (1979). b values and ω-γ seismic source models: implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2235-2241.

  4. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sources Fondation Pablo Iglesias. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Archives privées de Manuel ArijaArchives extérieuresArchives FNJS de EspañaPrensa Archives Générales de l’Administration. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Opposition au franquismeSig. 653 Sig TOP 82/68.103-68.602.Índice de las cartas colectivas, Relaciones, Cartas al Ministro de Información de Marzo de 1965. c.662. Sources cinématographiques Filmothèque Nationale d’Espagne.NO.DO. N° 1157C. 08/03/1965.aguirre Javier, Blanco vertical....

  5. Annihilation probability density and other applications of the Schwinger multichannel method to the positron and electron scattering; Densidade de probabilidade de aniquilacao e outras aplicacoes do metodo multicanal de Schwinger ao espalhamento de positrons e eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varella, Marcio Teixeira do Nascimento

    2001-12-15

    We have calculated annihilation probability densities (APD) for positron collisions against He atom and H{sub 2} molecule. It was found that direct annihilation prevails at low energies, while annihilation following virtual positronium (Ps) formation is the dominant mechanism at higher energies. In room-temperature collisions (10{sup -2} eV) the APD spread over a considerable extension, being quite similar to the electronic densities of the targets. The capture of the positron in an electronic Feshbach resonance strongly enhanced the annihilation rate in e{sup +}-H{sub 2} collisions. We also discuss strategies to improve the calculation of the annihilation parameter (Z{sub eff} ), after debugging the computational codes of the Schwinger Multichannel Method (SMC). Finally, we consider the inclusion of the Ps formation channel in the SMC and show that effective configurations (pseudo eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of the collision ) are able to significantly reduce the computational effort in positron scattering calculations. Cross sections for electron scattering by polyatomic molecules were obtained in three different approximations: static-exchange (SE); tatic-exchange-plus-polarization (SEP); and multichannel coupling. The calculations for polar targets were improved through the rotational resolution of scattering amplitudes in which the SMC was combined with the first Born approximation (FBA). In general, elastic cross sections (SE and SEP approximations) showed good agreement with available experimental data for several targets. Multichannel calculations for e{sup -} -H{sub 2}O scattering, on the other hand, presented spurious structures at the electronic excitation thresholds (author)

  6. Density of States FFA analysis of SU(3) lattice gauge theory at a finite density of color sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Mario; Gattringer, Christof

    2017-10-01

    We present a Density of States calculation with the Functional Fit Approach (DoS FFA) in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with a finite density of static color sources. The DoS FFA uses a parameterized density of states and determines the parameters of the density by fitting data from restricted Monte Carlo simulations with an analytically known function. We discuss the implementation of DoS FFA and the results for a qualitative picture of the phase diagram in a model which is a further step towards implementing DoS FFA in full QCD. We determine the curvature κ in the μ-T phase diagram and find a value close to the results published for full QCD.

  7. Density of States FFA analysis of SU(3 lattice gauge theory at a finite density of color sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Giuliani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a Density of States calculation with the Functional Fit Approach (DoS FFA in SU(3 lattice gauge theory with a finite density of static color sources. The DoS FFA uses a parameterized density of states and determines the parameters of the density by fitting data from restricted Monte Carlo simulations with an analytically known function. We discuss the implementation of DoS FFA and the results for a qualitative picture of the phase diagram in a model which is a further step towards implementing DoS FFA in full QCD. We determine the curvature κ in the μ–T phase diagram and find a value close to the results published for full QCD.

  8. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics theory of econometric source discovery for large data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergem, Rutger; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Benachenhou, Dalila; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    Almost all consumer and firm transactions are achieved using computers and as a result gives rise to increasingly large amounts of data available for analysts. The gold standard in Economic data manipulation techniques matured during a period of limited data access, and the new Large Data Analysis (LDA) paradigm we all face may quickly obfuscate most tools used by Economists. When coupled with an increased availability of numerous unstructured, multi-modal data sets, the impending 'data tsunami' could have serious detrimental effects for Economic forecasting, analysis, and research in general. Given this reality we propose a decision-aid framework for Augmented-LDA (A-LDA) - a synergistic approach to LDA which combines traditional supervised, rule-based Machine Learning (ML) strategies to iteratively uncover hidden sources in large data, the artificial neural network (ANN) Unsupervised Learning (USL) at the minimum Helmholtz free energy for isothermal dynamic equilibrium strategies, and the Economic intuitions required to handle problems encountered when interpreting large amounts of Financial or Economic data. To make the ANN USL framework applicable to economics we define the temperature, entropy, and energy concepts in Economics from non-equilibrium molecular thermodynamics of Boltzmann viewpoint, as well as defining an information geometry, on which the ANN can operate using USL to reduce information saturation. An exemplar of such a system representation is given for firm industry equilibrium. We demonstrate the traditional ML methodology in the economics context and leverage firm financial data to explore a frontier concept known as behavioral heterogeneity. Behavioral heterogeneity on the firm level can be imagined as a firm's interactions with different types of Economic entities over time. These interactions could impose varying degrees of institutional constraints on a firm's business behavior. We specifically look at behavioral heterogeneity for firms

  10. Complex energies and beginnings of time suggest a theory of scattering and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, A.; Kielanowski, P.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2006-10-01

    Many useful concepts for a quantum theory of scattering and decay (like Lippmann-Schwinger kets, purely outgoing boundary conditions, exponentially decaying Gamow vectors, causality) are not well defined in the mathematical frame set by the conventional (Hilbert space) axioms of quantum mechanics. Using the Lippmann-Schwinger equations as the takeoff point and aiming for a theory that unites resonances and decay, we conjecture a new axiom for quantum mechanics that distinguishes mathematically between prepared states and detected observables. Suggested by the two signs ±i ɛ of the Lippmann-Schwinger equations, this axiom replaces the one Hilbert space of conventional quantum mechanics by two Hardy spaces. The new Hardy space theory automatically provides Gamow kets with exponential time evolution derived from the complex poles of the S-matrix. It solves the causality problem since it results in a semigroup evolution. But this semigroup brings into quantum physics a new concept of the semigroup time t = 0, a beginning of time. Its interpretation and observations are discussed in the last section.

  11. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  12. On Schwinger mechanics of electron-positron pair production from vacuum by the field of optical and x-ray laser

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, V S

    2001-01-01

    One calculated W probability of e sup + e sup - -pair production from vacuum under the effect of the intensive a-c field generated by optical or X-ray range lasers. One studied two peculiar ranges: gamma 1 and gamma 1, where gamma - parameter of adiabatic nature. It is shown that with rise of gamma, as well as, at transition from monochromatic radiation to finite duration laser pulse W probability increases abruptly (at similar value of field intensity). One discusses dependence of W probability and pulsed spectrum of electrons and positrons on the shape of laser pulse (the Schwinger dynamic effect)

  13. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Archives Archivo Histórico del Estado de Jalisco Fondo Gobernación, Asunto Pasaportes y Salvoconductos : G-8-877/9773-9775 G-8-878/9774, 9776, 9777 et 9781 G-8-879/9782-9788 G-8-880/9789-9798 G-8-881-882/9803 G-8-882/9804-9805 G-8-883/9806-9811 G-8-884/9813 G-8-885/9817-9820 G-8-886/9822-9825 G-8-887/9826-9830 G-8-888/9835 G-8-889-890/9837 G-8-889/9839 Sources imprimées Livres et chroniques O’Farrill Romulo, (2004) Reseña histórica estadística y comercial de México y sus estados, directorio g...

  14. Extension of the source-sink potential approach to Hartree-Fock and density functional theory: A new tool to visualize the ballistic current through molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fias, Stijn; Stuyver, Thijs

    2017-11-01

    The recent source and sink potential approach by Pickup et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 194105 (2015)] is extended to Hartree-Fock and density functional theory, allowing the calculation of the transmission and the visualization of ballistic currents through molecules at these levels of theory. This visualization allows the study of the transmission process in real-space, providing an important tool to better understand the conduction process.

  15. Problem of the Landau Poles in Quantum Field Theory: from N. N. Bogolyubov to the Present Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarov, R. G.; Agham-Alieva, L. A.; Agha-Kishieva, P. É.; Rahim-zade, S. G.; Mamedova, S. N.; Mutallimov, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    A review of problems associated with the unphysical Landau pole in propagators of quantum particles is given. Approaches to eliminating this pole within the framework of electrodynamics and effective theories of strongly interacting particles are investigated. The asymptotic behavior at large momenta in the scalar theory ϕ4 in the two-particle (bubble) approximation is investigated. To formulate a calculational model in the two-particle approximation, we use an iterative scheme for solving the Schwinger-Dyson equation in the formalism of a bilocal field source. The main problem is to develop a recipe for numerical analysis of the solutions of the obtained nonlinear equation for the amplitude at small interaction distances (large values of the momentum) for different values of the constant. The nontrivial behavior of the amplitude in the deeply inelastic region of momenta is determined. The positions of the unphysical poles (the Landau poles) in the expression for the amplitude in the deeply inelastic region of momenta are identified.

  16. The special taste of snack news: An application of niche theory to understand the appeal of Facebook as a news source

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Svenja; Sülflow, Michael; Müller, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facebook has become an important source for political information since news posts are an essential part of the content that is shared and spread within the SNS. The present study applies the uses and gratifications approach and the theory of the niche to understand the specific appeal of Facebook as a source for political news. We compare the gratifications obtained from political Facebook news with those of political television news and newspapers. For this purpose, we conducted an online s...

  17. Quantum field theory II introductions to quantum gravity, supersymmetry and string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Manoukian, Edouard B

    2016-01-01

    This book takes a pedagogical approach to explaining quantum gravity, supersymmetry and string theory in a coherent way. It is aimed at graduate students and researchers in quantum field theory and high-energy physics. The first part of the book introduces quantum gravity, without requiring previous knowledge of general relativity (GR). The necessary geometrical aspects are derived afresh leading to explicit general Lagrangians for gravity, including that of general relativity. The quantum aspect of gravitation, as described by the graviton, is introduced and perturbative quantum GR is discussed. The Schwinger-DeWitt formalism is developed to compute the one-loop contribution to the theory and renormalizability aspects of the perturbative theory are also discussed. This follows by introducing only the very basics of a non-perturbative, background-independent, formulation of quantum gravity, referred to as “loop quantum gravity”, which gives rise to a quantization of space. In the second part the author in...

  18. Recruiting highly educated graduates: a study on the relationship between recruitment information sources, the theory of planned behavior, and actual job pursuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaidi, Y.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; Arends, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Using the theory of planned behavior, we examined the effects of different recruitment-related information sources on the job pursuit of highly educated graduates. The study was conducted using a real-life longitudinal design. Participants reported on potential employers they were interested in. We

  19. Analytical Prediction of the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chemoattractants around Their Source: Theory and Application to Complement-Mediated Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmar Heinrich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of motile immune cells to detect and follow gradients of chemoattractant is critical to numerous vital functions, including their recruitment to sites of infection and—in emerging immunotherapeutic applications—to malignant tumors. Facilitated by a multitude of chemotactic receptors, the cells navigate a maze of stimuli to home in on their target. Distinct chemotactic processes direct this navigation at particular times and cell-target distances. The expedient coordination of this spatiotemporal hierarchy of chemotactic stages is the central element of a key paradigm of immunotaxis. Understanding this hierarchy is an enormous interdisciplinary challenge that requires, among others, quantitative insight into the shape, range, and dynamics of the profiles of chemoattractants around their sources. We here present a closed-form solution to a diffusion–reaction problem that describes the evolution of the concentration gradient of chemoattractant under various conditions. Our ready-to-use mathematical prescription captures many biological situations reasonably well and can be explored with standard graphing software, making it a valuable resource for every researcher studying chemotaxis. We here apply this mathematical model to characterize the chemoattractant cloud of anaphylatoxins that forms around bacterial and fungal pathogens in the presence of host serum. We analyze the spatial reach, rate of formation, and rate of dispersal of this locator cloud under realistic physiological conditions. Our analysis predicts that simply being small is an effective protective strategy of pathogens against complement-mediated discovery by host immune cells over moderate-to-large distances. Leveraging our predictions against single-cell, pure-chemotaxis experiments that use human immune cells as biosensors, we are able to explain the limited distance over which the cells recognize microbes. We conclude that complement-mediated chemotaxis is a

  20. Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Esteban A; Muschik, Christine A; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Erhard, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Hauke, Philipp; Dalmonte, Marcello; Monz, Thomas; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-06-23

    Gauge theories are fundamental to our understanding of interactions between the elementary constituents of matter as mediated by gauge bosons. However, computing the real-time dynamics in gauge theories is a notorious challenge for classical computational methods. This has recently stimulated theoretical effort, using Feynman's idea of a quantum simulator, to devise schemes for simulating such theories on engineered quantum-mechanical devices, with the difficulty that gauge invariance and the associated local conservation laws (Gauss laws) need to be implemented. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory, by realizing (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (the Schwinger model) on a few-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer. We are interested in the real-time evolution of the Schwinger mechanism, describing the instability of the bare vacuum due to quantum fluctuations, which manifests itself in the spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs. To make efficient use of our quantum resources, we map the original problem to a spin model by eliminating the gauge fields in favour of exotic long-range interactions, which can be directly and efficiently implemented on an ion trap architecture. We explore the Schwinger mechanism of particle-antiparticle generation by monitoring the mass production and the vacuum persistence amplitude. Moreover, we track the real-time evolution of entanglement in the system, which illustrates how particle creation and entanglement generation are directly related. Our work represents a first step towards quantum simulation of high-energy theories using atomic physics experiments-the long-term intention is to extend this approach to real-time quantum simulations of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories.

  1. Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Esteban A.; Muschik, Christine A.; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Erhard, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Hauke, Philipp; Dalmonte, Marcello; Monz, Thomas; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Gauge theories are fundamental to our understanding of interactions between the elementary constituents of matter as mediated by gauge bosons. However, computing the real-time dynamics in gauge theories is a notorious challenge for classical computational methods. This has recently stimulated theoretical effort, using Feynman’s idea of a quantum simulator, to devise schemes for simulating such theories on engineered quantum-mechanical devices, with the difficulty that gauge invariance and the associated local conservation laws (Gauss laws) need to be implemented. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory, by realizing (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (the Schwinger model) on a few-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer. We are interested in the real-time evolution of the Schwinger mechanism, describing the instability of the bare vacuum due to quantum fluctuations, which manifests itself in the spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs. To make efficient use of our quantum resources, we map the original problem to a spin model by eliminating the gauge fields in favour of exotic long-range interactions, which can be directly and efficiently implemented on an ion trap architecture. We explore the Schwinger mechanism of particle-antiparticle generation by monitoring the mass production and the vacuum persistence amplitude. Moreover, we track the real-time evolution of entanglement in the system, which illustrates how particle creation and entanglement generation are directly related. Our work represents a first step towards quantum simulation of high-energy theories using atomic physics experiments—the long-term intention is to extend this approach to real-time quantum simulations of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories.

  2. Linear bosonic and fermionic quantum gauge theories on curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Thomas-Paul [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schenkel, Alexander [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachgruppe Physik

    2012-05-15

    We develop a general setting for the quantization of linear bosonic and fermionic field theories subject to local gauge invariance and show how standard examples such as linearized Yang-Mills theory and linearized general relativity fit into this framework. Our construction always leads to a well-defined and gauge-invariant quantum field algebra, the centre and representations of this algebra, however, have to be analysed on a case-by-case basis. We discuss an example of a fermionic gauge field theory where the necessary conditions for the existence of Hilbert space representations are not met on any spacetime. On the other hand, we prove that these conditions are met for the Rarita-Schwinger gauge field in linearized pure N=1 supergravity on certain spacetimes, including asymptotically flat spacetimes and classes of spacetimes with compact Cauchy surfaces. We also present an explicit example of a supergravity background on which the Rarita-Schwinger gauge field can not be consistently quantized.

  3. REDISCOVERING MISES-HAYEK MONETARY AND BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY IN LIGHT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS: CREDIT EXPANSION AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BOOM AND BUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mrowiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief description of Mises’ monetary theory, with emphasis on the Misesian differentiation of two kinds of credit: commodity and circulation credit, and with the description of the impact of circulation credit expansion on the business cycle. Further on it is described how Mises’ insights constituted the kernel of Austrian Business Cycle Theory, and how the same observations on the nature of credit constituted the kernel of the Chicago Plan (though Mises’ views on the nature of credit led him to different conculsions than it led the authors of the Chicago Plan, and how this plan is being “rediscovered” now. The following sections deal with observations of one of the preeminent current macroeconomic researches, Mr. Claudio Borio, on the elasticity of credit as the source of the current crisis, and on the importance of the financial cycle in analysing the current economic crisis. The author of this text demonstrates that Austrian Business Cycle Theory gave the same answer regarding the sources of economic crises that now modern macroeconomic theory seems to be approaching, and that the postulates for successful financial cycle modeling are already included in the ABCT. Finally, some observations on the current crisis, as well as proposals of avenues of further research are proposed.

  4. Parametric representation of Feynman amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sars, Matthias Christiaan Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    In this thesis a systematic method is given for writing the amplitudes in (scalar) quantum electrodynamics and non-Abelian gauge theories in Schwinger parametric form. This is done by turning the numerator of the Feynman rules in momentum space into a differential operator. It acts then on the parametric integrand of the scalar theory. For QED it is the most straightforward, because the Leibniz rule is not involved here. In the case of sQED and non-Abelian gauge theories, the contributions from the Leibniz rule are satisfyingly related to 4-valent vertices. Another feature of this method is that in the used renormalization scheme, the subtractions for 1-scale graphs cause significant simplifications. Furthermore, the Ward identities for mentioned three theories are studied.

  5. The determinants of physician attitudes and subjective norms toward drug information sources: modification and test of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, C A; Bagozzi, R P; Ascione, F J; Kirking, D M

    1997-10-01

    To improve upon the theory of reasoned action and apply it to pharmaceutical research, we investigated the effects of relevant appraisals attributes, and past behavior of physicians on the use of drug information sources. We also examined the moderating effects of practice characteristics. A mail questionnaire asked HMO physicians to evaluate seven common sources of drug information on general appraisals (degree of usefulness and ease of use), specific attributes (availability, quality of information on harmful effects and on drug efficacy), and past behavior when searching for information on a new, simulated H2 antagonist agent. Semantic differential scales were used to measure each appraisal, attribute and past behavior. Information was also collected on practice characteristics. Findings from 108/200 respondents indicated that appraisals and attributes were useful determinants of attitudes and subjective norms toward use. Degree of usefulness and quality of information on harmful effects were important predictors of attitudes toward use for several sources of information. Ease of use and degree of usefulness were important predictors of subjective norms toward use. In many cases, moderating effects of practice characteristics were in opposing directions. Past behavior had significant direct effects on attitudes toward the PDR. The findings suggest ways to improve the usefulness of the theory of reasoned action as a model of decision-making. We also propose practical guidelines that can be used to improve the types of drug information sources used by physicians.

  6. Recognition Memory, Self-Other Source Memory, and Theory-of-Mind in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated semantic and episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a task which assessed recognition and self-other source memory. Children with ASD showed undiminished recognition memory but significantly diminished source memory, relative to age- and verbal ability-matched comparison children. Both children with and…

  7. A source-initiated on-demand routing algorithm based on the Thorup-Zwick theory for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuxin; Zhu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The unreliability and dynamics of mobile wireless sensor networks make it hard to perform end-to-end communications. This paper presents a novel source-initiated on-demand routing mechanism for efficient data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks. It explores the Thorup-Zwick theory to achieve source-initiated on-demand routing with time efficiency. It is able to find out shortest routing path between source and target in a network and transfer data in linear time. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and performed in resource-constrained mobile wireless sensor networks. We also evaluate the approach by analyzing its cost in detail. It can be seen that the approach is efficient to support data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks.

  8. Ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  9. The sound source distance dependence of the acoustical cues to location and their encoding by neurons in the inferior colliculus: implications for the Duplex theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heath G; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer; Tollin, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    For over a century, the Duplex theory has posited that low- and ­high-frequency sounds are localized using two different acoustical cues, interaural time (ITDs) and level (ILDs) differences, respectively. Psychophysical data have generally supported the theory for pure tones. Anatomically, ITDs and ILDs are separately encoded in two parallel brainstem pathways. Acoustically ILDs are a function of location and frequency such that lower and higher frequencies exhibit smaller and larger ILDs, respectively. It is well established that neurons throughout the auditory neuraxis encode high-frequency ILDs. Acoustically, low-frequency ILDs are negligible (∼1–2 dB); however, humans are still sensitive to them and physiological studies often report low-frequency ILD-sensitive neurons. These ­latter findings are at odds with the Duplex theory. We suggest that these discrepancies arise from an inadequate characterization of the acoustical environment. We hypothesize that low-frequency ILDs become large and useful when sources are located near the head. We tested this hypothesis by making measurements of the ILDs in chinchillas as a function of source distance and the sensitivity to ILDs in 103 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC). The ILD sensitivity of IC neurons was found to be frequency independent even though far-field acoustical ILDs were frequency dependent. However, as source distance was decreased, the magnitudes of low-frequency ILDs increased. Using information theoretic methods, we ­demonstrate that a population of IC neurons can encode the full range of acoustic ILDs across frequency that would be experienced as a joint function of source location and distance.

  10. Using the trapped energy ratio for source depth discrimination with a horizontal line array: Theory and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Ewen; Bonnel, Julien; Nicolas, Barbara; Chonavel, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The problem of acoustic source depth discrimination was introduced as a way to get basic information on source depth in configurations where accurate depth estimation is not feasible. It is a binary classification problem, aiming to evaluate whether the source is near the surface or submerged. Herein, the classification relies on a signal measured with a horizontal line array in shallow water. Knowing the source-array distance is not required but the source bearing has to be close to the array endfire. Signal processing relies on a normal-mode propagation model, and thus requires prior knowledge of the mode characteristics. The decision relies on an estimation of the trapped energy ratio in mode space. The performance is predicted with simulations and Monte Carlo methods, allowing one to compare several estimators based on different mode filters, and to choose an appropriate decision threshold. The impact on performance of frequency, noise level, horizontal aperture, and environmental mismatch is numerically studied. Finally, the approach is validated on experimental data acquired with a horizontal line array deployed off the coast of New Jersey, and the impact of errors in the environmental model is illustrated. The investigated approach successfully identifies a surface ship and a submerged towed source.

  11. An analysis of natural gas exploration potential in the Qiongdongnan Basin by use of the theory of “joint control of source rocks and geothermal heat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Gongcheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene Yacheng Fm contains the most important source rocks that have been confirmed by exploratory wells in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The efficiency of these source rocks is the key to the breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the study area. This paper analyzes the hydrocarbon potential of each sag in this basin from the perspective of control of both source rocks and geothermal heat. Two types of source rocks occur in the Yacheng Fm, namely mudstone of transitional facies and mudstone of neritic facies. Both of them are dominated by a kerogen of type-III, followed by type-II. Their organic matter abundances are controlled by the amount of continental clastic input. The mudstone of transitional facies is commonly higher in organic matter abundance, while that of neritic facies is lower. The coal-measure source rocks of transitional facies were mainly formed in such environments as delta plains, coastal plains and barrier tidal flat-marshes. Due to the control of Cenozoic lithosphere extension and influence of neotectonism, the geothermal gradient, terrestrial heat flow value (HFV and level of thermal evolution are generally high in deep water. The hot setting not only determines the predominance of gas generation in the deep-water sags, but can promote the shallow-buried source rocks in shallow water into oil window to generate oil. In addition to promoting the hydrocarbon generation of source rocks, the high geothermal and high heat flow value can also speed up the cracking of residual hydrocarbons, thus enhancing hydrocarbon generation efficiency and capacity. According to the theory of joint control of source quality and geothermal heat on hydrocarbon generation, we comprehensively evaluate and rank the exploration potentials of major sags in the Qiongdongnan Basin. These sags are divided into 3 types, of which type-I sags including Yanan, Lingshui, Baodao, Ledong and Huaguang are the highest in hydrocarbon exploration potential.

  12. Selection of important ecological source patches base on Green Infrastructure theory: A case study of Wuhan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yan; Tong, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Selecting urban ecological patches is of great significance for constructing urban green infrastructure network, protecting urban biodiversity and ecological environment. With the support of GIS technology, a criterion for selecting sources of patches was developed according to existing planning. Then ecological source patches of terrestrial organism, aquatic and amphibious organism were selected in Wuhan city. To increase the connectivity of the ecological patches and achieve greater ecological protection benefits, the green infrastructure networks in Wuhan city were constructed with the minimum path analysis method. Finally, the characteristics of ecological source patches were analyzed with landscape metrics, and ecological protection importance degree of ecological source patches were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that there were 23 important ecological source patches in Wuhan city, among which Sushan Temple Forest Patch, Lu Lake and Shangshe Lake Wetland Patch were the most important in all kinds of patches for ecological protection. This study can provide a scientific basis for the preservation of urban ecological space, the delineation of natural conservation areas and the protection of biological diversity.

  13. Response to Germann's "Comment on 'theory for source-responsive and free-surface film modeling of unsaturated flow'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Germann's (2010) comment helpfully presents supporting evidence that I have missed, notes items that need clarification or correction, and stimulates discussion of what is needed for improved theory of unsaturated flow. Several points from this comment relate not only to specific features of the content of my paper (Nimmo, 2010), but also to the broader question of what methodology is appropriate for developing an applied earth science. Accordingly, before addressing specific points that Germann identified, I present here some considerations of purpose and background relevant to evaluation of the unsaturated flow model of Nimmo (2010).

  14. Jorge A. Swieca's contributions to quantum field theory in the 60s and 70s and their relevance in present research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-02-15

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge Andre Swieca. I explain how it fits into the quantum field theory during these two decades and draw attention to its relevance to the ongoing particle physics research. A particular aim of this article is to draw attention to the relevance of what at the time of Swieca was called 'the Schwinger Higgs screening mechanism'. which, together with recent ideas which generalize the concept of gauge theories, have all the ingredients to revolutionize the issue of gauge theories and the standard model. (author)

  15. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab; Rusli, Iffah Farizan; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Idris, Azni

    2013-05-01

    Tremendous increases in biodegradable (food waste) generation significantly impact the local authorities, who are responsible to manage, treat and dispose of this waste. The process of separation of food waste at its generation source is identified as effective means in reducing the amount food waste sent to landfill and can be reused as feedstock to downstream treatment processes namely composting or anaerobic digestion. However, these efforts will only succeed with positive attitudes and highly participations rate by the public towards the scheme. Thus, the social survey (using questionnaires) to analyse public's view and influencing factors towards participation in source separation of food waste in households based on the theory of planned behaviour technique (TPB) was performed in June and July 2011 among selected staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The survey demonstrates that the public has positive intention in participating provided the opportunities, facilities and knowledge on waste separation at source are adequately prepared by the respective local authorities. Furthermore, good moral values and situational factors such as storage convenience and collection times are also encouraged public's involvement and consequently, the participations rate. The findings from this study may provide useful indicator to the waste management authorities in Malaysia in identifying mechanisms for future development and implementation of food waste source separation activities in household programmes and communication campaign which advocate the use of these programmes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Universality in the relaxation dynamics of the composed black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system: The role of quantum Schwinger discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quasinormal resonance spectrum {ωn(μ,q,M,Q}n=0n=∞ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime is studied analytically in the large-coupling regime qQ≫Mμ (here {μ,q} are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and {M,Q} are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole. This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound τ×T≥ħ/π in black-hole physics (here τ≡1/ℑω0 is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and T is the Bekenstein–Hawking temperature of the black hole. In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime may saturate this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bound by light scalar fields are excluded by the Schwinger-type pair-production mechanism (a vacuum polarization effect, a quantum phenomenon which restricts the physical parameters of the composed black-hole-charged-field system to the regime qQ≪M2μ2/ħ.

  17. Residents’ Waste Separation Behaviors at the Source: Using SEM with the Theory of Planned Behavior in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Huang, Guangqing; Yin, Xiaoling; Gong, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect residents’ waste separation behaviors helps in constructing effective environmental campaigns for a community. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examines factors associated with waste separation behaviors by analyzing responses to questionnaires distributed in Guangzhou, China. Data drawn from 208 of 1000-field questionnaires were used to assess socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors). The questionnaire data revealed that attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors significantly predicted household waste behaviors in Guangzhou, China. Through a structural equation modeling analysis, we concluded that campaigns targeting moral obligations may be particularly effective for increasing the participation rate in waste separation behaviors. PMID:26274969

  18. Real-Time Dynamics in U(1 Lattice Gauge Theories with Tensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pichler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tensor network algorithms provide a suitable route for tackling real-time-dependent problems in lattice gauge theories, enabling the investigation of out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We analyze a U(1 lattice gauge theory in (1+1 dimensions in the presence of dynamical matter for different mass and electric-field couplings, a theory akin to quantum electrodynamics in one dimension, which displays string breaking: The confining string between charges can spontaneously break during quench experiments, giving rise to charge-anticharge pairs according to the Schwinger mechanism. We study the real-time spreading of excitations in the system by means of electric-field and particle fluctuations. We determine a dynamical state diagram for string breaking and quantitatively evaluate the time scales for mass production. We also show that the time evolution of the quantum correlations can be detected via bipartite von Neumann entropies, thus demonstrating that the Schwinger mechanism is tightly linked to entanglement spreading. To present a variety of possible applications of this simulation platform, we show how one could follow the real-time scattering processes between mesons and the creation of entanglement during scattering processes. Finally, we test the quality of quantum simulations of these dynamics, quantifying the role of possible imperfections in cold atoms, trapped ions, and superconducting circuit systems. Our results demonstrate how entanglement properties can be used to deepen our understanding of basic phenomena in the real-time dynamics of gauge theories such as string breaking and collisions.

  19. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab., E-mail: wanaz@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Rusli, Iffah Farizan, E-mail: iffahrusli@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang, E-mail: dayang@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Idris, Azni, E-mail: azni@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been conducted to identify the influencing factors for participation in source separation of food waste using self administered questionnaires. ► The findings suggested several implications for the development and implementation of waste separation at home programme. ► The analysis indicates that the attitude towards waste separation is determined as the main predictors where this in turn could be a significant predictor of the repondent’s actual food waste separation behaviour. ► To date, none of similar have been reported elsewhere and this finding will be beneficial to local Authorities as indicator in designing campaigns to promote the use of waste separation programmes to reinforce the positive attitudes. - Abstract: Tremendous increases in biodegradable (food waste) generation significantly impact the local authorities, who are responsible to manage, treat and dispose of this waste. The process of separation of food waste at its generation source is identified as effective means in reducing the amount food waste sent to landfill and can be reused as feedstock to downstream treatment processes namely composting or anaerobic digestion. However, these efforts will only succeed with positive attitudes and highly participations rate by the public towards the scheme. Thus, the social survey (using questionnaires) to analyse public’s view and influencing factors towards participation in source separation of food waste in households based on the theory of planned behaviour technique (TPB) was performed in June and July 2011 among selected staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The survey demonstrates that the public has positive intention in participating provided the opportunities, facilities and knowledge on waste separation at source are adequately prepared by the respective local authorities. Furthermore, good moral values and situational factors such as storage convenience and

  20. Quantum field theory the why, what and how

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2016-01-01

    This book describes, in clear terms, the Why, What and the How of Quantum Field Theory. The raison d'etre of QFT is explained by starting from the dynamics of a relativistic particle and demonstrating how it leads to the notion of quantum fields. Non-perturbative aspects and the Wilsonian interpretation of field theory are emphasized right from the start. Several interesting topics such as the Schwinger effect, Davies-Unruh effect, Casimir effect and spontaneous symmetry breaking introduce the reader to the elegance and breadth of applicability of field theoretical concepts. Complementing the conceptual aspects, the book also develops all the relevant mathematical techniques in detail, leading e.g., to the computation of anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the two-loop renormalisation of the self-interacting scalar field. It contains nearly a hundred problems, of varying degrees of difficulty, making it suitable for both self-study and classroom use.

  1. Spatial-temporal structures of human alpha rhythms: theory, microcurrent sources, multiscale measurements, and global binding of local networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, P L; Wingeier, B M; Silberstein, R B

    2001-07-01

    A theoretical framework supporting experimental measures of dynamic properties of human EEG is proposed with emphasis on distinct alpha rhythms. Robust relationships between measured dynamics and cognitive or behavioral conditions are reviewed, and proposed physiological bases for EEG at cellular levels are considered. Classical EEG data are interpreted in the context of a conceptual framework that distinguishes between locally and globally dominated dynamic processes, as estimated with coherence or other measures of phase synchronization. Macroscopic (scalp) potentials generated by cortical current sources are described at three spatial scales, taking advantage of the columnar structure of neocortex. New EEG data demonstrate that both globally coherent and locally dominated behavior can occur within the alpha band, depending on narrow band frequency, spatial measurement scale, and brain state. Quasi-stable alpha phase structures consistent with global standing waves are observed. At the same time, alpha and theta phase locking between cortical regions during mental calculations is demonstrated, consistent with neural network formation. The brain-binding problem is considered in the context of EEG dynamic behavior that generally exhibits both of these local and global aspects. But specific experimental designs and data analysis methods may severely bias physiological interpretations in either local or global directions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Preliminary steps toward a general theory of internet-based collective-action in digital information commons: Findings from a study of open source software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Schweik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the findings from a 5-year empirical study of FOSS (free/libre and open source software commons, completed in 2011.  FOSS projects are Internet-based common property regimes where the project source code is developed over the Internet. The resulting software is generally distributed with a license that provides users with the freedoms to access, use, read, modify and redistribute the software. In this study we used three different and very large datasets (approximately 107,000; 174,000 and 1400 cases respectively with information on FOSS projects residing in Sourceforge.net, one of the largest, if not the largest, FOSS repository in the world. We employ various quantitative methods to uncover factors that lead some FOSS projects to ongoing collaborative success, while others become abandoned. After presenting some of our study’s results, we articulate the collaborative “story” of FOSS that emerged. We close the paper by discussing some key findings that can contribute to a general theory of Internet-based collective-action and FOSS-like forms of digital online commons.

  3. Analysis of the orderly distribution of oil and gas fields in China based on the theory of co-control of source and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongcheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking a hydrocarbon zone or a basin group as a unit, this paper analyzed the vertical hydrocarbon generation regularity of onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in China, based on the theory of co-control of source and heat. The results demonstrated that the hydrocarbon generation modes of oil and gas fields in China are orderly. First, the hydrocarbon zones in southeastern China offshore area, including the East and South China Sea basins, are dominated by single hydrocarbon generation mode, which displays as either single oil generation in the near shore or single gas generation in the offshore controlled by both source and heat. Second, the eastern hydrocarbon zones, including the Bohai Bay, Songliao and Jianghan basins and the North and South Yellow Sea basins, are dominated by a two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode, which performs as “upper oil and lower gas”. Third, the central hydrocarbon zones, including the Ordos, Sichuan and Chuxiong basins, are also dominated by the “upper oil and lower gas” two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode. In the Ordos Basin, gas is mainly generated in the Triassic, and oil is predominantly generated in the Paleozoic. In the Sichuan Basin, oil was discovered in the Jurassic, and gas was mostly discovered in the Sinian and Triassic. Fourth, the western hydrocarbon zones are dominated by a “sandwich” multi-layer mode, such as the Junggar, Tarim, Qaidam basins. In summary, the theory of co-control of source and heat will be widely applied to oil and gas exploration all over China. Oil targets should be focused on the near shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the upper strata in the eastern and middle hydrocarbon zones, and the Ordovician, Permian and Paleogene strata in the western hydrocarbon zone, while gas targets should be focused on the off-shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the Cambrian, Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Quaternary strata in the western hydrocarbon zone. A pattern of

  4. Contribution from the interaction Hamiltonian to the expectation value of particle number with the non-equilibrium quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tomsk state Pedagogical University Tomsk 634041 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-27

    We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.

  5. Discourse theory and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Available in both print and electronic formats, the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory provides students and researchers with a comprehensive two-volume overview of contemporary communication theory. Reference librarians report that students frequently approach them seeking a source that will

  6. Properties of the vacuum in models for QCD. Holography vs. resummed field theory. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayakin, Andrey V.

    2011-01-17

    This Thesis is dedicated to a comparison of the two means of studying the electromagnetic properties of the QCD vacuum - holography and resummed field theory. I compare two classes of distinct models for the dynamics of the condensates. The first class consists of the so-called holographic models of QCD. Based upon the Maldacena conjecture, it tries to establish the properties of QCD correlation functions from the behavior of classical solutions of field equations in a higher-dimensional theory. Yet in many aspects the holographic approach has been found to be in an excellent agreement with data. These successes are the prediction of the very small viscosity-to-entropy ratio and the predictions of meson spectra up to 5% accuracy in several models. On the other hand, the resummation methods in field theory have not been discarded so far. Both classes of methods have access to condensates. Thus a comprehensive study of condensates becomes possible, in which I compare my calculations in holography and resummed field theory with each other, as well as with lattice results, field theory and experiment. I prove that the low-energy theorems of QCD keep their validity in holographic models with a gluon condensate in a non-trivial way. I also show that the so-called decoupling relation holds in holography models with chiral and gluon condensates, whereas this relation fails in the Dyson-Schwinger approach. On the contrary, my results on the chiral magnetic effect in holography disagree with the weak-field prediction; the chiral magnetic effect (that is, the electric current generation in a magnetic field) is three times less than the current in the weakly-coupled QCD. The chiral condensate behavior is found to be quadratic in external field both in the Dyson-Schwinger approach and in holography, yet we know that in the exact limit the condensate must be linear, thus both classes of models are concluded to be deficient for establishing the correct condensate behaviour in the

  7. Applying the theory of island biogeography to emerging pathogens: toward predicting the sources of future emerging zoonotic and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, Leslie A

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Emerging infectious diseases are recognized as increasing threats to public and animal health, global economy, and social and political stability. Climate change, environmental changes, changes in human demographics and behaviors, and the rise of global trade and travel are most-often-cited drivers for the emergence of infectious diseases in human and animal populations (Schrag and Wiener 1995 , Daszak et al. 2001 , Dobson and Foufopoulos 2001 , May et al. 2001 , Taylor et al. 2001 , Antia et al. 2003 , IOM 2003 , Kuiken et al. 2003 , Weiss and McMichael 2004 , Wolfe et al. 2005 , Woolhouse and Gowtage-Sequeria 2005 , Chomel et al. 2007 , Woolhouse and Gaunt 2007 , Jones et al. 2008 ). Emerging pathogens are more likely to be zoonotic or vector-borne with a broad host range (Daszak et al. 2000 , Taylor et al. 2001 , Woolhouse and Gowtage-Sequeria 2005 , Jones et al. 2008 ). Emerging pathogens are also more frequently RNA viruses (Woolhouse and Gowtage-Sequeria 2005 ), which may better adapt to and establish in novel host species (Antia et al. 2003 , Andre and Day 2005 , Woolhouse et al. 2005 ). Determining the factors driving disease emergence eventually aims at assisting the prediction of the future emergence of infectious diseases. However, because of the multifactorial nature of the drivers involved (IOM 2003 ), our ability to predict which pathogens may arise in human or animal populations in the future remains limited (WHO/FAO/OIE 2004 ). In particular, the ability to identify the animal reservoirs where the greatest risks to human health will originate was deemed improbable (WHO/FAO/OIE 2004 ). Applying the theory of island biogeography (MacArthur and Wilson 1967 ) to emerging pathogens identifies (i) interactions between recipient host species and species sources of pathogens (including vector species), (ii) interactions within species sources of pathogens, and (iii) interactions within recipient host species, as mechanisms directly driving disease

  8. Relativistic Quantum Field Theory for Condensed -

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUURA, HIROYUKI

    We proposed Atomic Schwinger Dyson method (ASD method) in this paper, which was the nonperturbative and finite relativistic quantum field theory, and we treat many electron system and electronic matter. The ASD formalism consists of coupled Dyson equations of electrons and photons. Since, it includes self-energies in a nonperturbative way, higher-order correlations beyond Hartee Fock approximation are taken into account. Some important differences between the ASD formalism for the system of finite electron density and SD formalism of zero electron density are shown. The main difference is due to the existence of condensed photon field, symmetry breaking, and what we call, Coulomb's potential. By paying special attention to the treatment of the condensed photon fields, the coupled Dyson equations of electron and photon are derived based on functional propagator method. It is shown that this treatment of the condensed fields naturally leads to tadpole energy, which cancels the Hartree energy. By using these photon propagators, explicit expression of ASD coupled equations and the energy density of matters are derived for numerical calculations in a subsequent paper. Similarities and differences between ASD and traditional methods such as the mean field theory or the Hartree Fock method are discussed; it is shown that these traditional methods were included in our ASD formalism.

  9. Matrix product states for lattice field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences

    2013-10-15

    The term Tensor Network States (TNS) refers to a number of families of states that represent different ansaetze for the efficient description of the state of a quantum many-body system. Matrix Product States (MPS) are one particular case of TNS, and have become the most precise tool for the numerical study of one dimensional quantum many-body systems, as the basis of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method. Lattice Gauge Theories (LGT), in their Hamiltonian version, offer a challenging scenario for these techniques. While the dimensions and sizes of the systems amenable to TNS studies are still far from those achievable by 4-dimensional LGT tools, Tensor Networks can be readily used for problems which more standard techniques, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, cannot easily tackle. Examples of such problems are the presence of a chemical potential or out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We have explored the performance of Matrix Product States in the case of the Schwinger model, as a widely used testbench for lattice techniques. Using finite-size, open boundary MPS, we are able to determine the low energy states of the model in a fully non-perturbativemanner. The precision achieved by the method allows for accurate finite size and continuum limit extrapolations of the ground state energy, but also of the chiral condensate and the mass gaps, thus showing the feasibility of these techniques for gauge theory problems.

  10. Random Tensor Theory: Extending Random Matrix Theory to Mixtures of Random Product States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambainis, Andris; Harrow, Aram W.; Hastings, Matthew B.

    2012-02-01

    We consider a problem in random matrix theory that is inspired by quantum information theory: determining the largest eigenvalue of a sum of p random product states in {(mathbb {C}^d)^{⊗ k}}, where k and p/ d k are fixed while d → ∞. When k = 1, the Marčenko-Pastur law determines (up to small corrections) not only the largest eigenvalue ({(1+sqrt{p/d^k})^2}) but the smallest eigenvalue {(min(0,1-sqrt{p/d^k})^2)} and the spectral density in between. We use the method of moments to show that for k > 1 the largest eigenvalue is still approximately {(1+sqrt{p/d^k})^2} and the spectral density approaches that of the Marčenko-Pastur law, generalizing the random matrix theory result to the random tensor case. Our bound on the largest eigenvalue has implications both for sampling from a particular heavy-tailed distribution and for a recently proposed quantum data-hiding and correlation-locking scheme due to Leung and Winter. Since the matrices we consider have neither independent entries nor unitary invariance, we need to develop new techniques for their analysis. The main contribution of this paper is to give three different methods for analyzing mixtures of random product states: a diagrammatic approach based on Gaussian integrals, a combinatorial method that looks at the cycle decompositions of permutations and a recursive method that uses a variant of the Schwinger-Dyson equations.

  11. Quantum field theory I foundations and Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Manoukian, Edouard B

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers a broad spectrum of developments in QFT, emphasizing those aspects that are now well consolidated and for which satisfactory theoretical descriptions have been provided. The book is unique in that it offers a new approach to the subject and explores many topics merely touched upon, if covered at all, in standard reference works. A detailed and largely non-technical introductory chapter traces the development of QFT from its inception in 1926. The elegant functional differential approach put forward by Schwinger, referred to as the quantum dynamical (action) principle, and its underlying theory are used systematically in order to generate the so-called vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude of both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories, in addition to Feynman’s well-known functional integral approach, referred to as the path-integral approach. Given the wealth of information also to be found in the abelian case, equal importance is put on both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories. Pa...

  12. Effective field theory for the quantum electrodynamics of a graphene wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, P.; Lipparini, E.

    2009-07-01

    We study the low-energy quantum electrodynamics of electrons and holes in a thin graphene wire. We develop an effective field theory (EFT) based on an expansion in p/pT , where pT is the typical momentum of electrons and holes in the transverse direction, while p are the momenta in the longitudinal direction. We show that, to the lowest order in (p/pT) , our EFT theory is formally equivalent to the exactly solvable Schwinger model. By exploiting such an analogy, we find that the ground state of the quantum wire contains a condensate of electron-hole pairs. The excitation spectrum is saturated by electron-hole collective bound states, and we calculate the dispersion law of such modes. We also compute the dc conductivity per unit length at zero chemical potential and find gs(e2)/(h) , where gs=4 is the degeneracy factor.

  13. Aspects of Nonlocality in Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, A O

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a collection of essays on nonlocal phenomena in quantum field theory, gravity and cosmology. Mechanisms of nonlocal contributions to the quantum effective action are discussed within the covariant perturbation expansion in field strengths and spacetime curvatures and the nonperturbative method based on the late time asymptotics of the heat kernel. Euclidean version of the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values is presented as a special rule of obtaining the nonlocal effective equations of motion for the mean quantum field from the Euclidean effective action. This rule is applied to a new model of ghost free nonlocal cosmology which can generate the de Sitter stage of cosmological evolution at an arbitrary value of $\\varLambda$ -- a model of dark energy with its scale played by the dynamical variable that can be fixed by a kind of a scaling symmetry breaking mechanism. This model is shown to interpolate between the superhorizon phase of gravity theory mediated by a scala...

  14. Phase structure and propagators at nonvanishing temperature for QCD and QCD-like theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contant, Romain; Huber, Markus Q.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the universality of truncation schemes for Dyson-Schwinger equations developed for quantum chromodynamics in theories which differ from quantum chromodynamics only in the gauge group. Our specific choices are the gauge groups S U (2 ) and G2, for which lattice calculations at nonvanishing chemical potential are possible. Thus, corresponding calculations can provide benchmarks for testing calculations with functional equations. We calculate the quark and gluon propagators and determine the chiral and dual chiral condensates at vanishing density to determine the confinement/deconfinement and chiral transitions, respectively. We can reproduce the expected type of transitions in the quenched and unquenched cases. In general, all three theories react very similarly to modifications of the employed model for the quark-gluon vertex.

  15. Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…

  16. Matrix Product States for Lattice Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The term Tensor Network States (TNS) refers to a number of families of states that represent different ans\\"atze for the efficient description of the state of a quantum many-body system. Matrix Product States (MPS) are one particular case of TNS, and have become the most precise tool for the numerical study of one dimensional quantum many-body systems, as the basis of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method. Lattice Gauge Theories (LGT), in their Hamiltonian version, offer a challenging scenario for these techniques. While the dimensions and sizes of the systems amenable to TNS studies are still far from those achievable by 4-dimensional LGT tools, Tensor Networks can be readily used for problems which more standard techniques, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, cannot easily tackle. Examples of such problems are the presence of a chemical potential or out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We have explored the performance of Matrix Product States in the case of the Schwinger model, as a widely used ...

  17. Neural Correlates of Confidence during Item Recognition and Source Memory Retrieval: Evidence for Both Dual-Process and Strength Memory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M.; Buchler, Norbou; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Although the medial-temporal lobes (MTL), PFC, and parietal cortex are considered primary nodes in the episodic memory network, there is much debate regarding the contributions of MTL, PFC, and parietal subregions to recollection versus familiarity (dual-process theory) and the feasibility of accounts on the basis of a single memory strength…

  18. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and refle......Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...

  19. Book Review: "Inside Stars. A Theory of the Internal Constitution of Stars, and the Sources of Stellar Energy According to General Relativity" (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millette P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This book provides a general relativistic theory of the internal constitution of liquid stars. It is a solid contribution to our understanding of stellar structure from a general relativistic perspective. It raises new ideas on the constitution of stars and planetary systems, and proposes a new approach to stellar structure an d stellar energy generation which is bound to help us better understand stellar astrophysics.

  20. Domain walls in thermal gauge field theories - myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilga, A.V. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki

    1994-01-01

    We argue different Z{sub N} thermal vacua of hot pure Yang-Mills theory distinguished in the standard approach by different values of Polyakov loop average

    {sub T} corresponds actually to one and the same physical state. A critical discussion of the argument which are usually put forward in favor of the opposite conclusion (that, in pure continuum Yang-Mills theory, distinct Z{sub N}-phases may coexist in the physical space being separated by the domain walls finite surface energy) is given. In particular, we note that the same arguments can be applied with an equal ease to Abelian theories and would lead to the existence of the walls in the high-T 4-dim QED and to appearance of the queer high-T solitons with the mass {approx} T{sup 2}/e in the Schwinger model. We emphasize that these configurations may be relevant for the Euclidean path integral but whether they correspond to Minkowski space objects is unclear. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs.

  1. Theory of neutron scattering by electrons in magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, S. W.

    2015-10-01

    A theory of neutron scattering by magnetic materials is reviewed with emphasis on the use of electronic multipoles that have universal appeal, because they are amenable to calculation and appear in theories of many other experimental techniques. The conventional theory of magnetic neutron scattering, which dates back to Schwinger (1937 Phys. Rev. 51 544) and Trammell (1953 Phys. Rev. 92 1387), yields an approximation for the scattering amplitude in terms of magnetic dipoles formed with the spin (S) and orbital angular momentum (L) of valence electrons. The so-called dipole-approximation has been widely adopted by researchers during the past few decades that has seen neutron scattering develop to its present status as the method of choice for investigations of magnetic structure and excitations. Looking beyond the dipole-approximation, however, reveals a wealth of additional information about electronic degrees of freedom conveniently encapsulated in magnetic multipoles. In this language, the dipole-approximation retains electronic axial dipoles, S and L. At the same level of approximation are polar dipoles—called anapoles or toroidal dipoles—allowed in the absence of a centre of inversion symmetry. Anapoles are examples of magneto-electric multipoles, time-odd and parity-odd irreducible tensors, that have come to the fore as signatures of electronic complexity in materials.

  2. Science and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon

    1962-01-01

    A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

  3. Finite-representation approximation of lattice gauge theories at the continuum limit with tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Boye; Montangero, Simone; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank; Van Acoleyen, Karel

    2017-05-01

    It has been established that matrix product states can be used to compute the ground state and single-particle excitations and their properties of lattice gauge theories at the continuum limit. However, by construction, in this formalism the Hilbert space of the gauge fields is truncated to a finite number of irreducible representations of the gauge group. We investigate quantitatively the influence of the truncation of the infinite number of representations in the Schwinger model, one-flavor QED2 , with a uniform electric background field. We compute the two-site reduced density matrix of the ground state and the weight of each of the representations. We find that this weight decays exponentially with the quadratic Casimir invariant of the representation which justifies the approach of truncating the Hilbert space of the gauge fields. Finally, we compute the single-particle spectrum of the model as a function of the electric background field.

  4. A Refined Self-Tuning Filter-Based Instantaneous Power Theory Algorithm for Indirect Current Controlled Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filters under Non-sinusoidal Source Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a refined reference current generation algorithm based on instantaneous power (pq theory is proposed, for operation of an indirect current controlled (ICC three-level neutral-point diode clamped (NPC inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF under non-sinusoidal source voltage conditions. SAPF is recognized as one of the most effective solutions to current harmonics due to its flexibility in dealing with various power system conditions. As for its controller, pq theory has widely been applied to generate the desired reference current due to its simple implementation features. However, the conventional dependency on self-tuning filter (STF in generating reference current has significantly limited mitigation performance of SAPF. Besides, the conventional STF-based pq theory algorithm is still considered to possess needless features which increase computational complexity. Furthermore, the conventional algorithm is mostly designed to suit operation of direct current controlled (DCC SAPF which is incapable of handling switching ripples problems, thereby leading to inefficient mitigation performance. Therefore, three main improvements are performed which include replacement of STF with mathematical-based fundamental real power identifier, removal of redundant features, and generation of sinusoidal reference current. To validate effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm, simulation work in MATLAB-Simulink and laboratory test utilizing a TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP are performed. Both simulation and experimental findings demonstrate superiority of the proposed algorithm over the conventional algorithm.

  5. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  6. On the theory of canonical perturbations and its applications to Earth rotation: a source of inaccuracy in the calculation of angular velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroimsky, M.

    2005-09-01

    When the dynamical equations, written in terms of variable "constants," are demanded to be symplectic, these "constants" make conjugated pairs and are called Delaunay elements, in the orbital case, or Serret-Andoyer elements, in the rotational case. These sets of elements share a feature not readily apparent: in certain cases, the standard equations render them non-osculating. Non-osculating orbital elements parametrise instantaneous conics not tangent to the orbit. The non-osculating i, may differ much from the physical inclination of the orbit, given by the osculating i. Similarly, in the case of rotation, non-osculating Serret-Andoyer variables yield correct orientation angles for the body figure but not for the instantaneous spin axis. As a result, the Kinoshita-Souchay theory (which tacitly employs non-osculating Serret-Andoyer elements) gives correct results for the figure axis but needs corrections for the rotation axis.

  7. Viscosity and dissipative hydrodynamics from effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Polonyi, Janos

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of deriving dissipative hydrodynamics from an action, we study classical actions for open systems, which follow from the generic structure of effective actions in the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path (CTP) formalism with two time axes and a doubling of degrees of freedom. The central structural feature of such effective actions is the coupling between degrees of freedom on the two time axes. This reflects the fact that from an effective field theory point of view, dissipation is the loss of energy of the low-energy hydrodynamical degrees of freedom to the integrated-out, UV degrees of freedom of the environment. The dynamics of only the hydrodynamical modes may therefore not possess a conserved stress-energy tensor. After a general discussion of the CTP effective actions, we use the variational principle to derive the energy-momentum balance equation for a dissipative fluid from an effective Goldstone action of the long-range hydrodynamical modes. Despite the absence of conserved energy and momentum, we show that we can construct the first-order dissipative stress-energy tensor and derive the Navier-Stokes equations near hydrodynamical equilibrium. The shear viscosity is shown to vanish in the classical theory under consideration, while the bulk viscosity is determined by the form of the effective action. We also discuss the thermodynamics of the system and analyze the entropy production.

  8. Proceedings of the 1977 national synchrotron light source summer theory workshop, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, June 20--24, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinsky, S. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    A summer study was held in 1977 to provide definitive recommendations on the design of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The group attending the workshop included electron storage ring experts. Topics covered in the proceedings include: introduction to the lattice; partial list of corrective or diagnostic equipment; closed orbit errors in the 2.5 GeV x-ray source; linear horizontal-vertical coupling, vertical dispersion, and control of the vertical closed orbit at the wiggler; bunch lengthening and longitudinal stability; longitudinal stability with a Landau cavity; transverse coupled-bundle instabilities; coupling impedance and power dissipation for a step change in the vacuum chamber; bunch lengthening and widening; aperture limitations by sextupoles; second-order effects of correction sextupoles; horizontal aperture in x-ray ring; introduction of sinusoidal wiggler into the x-ray lattice; the Touchek effect; possible mode of injection into the x-ray ring; and an inquiry into the flexibility of the x-ray lattice. (GHT)

  9. Thinking about Seeing: perceptual sources of knowledge are encoded in the theory of mind brain regions of sighted and blind adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster-Hale, Jorie; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Blind people's inferences about how other people see provide a window into fundamental questions about the human capacity to think about one another's thoughts. By working with blind individuals, we can ask both what kinds of representations people form about others’ minds, and how much these representations depend on the observer having had similar mental states themselves. Thinking about others’ mental states depends on a specific group of brain regions, including the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ). We investigated the representations of others’ mental states in these brain regions, using multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA). We found that, first, in the RTPJ of sighted adults, the pattern of neural response distinguished the source of the mental state (did the protagonist see or hear something?) but not the valence (did the protagonist feel good or bad?). Second, these neural representations were preserved in congenitally blind adults. These results suggest that the temporo-parietal junction contains explicit, abstract representations of features of others’ mental states, including the perceptual source. The persistence of these representations in congenitally blind adults, who have no first-person experience with sight, provides evidence that these representations emerge even in the absence of first-person perceptual experiences. PMID:24960530

  10. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  11. Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 1: Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.

    2017-02-01

    We model the ascent and eruption of lunar mare basalt magmas with new data on crustal thickness and density (GRAIL), magma properties, and surface topography, morphology and structure (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter). GRAIL recently measured the broad spatial variation of the bulk density structure of the crust of the Moon. Comparing this with the densities of lunar basaltic and picritic magmas shows that essentially all lunar magmas were negatively buoyant everywhere within the lunar crust. Thus positive excess pressures must have been present in melts at or below the crust-mantle interface to enable them to erupt. The source of such excess pressures is clear: melt in any region experiencing partial melting or containing accumulated melt, behaves as though an excess pressure is present at the top of the melt column if the melt is positively buoyant relative to the host rocks and forms a continuously interconnected network. The latter means that, in partial melt regions, probably at least a few percent melting must have taken place. Petrologic evidence suggests that both mare basalts and picritic glasses may have been derived from polybaric melting of source rocks in regions extending vertically for at least a few tens of km. This is not surprising: the vertical extent of a region containing inter-connected partial melt produced by pressure-release melting is approximately inversely proportional to the acceleration due to gravity. Translating the ∼25 km vertical extent of melting in a rising mantle diapir on Earth to the Moon then implies that melting could have taken place over a vertical extent of up to 150 km. If convection were absent, melting could have occurred throughout any region in which heat from radioisotope decay was accumulating; in the extreme this could have been most of the mantle. The maximum excess pressure that can be reached in a magma body depends on its environment. If melt percolates upward from a partial melt zone and accumulates as a magma

  12. THEORY IN RELIGION AND AGING: AN OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theory in religion, aging, and health. It offers both a primer on theory and a roadmap for researchers. Four “tenses” of theory are described—distinct ways that theory comes into play in this field: grand theory, mid-range theory, use of theoretical models, and positing of constructs which mediate or moderate putative religious effects. Examples are given of both explicit and implicit uses of theory. Sources of theory for this field are then identified, emphasizing perspectives of sociologists and psychologists, and discussion is given to limitations of theory. Finally, reflections are offered as to why theory matters. PMID:20087662

  13. Two-dimensional ground motion at a soft viscoelastic layer/hard substratum site in response to SH cylindrical seismic waves radiated by deep and shallow line sources-I. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groby, Jean-Philippe; Wirgin, Armand

    2005-10-01

    We consider, using theory (herein) and associated synthetic seismograms (in a companion paper), the seismic response of a site comprising a horizontal, homogeneous, soft viscoelastic layer of infinite lateral extent overlying, and in welded contact with, a homogeneous, hard elastic substratum of half-infinite radial extent. We show that for shear-horizontal motion: (1) coupling to Love modes is all the stronger the closer (in the vertical direction) the source (modelled as a line, assumed to lie in the substratum) is to the lower boundary of the soft layer, (2) all anomalous features (such as long duration) of the seismic wavefield, including those for regional earthquakes, are primarily the result of strong excitation of Love modes, (3) 1-D (body wave) type of response is: non-resonant, obtained for deep sources and usually characterized by relatively short durations, (4) for shallow sources and hypocentral distances that are not very large, the response results from a complex interplay of Love mode and body wave contributions, which requires a numerical description (furnished in the companion paper).

  14. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. III - Efficiency of plasma heating by dissipation of far-field waves. [in solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William

    1992-01-01

    The fraction of radiation emitted by Alfven waves is calculated by using two separate methods to determine whether the Alfven flux generated in the photosphere is sufficient to heat the corona. One method employs a set of scaling laws for the fluxes as functions of plasma and source parameters; the second method consist of a procedure for calculating the flux in each waveband from the interaction of vector-harmonic components of an arbitrary applied forcing. Both methods indicate that the Alfven flux accounts roughly for half of the total emission. The need to reexamine estimates of the amount of Alfven flux reaching the corona based on observations of plasma disturbances in the photosphere is emphasized.

  15. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleifenbaum, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  16. String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marino Beiras, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.

  17. Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  18. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  19. Open source development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses innovations based on open source or non-proprietary knowledge. Viewed through the lens of private property theory, such agency appears to be a true anomaly. However, by a further turn of the theoretical kaleidoscope, we will show that there may be perfectly justifiable reasons...... for not regarding open source innovations as anomalies. The paper is based on three sectorial and generic cases of open source innovation, which is an offspring of contemporary theory made possible by combining elements of the model of private agency with those of the model of collective agency. In closing...

  20. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lovász, László

    2009-01-01

    This book surveys matching theory, with an emphasis on connections with other areas of mathematics and on the role matching theory has played, and continues to play, in the development of some of these areas. Besides basic results on the existence of matchings and on the matching structure of graphs, the impact of matching theory is discussed by providing crucial special cases and nontrivial examples on matroid theory, algorithms, and polyhedral combinatorics. The new Appendix outlines how the theory and applications of matching theory have continued to develop since the book was first publish

  1. Aeroacoustic sources in phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Michael

    2010-11-01

    An analysis of the flow through a time-varying duct constriction is used to identify the primary aeroacoustic source mechanisms in human vocalization. The acoustic fields on either side of the constriction are matched using equations describing the flow through the constriction. The form of the resulting sound fields indicates that the primary source of sound is the unsteady aerodynamic drag due to separated flow, and that secondary sources arise from changes in glottis volume and the movement of the separation point. The source strengths are shown to depend on the incident sound field, calling into question the "source-filter" theory of voice production. A control volume analysis supports these results.

  2. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...... flexibility. We finally discuss implications for management and international business research, within and beyond the domain of global services sourcing....

  3. Topos theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, PT

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.

  4. Grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate app...

  5. Abstract methods in information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kakihara, Yuichiro

    1999-01-01

    Information Theory is studied from the following view points: (1) the theory of entropy as amount of information; (2) the mathematical structure of information sources (probability measures); and (3) the theory of information channels. Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy are defined and their basic properties are examined, where the latter entropy is extended to be a linear functional on a certain set of measures. Ergodic and mixing properties of stationary sources are studied as well as AMS (asymptotically mean stationary) sources. The main purpose of this book is to present informat

  6. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  7. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  8. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  9. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  10. Pragmatism and practice theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Elkjær, Bente

    Proponents of the ‘practice turn’ in the social sciences rarely mention American pragmatism as a source of inspiration or refer to pragmatist philosophy. This strikes us as not only odd, but also a disadvantage since the pragmatist legacy has much to offer practice theory in the study of organiza......Proponents of the ‘practice turn’ in the social sciences rarely mention American pragmatism as a source of inspiration or refer to pragmatist philosophy. This strikes us as not only odd, but also a disadvantage since the pragmatist legacy has much to offer practice theory in the study...... of organizations. In this paper we want to spell out the theoretical similarities and divergences between practice theory and pragmatism to consider whether the two traditions can find common ground when gazing upon organization studies. We suggest that pragmatism should be included in the ‘tool-kit’ of practice...

  11. Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. Journal of the History of Biology 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. The Evolution of Biology. New York: Oxford University Press) his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type (S. Müller-Wille and V. Orel, 2007. Annals of Science 64: 171-215). Johannsen sharpened this idea theoretically in the light of recent biological discoveries, not least those of cytology. He tested and confirmed it experimentally combining the methods of biometry, as developed by Francis Galton, with the individual selection method and pedigree analysis, as developed for instance by Louis Vilmorin. The term "genotype" was introduced in W. Johannsen's 1909 (Elemente der Exakten Erblichkeitslehre. Jena: Gustav Fischer) treatise, but the idea of a stable underlying biological "type" distinct from observable properties was the core idea of his classical bean selection experiment published 6 years earlier (W. Johannsen, 1903. Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und reinen Linien. Eine Beitrag zur Beleuchtung schwebender Selektionsfragen, Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 58-59). The individual ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his death in 1927. The claim that there was a "substantial but cautious modification of Johannsen's phenotype-genotype distinction" (Churchill, 1974, p. 24) from a statistical to an individual ontological perspective derives from a misreading of the 1903 and 1909 texts. The immediate purpose of this paper is to correct this reading of the 1903 monograph by showing how its problems and results grow out of Johannsen's earlier work in heredity and plant breeding. Johannsen presented his famous selection experiment as the culmination of a line of criticism of orthodox Darwinism by William Bateson, Hugo de Vries, and others (Johannsen, 1903). They had argued that evolution is based on stepwise rather than continuous change in heredity. Johannsen's paradigmatic experiment showed how stepwise variation in heredity could be operationally distinguished from the observable, continuous morphological variation. To test Galton's law of partial regression, Johannsen deliberately chose pure lines of self-fertilizing plants, a pure line being the descendants in successive generations of one single individual. Such a population could be assumed to be highly homogeneous with respect to hereditary type, and Johannsen found that selection produced no change in this type. Galton, he explained, had experimented with populations composed of a number of stable hereditary types. The partial regression which Galton found was simply an effect of selection between types, increasing the proportion of some types at the expense of others.

  12. Cosmological singularities and bounce in Cartan-Einstein theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucat, Stefano; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2017-10-01

    We consider a generalized Einstein-Cartan theory, in which we add the unique covariant dimension four operators to general relativity that couples fermionic spin current to the torsion tensor (with an arbitrary strength). Since torsion is local and non-dynamical, when integrated out it yields an effective four-fermion interaction of the gravitational strength. We show how to renormalize the theory, in the one-loop perturbative expansion in generally curved space-times, obtaining the first order correction to the 2PI effective action in Schwinger-Keldysh (in-in) formalism. We then apply the renormalized theory to study the dynamics of a collapsing universe that begins in a thermal state and find that—instead of a big crunch singularity—the Universe with torsion undergoes a bounce. We solve the dynamical equations (a) classically (without particle production); (b) including the production of fermions in a fixed background in the Hartree-Fock approximation and (c) including the quantum backreaction of fermions onto the background space-time. In the first and last cases the Universe undergoes a bounce. The production of fermions due to the coupling to a contracting homogeneous background speeds up the bounce, implying that the quantum contributions from fermions is negative, presumably because fermion production contributes negatively to the energy-momentum tensor. When compared with former works on the subject, our treatment is fully microscopic (namely, we treat fermions by solving the corresponding Dirac equations) and quantum (in the sense that we include fermionic loop contributions).

  13. Joint derivation method for determining optical properties based on steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement at small source-detector separations and large reduced albedo range: theory and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2012-06-01

    Accurate determination of the optical properties (the absorption coefficient μ(a) and the reduced scattering coefficient μ(s) (')) of tissues is very important in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Optical diffusion theory is frequently used as the forward model for describing the photon transfer in media with large reduced albedos (a(')) and in large source-detector separations (SDS). Several other methods (PN approximation, hybrid diffusion-P3 approximation) have also been published that describe photon transfer in media with low a(') or small SDSs. We studied the theoretical models for the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement to accurately determine μ(a) and μ(s) (') at large a(') range but small SDSs. Instead of using a single model, a joint derivation method is proposed. The developed method uses one of the best aforementioned theoretical methods separately in five ranges of a(') determined from several forward models. In the region of small SDSs (the range between 0.4 and 8 mm) and large a(') range (between 0.5 and 0.99), the best theoretical derivation model was determined. The results indicate that the joint derivation method can improve the derivation accuracy and that a(') range can be determined by the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement.

  14. HILBERT-PÓLYA Conjecture, Zeta Functions and Bosonic Quantum Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Julio C.

    2013-07-01

    The original Hilbert and Pólya conjecture is the assertion that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be the spectrum of a self-adjoint operator. So far no such operator was found. However, the suggestion of Hilbert and Pólya, in the context of spectral theory, can be extended to approach other problems and so it is natural to ask if there is a quantum mechanical system related to other sequences of numbers which are originated and motivated by Number Theory. In this paper, we show that the functional integrals associated with a hypothetical class of physical systems described by self-adjoint operators associated with bosonic fields whose spectra is given by three different sequence of numbers cannot be constructed. The common feature of the sequence of numbers considered here, which causes the impossibility of zeta regularizations, is that the various Dirichlet series attached to such sequences — such as those which are sums over "primes" of (norm P)-s have a natural boundary, i.e. they cannot be continued beyond the line Re(s) = 0. The main argument is that once the regularized determinant of a Laplacian is meromorphic in s, it follows that the series considered above cannot be a regularized determinant. In other words, we show that the generating functional of connected Schwinger functions of the associated quantum field theories cannot be constructed.

  15. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  16. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  17. Confabulation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.

  18. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  19. Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students.  The exercises have also been im

  20. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Perspectives of Light-Front Quantized Field Theory: Some New Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1999-08-13

    A review of some basic topics in the light-front (LF) quantization of relativistic field theory is made. It is argued that the LF quantization is equally appropriate as the conventional one and that they lead, assuming the microcausality principle, to the same physical content. This is confirmed in the studies on the LF of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), of the degenerate vacua in Schwinger model (SM) and Chiral SM (CSM), of the chiral boson theory, and of the QCD in covariant gauges among others. The discussion on the LF is more economical and more transparent than that found in the conventional equal-time quantized theory. The removal of the constraints on the LF phase space by following the Dirac method, in fact, results in a substantially reduced number of independent dynamical variables. Consequently, the descriptions of the physical Hilbert space and the vacuum structure, for example, become more tractable. In the context of the Dyson-Wick perturbation theory the relevant propagators in the front form theory are causal. The Wick rotation can then be performed to employ the Euclidean space integrals in momentum space. The lack of manifest covariance becomes tractable, and still more so if we employ, as discussed in the text, the Fourier transform of the fermionic field based on a special construction of the LF spinor. The fact that the hyperplanes x{sup {+-}} = 0 constitute characteristic surfaces of the hyperbolic partial differential equation is found irrelevant in the quantized theory; it seems sufficient to quantize the theory on one of the characteristic hyperplanes.

  2. Shielding Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion N.Chiuta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper determines relations for shieldingeffectiveness relative to several variables, includingmetal type, metal properties, thickness, distance,frequency, etc. It starts by presenting some relationshipsregarding magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fieldsas a pertinent background to understanding and applyingfield theory. Since literature about electromagneticcompatibility is replete with discussions about Maxwellequations and field theory only a few aspects arepresented.

  3. Uncertainty theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Baoding

    2015-01-01

    When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...

  4. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  5. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  6. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  7. Adventures in graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Joyner, W David

    2017-01-01

    This textbook acts as a pathway to higher mathematics by seeking and illuminating the connections between graph theory and diverse fields of mathematics, such as calculus on manifolds, group theory, algebraic curves, Fourier analysis, cryptography and other areas of combinatorics. An overview of graph theory definitions and polynomial invariants for graphs prepares the reader for the subsequent dive into the applications of graph theory. To pique the reader’s interest in areas of possible exploration, recent results in mathematics appear throughout the book, accompanied with examples of related graphs, how they arise, and what their valuable uses are. The consequences of graph theory covered by the authors are complicated and far-reaching, so topics are always exhibited in a user-friendly manner with copious graphs, exercises, and Sage code for the computation of equations. Samples of the book’s source code can be found at github.com/springer-math/adventures-in-graph-theory. The text is geared towards ad...

  8. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  9. Lattice theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, Garrett

    1940-01-01

    Since its original publication in 1940, this book has been revised and modernized several times, most notably in 1948 (second edition) and in 1967 (third edition). The material is organized into four main parts: general notions and concepts of lattice theory (Chapters I-V), universal algebra (Chapters VI-VII), applications of lattice theory to various areas of mathematics (Chapters VIII-XII), and mathematical structures that can be developed using lattices (Chapters XIII-XVII). At the end of the book there is a list of 166 unsolved problems in lattice theory, many of which still remain open. I

  10. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (‘hidden characteristics’) as well as ex post information asymmetry (‘hidden action’), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  11. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  12. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  13. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  14. [Theory? Practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Moya, José Luis

    2005-04-01

    This second article about the difficult balance between academic and professional development in pre-European Spain poses the issue of the theory-practice, or learning-treatment, relationship as the historical dissolution of the practical in the theoretical.

  15. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  16. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  17. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

  18. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  19. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory’. It is demonstr......The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  20. Nevanlinna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kodaira, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the classical theory of Nevanlinna on the value distribution of meromorphic functions of one complex variable, based on minimum prerequisites for complex manifolds. The theory was extended to several variables by S. Kobayashi, T. Ochiai, J. Carleson, and P. Griffiths in the early 1970s. K. Kodaira took up this subject in his course at The University of Tokyo in 1973 and gave an introductory account of this development in the context of his final paper, contained in this book. The first three chapters are devoted to holomorphic mappings from C to complex manifolds. In the fourth chapter, holomorphic mappings between higher dimensional manifolds are covered. The book is a valuable treatise on the Nevanlinna theory, of special interests to those who want to understand Kodaira's unique approach to basic questions on complex manifolds.

  1. Persistence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Oudot, Steve Y

    2015-01-01

    Persistence theory emerged in the early 2000s as a new theory in the area of applied and computational topology. This book provides a broad and modern view of the subject, including its algebraic, topological, and algorithmic aspects. It also elaborates on applications in data analysis. The level of detail of the exposition has been set so as to keep a survey style, while providing sufficient insights into the proofs so the reader can understand the mechanisms at work. The book is organized into three parts. The first part is dedicated to the foundations of persistence and emphasizes its conne

  2. Probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    S Varadhan, S R

    2001-01-01

    This volume presents topics in probability theory covered during a first-year graduate course given at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. The necessary background material in measure theory is developed, including the standard topics, such as extension theorem, construction of measures, integration, product spaces, Radon-Nikodym theorem, and conditional expectation. In the first part of the book, characteristic functions are introduced, followed by the study of weak convergence of probability distributions. Then both the weak and strong limit theorems for sums of independent rando

  3. Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g

  4. Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-10-01

    People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Towards a Theory Grounded Theory of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Christopher G.; Mislivec, Eric J.; Kosolapov, Oleksandr V.; Lykken, Troy R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we build upon the idea of theory grounding and propose one specific form of theory grounding, a theory of language. Theory grounding is the idea that we can imbue our embodied artificially intelligent systems with theories by modeling the way humans, and specifically young children, develop skills with theories. Modeling theory development promises to increase the conceptual and behavioral flexibility of these systems. An example of theory development in children is the social ...

  6. Introduction to coding and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    1997-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce coding theory and information theory to undergraduate students of mathematics and computer science. It begins with a review of probablity theory as applied to finite sample spaces and a general introduction to the nature and types of codes. The two subsequent chapters discuss information theory: efficiency of codes, the entropy of information sources, and Shannon's Noiseless Coding Theorem. The remaining three chapters deal with coding theory: communication channels, decoding in the presence of errors, the general theory of linear codes, and such specific codes as Hamming codes, the simplex codes, and many others.

  7. Combinatorial Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Includes proof of van der Waerden's 1926 conjecture on permanents, Wilson's theorem on asymptotic existence, and other developments in combinatorics since 1967. Also covers coding theory and its important connection with designs, problems of enumeration, and partition. Presents fundamentals in addition to latest advances, with illustrative problems at the end of each chapter. Enlarged appendixes include a longer list of block designs.

  8. Mapping Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research p...

  9. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  10. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  11. Autocommunication Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2016-01-01

    they communicate with and evaluate themselves as social beings. This latter point was clearly illustrated in Jane Dutton and Janet Dukerich’s (1991) now classic study of the New York Port Authority, in which employees used external perceptions of their workplace to judge their individual characters. This entry...... covers the theory of autocommunication and its implications for corporate reputation and managerial applications....

  12. Theory U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de; Statler, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer’s Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

  13. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  14. Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Bødker, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    the young HCI research tradition. But HCI was already facing problems: lack of consideration for other aspects of human behavior, for interaction with other people, for culture. Cognitive science-based theories lacked means to address several issues that came out of the empirical projects....

  15. Theory U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet de Monthoux, Pierre; Statler, Matt

    2017-01-01

    The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer's Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

  16. Singularity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The space of functions – or maps – is huge. Fortunately, many of its elements may be regarded as equivalent in a natural way, for example under right- or left-right transformations. Singularity theory studies how such equivalences foliate these spaces into a more manageable family of orbits of

  17. Institutional Theory in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Christer; Tallberg, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we trace the emergence of institutional approaches in IR theory, outline three important areas of research on international institutions, and suggest promising directions for future research. The review demonstrates that rational choice institutionalism, historical institutionalism, and normative institutionalism, as developed in the study of domestic institutions, have constituted sources of inspiration in IR theory. At the same time, the relative absence of formal instituti...

  18. History of theoretical conceptions development of nature and sources of intellectual property right

    OpenAIRE

    Virchenko, V.

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to analysis of evolution of the theoretical approaches to investigation of nature and sources of intellectual property right. Peculiarities of origin and contents of the industrial property theory, contractual theory, rent theory and delictual theory are investigated. Intangible construction and conception of personal rights are considered. The contents of sole rights theory, intellectual rights theory and clientella theory are analyzed.

  19. Coding for Correlated Sources with Unknown Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    D. Davisson , "Universal source coding," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT-19, pp. 783-795, 1973. 13. D. Neuhoff, R. Gray, and L... Davisson , "Fixed rate universal source coding with a fidelity criterion," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT-21, pp. 511-523, 1975. 14. D

  20. Quantum theory of angle and relative-phase measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Scott Roger

    2014-12-01

    The complementarity between time and energy, as well as between an angle and a component of angular momentum, is described at three different layers of understanding. The phenomena of super-resolution are readily apparent in the quantum phase representation which also reveals that entanglement is not required. We modify Schwinger's harmonic oscillator model of angular momentum to include the case of photons. Therein, the quantum angle measurement is shown to be equivalent to the measurement of the relative phase between the two oscillators. Two reasonable ways of dealing with degeneracy are shown to correspond to a conditional measurement which takes a snapshot in absolute time (corresponding to adding probability amplitudes) and a marginal measurement which takes an average in absolute time (corresponding to adding probabilities). The sense in which distinguishability is a "matter of how long we look" is discussed and the meaning of the general theory is illustrated by taking the two oscillators to be circularly polarized photons. It is shown that an odd number of x -polarized photons will never have an angle in correspondence with the y axis, but an even number of x -polarized photons always can! The behavior of an x -polarized coherent state is examined and the snapshot angular distributions are seen to evolve into two counter-rotating peaks resulting in considerable correspondence with the y axis at the time for which a classical linear polarization vector would shrink to zero length. We also demonstrate how the probability distribution of absolute time (herein a measurable quantity, rather than just a parameter) has an influence on how these snapshot angular distributions evolve into a quantum version of the polarization ellipse.

  1. The theory of optimal taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  2. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  3. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In additi...

  4. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  5. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  6. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  7. Percolation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wierman, John C.

    1982-01-01

    An introduction is provided to the mathematical tools and problems of percolation theory. A discussion of Bernoulli percolation models shows the role of graph duality and correlation inequalities in the recent determination of the critical probability in the square, triangular, and hexagonal lattice bond models. An introduction to first passage percolation concentrates on the problems of existence of optimal routes, length of optimal routes, and conditions for convergence of first passage tim...

  8. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  9. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...

  10. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  11. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  12. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  13. Set theory essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Set Theory includes elementary logic, sets, relations, functions, denumerable and non-denumerable sets, cardinal numbers, Cantor's theorem, axiom of choice, and order relations.

  14. Class field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2009-01-01

    This classic book, originally published in 1968, is based on notes of a year-long seminar the authors ran at Princeton University. The primary goal of the book was to give a rather complete presentation of algebraic aspects of global class field theory, and the authors accomplished this goal spectacularly: for more than 40 years since its first publication, the book has served as an ultimate source for many generations of mathematicians. In this revised edition, two mathematical additions complementing the exposition in the original text are made. The new edition also contains several new foot

  15. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Merris, Russell

    2001-01-01

    A lively invitation to the flavor, elegance, and power of graph theoryThis mathematically rigorous introduction is tempered and enlivened by numerous illustrations, revealing examples, seductive applications, and historical references. An award-winning teacher, Russ Merris has crafted a book designed to attract and engage through its spirited exposition, a rich assortment of well-chosen exercises, and a selection of topics that emphasizes the kinds of things that can be manipulated, counted, and pictured. Intended neither to be a comprehensive overview nor an encyclopedic reference, th

  16. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    HauptbeschreibungThis standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combinesthe authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmarkof active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yetreliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methodsin each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduatetext, and for self-study. Rezension"Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the

  17. Function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Eric T

    2009-01-01

    These lecture notes take the reader from Lennart Carleson's first deep results on interpolation and corona problems in the unit disk to modern analogues in the disk and ball. The emphasis is on introducing the diverse array of techniques needed to attack these problems rather than producing an encyclopedic summary of achievements. Techniques from classical analysis and operator theory include duality, Blaschke product constructions, purely Hilbert space arguments, bounded mean oscillation, best approximation, boundedness of the Beurling transform, estimates on solutions to the \\bar\\partial equ

  18. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  19. Practical theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits the place of normative and other practical issues in the wider conceptual architecture of communication theory, building on the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. The article first characterizes everyday concepts of communication as the accumulated outcome of natural...... evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...

  20. Biocultural Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie

    2017-01-01

    of research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...... research on contemporary hunter-gatherers; (e) biocultural socioeconomic and political history; (f) evolutionary aesthetics; and (g) biocultural research in the humanities (religions, ideologies, the history of ideas, and the arts). This article explains the way these research clusters are integrated...

  1. Design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.

  2. Modern functional quantum field theory summing Feynman graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, Herbert M

    2013-01-01

    A monograph, which can also be used as a textbook for graduate students, this book contains new and novel applications of Schwinger's well-known functional solutions, made possible by the use of Fradkin's little-known functional representations, together with recent research work of the author and his colleagues.

  3. Logistics Sourcing Strategies in Supply Chain Design

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    A company's logistics sourcing strategy determines whether it structures and organizeslogistics within the company or company group or integrates logistics upstream and downstreamin the supply chain. First, three different types of logistics sourcing strategies in supply chaindesign are described and the theoretical background for the development of these strategies,including both transaction cost theory and network theory, is analyzed. Two special casesabout logistics sourcing strategy decis...

  4. Effective field theory approaches for tensor potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Maximilian

    2016-11-14

    Effective field theories are a widely used tool to study physical systems at low energies. We apply them to systematically analyze two and three particles interacting via tensor potentials. Two examples are addressed: pion interactions for anti D{sup 0}D{sup *0} scattering to dynamically generate the X(3872) and dipole interactions for two and three bosons at low energies. For the former, the one-pion exchange and for the latter, the long-range dipole force induce a tensor-like structure of the potential. We apply perturbative as well as non-perturbative methods to determine low-energy observables. The X(3872) is of major interest in modern high-energy physics. Its exotic characteristics require approaches outside the range of the quark model for baryons and mesons. Effective field theories represent such methods and provide access to its peculiar nature. We interpret the X(3872) as a hadronic molecule consisting of neutral D and D{sup *} mesons. It is possible to apply an effective field theory with perturbative pions. Within this framework, we address chiral as well as finite volume extrapolations for low-energy observables, such as the binding energy and the scattering length. We show that the two-point correlation function for the D{sup *0} meson has to be resummed to cure infrared divergences. Moreover, next-to-leading order coupling constants, which were introduced by power counting arguments, appear to be essential to renormalize the scattering amplitude. The binding energy as well as the scattering length display a moderate dependence on the light quark masses. The X(3872) is most likely deeper bound for large light quark masses. In a finite volume on the other hand, the binding energy significantly increases. The dependence on the light quark masses and the volume size can be simultaneously obtained. For bosonic dipoles we apply a non-perturbative, numerical approach. We solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-dipole system and the Faddeev

  5. Information Foraging Theory: A Framework for Intelligence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    oceanographic information, human intelligence (HUMINT), open-source intelligence ( OSINT ), and information provided by other governmental departments [1][5...Human Intelligence IFT Information Foraging Theory LSA Latent Semantic Similarity MVT Marginal Value Theorem OFT Optimal Foraging Theory OSINT

  6. Terahertz sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shumyatsky, Pavel; Alfano, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview and history of terahertz (THz) sources for readers of the biomedical and optical community for applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, imaging, and spectroscopy...

  7. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the CLEO Collaboration. Other sources could be the decay τ →ππν. In the modern context, a fresh Roy equation analysis with the view of combining dis- persion relations with chiral perturbation theory has been carried out [20]. The evaluation of the inhomogeneous terms, the so-called 'driving terms' for the Roy equations ...

  8. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    conformal Higgs / Kazumoto Haba, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase structure of topologically massive gauge theory with fermion / Yuichi Hoshino -- New regularization in extra dimensional model and renormalization group flow of the cosmological constant / Shoichi Ichinose -- Spectral analysis of dense two-color QCD / T. Kanazawa, T. Wettig and N. Yamamoto -- NJL model with dimensional regularization at finite temperature / T. Fujihara ... [et al.] -- A new method of evaluating the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking scale and the chiral restoration temperature in general gauge theories by using the non-perturbative renormalization group analyses with general 4-Fermi effective interaction space / Ken-Ichi Aoki, Daisuke Sato and Kazuhiro Miyashita -- The effective chiral Lagrangian with vector mesons and hadronic [symbol] decays / D. Kimura ... [et al.] -- Spontaneous SUSY breaking with anomalous U(1) symmetry in metastable vacua and moduli stabilization / Hiroyuki Nishino -- A new description of the lattice Yang-Mills theory and non-abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension / Akihiro Shibata -- Thermodynamics with unbroken center symmetry in two-flavor QCD / S. Takemoto, M. Harada and C. Sasaki -- Masses of vector bosons in two-color QCD based on the hidden local symmetry / T. Yamaoka, M. Harada and C. Nonaka -- Walking dynamics from string duals / Maurizio Piai -- The quark mass dependence of the nucleon mass in AdS/QCD / Hyo Chul Ahn -- Structure of thermal quasi-fermion in QED/QCD from the Dyson-Schwinger equation / Hisao Nakkagawa -- Critical behaviors of sigma-mode and pion in holographic superconductors / Cheonsoo Park.

  9. Control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, S

    2008-01-01

    In engineering and mathematics, control theory deals with the behaviour of dynamical systems. The desired output of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system. Rapid advances in digital system technology have radically altered the control design options. It has become routinely practicable to design very complicated digital controllers and to carry out the extensive calculations required for their design. These advances in implementation and design capability can be obtained at low cost because of the widespread availability of inexpensive and powerful digital processing platforms and high-speed analog IO devices.

  10. Smooth Bosonization; 2, The Massive Case

    CERN Document Server

    Damgaard, P H; Sollacher, R

    1992-01-01

    The (1+1)-dimensional bosonization relations for fermionic mass terms are derived by choosing a specific gauge in an enlarged gauge-invariant theory containing both fermionic and bosonic fields. The fermionic part of the generating functional subject to the gauge constraint can be cast into the form of a strongly coupled Schwinger model, which can be solved exactly. The resulting bosonic theory coupled to the scalar sources then exhibits directly the bosonic counterparts of the fermionic scalar and pseudoscalar mass densities.

  11. Participative Management: Concepts, Theory and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ervin

    This book brings together in one source, basic participative management theory, a broad range of research on the subject, and a number of methods and techniques to assist the practitioner in implementing participative management. Three sections included are (1) Concepts and Theory, (2) Research Studies, and (3) Practice and Implementation. Focus…

  12. Review of Hydroelasticity Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS...

  13. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice

  14. The problem of applying information theory to efficient image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakrison, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The main ideas of Shannon's (1948, 1960) theory of source encoding with a fidelity constraint, more commonly known as rate distortion theory, are summarized. The theory was specifically intended to provide a theoretical basis for efficient transmission of information such as images. What the theory has to contribute to the problem is demonstrated. Difficulties that impeded application of the theory to image transmission, and current efforts to solve these difficulties are discussed.

  15. Is string theory a theory of strings?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Kaloper, Nemanja; Khuri, Ramzi R.; Myers, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a great deal of evidence has been found indicating that type IIA string theory compactified on K3 is equivalent to heterotic string theory compactified on T^4. Under the transformation which relates the two theories, the roles of fundamental and solitonic string solutions are interchanged. In this letter we show that there exists a solitonic membrane solution of the heterotic string theory which becomes a singular solution of the type IIA theory, and should therefore be interpreted a...

  16. Electrostatics and confinement in Einstein's unified field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, S.; Liebscher, D. -E.; Mihich, L.

    2007-01-01

    A way for appending sources at the right-hand sides of the field equations of Einstein's unified field theory is recalled. Two exact solutions endowed with point sources in equilibrium are shown, and their physical meaning is discussed.

  17. Synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    1987-01-01

    The application of synchro-Compton theory to real compact radio sources, the question of a self-Compton origin of the X-rays in radio-loud quasars and active galactic nuclei, and the phenomenology of superluminal motion are discussed in a review of research concerning synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources. After examining the basic synchro-Compton theory of ideal sources, applications of the theory to real sources is discussed. It is concluded that the Compton problem and total energy requirements are not substantially mitigated by considering source structures more complicated than the multiple, uniform-component model used by most investigators. Also, alternatives to the standard model of superluminal motion are discussed, focusing on the assumptions usually made when interpreting superluminal sources.

  18. Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic

  19. From price theory to marketing management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg; Pedersen, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    of the school and its key ideas. Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on primary sources, i.e. the writings of the scholars who shaped and developed the school. A significant part of the sources are available in Danish only. Findings – While American marketing theory developed from the German...... Historical School, an essential precondition for the Copenhagen approach was the second wave of microeconomic theory of the 1930s. The article argues that it was a marketing management school, and that it offered early contributions to the development of marketing theory. Originality/value – Relatively...

  20. Torsion as a source of expansion in a Bianchi type-I universe in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan theory of a perfect fluid with spin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradas, James C.; Fennelly, Alphonsus J.; Smalley, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a generalized (or 'power law') inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a simple (Bianchi type-I) anisotropic cosmological model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory with the improved stress-energy-momentum tensor with the spin density of Ray and Smalley (1982, 1983). This is made explicit by an analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear ellipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation.

  1. AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY MODEL--(SIGGS), AN INTEGRATION OF SET THEORY, INFORMATION THEORY, AND GRAPH THEORY WITH GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS

    AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 20 ITEMS AND A DISCUSSION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS PRESENTED TO DESCRIBE CURRENT UTILIZATION OF SUBJECT THEORIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY. ALSO, A THEORY MODEL WAS USED TO DEMONSTRATE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL THEORY. THE THEORY MODEL INCORPORATED SET THEORY (S), INFORMATION THEORY…

  2. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  3. Sourcing Strategies to Keep up with Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. The case study incorporates competition, and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve...... the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic...

  4. Introduction to the theory of abstract algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Intended for beginning graduate-level courses, this text introduces various aspects of the theory of abstract algebra. The book is also suitable as independent reading for interested students at that level as well as a primary source for a one-semester course that an instructor may supplement to expand to a full year. Author Richard S. Pierce, a Professor of Mathematics at Seattle's University of Washington, places considerable emphasis on applications of the theory and focuses particularly on lattice theory.After a preliminary review of set theory, the treatment presents the basic definitions

  5. Recursion Theory Week

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Gert; Sacks, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings contain research and survey papers from many subfields of recursion theory, with emphasis on degree theory, in particular the development of frameworks for current techniques in this field. Other topics covered include computational complexity theory, generalized recursion theory, proof theoretic questions in recursion theory, and recursive mathematics.

  6. Source Water Protection Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  7. Communal Resources in Open Source Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Sebastian; Haefliger, Stefan; von Krogh, Georg; Renzl, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Virtual communities play an important role in innovation. The paper focuses on the particular form of collective action in virtual communities underlying as Open Source software development projects. Method: Building on resource mobilization theory and private-collective innovation, we propose a theory of collective action in…

  8. The theory of evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The book The Theory of Evolution: from the Space Vacuum to Neural Ensembles and Moving Forward, an edition of 100 copies, was published in Russian language, in December 2014 in Kiev. Its Russian version is here: http://en.bazaluk.com/journals.html. Introduction, Chapter 10 and Conclusion published in English for the first time. Since 2004 author have been researching in the field of theory of Evolution, Big History. The book was written on the base of analysis of more than 2000 primary sources of this research topic. The volume is 90,000 words (with Reference. The book is for a wide range of professionals, from students to professors and researchers working in the fields of: philosophical anthropology, philosophy, Big History, cosmology, biology, neuroscience and etc. In the book, the author defines the evolution as continuous and nonlinear complication of the structure of matter, the types of interaction and environments; analyzes existing in modern science and philosophy approaches to the research of the process of evolution, degree of development of the factors and causes of evolution. Unifying interdisciplinary researches of evolution in cosmology, biology, neuroscience and philosophy, the author presents his vision of the model of «Evolving Matter», which allows us to consider not only the laws of transition of space vacuum in neural ensembles but also to see our Universe as a complication, heterogeneous organization. Interdisciplinary amount of information on the theory of evolution is systematized and a new method of world perception is proposed in the book.

  9. The theory of nilpotent groups

    CERN Document Server

    Clement, Anthony E; Zyman, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents both classical and recent results in the theory of nilpotent groups and provides a self-contained, comprehensive reference on the topic.  While the theorems and proofs included can be found throughout the existing literature, this is the first book to collect them in a single volume.  Details omitted from the original sources, along with additional computations and explanations, have been added to foster a stronger understanding of the theory of nilpotent groups and the techniques commonly used to study them.  Topics discussed include collection processes, normal forms and embeddings, isolators, extraction of roots, P-localization, dimension subgroups and Lie algebras, decision problems, and nilpotent groups of automorphisms.  Requiring only a strong undergraduate or beginning graduate background in algebra, graduate students and researchers in mathematics will find The Theory of Nilpotent Groups to be a valuable resource.

  10. Applications of Jungian Type Theory to Counselor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Josiah S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Carl Jung's theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument to assess Jungian type. Cites sources of information on the research and application of the theory and the MBTI. Explores how knowledge of type theory can be useful to counselor educators. (Author)

  11. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

  12. Design theory methods and organization for innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Masson, Pascal; Hatchuel, Armand

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the core of recent advances in design theory and its implications for design methods and design organization. Providing a unified perspective on different design methods and approaches, from the most classic (systematic design) to the most advanced (C-K theory), it offers a unique and integrated presentation of traditional and contemporary theories in the field. Examining the principles of each theory, this guide utilizes numerous real life industrial applications, with clear links to engineering design, industrial design, management, economics, psychology and creativity. Containing a section of exams with detailed answers, it is useful for courses in design theory, engineering design and advanced innovation management. "Students and professors, practitioners and researchers in diverse disciplines, interested in design, will find in this book a rich and vital source for studying fundamental design methods and tools as well as the most advanced design theories that work in practice". Pro...

  13. Theory of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Bruno A

    1997-01-01

    Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background, problems with detailed solutions. Basics of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, more. 1985 edition.

  14. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    the competitiveness of manufacturing companies (7). Over the last couple of years, supplier’s development is an evolution in supply chain management and there is a growing interest in generating approaches for meaningful development of suppliers and SDI. This would allow businesses to snatch long-term strategic......Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing....... In essence, this would allow the deployment of both internal and external skills and competencies to determine the new approaches towards organizing, supporting and improving supplier driven innovations (SDI) and supplier relationship management (SRM). This is to achieve operational excellence...

  15. Superluminal sources

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae object...

  16. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  17. DUSEL Theory White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, S.; /Ohio State U.; Walker, T.; /Ohio State U. /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Ohio State U., CCAPP; Babu, K.S.; /Oklahoma State U.; Baer, H.; /Florida State U.; Balantekin, A.B.; Barger, V.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Berezhiani, Z.; /Gran Sasso; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Dermisek, R.; /Princeton U.; Dolgov, A.; /Moscow, ITEP /Ferrara U.; Fileviez Perez, P.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Gabadadze, G.; /New York U.; Gal, A.; /Hebrew U.; Gondolo, P.; /Utah U.; Haxton, W.; /Washington U., Seattle; Kamyshkov, Y.; /Tennessee U.; Kayser, B.; /Fermilab; Kearns, E.; /Boston U.; Kopeliovich, B.; /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso; Lande, K.; /Pennsylvania U.; Marfatia, D.; /Kansas U. /Maryland U. /Northeastern U. /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Minnesota U. /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /SUNY, Stony Brook /Oklahoma State U. /Iowa State U. /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2011-11-14

    The scientific case for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory [DUSEL] located at the Homestake mine in Lead, South Dakota is exceptional. The site of this future laboratory already claims a discovery for the detection of solar neutrinos, leading to a Nobel Prize for Ray Davis. Moreover this work provided the first step to our present understanding of solar neutrino oscillations and a chink in the armor of the Standard Model of particle physics. We now know, from several experiments located in deep underground experimental laboratories around the world, that neutrinos have mass and even more importantly this mass appears to fit into the framework of theories which unify all the known forces of nature, i.e. the strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. Similarly, DUSEL can forge forward in the discovery of new realms of nature, housing six fundamental experiments that will test the frontiers of our knowledge: (1) Searching for nucleon decay (the decay of protons and neutrons predicted by grand unified theories of nature); (2) Searching for neutrino oscillations and CP violation by detecting neutrinos produced at a neutrino source (possibly located at Brookhaven National Laboratory and/or Fermi National Laboratory); (3) Searching for astrophysical neutrinos originating from the sun, from cosmic rays hitting the upper atmosphere or from other astrophysical sources, such a supernovae; (4) Searching for dark matter particles (the type of matter which does not interact electromagnetically, yet provides 24% of the mass of the Universe); (5) Looking for the rare process known as neutrino-less double beta decay which is predicted by most theories of neutrino mass and allows two neutrons in a nucleus to spontaneously change into two protons and two electrons; and (6) Searching for the rare process of neutron- anti-neutron oscillations, which would establish violation of baryon number symmetry. A large megaton water Cherenkov detector for neutrinos and

  18. CTF Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramova, Maria N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays|Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a thermal/ hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for light water reactor (LWR) vessel analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of 9 conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and had been used and modified by several institutions over the last few decades. COBRA-TF also found use at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, and subsequently re-branded as CTF. As part of the improvement process, it was necessary to generate sufficient documentation for the open-source code which had lacked such material upon being adopted by RDFMG. This document serves mainly as a theory manual for CTF, detailing the many two-phase heat transfer, drag, and important accident scenario models contained in the code as well as the numerical solution process utilized. Coding of the models is also discussed, all with consideration for updates that have been made when transitioning from COBRA-TF to CTF. Further documentation outside of this manual is also available at RDFMG which focus on code input deck generation and source code global variable and module listings.

  19. The Stress Sources of Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Altiok, Hatice; Ustun, Besti

    2013-01-01

    Overall, nursing training is a stressful process. Especially when second year nursing students are evaluated within the professional socialization theory, they are stated to be affected by these sources of stress more negatively. This research was carried out in order to determine the stress sources of second year nursing students. 15 nursing…

  20. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  1. A theory of everything?

    CERN Multimedia

    't Hooft, Gerardus; Witten, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In his later years, Einstein sought a unified theory that would extend general relativity and provide an alternative to quantum theory. There is now talk of a "theory of everything"; fifty years after his death, how close are we to such a theory? (3 pages)

  2. Theories and Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  3. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  4. Administrative Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.

    1981-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the growing body of empirical data concerning attribution theory offers insight into the administrative process. To stimulate research to test this hypothesis, presents previous relevant research and a theory entitled Administrative Attribution Theory. Research questions applying the theory to educational administration are…

  5. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  6. String theory for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction

  7. M theory as a holographic field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hořava, Petr

    1999-02-01

    We suggest that M theory could be nonperturbatively equivalent to a local quantum field theory. More precisely, we present a ``renormalizable'' gauge theory in eleven dimensions, and show that it exhibits various properties expected of quantum M theory, most notably the holographic principle of 't Hooft and Susskind. The theory also satisfies Mach's principle: A macroscopically large space-time (and the inertia of low-energy excitations) is generated by a large number of ``partons'' in the microscopic theory. We argue that at low energies in large eleven dimensions, the theory should be effectively described by eleven-dimensional supergravity. This effective description breaks down at much lower energies than naively expected, precisely when the system saturates the Bekenstein bound on energy density. We show that the number of partons scales like the area of the surface surrounding the system, and discuss how this holographic reduction of degrees of freedom affects the cosmological constant problem. We propose the holographic field theory as a candidate for a covariant, nonperturbative formulation of quantum M theory.

  8. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  9. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  10. Towards a theory of spacetime theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schiemann, Gregor; Scholz, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume is the result of a July 2010 workshop at the University of Wuppertal Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies which brought together world-wide experts from physics, philosophy and history, in order to address a set of questions first posed in the 1950s: How do we compare spacetime theories? How do we judge, objectively, which is the “best” theory? Is there even a unique answer to this question? The goal of the workshop, and of this book, is to contribute to the development of a meta-theory of spacetime theories. Such a meta-theory would reveal insights about specific spacetime theories by distilling their essential similarities and differences, deliver a framework for a class of theories that could be helpful as a blueprint to build other meta-theories, and provide a higher level viewpoint for judging which theory most accurately describes nature. But rather than drawing a map in broad strokes, the focus is on particularly rich regions in the “space of spaceti...

  11. What genre theory does

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide a small overview of genre theory and its associated concepts and to show how genre theory has had its antecedents in certain parts of the social sciences and not in the humanities. Findings The chapter argues that the explanatory force of genre theory may be explained with its...... emphasis on everyday genres, de facto genres. Originality/value By providing an overview of genre theory, the chapter demonstrates the wealth and richness of forms of explanations in genre theory....

  12. Foundations of Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Information is the basic concept of information theory. However, there is no definition of this concept that can encompass all uses of the term information in information theories and beyond. Many question a possibility of such a definition. However, foundations of information theory developed in the context of the general theory of information made it possible to build such a relevant and at the same time, encompassing definition. Foundations of information theory are built in a form of onto...

  13. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  14. Domains of bosonic functional integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]|[Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1998-07-01

    We propose a mathematical framework for bosonic Euclidean quantum field functional integrals based on the theory of integration on the dual algebraic vector space of classical field sources. We present a generalization of the Minlos-Dao Xing theorem and apply it to determine exactly the domain of integration associated to the functional integral representation of the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics Schwinger generating functional. (author)

  15. RADIATION SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-06-27

    An improved version of a crossed electric and magnetic field plasma producing and containing device of the general character disclosed in U. S. Patent No. 2,967,943 is described. This device employs an annular magnet encased within an anode and a pair of cathodes respectively coaxially spaced from the opposite ends of the anode to establish crossed field electron trapping regions adjacent the ends of the anode. The trapping regions are communicably connected through the throat of the anode and the electric field negatively increases in opposite axial directions from the center of the throat. Electrons are trapped within the two trapping regions and throat to serve as a source of intense ionization to gas introduced thereto, the ions in copious quantities being attracted to the cathodes to bombard neutron productive targets dlsposed - thereat.

  16. Theory and design of microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Ian

    2000-01-01

    This is a thorough, graduate-level text which provides a single source for filter design including basic circuit theory, network synthesis and the design of a variety of microwave filter structures. The aim is to present design theories followed by specific examples with numerical simulations of the designs, with pictures of real devices wherever possible. The book is aimed at designers, engineers and researchers working in microwave electronics who need to design or specify filters.

  17. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  18. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...

  19. Theory system classics and theory of emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problematization of emotions within the systems theory in sociology, with special reference to Talcott Parsons and Niklas Luhmann. After considering the ambivalent interrelation of (studying emotions and sociology, as well as the basic postulates of systems theory, we offer a (reinterpretation of the role and place of emotions within this theoretical tradition. It is argued that emotions as a variable have a prominent place and play a significant role in the formulation of the basic assumptions of systems theory in sociology. Attention is drawn to the fact that systems theories offer a useful theoretical framework for problematization and explanation of human emotions and emotionality in a comprehensive and relevant manner. Finally, we discuss systems theory as a potential connecting point or a bridge between sociology and psychology (of emotions.

  20. Triarchic theories of intelligence: Aristotle and Sternberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigner, R B; Tigner, S S

    2000-05-01

    Aristotle's triarchic theory of intelligence prefigures, but apparently does not serve directly as a source for, Sternberg's comparable contemporary theory. The indepently derived similarities in their gross structure lend weight to some triarchic view. Sternberg's analytical, practical, and creative intelligences closely resemble Aristotle's theoretical, practical, and productive excellences of intelligence. Each comparable component incorporates significantly related ideas. Disparities may be attributed to a variety of differences in the aims, methods, and resources of Aristotle's and Sternberg's inquiries. This is not the first time in the history of psychology that roughly parallel investigations have yielded comparable theories, but it is surely among the most temporally disjoined.

  1. Photon motion in the ECSK theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, M.; Levinas, M.

    1988-07-01

    Working within the scheme of the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble Theory (ECSK) we find the trajectory of the photon up to its third order with respect to the velocity of slow motion sources. For the general case, discrepancies from the predictions of General Relativity (GR) are found. We apply the results to a model of polarized spin and find that in this particular case ECSK and GR theories coincide. We also perform a multipole expansion of the gravitational potentials in order to find the motion of photons far away from localized sources.

  2. A theory in progress?Issues in transformative learning theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cranton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarship about transformative learning theory has continued to grow exponentially, although much of the research is redundant with a deterministic emphasis while overlooking the need for more in-depth theoretical analysis.Explanations for this oversight are numerous, including a failure to ground research in primary sources, an over-reliance on literature reviews of transformative learning, lack of critique of original research; marginal engagement in positivist and critical research paradigms, and a lack of involvement in transformative learning by European adult education scholars. In order to stimulate theoretical development, this paper discusses five specific issues that will hopefully provoke further discussion and research. They include the role of experience, empathy, the desire to change, the theory's inherently positive orientation, and the need for research involving positivist and critical approaches.

  3. Quantum potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.

  4. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  5. Bosonic M Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Susskind, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    We conjecture that there exists a strong coupling limit of bosonic string theory which is related to the 26 dimensional theory in the same way that 11 dimensional M theory is related to superstring theory. More precisely, we believe that bosonic string theory is the compactification on a line interval of a 27 dimensional theory whose low energy limit contains gravity and a three-form potential. The line interval becomes infinite in the strong coupling limit, and this may provide a stable grou...

  6. Sources manuscrites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    I. SOURCES CONSULTÉES AUX ARCHIVES NATIONALES Série E 1. Minutes d’arrêts du Conseil, arrêts simples en finances 1602 : E 4a, E 4b. 1605 : E 8a, E 8b, E 8c-9a, E 9b, E 9c. 1608 : E 16a, E 16b, E 18a, E 18b, E 19a, E 19b. 1620 : E 63a E 63b, E 64a, E 64b-65a, E 65b. 1689 : E 579a, E 579b, E 580, E 581, E 582, E 583, E 584a, E 584b, E 585a, E 585b, E 586a, E 586b 1750 : E 1260a E 1260b, E 1261a E 1261b, E 1262a, E 1262b, E 1262e, E 1263a, E 1263b, E 1264a, E 1264b, E 1265a, E 1265b, E 1266a, E ...

  7. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  8. A theory of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon; Rújula, Alvaro De

    2008-01-01

    We present a theory of non-solar cosmic rays (CRs) based on a single type of CR source at all energies. The total luminosity of the Galaxy, the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the `knee(s)' and `ankle', and the CR composition and its variation with energy are all predicted in terms of very simple and completely `standard' physics. The source of CRs is extremely `economical': it has only one parameter to be fitted to the ensemble of all of the mentioned data. All other inputs are `priors', that is, theoretical or observational items of information independent of the properties of the source of CRs, and chosen to lie in their pre-established ranges. The theory is part of a `unified view of high-energy astrophysics' --based on the `Cannonball' model of the relativistic ejecta of accreting black holes and neutron stars. If correct, this model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the `cannon' that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic processes of accreti...

  9. Towards Inflation in String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit

    2003-08-25

    We investigate the embedding of brane inflation into stable compactifications of string theory. At first sight a warped compactification geometry seems to produce a naturally flat inflation potential, evading one well-known difficulty of brane-antibrane scenarios. Careful consideration of the closed string moduli reveals a further obstacle: superpotential stabilization of the compactification volume typically modifies the inflation potential and renders it too steep for inflation. We discuss the non-generic conditions under which this problem does not arise. We conclude that brane inflation models can only work if restrictive assumptions about the method of volume stabilization, the warping of the internal space, and the source of inflationary energy are satisfied. We argue that this may not be a real problem, given the large range of available fluxes and background geometries in string theory.

  10. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  11. The theory of remainders

    CERN Document Server

    Rothbart, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    An imaginative introduction to number theory and abstract algebra, this unique approach employs a pair of fictional characters whose dialogues explain theories and demonstrate applications in terms of football scoring, chess moves, and more.

  12. [Mathematics and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, A.; Yau, Shing-Tung.

    1993-01-01

    Work on this grant was centered on connections between non- commutative geometry and physics. Topics covered included: cyclic cohomology, non-commutative manifolds, index theory, reflection positivity, space quantization, quantum groups, number theory, etc.

  13. Psychological reactance theory (3)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe psychological reactance theory in detail and discuss and refine the theory. The paper consists of following two parts. 9. Effects of reactance 10. Attitudinal freedoms

  14. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Debs

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  15. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-01-01

    AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist...

  16. Making HCI Theory Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...... different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical...... analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes....

  17. Introduction to percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    Percolation theory deals with clustering, criticallity, diffusion, fractals, phase transitions and disordered systems. This book covers the basic theory for the graduate, and also professionals dealing with it for the first time

  18. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  19. Quantum algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    1995-01-01

    The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

  20. Vygotsky theories & meaningful relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Michelle Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This Project contains two main topics: "The Vygotsky Theories" and "Meaningful Relationships". Both were selected to be taught to teachers, principals, managing officials and supervisors in Mexico's context, all of which will be done in workshops under my supervision and care. The first theme: "The Vygotsky's Theories" explains his Theories and Notions on "Early Childhood Education", "Social Development Theory"; "Learning and Development of Preschool Children" and "The Zone of Proximal Develo...

  1. E-gravity theory

    OpenAIRE

    Linker, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A couple of quantum gravity theories were proposed to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of gravity. The most recent approach to quantum gravity, called E-theory, is proposed mathematical, but there is not formulated much about what dynamics of gravity this theory proposes. This research paper treats the main results of the application of E-theory to General relativity involving conservation laws and scattering of particles in presence of gravity. Also the low-energy limit of thi...

  2. Massive spin-2 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Folkerts, Sarah; Wintergerst, Nico

    2014-01-01

    We give an introduction to massive spin-2 theories (including massive gravity) and the problem of their non-linear completion. We review the Boulware-Deser ghost problem and two ways to circumvent classic no-go theorems. In turn, massive spin-2 theories are not uniquely defined. In the case of truncated theories, we show that the Boulware-Deser ghost may only be avoided if the derivative structure of the theory is not tuned to be Einsteinian.

  3. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Barney G.

    2007-01-01

    In meinem Beitrag greife ich zurück auf den ausgezeichneten und inspirierenden Artikel von CHARMAZ zu konstruktivistischer Grounded Theory, um an diesem Beispiel zu diskutieren, dass und warum die Grounded Theory kein konstruktivistisches Unterfangen ist. Ich versuche zu zeigen, dass "konstruktivistische Daten" bzw. konstruktivistische Anwendungen der Grounded Theory, sofern sie überhaupt existieren bzw. sinnvoll sein könnten, nur einen verschwindend kleinen Teil der Grounded Theory ausmachen...

  4. Philosophical theories of probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.

  5. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  6. Handbook of argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; Krabbe, E.C.W.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.; Verheij, B.; Wagemans, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook Argumentation Theory provides an up to date survey of the various theoretical contributions to the development of argumentation theory for all scholars interested in argumentation, informal logic and rhetoric. It describes the historical roots of modern argumentation theory that are

  7. Algebraic theory of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, F

    1995-01-01

    1. The Wave Mechanics of Diatomic Molecules. 2. Summary of Elements of Algebraic Theory. 3. Mechanics of Molecules. 4. Three-Body Algebraic Theory. 5. Four-Body Algebraic Theory. 6. Classical Limit and Coordinate Representation. 8. Prologue to the Future. Appendices. Properties of Lie Algebras; Coupling of Algebras; Hamiltonian Parameters

  8. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  9. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  10. Whither Social Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…

  11. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  12. Cognitive Theories of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Mitchell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article considers three theories of autism: The Theory of Mind Deficit, Executive Dysfunction and the Weak Central Coherence accounts. It outlines each along with studies relevant to their emergence, their expansion, their limitations and their possible integration. Furthermore, consideration is given to any implication from the theories in…

  13. Constructor theory of probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914

  14. Papers in auction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of six papers in auction theory, with several economic applications, both to real life auctions and to other economic phenomena. In the introduction to the thesis, Onderstal argues why auction theory is an important branch of economic theory, and discusses several

  15. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

    This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

  16. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  17. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  18. Essays in auction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.

    2012-01-01

    Auction theory is a branch of game theory that considers human behavior in auction markets and the ensuing market outcomes. It is also successfully used as a tool to design real-life auctions. This thesis contains five essays addressing a variety of topics within the realm of auction theory. The

  19. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...

  20. A novel classification system for aging theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Siqueira Trindade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial, maladaptive (neutral, assisted death (detrimental and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental. We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  1. The tensor network theory library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, S.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.

    2017-09-01

    In this technical paper we introduce the tensor network theory (TNT) library—an open-source software project aimed at providing a platform for rapidly developing robust, easy to use and highly optimised code for TNT calculations. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give an overview of the structure of TNT library, and (ii) to help scientists decide whether to use the TNT library in their research. We show how to employ the TNT routines by giving examples of ground-state and dynamical calculations of one-dimensional bosonic lattice system. We also discuss different options for gaining access to the software available at www.tensornetworktheory.org.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: From single photons to milliwatt radiant power—electron storage rings as radiation sources with a high dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Roman; Thornagel, Reiner; Ulm, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    The spectral radiant intensity of synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings can be calculated from basic electrodynamic relations (Schwinger equation) and it is directly proportional to the stored electron beam current, i.e. the number of stored electrons. With the necessary equipment installed to measure and control the electron beam current over a wide dynamic range, the radiant intensity of the synchrotron radiation can be adjusted accordingly without changing the spectrum. This is done, e.g., at the Metrology Light Source (MLS), the dedicated electron storage ring of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The MLS is operated as a primary radiation source standard from the near IR up to the soft x-ray region and its operational parameters can be adjusted and accurately measured in a wide range: the electron beam current can be varied from 1 pA (one stored electron) up to 200 mA and thus the radiant intensity can be changed by more than 11 decades. The photon flux or radiant power for typical angular acceptances can thus be varied from single photons to milliwatts. This is a very powerful tool, e.g., for the characterization of the linearity of the response of radiation detectors or for the calibration of photon counting detectors. In this article we present an overview of past, current and possible future activities exploiting this feature.

  3. Does Making Something Move Matter? Representations of Goals and Sources in Motion Events with Causal Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakusta, Laura; Muentener, Paul; Petrillo, Lauren; Mullanaphy, Noelle; Muniz, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a robust bias to express the goal path over the source path when describing events ("the bird flew into the pitcher," rather than "… out of the bucket into the pitcher"). Motivated by linguistic theory, this study manipulated the causal structure of events (specifically, making the source cause the…

  4. Measure and integration theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burckel, Robert B

    2001-01-01

    This book gives a straightforward introduction to the field as it is nowadays required in many branches of analysis and especially in probability theory. The first three chapters (Measure Theory, Integration Theory, Product Measures) basically follow the clear and approved exposition given in the author's earlier book on ""Probability Theory and Measure Theory"". Special emphasis is laid on a complete discussion of the transformation of measures and integration with respect to the product measure, convergence theorems, parameter depending integrals, as well as the Radon-Nikodym theorem. The fi

  5. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  6. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  7. Game theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2013-01-01

    An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to

  8. Nuclear structure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, J M

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear Structure Theory provides a guide to nuclear structure theory. The book is comprised of 23 chapters that are organized into four parts; each part covers an aspect of nuclear structure theory. In the first part, the text discusses the experimentally observed phenomena, which nuclear structure theories need to look into and detail the information that supports those theories. The second part of the book deals with the phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Part III talks about the phenomenological parameters used to de

  9. Model theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Belegradek, OV

    1999-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers on model theory and its applications. The longest paper, "Model Theory of Unitriangular Groups" by O. V. Belegradek, forms a subtle general theory behind Mal‴tsev's famous correspondence between rings and groups. This is the first published paper on the topic. Given the present model-theoretic interest in algebraic groups, Belegradek's work is of particular interest to logicians and algebraists. The rest of the collection consists of papers on various questions of model theory, mainly on stability theory. Contributors are leading Russian researchers in the

  10. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  11. Theory of information and coding. A mathematical framework for communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEliece, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    This book is meant to be a self-contained introduction to the basic results in the theory of information and coding. The introduction gives an overview of the whole sujbect. Chapters in Part I (Information Theory) deal with entropy and mutual information, discrete memoryless channels and their capacity--cost functions, discrete memoryless sources and their rate-distortion functions, the Gaussian channel and source, the source--channel coding theorem, and advanced topics (the channel coding theorem, the source coding theorem). The chapters in Part II (Coding Theory) discuss linear codes; BCH, Goppa, and related codes; convolutional codes; variable-length source coding; and advanced topics (block codes, convolutional codes, a comparison of block and convolutional codes, source codes). 86 figures, 9 tables, 50 references. (RWR)

  12. Theory of neutron star magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis Michel, F

    1990-01-01

    An incomparable reference for astrophysicists studying pulsars and other kinds of neutron stars, "Theory of Neutron Star Magnetospheres" sums up two decades of astrophysical research. It provides in one volume the most important findings to date on this topic, essential to astrophysicists faced with a huge and widely scattered literature. F. Curtis Michel, who was among the first theorists to propose a neutron star model for radio pulsars, analyzes competing models of pulsars, radio emission models, winds and jets from pulsars, pulsating X-ray sources, gamma-ray burst sources, and other neutron-star driven phenomena. Although the book places primary emphasis on theoretical essentials, it also provides a considerable introduction to the observational data and its organization. Michel emphasizes the problems and uncertainties that have arisen in the research as well as the considerable progress that has been made to date.

  13. Transitions theory: a trajectory of theoretical development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2011-01-01

    There have been very few investigations into how any single nursing theory has actually evolved historically. In this paper, a trajectory of theoretical development in nursing is explored through reviewing the theoretical development of a single nursing theory-transitions theory. The literature related to transitions theory was searched and retrieved using multiple databases. Ninety-nine papers were analyzed according to type of theory, populations of interest, sources of theorizing, and theoretical methods. Transitions theory originated in research but was initially borrowed. It also arose in research with immigrants and from national and international collaborative research efforts. A product of mentoring, transitions theory is used widely in nursing education, research, and practice. Diverse thoughts related to transitions theory coexist. For future theoretical development in nursing, we need to remain open to new ideas and continue to engage in multiple collaborative efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization......’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...... theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics...

  15. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  16. Resource Theory of Superposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, T; Killoran, N; Egloff, D; Plenio, M B

    2017-12-08

    The superposition principle lies at the heart of many nonclassical properties of quantum mechanics. Motivated by this, we introduce a rigorous resource theory framework for the quantification of superposition of a finite number of linear independent states. This theory is a generalization of resource theories of coherence. We determine the general structure of operations which do not create superposition, find a fundamental connection to unambiguous state discrimination, and propose several quantitative superposition measures. Using this theory, we show that trace decreasing operations can be completed for free which, when specialized to the theory of coherence, resolves an outstanding open question and is used to address the free probabilistic transformation between pure states. Finally, we prove that linearly independent superposition is a necessary and sufficient condition for the faithful creation of entanglement in discrete settings, establishing a strong structural connection between our theory of superposition and entanglement theory.

  17. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  18. Computational invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Derksen, Harm

    2015-01-01

    This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...

  19. Resource Theory of Superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, T.; Killoran, N.; Egloff, D.; Plenio, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    The superposition principle lies at the heart of many nonclassical properties of quantum mechanics. Motivated by this, we introduce a rigorous resource theory framework for the quantification of superposition of a finite number of linear independent states. This theory is a generalization of resource theories of coherence. We determine the general structure of operations which do not create superposition, find a fundamental connection to unambiguous state discrimination, and propose several quantitative superposition measures. Using this theory, we show that trace decreasing operations can be completed for free which, when specialized to the theory of coherence, resolves an outstanding open question and is used to address the free probabilistic transformation between pure states. Finally, we prove that linearly independent superposition is a necessary and sufficient condition for the faithful creation of entanglement in discrete settings, establishing a strong structural connection between our theory of superposition and entanglement theory.

  20. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  1. Adaptive speciation theory : A conceptual review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weissing, Franz J.; Edelaar, Pim; van Doorn, G. Sander

    Speciation-the origin of new species-is the source of the diversity of life. A theory of speciation is essential to link poorly understood macro-evolutionary processes, such as the origin of biodiversity and adaptive radiation, to well understood micro-evolutionary processes, such as allele

  2. 11. international conference on ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.; Cheng, D.; Galloway, M.L.; Leitner, M.; Todd, D.S.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ando, L.; Torrisi, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hillo, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Rohrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; He, W.E.; Sun, L.T.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Xie, Z.Q.; Cao, Y.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W.; Bricault, P.; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Bajeat, O.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Panteleev, V.N.; Barzakh, A.E.; Fedorov, D.V.; Ionan, A.M.; Mezilev, K.A.; Moroz, F.V.; Orlov, S.Y.; Volkov, Y.M.; Andrighetto, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tecchio, L.B.; Dubois, M.; Gaubert, G.; Jardins, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.O.; Bajeat, O.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Menna, M.; Franberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gdggeler, H.W.; Koster, U.; Allen, F.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Ames, F.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Jayamanna, K.; Lamy, T.; McDonald, M.; Olivo, M.; Schmorl, P.; Yuan, D.H.L.; Asaji, T.; Sasaki, H.; Kato, Y.; Atabaev, B.; Radjabov, S.S.; Akhmadjanova, M.K.; Yuzikaeva, F.R.; Baoqun, Cui; Liqiang, Li; Yingjun, Ma; Shengyun, Zhu; Cong, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production.

  3. A Reconciliation of Collision Theory and Transition State Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Y. G.

    2001-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical treatment of collision leads to a formal connection with transition-state theory, suggesting that collision theory and transition-state theory might be joined ultimately as a collision induced transition state theory.

  4. Asymmetrical Γ-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Poh Chiang, Loh; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Impedance-source inverters are inverters with voltage-buck-boost capability that cannot be achieved by the traditional inverters. Their boost capability is introduced by shorting their phase legs without causing damages. Impedance-source inverters are therefore less prone to false triggering caus...... current drawn by the proposed inverters is smoother and, hence, more adaptable by the source. Theories and experimental results have been presented in this paper for validating the concepts proposed.......Impedance-source inverters are inverters with voltage-buck-boost capability that cannot be achieved by the traditional inverters. Their boost capability is introduced by shorting their phase legs without causing damages. Impedance-source inverters are therefore less prone to false triggering caused...... by electromagnetic interference. Present impedance-source inverters are, however, burdened by their low modulation ratio at high input-to-output gain. Such low modulation usually leads to high-voltage stresses across the components and poor spectral performance at the inverter output. To avoid these problems...

  5. Interrogating Nollywood and its Sources of Funding: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grounding this article on the pecking order theory, funding sources are interrogated by evaluating Invasion 1897 and Lancelot Oduwa Imasuen's recourse to funding sources through the interview method. The article submits that sustainable sources of funding are obviously lacking on the Nollywood scape, making it difficult ...

  6. What’s the Theory in International Practice Theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Is there a theory in practice theory? Responding to Bueger and Gadinger’s excellent article, I agree that practice theory is indeed a theory – or a rather a bundle of theories – that can help explain world politics. Bueger and Gadinger distinguish between critical theory and pragmatism as practice...

  7. An adaptive orienting theory of error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2017-12-11

    The ability to detect and correct action errors is paramount to safe and efficient goal-directed behaviors. Existing work on the neural underpinnings of error processing and post-error behavioral adaptations has led to the development of several mechanistic theories of error processing. These theories can be roughly grouped into adaptive and maladaptive theories. While adaptive theories propose that errors trigger a cascade of processes that will result in improved behavior after error commission, maladaptive theories hold that error commission momentarily impairs behavior. Neither group of theories can account for all available data, as different empirical studies find both impaired and improved post-error behavior. This article attempts a synthesis between the predictions made by prominent adaptive and maladaptive theories. Specifically, it is proposed that errors invoke a nonspecific cascade of processing that will rapidly interrupt and inhibit ongoing behavior and cognition, as well as orient attention toward the source of the error. It is proposed that this cascade follows all unexpected action outcomes, not just errors. In the case of errors, this cascade is followed by error-specific, controlled processing, which is specifically aimed at (re)tuning the existing task set. This theory combines existing predictions from maladaptive orienting and bottleneck theories with specific neural mechanisms from the wider field of cognitive control, including from error-specific theories of adaptive post-error processing. The article aims to describe the proposed framework and its implications for post-error slowing and post-error accuracy, propose mechanistic neural circuitry for post-error processing, and derive specific hypotheses for future empirical investigations. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Social theory and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Waterman, B

    1976-01-01

    Three sociolgists-Talcott Parson, Eliot Freidson, and Mechanic-have explained medical phneomena within a broader theoretical framework. Although all three have made significant contributions, their conclusions remain incomplete on the theoretical level and seldom have been helpful for workers concerned with ongoing problems of health care. Our purpose here is to summarize some of the strengths and weakness of each theoretical position. Parsons has elucidated the sick role as a deviant role in society, the function of physicians as agents of social control, and the normative patterns governing the doctor-patient relationship. The principal problems in Parsons' analysis center on an uncritical acceptance of physicians' social control functions, his inattention tot the ways in which physicians' behavior may inhibit change in society, and overoptimism about the medical profession's ability to regulate itself and to prevent the exploitation of patients. Viewing medical phenomena within a broader theory of the professions in general, Freidson has formulated w wide ranging critique of the medical profession and professional dominance. On the other hand, Freidson's work neglects the full political implications of bringing professional autonomy under control. Mechanic's coceptual approach emphasizes the social psychologic factors, rather than the institutional conditions, which are involved in the genesis of illness behavior. Mechanic also overlooks the ways in which illness behavior, by permitting a controllable from of deviance, fosters institutional stability. In conclusion, we present a breif overview of a theoretical framework whose general orientation is that of Marixian analysis. Several themes recur in this framework: illness as a source of exploitation, the sick role as a conservative mechanism fostering social stability, stratification in medicine, and the imperialsm of large medical institutions and health-related industries.

  9. Class field theory from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gras, Georges

    2003-01-01

    Global class field theory is a major achievement of algebraic number theory, based on the functorial properties of the reciprocity map and the existence theorem. The author works out the consequences and the practical use of these results by giving detailed studies and illustrations of classical subjects (classes, idèles, ray class fields, symbols, reciprocity laws, Hasse's principles, the Grunwald-Wang theorem, Hilbert's towers,...). He also proves some new or less-known results (reflection theorem, structure of the abelian closure of a number field) and lays emphasis on the invariant (/cal T) p, of abelian p-ramification, which is related to important Galois cohomology properties and p-adic conjectures. This book, intermediary between the classical literature published in the sixties and the recent computational literature, gives much material in an elementary way, and is suitable for students, researchers, and all who are fascinated by this theory. In the corrected 2nd printing 2005, the author improves s...

  10. BRST renormalization of the first order Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J.; Taylor, John C.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the renormalization of the first order formulation of the Yang-Mills theory, by using the BRST identities. These preserve the gauge invariance of the theory and enable a recursive proof of renormalizability to higher orders in perturbation theory. The renormalization involves non-linear mixings as well as re-scalings of the fields and sources, which lead to a renormalized action at all orders.

  11. The modern portfolio theory applied to wind farm investments

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves-Schwinteck, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    In a context of research of alternatives to improve investments in renewable energy sources, this work addresses the Modern Portfolio Theory when applied to investments in wind farms. The Modern Portfolio Theory describes how the combination of assets subject to different characteristics of risk x return leads to optimized portfolios of investments. Grounded on the principles of diversification, the theory has been originally developed to assess investments in financial assets. In view of the...

  12. Domains and Naive Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Noles, Nicholaus S

    2011-09-01

    Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This review examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children's classification of biological and non-biological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning.

  13. Game theory, alive

    CERN Document Server

    Karlin, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a rigorous introduction to the mathematics of game theory without losing sight of the joy of the subject. This is done by focusing on theoretical highlights (e.g., at least six Nobel Prize winning results are developed from scratch) and by presenting exciting connections of game theory to other fields, such as computer science, economics, social choice, biology, and learning theory. Both classical topics, such as zero-sum games, and modern topics, such as sponsored search auctions, are covered. Along the way, beautiful mathematical tools used in game theory are introduced, including convexity, fixed-point theorems, and probabilistic arguments. The book is appropriate for a first course in game theory at either the undergraduate or graduate level, whether in mathematics, economics, computer science, or statistics. Game theory's influence is felt in a wide range of disciplines, and the authors deliver masterfully on the challenge of presenting both the breadth and coherence of its underlying ...

  14. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  15. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  16. Theory of partial coherence for weakly periodic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, BJ; Bertolotti, M

    2005-01-01

    The second-order theory of partial coherence for scalar and TE or TM fields is developed for weakly periodic media, and the van Cittert-Zernike theorem of classical coherence theory is generalized for such media. The coherence properties of a wave field, generated by a quasi-homogeneous source

  17. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  18. Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bei Lok

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein–Langevin equation, which has, in addition, sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bitensor, which describes the fluctuations of quantum-matter fields in curved spacetimes. A new improved criterion for the validity of semiclassical gravity may also be formulated from the viewpoint of this theory. In the first part of this review we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to the correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman–Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger–Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic-gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, using the Einstein–Langevin equation, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation and the behavior of metric fluctuations for both the quasi-equilibrium condition of a black-hole in a box and the fully nonequilibrium condition of an evaporating black hole spacetime. Finally, we briefly discuss the theoretical structure of stochastic gravity in relation to quantum gravity and point out

  19. Introduction to superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

  20. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  1. DARWINIAN THEORY OF BEAUTY

    OpenAIRE

    Rasim Basak

    2016-01-01

    “What is beauty?” has been a difficult question for philosophers for thousands of years. Since Plato, beauty has been theorized sometimes as being a subjective judgment or sometimes defined as being “in culturally condioned eye of the beholder”. None of these theories had been grounded upon scientific, objective support until Denis Dutton’s theory (2003). Denis Dutton structured his theory based on Darwinian evolution and defined beauty as another Darwinian adaptation built over millions of y...

  2. Overview of Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    theory orients command leadership for the enormous task of managing organizations in our environment fraught with volatility, uncertainty...performance and organizational ethics. A THEORY OF MANAGEMENT BACKGROUND BASIC MANAGEMENT BEHAVIORAL Definitions FUNCTIONS ASPECTS History Planning Leadership ...the best way to manage in their theory of managerial leadership . To them, the 9,9 position on their model, "is acknowledged by managers as the

  3. Introductory graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chartrand, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap

  4. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  5. Elements of set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Enderton, Herbert B

    1977-01-01

    This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.

  6. [Medical theory and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas Stepke, F

    1990-01-01

    The need for a theory is grounded on the heterogeneity of Medicine: Of basic situation, of medical subsystems and of praxis. The relationship between theory and practice in Medicine should be considered as a task of theoretical reflection, beyond contexts, application, and orientation. As a theory of theories--metatheory--its model lies closer to a "science of actions" than a "science of objects", considered as paradigmatic forms of Medicine. The relevance of these concepts to Psychiatry is illustrated on the basis of the influence of behavioral sciences upon biomedicine, whose advancement rests with Psychiatry.

  7. Modular Invariant Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, HEA

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the modular invariant theory of finite groups, the case when the characteristic of the field divides the order of the group, a theory that is more complicated than the study of the classical non-modular case. Largely self-contained, the book develops the theory from its origins up to modern results. It explores many examples, illustrating the theory and its contrast with the better understood non-modular setting. It details techniques for the computation of invariants for many modular representations of finite groups, especially the case of the cyclic group of prime order. It

  8. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  9. Theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Mircea

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up t

  10. Proof theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlers, Wolfram

    1989-01-01

    Although this is an introductory text on proof theory, most of its contents is not found in a unified form elsewhere in the literature, except at a very advanced level. The heart of the book is the ordinal analysis of axiom systems, with particular emphasis on that of the impredicative theory of elementary inductive definitions on the natural numbers. The "constructive" consequences of ordinal analysis are sketched out in the epilogue. The book provides a self-contained treatment assuming no prior knowledge of proof theory and almost none of logic. The author has, moreover, endeavoured not to use the "cabal language" of proof theory, but only a language familiar to most readers.

  11. Generalized etale cohomology theories

    CERN Document Server

    Jardine, John F

    1997-01-01

    A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra.   This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...

  12. String theory for pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.

  13. Between Theory and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepster, Steven

    Three great mathematicians dominate the history of lunar theory in the middle of the eighteenth century: Leonhard Euler, Alexis Clairaut, and Jean le Rond d’Alembert. Each of them made a lasting contribution to the theory of celestial mechanics and their results had a broader impact than on lunar theory alone. To name but a few examples, Euler codified the trigonometric functions and pioneered the method of variation of orbital constants; Clairaut solved the arduous problem of the motion of the lunar apogee, thereby dealing a decisive blow to the sceptics of Newton’s law of gravitation; and d’Alembert worked out an accurate theory of precession and nutation.

  14. Information systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K; Schneberger, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding and coverage of the various theories and models used in IS research. Specifically, it aims to focus on the following key objectives: To describe the various theories and models applicable to studying IS/IT management issues. To outline and describe, for each of the various theories and models, independent and dependent constructs, reference discipline/originating area, originating author(s), seminal articles, level of analysis (i.e. firm, individual, industry) and links with other theories. To provide a critical revie

  15. Theory of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2006-01-01

    The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

  16. Theory Meets Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlamovitz, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Process thinking and process-based theory are receiving increased attention in the field of organization studies and organization theory development (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002; Langley & Tsoukas, 2010; Hernes, 2014). The aim has been to study processes rather than structures, in organizations. This has...... recently inspired research on the organizing of projects and the development of a (new) theory of temporary organizations (Bakker, 2010; Blomquist et al. 2010; Söderlund, 2013). These theories are still under development and need empirical studies that can show their relevance for practice. This paper...

  17. Theory in Social Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastings, Gerard; Brown, Abraham; Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2010-01-01

    The chapter looks at three important theories which help social marketers to think more systematically about the key questions they need to address:  (i) how does the target group or population feel about a particular behaviour (Stages of Change Theory); (ii) what social and contextual factors...... influence this positioning (Social Cognitive Theory and Social Norms) and; (iii) what offerings might encourage them to change their behaviour – or, those in a position to do so, to make the social context more conducive to change (Exchange Theory). Moreover, the chapter outlines how social marketers might...... benefit from a social epistemological approach....

  18. Quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Following on from the successful first (1984) and revised (1993) editions, this extended and revised text is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for final year physics students and for postgraduate students beginning research in theoretical and experimental particle physics. The three main objectives of the book are to: Explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory To make the reader proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams To introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play a central role in elementary particle physic

  19. Games, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, L C

    2011-01-01

    Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition

  20. On the Lippmann-Schwinger equation off the energy shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.; Laha, U.; Sett, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent paper Dolinszky (1984 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 10,1639) observed that off-shell T matrix elements can be expressed in terms of simple quadratures involving solutions of the radial Schroedinger equation. It is pointed out that this is not true in general for the K matrix. The K matrix equation for separable non-local potentials, however, can be treated by an approach similar to that of Dolinszky. (author).

  1. The Covariant Consistent Quantization of Bosonized Chiral Schwinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Y. S.

    From Ward-Takahashi identities and full propagators, we obtain a massive Proca field Uμ which has the positive norm state. There also exists a massless physical scalar field H which turns out to be the positive norm state only for 4e2>1. It is further shown that a dipole ghost field D and auxiliary field B, as quartet members, belong to the zero norm states.

  2. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  3. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  4. On Teaching Administrative Theory as Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    In public administration courses, administrative theory is usually taught from a managerial perspective--raising questions about organizations from the perspective of the public manager. This perspective is incomplete and needs to be supplemented with a political perspective--asking questions from the viewpoint of the polity as a whole. (RM)

  5. [United theory of aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  6. Lay Theories of Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, Simone; Rietzschel, Eric; Zedelius, Claire; Müller, Barbara; Schooler, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is of great appeal and importance to people, and they strive to understand creativity by developing lay theories. Such lay theories about creativity concern, for example, the characteristics of creative persons, such as the ‘mad genius’ idea, or environmental factors that contribute to

  7. Axiomatic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1972-01-01

    This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.

  8. Worldviews for Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2006-01-01

    I suspect that the growing 'body' of design theory may be infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design researchers. Taking my clue from Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basics metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critical...

  9. Theory of bridge aerodynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strømmen, Einar N

    2006-01-01

    ... knowledge of basic structural dynamics, particularly of solution procedures in a modal format. None of the theory related to the determination of eigen values and the corresponding eigen modes are included in this book, i.e. it is taken for granted that the reader is familiar with this part of the theory of structural dynamics. Otherwise...

  10. Theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Pauli, W

    1958-01-01

    This classic work offers a concise and comprehensive review of the literature on relativity as of 1921, along with the author's insightful update of later developments in relativity theory and coverage of subsequent controversies. Special attention is given to unified field theories. 1958 edition.

  11. In Defense of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackendoff, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Formal theories of mental representation have receded from the importance they had in the early days of cognitive science. I argue that such theories are crucial in any mental domain, not just for their own sake, but to guide experimental inquiry, as well as to integrate the domain into the mind as a whole. To illustrate the criteria of adequacy…

  12. Theory in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    With the start of next year, CERN's Theory Division and Experimental Physics Division will merge to form the new Department of Physics. The Bulletin looks back at an era, has a closer a look at what the Theory Division is and what makes it so special.

  13. The Sign Learning Theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    The Sign Learning Theory. Although a blend of both Gestalt psychology and behaviourism, the sign learning theory is actually a drift from the behaviourist perspective with an attempt to explain certain phenomena commonly seen in behaviour which could not be satisfactorily accounted for by stimulus-response paradigms.

  14. Reimagining Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…

  15. Posthuman Critical Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braidotti, R.

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes a genealogical cartography of the emergence of a posthuman turn in critical theory, including feminist theory, based on the convergence of posthumanism with post-anthropocentrism. The former critiques the universalist posture of the idea of ‘Man’ as the alleged ‘measure of all

  16. Rewriting the Opportunity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten....

  17. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  18. Beyond Dependency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Pedro

    1983-01-01

    Dependency theory was part of the reaction against the thesis that proclaimed the benefits of economic integration into the capitalist world. The theory emphasizes the interplay between the internal structures of developing nations and international structures, and analyzes desirable national strategies and policies for structural changes. (CS)

  19. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  20. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    hallmark of this type of research, others argue for design work being the primary achievement, with theory serving the auxiliary function of inspiring new designs. This paper demonstrates how design work and theory can be appreciated as two equally important outcomes of research through design. To set...

  1. Quantum Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, Frank

    1998-01-01

    I discuss the general principles underlying quantum field theory, and attempt to identify its most profound consequences. The deepest of these consequences result from the infinite number of degrees of freedom invoked to implement locality. I mention a few of its most striking successes, both achieved and prospective. Possible limitations of quantum field theory are viewed in the light of its history.

  2. The Learning Theory Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…

  3. Discrete gauge theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild Propitius, M.; Bais, F.A.; Semenoff, G.; Vinet, L.

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures, we present a self-contained treatment of planar gauge theories broken down to some finite residual gauge group $H$ via the Higgs mechanism. The main focus is on the discrete $H$ gauge theory describing the long distance physics of such a model. The spectrum features global $H$

  4. Gauge theory and renormalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1996-01-01

    Early developments leading to renormalizable non-Abelian gauge theories for the weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions, are discussed from a personal viewpoint. They drastically improved our view of the role of field theory, symmetry and topology, as well as other branches of mathematics, in

  5. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  6. What is CPH Theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    is the mechanism of increasing in the photon energy that causes increase in its frequency growth? So, in CPH theory (Creative particles of Higgs Theory), it has been attempted to scrutinize the interface between classical mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics through a novel approach to the established...

  7. theory of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... the existence of dark energy and dark matter, several modified theories of gravitation have been proposed as alternative to Einstein's theory. By modifying the geometrical part of Einstein–Hilbert action of general relativity, we obtain the modified gravity. Modified gravity is of great importance because it can ...

  8. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  9. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  10. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    This reference textbook is an up-to-date and self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field. A second, advanced part then discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the gauge theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap which is present in the context of the traditional approach to general relativity, and which usually makes students puzzled about the role of gravity. The necessary notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, leaving more room for those aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational interactions of spinors, and the supersymmetric and higher-dimensional generalization of the Einstein equations. Theory of Gravitational Interactions will be o...

  11. Statistical theory and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2014-01-01

    This text is for  a one semester graduate course in statistical theory and covers minimal and complete sufficient statistics, maximum likelihood estimators, method of moments, bias and mean square error, uniform minimum variance estimators and the Cramer-Rao lower bound, an introduction to large sample theory, likelihood ratio tests and uniformly most powerful  tests and the Neyman Pearson Lemma. A major goal of this text is to make these topics much more accessible to students by using the theory of exponential families. Exponential families, indicator functions and the support of the distribution are used throughout the text to simplify the theory. More than 50 ``brand name" distributions are used to illustrate the theory with many examples of exponential families, maximum likelihood estimators and uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimators. There are many homework problems with over 30 pages of solutions.

  12. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  13. Dual double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Penas, Victor A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-06

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for “exotic' dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  14. Opportunities in martensite theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.B. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-01

    A workshop has explored interactions of materials science, applied mechanics, physics and mathematics in understanding fundamentals of martensitic transformations. System theory offers a framework for addressing realistic complexity. Theory of invariant-plane kinematics has been extended to multivariant plate groups and hierarchical structures. Electronic total energy calculations explore the origins of martensitic phase stability, and Landau-Ginzberg models for transformations with and without shuffles provide nonlocal continuum theories for treatment of interfacial structure and mobility as well as the competition between classical and nonclassical transformation mechanisms. Quantitative kinetic theory incorporates defect distributions, but requires further analysis of the evolution of mean particle volume. Kinetic theory provides the basis for constitutive relations for transformation plasticity. (orig.).

  15. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  16. Eddington's theory of gravity and its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Máximo; Ferreira, Pedro G

    2010-07-02

    We resurrect Eddington's proposal for the gravitational action in the presence of a cosmological constant and extend it to include matter fields. We show that the Newton-Poisson equation is modified in the presence of sources and that charged black holes show great similarities with those arising in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to gravity. When we consider homogeneous and isotropic space-times, we find that there is a minimum length (and maximum density) at early times, clearly pointing to an alternative theory of the big bang. We thus argue that the modern formulation of Eddington's theory, Born-Infeld gravity, presents us with a novel, nonsingular description of the Universe.

  17. Grounded Theory: Study of Aboriginal Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Evans

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, Elber (2016 published an article stating the importance of using Classical Grounded Theory (CGT when researching indigenous populations. This article puts forward CGT as a viable and necessary tool for researching this complex subject as it requires researchers to utilize multiple data sources and, as in this particular project, can be used by multiple disciplinary teams. Canada has much to do to rebuild the trust of the indigenous people of Canada. CGT shows promise as a methodology that gets to the root of the issues and offers one of the best opportunities to develop a theory that can be part of the constructive healing process going forward.

  18. Design Theory in Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Gregor

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i) theory for analysing and describing, (ii) theory for understanding, (iii) theory for predicting, (iv) theory for explaining and predicting, and (v) theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding...

  19. STUDY ON REAL AND FORMAL SOURCES OF LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea TUTUNARU

    2014-01-01

    The right switch first factual existence of the form, a fact that gives him the opportunity to be known and, consequently, to be respected and applied to the specific case. These specific ways of expressing the content of the law in legal theory and legal sciences branch of law called the source or sources of law. The concept of source of law is the ideological source and meaning in the sense of legal civilization pool connects to a national legal system.

  20. Random Numbers Generated from Audio and Video Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Te Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Random numbers are very useful in simulation, chaos theory, game theory, information theory, pattern recognition, probability theory, quantum mechanics, statistics, and statistical mechanics. The random numbers are especially helpful in cryptography. In this work, the proposed random number generators come from white noise of audio and video (A/V sources which are extracted from high-resolution IPCAM, WEBCAM, and MPEG-1 video files. The proposed generator applied on video sources from IPCAM and WEBCAM with microphone would be the true random number generator and the pseudorandom number generator when applied on video sources from MPEG-1 video file. In addition, when applying NIST SP 800-22 Rev.1a 15 statistics tests on the random numbers generated from the proposed generator, around 98% random numbers can pass 15 statistical tests. Furthermore, the audio and video sources can be found easily; hence, the proposed generator is a qualified, convenient, and efficient random number generator.