Schwarzschild Solution: A Historical Perspective
Bartusiak, Marcia
2016-03-01
While eighteenth-century Newtonians had imagined a precursor to the black hole, the modern version has its roots in the first full solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity, derived by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild on a World War I battlefront just weeks after Einstein introduced his completed theory in November 1915. This talk will demonstrate how Schwarzschild's solution is linked to the black hole and how it took more than half a century for the physics community to accept that such a bizarre celestial object could exist in the universe.
On quantum deformation of the Schwarzschild solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazakov, D.I.; Solodukhin, S.N.
1993-01-01
We consider the deformation of the Schwarzschild solution in general relativity due to spherically symmetric quantum fluctuations of the metric and the matter fields. In this case, the 4 D theory of gravity with Einstein action reduces to the effective two-dimensional dilaton gravity. We have found that the Schwarzschild singularity at r=0 is shifted to the finite radius r min ∼ r PL , where the scalar curvature is finite, so that the space-time looks regular and consists of two asymptotically flat sheets glued at the hypersurface of constant radius. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs
Entropy corresponding to the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bibhas Ranjan Majhi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Interior volume within the horizon of a black hole is a non-trivial concept which turns out to be very important to explain several issues in the context of quantum nature of black hole. Here we show that the entropy, contained by the maximum interior volume for massless modes, is proportional to the Bekenstein–Hawking expression. The proportionality constant is less than unity implying the horizon bears maximum entropy than that by the interior. The derivation is very systematic and free of any ambiguity. To do so the precise value of the energy of the modes, living in the interior, is derived by constraint analysis. Finally, the implications of the result are discussed.
Entropy corresponding to the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav
2017-07-01
Interior volume within the horizon of a black hole is a non-trivial concept which turns out to be very important to explain several issues in the context of quantum nature of black hole. Here we show that the entropy, contained by the maximum interior volume for massless modes, is proportional to the Bekenstein-Hawking expression. The proportionality constant is less than unity implying the horizon bears maximum entropy than that by the interior. The derivation is very systematic and free of any ambiguity. To do so the precise value of the energy of the modes, living in the interior, is derived by constraint analysis. Finally, the implications of the result are discussed.
Uniqueness of the electrostatic solution in Schwarzschild space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molnar, Pal G.; Elsaesser, Klaus
2003-01-01
In this Brief Report we give the proof that the solution of any static test charge distribution in Schwarzschild space is unique. In order to give the proof we derive the first Green's identity written with p-forms on (pseudo) Riemannian manifolds. Moreover, the proof of uniqueness can be shown for either any purely electric or purely magnetic field configuration. The spacetime geometry is not crucial for the proof
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchlik, Zdenek; Hledik, Stanislav; Soltes, Jiri; Ostgaard, Erlend
2001-01-01
Null geodesics and embedding diagrams of central planes in the ordinary space geometry and the optical reference geometry of the interior Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes with uniform density are studied. For completeness, both positive and negative values of the cosmological constant are considered. The null geodesics are restricted to the central planes of these spacetimes, and their properties can be reflected by an 'effective potential.' If the interior spacetime is extremely compact, the effective potential has a local maximum corresponding to a stable circular null geodesic around which bound null geodesics are concentrated. The upper limit on the size of the interior spacetimes containing bound null geodesics is R=3M, independently of the value of the cosmological constant. The embedding diagrams of the central planes of the ordinary geometry into three-dimensional Euclidean space are well defined for the complete interior of all spacetimes with a repulsive cosmological constant, but the planes cannot be embedded into the Euclidean space in the case of spacetimes with subcritical values of an attractive cosmological constant. On the other hand, the embedding diagrams of the optical geometry are well defined for all of the spacetimes, and the turning points of these diagrams correspond to the radii of the circular null geodesics. All the embedding diagrams, for both the ordinary and optical geometry, are smoothly matched to the corresponding embedding diagrams of the external vacuum Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes
Centennial of General Relativity (1915-2015); The Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes
Blinder, S. M.
2015-01-01
This year marks the 100th anniversary of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (1915-2015). The first nontrivial solution of the Einstein field equations was derived by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916. This Note will focus mainly on the Schwarzschild solution and the remarkable developments which it inspired, the most dramatic being the prediction of black holes. Later extensions of Schwarzschild's spacetime structure has led to even wilder conjectures, such as white holes and passages to other ...
Algebraically special perturbations of the Schwarzschild solution in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Óscar J C; Reall, Harvey S
2013-01-01
We study algebraically special perturbations of a generalized Schwarzschild solution in any number of dimensions. There are two motivations. First, to learn whether there exist interesting higher-dimensional algebraically special solutions beyond the known ones. Second, algebraically special perturbations present an obstruction to the unique reconstruction of general metric perturbations from gauge-invariant variables analogous to the Teukolsky scalars and it is desirable to know the extent of this non-uniqueness. In four dimensions, our results generalize those of Couch and Newman, who found infinite families of time-dependent algebraically special perturbations. In higher dimensions, we find that the only regular algebraically special perturbations are those corresponding to deformations within the Myers–Perry family. Our results are relevant for several inequivalent definitions of ‘algebraically special’. (paper)
Johnson, Thomas
2018-01-01
In a recent seminal paper \\cite{D--H--R} of Dafermos, Holzegel and Rodnianski the linear stability of the Schwarzschild family of black hole solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations was established by imposing a double null gauge. In this paper we shall prove that the Schwarzschild family is linearly stable as solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations by imposing instead a generalised wave gauge: all sufficiently regular solutions to the system of equations that result from linearising the...
Linear waves on higher dimensional Schwarzschild black holes and Schwarzschild de Sitter spacetimes
Schlue, Volker
2012-01-01
I study linear waves on higher dimensional Schwarzschild black holes and Schwarzschild de Sitter spacetimes. In the first part of this thesis two decay results are proven for general finite energy solutions to the linear wave equation on higher dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. I establish uniform energy decay and improved interior first order energy decay in all dimensions with rates in accordance with the 3 + 1-dimensional case. The method of proof departs from earlier work on th...
Petit, Jean-Pierre; D'Agostini, G.
2015-03-01
We reconsider the classical Schwarzschild solution in the context of a Janus cosmological model. We show that the central singularity can be eliminated through a simple coordinate change and that the subsequent transit from one fold to the other is accompanied by mass inversion. In such scenario matter swallowed by black holes could be ejected as invisible negative mass and dispersed in space.
Exact solution for the interior of a black hole
Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.
2008-01-01
Within the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation it is shown that the equation of state p = rho holds near the center of a black hole. For the stiff equation of state p = rho - rho(c) the interior metric is solved exactly. It is matched with the Schwarzschild metric, which is deformed in a narrow range
Austin, Rickey W.
provides a minimum first order accuracy to Schwarzschild's solution to Einstein's field equations.
Schwarzschild black hole encircled by a rotating thin disc: Properties of perturbative solution
Kotlařík, P.; Semerák, O.; Čížek, P.
2018-04-01
Will [Astrophys. J. 191, 521 (1974), 10.1086/152992] solved the perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole due to a slowly rotating light concentric thin ring, using Green's functions expressed as infinite-sum expansions in multipoles and in the small mass and rotational parameters. In a previous paper [P. Čížek and O. Semerák, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 232, 14 (2017), 10.3847/1538-4365/aa876b], we expressed the Green functions in closed form containing elliptic integrals, leaving just summation over the mass expansion. Such a form is more practical for numerical evaluation, but mainly for generalizing the problem to extended sources where the Green functions have to be integrated over the source. We exemplified the method by computing explicitly the first-order perturbation due to a slowly rotating thin disc lying between two finite radii. After finding basic parameters of the system—mass and angular momentum of the black hole and of the disc—we now add further properties, namely those which reveal how the disc gravity influences geometry of the black-hole horizon and those of circular equatorial geodesics (specifically, radii of the photon, marginally bound and marginally stable orbits). We also realize that, in the linear order, no ergosphere occurs and the central singularity remains pointlike, and check the implications of natural physical requirements (energy conditions and subluminal restriction on orbital speed) for the single-stream as well as counter-rotating double-stream interpretations of the disc.
Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein-Schabes, J.A.
1986-01-01
New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs
New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two ...
Exact interior solutions in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahaman, Farook; Bhar, Piyali [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ritabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Sceince and Technology Shibpur, Howrah, West Bengal (India); Usmani, A.A. [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (India)
2014-04-15
We provide a new class of exact solutions for the interior in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime. The solutions obtained for the perfect fluid model both with and without cosmological constant (Λ) are found to be regular and singularity free. It assumes very simple analytical forms that help us to study the various physical properties of the configuration. Solutions without Λ are found to be physically acceptable. (orig.)
Martin Schwarzschild (1912 - 1997)
Pfau, Werner
The Chairman of the Astronomische Gesellschaft honored Martin Schwarzschild, who was the first to be presented with the Karl Schwarzschild Medal of the Astronomische Gesellschaft in 1957. An account of his life and work is given.
Quantitative properties of the Schwarzschild metric
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip
2018-01-01
Roč. 2018, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-10 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : exterior and interior Schwarzschild metric * proper radius * coordinate radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://astro.shu-bg.net/pasb/index_files/Papers/2018/SCHWARZ8.pdf
Quantum corrections to Schwarzschild black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
Using effective field theory techniques, we compute quantum corrections to spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's gravity and focus in particular on the Schwarzschild black hole. Quantum modifications are covariantly encoded in a non-local effective action. We work to quadratic order in curvatures simultaneously taking local and non-local corrections into account. Looking for solutions perturbatively close to that of classical general relativity, we find that an eternal Schwarzschild black hole remains a solution and receives no quantum corrections up to this order in the curvature expansion. In contrast, the field of a massive star receives corrections which are fully determined by the effective field theory. (orig.)
Heuristic extension of the Schwarzschild metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa, J.M.
1982-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution of Einstein's equations of gravitation has several singularities. It is known that the singularity at r = 2Gm/c 2 is only apparent, a result of the coordinates in which the solution was found. Paradoxical results occuring near the singularity show the system of coordinates is incomplete. We introduce a simple, two-dimensional metric with an apparent singularity that makes it incomplete. By a straightforward, heuristic procedure we extend and complete this simple metric. We then use the same procedure to give a heuristic derivation of the Kruskal system of coordinates, which is known to extend the Schwarzschild manifold past its apparent singularity and produce a complete manifold
Analytic extension of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazanski, S.L.; Ferrari, V.
1986-01-01
In this paper, co-ordinates are derived that are regular, respectively, in the neighbourhood of the two horizons which exist in the so-called Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution known in general relativity, and it is constructed a manifold that is the analytic extension of the manifold being the domain of classical Schwarzschild-de Sitter co-ordinates
The Schwarzschild metric: It's the coordinates, stupid!
Fromholz, Pierre; Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.
2014-04-01
Every general relativity textbook emphasizes that coordinates have no physical meaning. Nevertheless, a coordinate choice must be made in order to carry out real calculations, and that choice can make the difference between a calculation that is simple and one that is a mess. We give a concrete illustration of the maxim that "coordinates matter" using the exact Schwarzschild solution for a vacuum, static spherical spacetime. We review the standard textbook derivation, Schwarzschild's original 1916 derivation, and a derivation using the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the Einstein field equations. The last derivation is much more complicated, has one aspect for which we have been unable to find a solution, and gives an explicit illustration of the fact that the Schwarzschild geometry can be described in infinitely many coordinate systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvejsel, Marie Frier
Dealing with the general theme of domestic architectural quality, the PhD thesis ‘INTERIORITY’ takes its point of departure in the continuous and increasing need to improve our capability as architects to theoretically articulate the intangible concept of quality, and to reveal it through an active...... been motivated by the particular hypothesis that an introduction of the notion of interiority, as an ability of the spatial envelope itself to address the sensuous scale of furniture, unfolds a particular dual critical potential signifying our experience of domestic architectural quality: On the one......, tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...
Canonical quantization inside the Schwarzschild black hole
Yajnik, U. A.; Narayan, K.
1998-05-01
We propose a scheme for quantizing a scalar field over the Schwarzschild manifold including the interior of the horizon. On the exterior, the timelike Killing vector and on the horizon the isometry corresponding to restricted Lorentz boosts can be used to enforce the spectral condition. For the interior we appeal to CPT invariance to construct an explicitly positive-definite operator which allows identification of positive and negative frequencies. This operator is the translation operator corresponding to the inexorable propagation to smaller radii as expected from the classical metric. We also propose an expression for the propagator in the interior and express it as a mode sum. The field theory thus obtained is meaningful for small curvatures far from the classical singularity.
FRW cosmological model inside an isolated Schwarzschild black hole
Ortiz, C.; Rosales, J. J.; Socorro, J.; Tkach, V. I.
2004-01-01
Using the canonical quantum theory of spherically symmetric pure gravitational systems, we present a direct correspondence between the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model in the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole and the nth energy eigenstate of a linear harmonic oscillator. Such type of universe has a quantized mass of the order of the Planck mass and harmonic oscillator wave functions
Schwarzschild, Martin (1912-97)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Astrophysicist, born in Potsdam, Germany, the son of KARL SCHWARZSCHILD, left Germany, became professor at Princeton University. Working with John von Neumann, Schwarzschild used the powers of the newly developed electronic digital computers to work on the theory of stellar structure and evolution. He uncovered phenomena in red giant stars, including how they evolve off the main sequence in the H...
Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Grupo de Cosmologia y Gravitacion-UBB, Concepcion (Chile); Liempi, Luis [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universidad San Sebastian, Facultad de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Concepcion (Chile); Rodriguez, Pablo [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)
2017-11-15
In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)
Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodriguez, Pablo
2017-01-01
In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)
Can one increase the luminosity of a Schwarzschild black hole?
Mayo, Avraham E.
2000-01-01
We illustrate how Hawking's radiance from a Schwarzschild black hole is modified by the electrostatic self-interaction of the emitted charged particles. A W.K.B approximation shows that the probability for a self-interacting charged particle to propagate from the interior to the exterior of the horizon is increased relative to the corresponding probability for neutral particles. We also demonstrate how the electric potential of a charged test object in the black hole's vicinity gives rise to ...
The method of fundamental solutions for computing acoustic interior transmission eigenvalues
Kleefeld, Andreas; Pieronek, Lukas
2018-03-01
We analyze the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) in two different versions with focus on the computation of approximate acoustic interior transmission eigenvalues in 2D for homogeneous media. Our approach is mesh- and integration free, but suffers in general from the ill-conditioning effects of the discretized eigenoperator, which we could then successfully balance using an approved stabilization scheme. Our numerical examples cover many of the common scattering objects and prove to be very competitive in accuracy with the standard methods for PDE-related eigenvalue problems. We finally give an approximation analysis for our framework and provide error estimates, which bound interior transmission eigenvalue deviations in terms of some generalized MFS output.
The scalar wave equation in a Schwarzschild spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, J.M.; Schmidt, B.G.
1978-09-01
This paper studies the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the zero rest mass scalar wave equation in the Schwarzschild spacetime in a neighbourhood of spatial infinity, which includes parts of future and past null infinity. The behaviour of such fields is essentially different from that which accurs in a flat spacetime. (orig.) [de
A comment on the null geodesic equations in Schwarzschild geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, M.A.F.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.
1986-01-01
An integration of the null geodesic equations in the Schwarzschild geometry, which is valid to first order in GM/Rc 2 is presented. The solution is compared with others published in the literature and their range of validity is analysed. Some misunderstandings are also clarified. (Author) [pt
Einstein, Schwarzschild, the Perihelion Motion of Mercury and the Rotating Disk Story
Weinstein, Galina
2014-01-01
On November 18, 1915 Einstein reported to the Prussian Academy that the perihelion motion of Mercury is explained by his new General Theory of Relativity: Einstein found approximate solutions to his November 11, 1915 field equations. Einstein's field equations cannot be solved in the general case, but can be solved in particular situations. The first to offer such an exact solution was Karl Schwarzschild. Schwarzschild found one line element, which satisfied the conditions imposed by Einstein...
Two-mirror Schwarzschild aplanats. Basic relations
Terebizh, V. Yu.
2005-01-01
It is shown that the theory of aplanatic two-mirror telescopes developed by Karl Schwarzschild in 1905 leads to the unified description both the prefocal and the postfocal systems. The class of surfaces in the ZEMAX optical program has been properly extended to ascertain the image quality in exact Schwarzschild aplanats. A comparison of Schwarzschild aplanats with approximate Ritchey-Chretien and Gregory-Maksutov aplanatic telescopes reveals a noticeable advantage of the former at fast focal ...
Two-Mirror Schwarzschild Aplanats: Basic Relations
Terebizh, V. Yu.
2005-02-01
The theory of aplanatic two-mirror telescopes developed by Karl Schwarzschild in 1905 is shown to lead to a unified description of both prefocal and postfocal systems. The class of surfaces in the ZEMAX optical program has been properly extended to ascertain the image quality in exact Schwarzschild aplanats. A comparison of Schwarzschild aplanats with approximate Ritchey-Chrétien and Gregory-Maksutov aplanatic telescopes reveals a noticeable advantage of the former at the system’s fast focal ratio.
Gallakhmetov, A M
2002-01-01
In the framework of the problem of existence of exact interior solutions for static spherically symmetric configurations in the Einstein-Cartan theory (ECT), the distributions of perfect fluid and non-minimally coupled scalar field are considered. The exact solutions in the one-torsion ECT and two-torsion one are obtained. Some consequences of two sources of torsion are discussed.
Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Postiglione, A., E-mail: valboz@sa.infn.it, E-mail: postiglione@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Università di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00149 Roma (Italy)
2015-06-01
The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. On a phenomenological point of view, gravitational lensing in metrics falling as 1/r{sup q} has recently attracted great interest. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. For such space-times we also derive the expressions of gravitational redshift and force on probe masses, which, together with light deflection, can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.
Covariant perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarkson, Chris A; Barrett, Richard K
2003-01-01
We present a new covariant and gauge-invariant perturbation formalism for dealing with spacetimes having spherical symmetry (or some preferred spatial direction) in the background, and apply it to the case of gravitational wave propagation in a Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime. The 1 + 3 covariant approach is extended to a '1 + 1 + 2 covariant sheet' formalism by introducing a radial unit vector in addition to the timelike congruence, and decomposing all covariant quantities with respect to this. The background Schwarzschild solution is discussed and a covariant characterization is given. We give the full first-order system of linearized 1 + 1 + 2 covariant equations, and we show how, by introducing (time and spherical) harmonic functions, these may be reduced to a system of first-order ordinary differential equations and algebraic constraints for the 1 + 1 + 2 variables which may be solved straightforwardly. We show how both odd- and even-parity perturbations may be unified by the discovery of a covariant, frame- and gauge-invariant, transverse-traceless tensor describing gravitational waves, which satisfies a covariant wave equation equivalent to the Regge-Wheeler equation for both even- and odd-parity perturbations. We show how the Zerilli equation may be derived from this tensor, and derive a similar transverse-traceless tensor equation equivalent to this equation. The so-called special quasinormal modes with purely imaginary frequency emerge naturally. The significance of the degrees of freedom in the choice of the two frame vectors is discussed, and we demonstrate that, for a certain frame choice, the underlying dynamics is governed purely by the Regge-Wheeler tensor. The two transverse-traceless Weyl tensors which carry the curvature of gravitational waves are discussed, and we give the closed system of four first-order ordinary differential equations describing their propagation. Finally, we consider the extension of this work to the study of
The effect of spherical shells of matter on the Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dray, T.; Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht; Hooft, G. 't
1985-01-01
Based on previous work we show how to join two Schwarzschild solutions, possibly with different masses along null cylinders each representing a spherical shell of infalling or outgoing massless matter. One of the Schwarzschild masses can be zero, i.e. one region can be flat. The above procedure can be repeated to produce spacetimes with a C 0 metric describing several different (possibly flat) Schwarzschild regions separated by shells of matter. An exhaustive treatment of the ways of combining four such regions is given; the extension to many regions is then straightforward. Cases of special interest are: (1) the scattering of two spherical gravitational ''shock waves'' at the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole, and (2) a configuration involving only one external universe, which may be relevant to quantization problems in general relativity. In the latter example, only an infinitesimal amount of matter is sufficient to remove the ''Wheeler wormhole'' to another universe. (orig.)
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.
2018-02-01
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)
2018-02-15
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)
Geometry of deformed black holes. II. Schwarzschild hole surrounded by a Bach-Weyl ring
Basovník, M.; Semerák, O.
2016-08-01
We continue to study the response of black-hole space-times on the presence of additional strong sources of gravity. Restricting ourselves to static and axially symmetric (electro)vacuum exact solutions of Einstein's equations, we first considered the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for a binary of extreme black holes in a previous paper, while here we deal with a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a concentric thin ring described by the Bach-Weyl solution. The geometry is again revealed on the simplest invariants determined by the metric (lapse function) and its gradient (gravitational acceleration), and by curvature (Kretschmann scalar). Extending the metric inside the black hole along null geodesics tangent to the horizon, we mainly focus on the black-hole interior (specifically, on its sections at constant Killing time) where the quantities behave in a way indicating a surprisingly strong influence of the external source. Being already distinct on the level of potential and acceleration, this is still more pronounced on the level of curvature: for a sufficiently massive and/or nearby (small) ring, the Kretschmann scalar even becomes negative in certain toroidal regions mostly touching the horizon from inside. Such regions have been interpreted as those where magnetic-type curvature dominates, but here we deal with space-times which do not involve rotation and the negative value is achieved due to the electric-type components of the Riemann/Weyl tensor. The Kretschmann scalar also shapes rather nontrivial landscapes outside the horizon.
Initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado; Kroon, Juan A. Valiente
2007-01-01
A characterization of initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime is provided. This characterization is obtained by performing a 3+1 decomposition of a certain invariant characterization of the Schwarzschild spacetime given in terms of concomitants of the Weyl tensor. This procedure renders a set of necessary conditions--which can be written in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor and their concomitants--for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set. Our approach also provides a formula for a static Killing initial data set candidate--a KID candidate. Sufficient conditions for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set are obtained by supplementing the necessary conditions with the requirement that the initial data set possesses a stationary Killing initial data set of the form given by our KID candidate. Thus, we obtain an algorithmic procedure of checking whether a given initial data set is Schwarzschildean or not
Technology Solutions Case Study: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Minneapolis Residence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2013-10-01
This interior foundation project employed several techniques to improve performance and mitigate moisture issues: dimple mat; spray polyurethane foam insulation; moisture and thermal management systems for the floor; and paperless gypsum board and steel framing.
The scalar wave equation in a Schwarzschild space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, B.G.; Stewart, J.M.
1979-01-01
This paper studies the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the zero rest mass scalar wave equation in the Schwarzschild space-time in a neighbourhood of spatial infinity which includes parts of future and pass null infinity. The behaviour of such fields is essentially different from that which occurs in a flat space-time. In particular fields which have a Bondi-type expansion in powers of 'r(-1)' near past null infinity do not have such an expansion near future null infinity. Further solutions which have physically reasonable Cauchy data probably fail to have Bondi-type expansions near null infinity. (author)
Exact optics - III. Schwarzschild's spectrograph camera revised
Willstrop, R. V.
2004-03-01
Karl Schwarzschild identified a system of two mirrors, each defined by conic sections, free of third-order spherical aberration, coma and astigmatism, and with a flat focal surface. He considered it impractical, because the field was too restricted. This system was rediscovered as a quadratic approximation to one of Lynden-Bell's `exact optics' designs which have wider fields. Thus the `exact optics' version has a moderate but useful field, with excellent definition, suitable for a spectrograph camera. The mirrors are strongly aspheric in both the Schwarzschild design and the exact optics version.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chifu E. N.
2009-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formulate solutions to Einstein's geometrical field equations derived using our new approach. Our field equations exterior and interior to the mass distribution have only one unknown function determined by the mass or pressure distribution. Our obtained solutions yield the unknown function as generalizations of Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Thus, our solution puts Einstein's geometrical theory of gravity on same footing with Newton's dynamical theory; with the dependence of the field on one and only one unknown function comparable to Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Our results in this article are of much significance as the Sun and planets in the solar system are known to be more precisely oblate spheroidal in geometry. The oblate spheroidal geometries of these bodies have effects on their gravitational fields and the motions of test particles and photons in these fields.
First integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meshkov, A.G.; Dordzhiev, P.B.
1984-01-01
Linear and quadratic velocity integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space are calculated. The Schwarzschild geodesics equations have only four independent linear integrals. Quadratic integrals are polynomials from linear ones with constant coefficients. Total separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Schwarzschild metric is possible only in two coordinate systems: ''spherical'' and ''conic'' systems
Features and stability analysis of non-Schwarzschild black hole in quadratic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Yi-Fu; Zhang, Hezi; Liu, Junyu; Cheng, Gong; Wang, Min
2016-01-01
Black holes are found to exist in gravitational theories with the presence of quadratic curvature terms and behave differently from the Schwarzschild solution. We present an exhaustive analysis for determining the quasinormal modes of a test scalar field propagating in a new class of black hole backgrounds in the case of pure Einstein-Weyl gravity. Our result shows that the field decay of quasinormal modes in such a non-Schwarzschild black hole behaves similarly to the Schwarzschild one, but the decay slope becomes much smoother due to the appearance of the Weyl tensor square in the background theory. We also analyze the frequencies of the quasinormal modes in order to characterize the properties of new back holes, and thus, if these modes can be the source of gravitational waves, the underlying theories may be testable in future gravitational wave experiments. We briefly comment on the issue of quantum (in)stability in this theory at linear order.
Relativistic positioning in Schwarzschild space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puchades, Neus; Sáez, Diego
2015-01-01
In the Schwarzschild space-time created by an idealized static spherically symmetric Earth, two approaches -based on relativistic positioning- may be used to estimate the user position from the proper times broadcast by four satellites. In the first approach, satellites move in the Schwarzschild space-time and the photons emitted by the satellites follow null geodesics of the Minkowski space-time asymptotic to the Schwarzschild geometry. This assumption leads to positioning errors since the photon world lines are not geodesics of any Minkowski geometry. In the second approach -the most coherent one- satellites and photons move in the Schwarzschild space-time. This approach is a first order one in the dimensionless parameter GM/R (with the speed of light c=1). The two approaches give different inertial coordinates for a given user. The differences are estimated and appropriately represented for users located inside a great region surrounding Earth. The resulting values (errors) are small enough to justify the use of the first approach, which is the simplest and the most manageable one. The satellite evolution mimics that of the GALILEO global navigation satellite system. (paper)
Interactive Visualization of a Thin Disc around a Schwarzschild Black Hole
Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg
2012-01-01
In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a…
Nonexistence theorems for Yang-Mills fields and harmonic maps in the Schwarzschild spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Hesheng
1987-01-01
The nonexistence of static solutions to pure Yang-Mills equations and nonconstant harmonic maps defined on the Schwarzschild spacetime outside the black hole (r>2M) is considered. Nonexistence theorems for pure Yang-Mills equations and harmonic maps in the region r≥5M and r≥3M are obtained, respectively. (orig.)
Statistical Entropy of Schwarzschild Black Holes
Englert, F
1998-01-01
The entropy of a seven dimensional Schwarzschild black hole of arbitrary large radius is obtained by a mapping onto a near extremal self-dual three-brane whose partition function can be evaluated. The three-brane arises from duality after submitting a neutral blackbrane, from which the Schwarzschild black hole can be obtained by compactification, to an infinite boost in non compact eleven dimensional space-time and then to a Kaluza-Klein compactification. This limit can be defined in precise terms and yields the Beckenstein-Hawking value up to a factor of order one which can be set to be exactly one with the extra assumption of keeping only transverse brane excitations. The method can be generalized to five and four dimensional black holes.
Classroom reconstruction of the Schwarzschild metric
Kassner, Klaus
2015-01-01
A promising way to introduce general relativity in the classroom is to study the physical implications of certain given metrics, such as the Schwarzschild one. This involves lower mathematical expenditure than an approach focusing on differential geometry in its full glory and permits to emphasize physical aspects before attacking the field equations. Even so, in terms of motivation, lacking justification of the metric employed may pose an obstacle. The paper discusses how to establish the we...
Quantum correlator outside a Schwarzschild black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Buss
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We calculate the quantum correlator in Schwarzschild black hole space–time. We perform the calculation for a scalar field in three different quantum states: Boulware, Unruh and Hartle–Hawking, and for points along a timelike circular geodesic. The results show that the correlator presents a global fourfold singularity structure, which is state-independent. Our results also show the different correlations in the three different quantum states arising in-between the singularities.
Effective Stringy Description of Schwarzschild Black Holes
Krasnov , Kirill; Solodukhin , Sergey N.
2004-01-01
We start by pointing out that certain Riemann surfaces appear rather naturally in the context of wave equations in the black hole background. For a given black hole there are two closely related surfaces. One is the Riemann surface of complexified ``tortoise'' coordinate. The other Riemann surface appears when the radial wave equation is interpreted as the Fuchsian differential equation. We study these surfaces in detail for the BTZ and Schwarzschild black holes in four and higher dimensions....
A Statistical Mechanical Problem in Schwarzschild Spacetime
Collas, Peter; Klein, David
2006-01-01
We use Fermi coordinates to calculate the canonical partition function for an ideal gas in a circular geodesic orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime. To test the validity of the results we prove theorems for limiting cases. We recover the Newtonian gas law subject only to tidal forces in the Newtonian limit. Additionally we recover the special relativistic gas law as the radius of the orbit increases to infinity. We also discuss how the method can be extended to the non ideal gas case.
The Planck Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The Planck vacuum (PV is assumed to be the source of the visible universe. So under conditions of sufficient stress, there must exist a pathway through which energy from the PV can travel into this universe. Conversely, the passage of energy from the visible universe to the PV must also exist under the same stressful conditions. The following examines two versions of the Schwarzschild metric equation for compatability with this open-pathway idea.
Quantization of the Schwarzschild geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melas, Evangelos
2013-01-01
The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein-Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''.
Isotropic extensions of the vacuum solutions in general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molina, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Martin-Moruno, Prado [Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand); Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain)
2012-07-01
Full text: Spacetimes described by spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations are of paramount importance both in astrophysical applications and theoretical considerations. And among those, black holes are highlighted. In vacuum, Birkhoff's theorem and its generalizations to non-asymptotically flat cases uniquely fix the metric as the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-de Sitter or Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter geometries, the vacuum solutions of the usual general relativity with zero, positive or negative values for the cosmological constant, respectively. In this work we are mainly interested in black holes in a cosmological environment. Of the two main assumptions of the cosmological principle, homogeneity is lost when compact objects are considered. Nevertheless isotropy is still possible, and we enforce this condition. Within this context, we investigate spatially isotropic solutions close - continuously deformable - to the usual vacuum solutions. We obtain isotropic extensions of the usual spherically symmetric vacuum geometries in general relativity. Exact and perturbative solutions are derived. Maximal extensions are constructed and their causal structures are discussed. The classes of geometries obtained include black holes in compact and non-compact universes, wormholes in the interior region of cosmological horizons, and anti-de Sitter geometries with excess/deficit solid angle. The tools developed here are applicable in more general contexts, with extensions subjected to other constraints. (author)
Embeddings for the Schwarzschild metric: classification and new results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paston, S A; Sheykin, A A
2012-01-01
We suggest a method to search the embeddings of Riemannian spaces with a high enough symmetry in a flat ambient space. It is based on a procedure of construction surfaces with a given symmetry. The method is used to classify the embeddings of the Schwarzschild metric which have the symmetry of this solution, and all such embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space (i.e. a space with a minimal possible dimension) are constructed. Four of the six possible embeddings are already known, while the two others are new. One of the new embeddings is asymptotically flat, while the other embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space do not have this property. The asymptotically flat embedding can be of use in the analysis of the many-body problem, as well as for the development of gravity description as a theory of a surface in a flat ambient space. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paudel, Eak Raj
2007-01-01
Gravitational field of Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de-sitter Black hole with a straight string passing through it. In such space analytical and numerical solutions of null and time like geodesics are investigated. The string parameter a + is found to affect both the angle of deflection in null geodesics and the precession of perihelion on time like geodesics .It is seen that the deflection of null and time like geodesics near the gravitating mass of de-sitter space time increases with t he gravitational field of a straight string in flat space time has the property that the Newtonian potential vanishes yet there are non trivial gravitational effects. A test particle is neither attracted nor repelled by a string, yet the conical nature of space outside of string produces observable effects such as light deflection . Schwarzschild Black hole is a mathematical solution to the Einstein's field equations and corresponds to the gravitational field of massive compact spherically symmetric ob normal. References 1. Aryal, M.M, A. Vilenkin and L.H Ford, 1986, Phys.Rev. D32 ,2262 2. Moriyasu ,K ., 1980 , An introduction to gauge Invariance 3. Vilenkin A., 1985 , Physical reports , cosmic strings and Domain walls 4. Berry, M. , 1976 , Principle of cosmology and Gravitation 5. Mishner , C.W ., K.S .Throne , J.A wheeler , 1973. (Author)
Entanglement redistribution in the Schwarzschild spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jieci; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang
2010-01-01
The effect of Hawking radiation on the redistribution of the entanglement and mutual information in the Schwarzschild spacetime is investigated. Our analysis shows that the physically accessible correlations degrade while the unaccessible correlations increase as the Hawking temperature increases because the initial correlations described by inertial observers are redistributed between all the bipartite modes. It is interesting to note that, in the limit case that the temperature tends to infinity, the accessible mutual information equals to just half of its initial value, and the unaccessible mutual information between mode A and II also equals to the same value.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Interactive visualization of a thin disc around a Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Müller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jörg
2012-01-01
In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a Schwarzschild black hole can be determined interactively by means of an analytic solution to the geodesic equation processed on current high-performance graphical processing units. This approach can, in principle, be customized for any other thin disc in a spacetime with geodesics given in closed form. The interactive visualization discussed here can be used either in a first course in general relativity for demonstration purposes only or as a thesis for an enthusiastic student in an advanced course with some basic knowledge of OpenGL and a programming language. (paper)
Sironi, Giorgia
2017-09-01
At the beginning of XX century Karl Schwarzschild defined a method to design large-field aplanatic telescopes based on the use of two aspheric mirrors. The approach was then refined by Couder (1926) who, in order to correct for the astigmatic aberration, introduced a curvature of the focal plane. By the way, the realization of normal-incidence telescopes implementing the Schwarzschild aplanatic configuration has been historically limited by the lack of technological solutions to manufacture and test aspheric mirrors. On the other hand, the Schwarzschild solution was recovered for the realization of coma-free X-ray grazing incidence optics. Wolter-like grazing incidence systems are indeed free of spherical aberration, but still suffer from coma and higher order aberrations degrading the imaging capability for off-axis sources. The application of the Schwarzschild's solution to X-ray optics allowed Wolter to define an optical system that exactly obeys the Abbe sine condition, eliminating coma completely. Therefore these systems are named Wolter-Schwarzschild telescopes and have been used to implement wide-field X-ray telescopes like the ROSAT WFC and the SOHO X-ray telescope. Starting from this approach, a new class of X-ray optical system was proposed by Burrows, Burg and Giacconi assuming polynomials numerically optimized to get a flat field of view response and applied by Conconi to the wide field x-ray telescope (WFXT) design. The Schwarzschild-Couder solution has been recently re-discovered for the application to normal-incidence Cherenkov telescopes, thanks to the suggestion by Vassiliev and collaborators. The Italian Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) realized the first Cherenkov telescope based on the polynomial variation of the Schwarzschild configuration (the so-called ASTRI telescope). Its optical qualification was successfully completed in 2016, demonstrating the suitability of the Schwarzschild-like configuration for the Cherenkov astronomy requirements
Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor
Professionalization is characteristic for physics and astronomy since 1830, and forms the basis for their rapid evolution in the 20th century. Karl Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy are presented: the introduction of course lectures in a repeating cycle, a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, simulations and suggestions for astronomy at high schools and for the training of high school teachers, an interest in international organisation, and the initiative and planning of a southern observatory.
Geometric extension through Schwarzschild r = 0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynden-Bell, D.; Katz, J.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem
1990-01-01
Singularities in space-time are not necessarily cancers in the manifold but can herald interesting topological change in the space-time at places where there are several different tangent Minkowski spaces. Most discussions of gravitational collapse cease when space-time becomes singular. In the 'hour-glass' universe we have an example where the singularity develops in empty space; here we give a geometrical extension through the singularity in which geodesics that enter it emerge into a new space. The result extends Schwarzschild space and is periodic in 'extended' Penrose coordinates. There is a topological singularity but no mass at r = 0. The extension is mildly nonanalytic but unique. It is based on the concept that time does not stop and that empty space-times which develop singularities must still have zero Ricci tensors even where the Riemann tensor becomes infinite. (author)
Hawking radiation inside a Schwarzschild black hole
Hamilton, Andrew J. S.
2018-05-01
The boundary of any observer's spacetime is the boundary that divides what the observer can see from what they cannot see. The boundary of an observer's spacetime in the presence of a black hole is not the true (future event) horizon of the black hole, but rather the illusory horizon, the dimming, redshifting surface of the star that collapsed to the black hole long ago. The illusory horizon is the source of Hawking radiation seen by observers both outside and inside the true horizon. The perceived acceleration (gravity) on the illusory horizon sets the characteristic frequency scale of Hawking radiation, even if that acceleration varies dynamically, as it must do from the perspective of an infalling observer. The acceleration seen by a non-rotating free-faller both on the illusory horizon below and in the sky above is calculated for a Schwarzschild black hole. Remarkably, as an infaller approaches the singularity, the acceleration becomes isotropic, and diverging as a power law. The isotropic, power-law character of the Hawking radiation, coupled with conservation of energy-momentum, the trace anomaly, and the familiar behavior of Hawking radiation far from the black hole, leads to a complete description of the quantum energy-momentum inside a Schwarzschild black hole. The quantum energy-momentum near the singularity diverges as r^{-6}, and consists of relativistic Hawking radiation and negative energy vacuum in the ratio 3 : - 2. The classical back reaction of the quantum energy-momentum on the geometry, calculated using the Einstein equations, serves merely to exacerbate the singularity. All the results are consistent with traditional calculations of the quantum energy-momentum in 1 + 1 spacetime dimensions.
Distortion of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes to black strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomimatsu, Akira
2005-01-01
Motivated by the existence of black holes with various topologies in four-dimensional spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant, we study axisymmetric static solutions describing any large distortions of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes parametrized by the mass m. Under the approximation such that m is much larger than the anti-de Sitter radius, it is found that a cylindrically symmetric black string is obtained as a special limit of distorted spherical black holes. Such a prolonged distortion of the event horizon connecting a Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole to a black string is allowed without violating both the usual black hole thermodynamics and the hoop conjecture for the horizon circumference
Resolving the Schwarzschild singularity in both classic and quantum gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ding-fang Zeng
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The Schwarzschild singularity's resolution has key values in cracking the key mysteries related with black holes, the origin of their horizon entropy and the information missing puzzle involved in their evaporations. We provide in this work the general dynamic inner metric of collapsing stars with horizons and with non-trivial radial mass distributions. We find that static central singularities are not the final state of the system. Instead, the final state of the system is a periodically zero-cross breathing ball. Through 3+1 decomposed general relativity and its quantum formulation, we establish a functional Schrödinger equation controlling the micro-state of this breathing ball and show that, the system configuration with all the matter concentrating on the central point is not the unique eigen-energy-density solution. Using a Bohr–Sommerfield like “orbital” quantisation assumption, we show that for each black hole of horizon radius rh, there are about erh2/ℓpl2 allowable eigen-energy-density profiles. This naturally leads to physic interpretations for the micro-origin of horizon entropy, as well as solutions to the information missing puzzle involved in Hawking radiations.
Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in extended Schwarzschild space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pareja, M. J.; Frauendiener, J.
2006-01-01
We present a class of spherically symmetric hypersurfaces in the Kruskal extension of the Schwarzschild space-time. The hypersurfaces have constant negative scalar curvature, so they are hyperboloidal in the regions of space-time which are asymptotically flat
K. Schwarzschild's problem in radiation transfer theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutily, B.; Chevallier, L.; Pelkowski, J.
2006-01-01
We solve exactly the problem of a finite slab receiving an isotropic radiation on one side and no radiation on the other side. This problem-to be more precise the calculation of the source function within the slab-was first formulated by K. Schwarzschild in 1914. We first solve it for unspecified albedos and optical thicknesses of the atmosphere, in particular for an albedo very close to 1 and a very large optical thickness in view of some astrophysical applications. Then we focus on the conservative case (albedo=1), which is of great interest for the modeling of grey atmospheres in radiative equilibrium. Ten-figure tables of the conservative source function are given. From the analytical expression of this function, we deduce (1) a simple relation between the effective temperature of a grey atmosphere in radiative equilibrium and the temperature of the black body that irradiates it (2) the temperature at any point of the atmosphere when it is in local thermodynamical equilibrium. This temperature distribution is the counterpart, for a finite slab, of Hopf's distribution in a half-space. Its graphical representation is given for various optical thicknesses of the atmosphere
Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Tiglio, Manuel
2010-01-01
Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (l=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (l=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that--in contrast to previous predictions in the literature--the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.
Relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, Gilberto M
2013-01-01
A relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric is studied within the framework of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields, where Marle’s model for the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is employed. The transport coefficients of the bulk and shear viscosities and thermal conductivity are determined from the Chapman–Enskog method. It is shown that the transport coefficients depend on the gravitational potential. Expressions for the transport coefficients in the presence of weak gravitational fields in the non-relativistic (low temperature) and ultra-relativistic (high temperature) limiting cases are given. Apart from the temperature gradient the heat flux has two relativistic terms. The first one, proposed by Eckart, is due to the inertia of energy and represents an isothermal heat flux when matter is accelerated. The other, suggested by Tolman, is proportional to the gravitational potential gradient and indicates that—in the absence of an acceleration field—a state of equilibrium of a relativistic gas in a gravitational field can be attained only if the temperature gradient is counterbalanced by a gravitational potential gradient. (paper)
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Shankar, D.; Mc; Han, W.; Shetye, S.R.
and Computer Simulation, National Aerospace Laboratories Bangalore, India J.P. McCreary and W. Han Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Dania, Florida S. R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Abstract. A... that compensates for southward Sverdrup transport in the interior ocean, as in the barotropic models of Stommel [1948] and Munk [1950]. SHANKAR ET AL' DYNAMICS OF THE EAST INDIA COASTAL CURRENT, 1 13,977 McCreary et al. [1993] suggested that forcing by both...
3rd Karl Schwarzschild Meeting - Gravity and the Gauge/Gravity Correspondence
Nicolini, Piero; Kaminski, Matthias; Mureika, Jonas; Bleicher, Marcus
2018-01-01
The Karl Schwarzschild Meeting 2017 (KSM2017) has been the third instalment of the conference dedicated to the great Frankfurter scientist, who derived the first black hole solution of Einstein's equations about 100 years ago. The event has been a 5 day meeting in the field of black holes, AdS/CFT correspondence and gravitational physics. Like the two previous instalments, the conference continued to attract a stellar ensemble of participants from the world's most renowned institutions. The core of the meeting has been a series of invited talks from eminent experts (keynote speakers) as well as the presence of plenary research talks by students and junior speakers.
1st Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics
Kaminski, Matthias; Mureika, Jonas; Bleicher, Marcus
2016-01-01
These proceedings collect the selected contributions of participants of the First Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics, held in Frankfurt, Germany to celebrate the 140th anniversary of Schwarzschild's birth. They are grouped into 4 main themes: I. The Life and Work of Karl Schwarzschild; II. Black Holes in Classical General Relativity, Numerical Relativity, Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Alternative Theories of Gravity; III. Black Holes in Quantum Gravity and String Theory; IV. Other Topics in Contemporary Gravitation. Inspired by the foundational principle ``By acknowledging the past, we open a route to the future", the week-long meeting, envisioned as a forum for exchange between scientists from all locations and levels of education, drew participants from 15 countries across 4 continents. In addition to plenary talks from leading researchers, a special focus on young talent was provided, a feature underlined by the Springer Prize for the best student and junior presentations.
The Schwarzschild effect of the dosimetry film Kodak EDR 2.
Djouguela, A; Kollhoff, R; Rubach, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B
2005-11-07
The magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law has been experimentally investigated for the dosimetry film EDR 2 from Kodak. When the dose rate applied to achieve a given dose was reduced by a factor of 12, the net optical density was reduced by up to 5%. The clinical importance of this effect is negligible as long as the films are calibrated at a value of the dose rate approximately representative of the dose rates occurring in the target volume, but in target regions of strongly reduced dose rate the Schwarzschild effect should be allowed for by a correction of the net optical density.
Cardy-Verlinde Formula of Noncommutative Schwarzschild Black Hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Abbas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Few years ago, Setare (2006 has investigated the Cardy-Verlinde formula of noncommutative black hole obtained by noncommutativity of coordinates. In this paper, we apply the same procedure to a noncommutative black hole obtained by the coordinate coherent approach. The Cardy-Verlinde formula is entropy formula of conformal field theory in an arbitrary dimension. It relates the entropy of conformal field theory to its total energy and Casimir energy. In this paper, we have calculated the total energy and Casimir energy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole and have shown that entropy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole horizon can be expressed in terms of Cardy-Verlinde formula.
Quantum field theory in Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulware, D.G.
1975-01-01
The problem of defining a scalar quantum field in the space-times described by the Schwarzschild and Rindler metrics is discussed. The matrix elements of the field operators are found by calculating the Green's functions for the fields. The requirement of positive frequencies for asymptotic timelike separations combined with a careful analysis of the continuity conditions at the event horizons yields a unique prescription for the Green's function. This in turn defines the vacuum state. In the Schwarzschild space the vacuum is shown to be stable and the lowest-energy state. In the Rindler space the quantization procedure yields the same results as quantization in Minkowski coordinates
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.
This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papoyan, V.V.
1989-01-01
A Kerr generalized solution for a stationary axially-symmetric gravitational field of rotating self-gravitational objects is given. For solving the problem Einstein equations and their combinations are used. The particular cases: internal and external Schwarzschild solutions are considered. The external solution of the stationary problem is a Kerr solution generalization. 3 refs
The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)
2017-02-15
In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)
Taub-NUT spinless particles and Schwarzschild spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, D.; La Sapienza Univ., Rome
2005-01-01
The effect of a small gravitomagnetic monopole on (accelerated) circular orbits in the equatorial plane of the Taub-NUT space-time is compared to the corresponding (accelerated) orbits pushed slightly off the equatorial plane in the absence of the monopole (Schwarzschild space-time)
Quasinormal Modes of a Quantum-Corrected Schwarzschild Black ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chunyan Wang
2017-11-27
Nov 27, 2017 ... Abstract. In this work, we investigate the electromagnetic perturbation around a quantum-corrected. Schwarzschild black hole. The complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes are evaluated by the third- order WKB approximation. The numerical results obtained showed that the complex frequencies ...
A note on local interior regularity of a suitable weak solution to the Navier--Stokes problem
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Neustupa, Jiří
2013-01-01
Roč. 6, č. 5 (2013), s. 1391-1400 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * suitable weak solution * regularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=8344
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Solovyova
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on their intuition and require solutions based on pure reason. The author of this paper argues for bringing intuitive decision making back into interior design as a legitimate design tactic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hayk Ghazaryan
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper it is proved that all distributional solutions of the non-degenerate, almost hypoelliptic (hypoelliptic by the one of variables equation $P(Du = P(D_{1},D_{2}u = 0$ are infinitely differentiable in the certain strip in $E^{2}$ under a priori assumption that they and its certain derivatives are square integrable with a certain exponential weight.
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Nikolay N. Nefedov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper, we study a singularly perturbed periodic in time problem for the parabolic reaction-advection-diffusion equation with a weak linear advection. The case of the reactive term in the form of a cubic nonlinearity is considered. On the basis of already known results, a more general formulation of the problem is investigated, with weaker sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer to be provided than in previous studies. For convenience, the known results are given, which ensure the fulfillment of the existence theorem of the contrast structure. The justification for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer is based on the use of an asymptotic method of differential inequalities based on the modification of the terms of the constructed asymptotic expansion. Further, sufficient conditions are established to fulfill these requirements, and they have simple and concise formulations in the form of the algebraic equation w(x0,t = 0 and the condition wx(x0,t < 0, which is essentially a condition of simplicity of the root x0(t and ensuring the stability of the solution found. The function w is a function of the known functions appearing in the reactive and advective terms of the original problem. The equation w(x0,t = 0 is a problem for finding the zero approximation x0(t to determine the localization region of the inner transition layer. In addition, the asymptotic Lyapunov stability of the found periodic solution is investigated, based on the application of the so-called compressible barrier method. The main result of the paper is formulated as a theorem.
Guo, Xiaoyan; Cai, Yaping; Wei, Zhongbo; Hou, Haifeng; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zunyao
2013-01-01
Interior microelectrolysis (IM) as a pretreatment process was effective to treat Reactive Black 5 (RB5) in this study. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and color were 46.05, 39.99 and 98.77%, respectively, when this process was conducted under the following optimal conditions: the volumetric ratio between iron scraps and active carbon (AC) (V(Fe)/V(C)) 1.0, pH 2.0, aeration dosage 0.6 L/min, and reaction time 100 min. Contaminants could be further removed by ozonation. After subsequent ozonation for 200 min, the solution could be completely decolorized, and the COD and TOC removal rates were up to 77.78 and 66.51%, respectively. In addition, acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna showed that pretreatment by IM generated effluents that were more toxic when compared with the initial wastewater, and the toxicity was reduced after subsequent ozonation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuang Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available As an efficient tool, radial basis function (RBF has been widely used for the multivariate approximation, interpolating continuous, and the solution of the particle differential equations. However, ill-conditioned interpolation matrix may be encountered when the interpolation points are very dense or irregularly arranged. To avert this problem, RBFs with variable shape parameters are introduced, and several new variation strategies are proposed. Comparison with the RBF with constant shape parameters are made, and the results show that the condition number of the interpolation matrix grows much slower with our strategies. As an application, an improved collocation meshless method is formulated by employing the new RBF. In addition, the Hermite-type interpolation is implemented to handle the Neumann boundary conditions and an additional sine/cosine basis is introduced for the Helmlholtz equation. Then, two interior acoustic problems are solved with the presented method; the results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the method.
Astronomy from Olbers to Schwarzschild. (German Title: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild)
Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen
This issue comprises talks presented 2000 September 18 at the colloquium ``International relations in astronomy'' it is supplemented by additional articles about this topic. The foundation of the international ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'', which took place in 1800 in Bremen, prompted us to investigate the development of astronomy in German-speaking regions, and its international relations during the 19th century. We investigate the activities of famous astronomers like W. Olbers, J.E. Bode, F.X. von Zach, J.H. Schroeter, H.C. Schumacher and K. Schwarzschild, as well as those of their less famous professional colleagues like J.G. Schrader and L. de Ball. The geographical spectrum extends from Bremen and Lilienthal over Kiel, Gotha and Dresden to Copenhagen, Vienna and Chile. Among the topics are: telescope construction, including telescopes made by Herschel, the rediscovery of the minor planet Ceres 1801/02, the Berlin ``Astronomisches Jahrbuch'', the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', the evolution from the ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'' to the present-day ``Astronomische Gesellschaft'', the research at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna, the professionalization in astronomy, and the attempts of many countries to establish a southern observatory in Chile. A listing of astronomical monuments in Lilienthal and Bremen concludes the book. All papers are written in German with English abstracts.
Classical solutions in supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.
1977-06-01
Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed
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Shoubin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The compound variable inverse problem which comprises boundary temperature distribution and surface convective heat conduction coefficient of two-dimensional steady heat transfer system with inner heat source is studied in this paper applying the conjugate gradient method. The introduction of complex variable to solve the gradient matrix of the objective function obtains more precise inversion results. This paper applies boundary element method to solve the temperature calculation of discrete points in forward problems. The factors of measuring error and the number of measuring points zero error which impact the measurement result are discussed and compared with L-MM method in inverse problems. Instance calculation and analysis prove that the method applied in this paper still has good effectiveness and accuracy even if measurement error exists and the boundary measurement points’ number is reduced. The comparison indicates that the influence of error on the inversion solution can be minimized effectively using this method.
Bower, Dan J.; Sanan, Patrick; Wolf, Aaron S.
2018-01-01
The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, ∂S / ∂r , as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with semi-analytical solutions that highlights the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r -around 12 orders of magnitude-for physically-relevant parameters. It also elucidates the thermal structure of a magma ocean during the earliest stage of crystal formation. This motivates the development of a simple yet stable numerical scheme able to capture the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r and hence provide a flexible and robust method for time-integrating the energy equation. Using insight gained from the simplified model, we consider a full model, which includes energy fluxes associated with convection, mixing, gravitational separation, and conduction that all depend on the thermophysical properties of the melt and solid phases. This model is discretised and evolved by applying the finite volume method (FVM), allowing for extended precision calculations and using ∂S / ∂r as the solution variable. The FVM is well-suited to this problem since it is naturally energy conserving, flexible, and intuitive to incorporate arbitrary non-linear fluxes that rely on lookup data. Special attention is given to the numerically challenging scenario in which crystals first form in the centre of a magma ocean. The computational framework we devise is immediately applicable to modelling high melt fraction phenomena in Earth and planetary science research. Furthermore, it provides a template for solving similar non-linear diffusion equations that arise in other science and engineering disciplines, particularly for non-linear functional forms of the diffusion coefficient.
Un-graviton corrections to the Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaete, Patricio; Helayel-Neto, Jose A.; Spallucci, Euro
2010-01-01
We introduce an effective action smoothly extending the standard Einstein-Hilbert action to include un-gravity effects. The improved field equations are solved for the un-graviton corrected Schwarzschild geometry reproducing the Mureika result. This is an important test to confirm the original 'guess' of the form of the un-Schwarzschild metric. Instead of working in the weak field approximation and 'dressing' the Newtonian potential with un-gravitons, we solve the 'effective Einstein equations' including all order un-gravity effects. An unexpected 'bonus' of accounting un-gravity effects is the fractalisation of the event horizon. In the un-gravity dominated regime the event horizon thermodynamically behaves as fractal surface of dimensionality twice the scale dimension d U .
Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae
2014-01-01
We study the thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole where the metric depends on the energy of the test particle. Identifying the black hole temperature with the energy from the modified dispersion relation, we obtain the modified entropy and thermodynamic energy along with the modified local temperature in the cavity to provide well defined black hole states. It is found that apart from the conventional critical temperature related to Hawking-Page phase transition there appears an additional critical temperature which is of relevance to the existence of a locally stable tiny black hole; however, the off-shell free energy tells us that this black hole should eventually tunnel into the stable large black hole. Finally, we discuss the reason why the temperature near the horizon is finite in the rainbow black hole by employing the running gravitational coupling constant, whereas it is divergent near the horizon in the ordinary Schwarzschild black hole
Space–time and spatial geodesic orbits in Schwarzschild geometry
Resca, Lorenzo
2018-05-01
Geodesic orbit equations in the Schwarzschild geometry of general relativity reduce to ordinary conic sections of Newtonian mechanics and gravity for material particles in the non-relativistic limit. On the contrary, geodesic orbit equations for a proper spatial submanifold of Schwarzschild metric at any given coordinate-time correspond to an unphysical gravitational repulsion in the non-relativistic limit. This demonstrates at a basic level the centrality and critical role of relativistic time and its intimate pseudo-Riemannian connection with space. Correspondingly, a commonly popularised depiction of geodesic orbits of planets as resulting from the curvature of space produced by the Sun, represented as a rubber sheet dipped in the middle by the weighing of that massive body, is mistaken and misleading for the essence of relativity, even in the non-relativistic limit.
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R. da Rocha
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Sound waves on a fluid stream, in a de Laval nozzle, are shown to correspond to quasinormal modes emitted by black holes that are physical solutions in a quadratic curvature gravity with cosmological constant. Sound waves patterns in transsonic regimes at a laboratory are employed here to provide experimental data regarding generalized theories of gravity, comprised by the exact de Sitter-like solution and a perturbative solution around the Schwarzschildâde Sitter standard solution as well. Using the classical tests of General Relativity to bound free parameters in these solutions, acoustic perturbations on fluid flows in nozzles are then regarded, to study quasinormal modes of these black holes solutions, providing deviations of the de Laval nozzle cross-sectional area, when compared to the Schwarzschild solution. The fluid sonic point in the nozzle, for sound waves in the fluid, is shown to implement the acoustic event horizon corresponding to quasinormal modes. Keywords: Black holes, Fluid branes, Fluid dynamics, Quadratic curvature gravity, de Laval nozzle
Regular coordinate systems for Schwarzschild and other spherical spacetimes
Martel, Karl; Poisson, Eric
2000-01-01
The continuation of the Schwarzschild metric across the event horizon is almost always (in textbooks) carried out using the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates, in terms of which the areal radius r is defined only implicitly. We argue that from a pedagogical point of view, using these coordinates comes with several drawbacks, and we advocate the use of simpler, but equally effective, coordinate systems. One such system, introduced by Painleve and Gullstrand in the 1920's, is especially simple and pe...
(Anti-)Evaporation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter Black Holes
Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen
1997-01-01
We study the quantum evolution of black holes immersed in a de Sitter background space. For black holes whose size is comparable to that of the cosmological horizon, this process differs significantly from the evaporation of asymptotically flat black holes. Our model includes the one-loop effective action in the s-wave and large N approximation. Black holes of the maximal mass are in equilibrium. Unexpectedly, we find that nearly maximal quantum Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes anti-evapor...
Ricci solitons, Ricci flow and strongly coupled CFT in the Schwarzschild Unruh or Boulware vacua
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueras, Pau; Lucietti, James; Wiseman, Toby
2011-01-01
The elliptic Einstein-DeTurck equation may be used to numerically find Einstein metrics on Riemannian manifolds. Static Lorentzian Einstein metrics are considered by analytically continuing to Euclidean time. The Ricci-DeTurck flow is a constructive algorithm to solve this equation, and is simple to implement when the solution is a stable fixed point, the only complication being that Ricci solitons may exist which are not Einstein. Here we extend previous work to consider the Einstein-DeTurck equation for Riemannian manifolds with boundaries, and those that continue to static Lorentzian spacetimes which are asymptotically flat, Kaluza-Klein, locally AdS or have extremal horizons. Using a maximum principle, we prove that Ricci solitons do not exist in these cases and so any solution is Einstein. We also argue that the Ricci-DeTurck flow preserves these classes of manifolds. As an example, we simulate the Ricci-DeTurck flow for a manifold with asymptotics relevant for AdS 5 /CFT 4 . Our maximum principle dictates that there are no soliton solutions, and we give strong numerical evidence that there exists a stable fixed point of the flow which continues to a smooth static Lorentzian Einstein metric. Our asymptotics are such that this describes the classical gravity dual relevant for the CFT on a Schwarzschild background in either the Unruh or Boulware vacua. It determines the leading O(N 2 c ) part of the CFT stress tensor, which interestingly is regular on both the future and past Schwarzschild horizons. (paper)
Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir
2015-07-01
In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central
Irina Solovyova
2008-01-01
Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on t...
Drude-Schwarzschild Metric and the Electrical Conductivity of Metals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva P. R.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Starting from a string with a length equal to the electron mean free path and having a unit cell equal to the Compton length of the electron, we construct a Schwarzschild-like metric. We found that this metric has a surface horizon with radius equal to the electron mean free path and its Bekenstein-like entropy is proportional to the number of squared unit cells contained in this spherical surface. The Hawking temperature is inversely proportional to the perimeter of the maximum circle of this sphere. Also, interesting analogies on some features of the particle physics are examined.
QFT holography near the horizon of Schwarzschild-like spacetimes
Moretti, Valter; Pinamonti, Nicola
2003-01-01
It is argued that free QFT can be defined on the event horizon of a Schwarzschild-like spacetime and that this theory is unitarily and algebraically equivalent to QFT in the bulk (near the horizon). Under that unitary equivalence the bulk hidden SL(2,R) symmetry found in a previous work becomes manifest on the event horizon, it being induced by a group of horizon diffeomorphisms. The class of generators of that group can be enlarged to include a full Virasoro algebra of fields which are defin...
Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola
2009-07-01
The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)
Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ., Povo (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica ' ' F. Severi' ' , GNFM, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2009-07-15
The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)
Quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild black holes: Defined and calculated via Laplace transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nollert, H.; Schmidt, B.G.
1992-01-01
Quasinormal modes play a prominent role in the literature when dealing with the propagation of linearized perturbations of the Schwarzschild geometry. We show that space-time properties of the solutions of the perturbation equation imply the existence of a unique Green's function of the Laplace-transformed wave equation. This Green's function may be constructed from solutions of the homogeneous time-independent equation, which are uniquely characterized by the boundary conditions they satisfy. These boundary conditions are identified as the boundary conditions usually imposed for quasinormal-mode solutions. It turns out that solutions of the homogeneous equation exist which satisfy these boundary conditions at the horizon and at spatial infinity simultaneously, leading to poles of the Green's function. We therefore propose to define quasinormal-mode frequencies as the poles of the Green's function for the Laplace-transformed equation. On the basis of this definition a new technique for the numerical calculation of quasinormal frequencies is developed. The results agree with computations of Leaver, but not with more recent results obtained by Guinn, Will, Kojima, and Schutz
The State of Environmentally Sustainable Interior Design Practice
Mihyun Kang; Denise A. Guerin
2009-01-01
Problem statement: Research that investigates how interior designers use environmentally sustainable interior design criteria in their design solutions has not been done. To provide a base to develop education strategies for sustainable interior design, this study examined the state of environmentally sustainable interior design practice. Approach: A national, Internet-based survey of interior design practitioners was conducted. To collect data, the random sample of US interior design practit...
Accretion onto a noncommutative-inspired Schwarzschild black hole
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Paik, Biplab; Mandal, Rituparna
2018-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the problem of ordinary baryonic matter accretion onto the noncommutative (NC) geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole. The fundamental equations governing the spherically symmetric steady state matter accretion are deduced. These equations are seen to be modified due to the presence of noncommutativity. The matter accretion rate is computed and is found to increase rapidly with the increase in strength of the NC parameter. The sonic radius reduces while the sound speed at the sonic point increases with the increase in the strength of noncommutativity. The profile of the thermal environment is finally investigated below the sonic radius and at the event horizon and is found to be affected by noncommutativity.
On the world function of the Schwarzschild field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchdahl, H.A.; Warner, N.P.
1979-01-01
The representation of the world function Ω of the Schwarzschild field as a power series is investigated. The initial concern is with a neighbourhood of the event horizon. The symmetries of the metric are invoked effectively to reduce the number of independent variables upon which Ω depends from eight to four, and to show that when these are sufficiently small in magnitude Ω is an analytic function of them. A fairly large number of the early terms of the power series for Ω is found explicitly. The condition that one is to remain sufficiently close to the event horizon is then relaxed, it being merely stipulated that the endpoints shall be sufficiently close to each other. Finally, using other variables, the early terms of a series for Ω are obtained for the case in which the endpoints are restricted to lie outside the event horizon and sufficiently close to each other. (author)
The Compton-Schwarzschild correspondence from extended de Broglie relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, “The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education,Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Carr, Bernard [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2015-11-17
The Compton wavelength gives the minimum radius within which the mass of a particle may be localized due to quantum effects, while the Schwarzschild radius gives the maximum radius within which the mass of a black hole may be localized due to classial gravity. In a mass-radius diagram, the two lines intersect near the Planck point (l{sub P},m{sub P}), where quantum gravity effects become significant. Since canonical (non-gravitational) quantum mechanics is based on the concept of wave-particle duality, encapsulated in the de Broglie relations, these relations should break down near (l{sub P},m{sub P}). It is unclear what physical interpretation can be given to quantum particles with energy E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}, since they correspond to wavelengths λ≪l{sub P} or time periods τ≪t{sub P} in the standard theory. We therefore propose a correction to the standard de Broglie relations, which gives rise to a modified Schrödinger equation and a modified expression for the Compton wavelength, which may be extended into the region E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}. For the proposed modification, we recover the expression for the Schwarzschild radius for E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2} and the usual Compton formula for E≪m{sub P}c{sup 2}. The sign of the inequality obtained from the uncertainty principle reverses at m≈m{sub P}, so that the Compton wavelength and event horizon size may be interpreted as minimum and maximum radii, respectively. We interpret the additional terms in the modified de Broglie relations as representing the self-gravitation of the wave packet.
The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole
Tian, Guihua
2005-01-01
The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...
Baby universe metric equivalent to an interior black-hole metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.
1991-01-01
It is shown that the maximally extended metric corresponding to a large wormhole is the unique possible wormhole metric whose baby universe sector is conformally equivalent ot the maximal inextendible Kruskal metric corresponding to the interior region of a Schwarzschild black hole whose gravitational radius is half the wormhole neck radius. The physical implications of this result in the black hole evaporation process are discussed. (orig.)
Accretion-induced quasinormal mode excitation of a Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagar, Alessandro; Zanotti, Olindo; Font, Jose A.; Rezzolla, Luciano
2007-01-01
By combining the numerical solution of the nonlinear hydrodynamics equations with the solution of the linear inhomogeneous Zerilli-Moncrief and Regge-Wheeler equations, we investigate the properties of the gravitational radiation emitted during the axisymmetric accretion of matter onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The matter models considered include quadrupolar dust shells and thick accretion disks, permitting us to simulate situations which may be encountered at the end stages of stellar gravitational collapse or binary neutron star merger. We focus on the interference pattern appearing in the energy spectra of the emitted gravitational waves and on the amount of excitation of the quasinormal modes of the accreting black hole. We show that, quite generically in the presence of accretion, the black-hole ringdown is not a simple superposition of quasinormal modes, although the fundamental mode is usually present and often dominates the gravitational-wave signal. We interpret this as due to backscattering of waves off the nonexponentially decaying part of the black-hole potential and to the finite spatial extension of the accreting matter. Our results suggest that the black-hole QNM contributions to the full gravitational-wave signal should be extremely small and possibly not detectable in generic astrophysical scenarios involving the accretion of extended distributions of matter
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Neustupa, Jiří; Al Baba, Hind
2018-01-01
Roč. 463, č. 1 (2018), s. 222-234 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01747S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * Navier-type boundary conditions * interior regularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 https://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0022247X18302233?via%3Dihub
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Neustupa, Jiří; Al Baba, Hind
2018-01-01
Roč. 463, č. 1 (2018), s. 222-234 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01747S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * Navier-type boundary conditions * interior regularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X18302233?via%3Dihub
Circular orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime with Fermi-Walker transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.; Carvalho, A.M. de
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss the Fermi-Walker transport of vectors along orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetimes. We analyze the influence of acceleration on these holonomies. An effect similar to Thomas precession is observed within the process of Fermi-Walker transport along these circular orbits which are studied in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant in Schwarzschild-AdS case; also we obtain Fermi-Walker transport in a Schwarzschild background. In the case of a Schwarzschild spacetime, we analyze the quantized band holonomy invariance. In the limit of zero acceleration we recover the well-known results for holonomy matrix obtained by parallel transport in all these spacetimes. (orig.)
Hawking radiation from four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in M theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, S.R.; Mathur, S.D.; Ramadevi, P.
1999-01-01
Recently a method has been developed for relating four dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in M theory to near-extremal black holes in string theory with four charges, using suitably defined open-quotes boostsclose quotes and T dualities. We show that this method can be extended to obtain the emission rate of low energy massless scalars for the four dimensional Schwarzschild hole from the microscopic picture of radiation from the near extremal hole. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Spectroscopy of the Schwarzschild black hole at arbitrary frequencies.
Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian
2012-09-14
Linear field perturbations of a black hole are described by the Green function of the wave equation that they obey. After Fourier decomposing the Green function, its two natural contributions are given by poles (quasinormal modes) and a largely unexplored branch cut in the complex frequency plane. We present new analytic methods for calculating the branch cut on a Schwarzschild black hole for arbitrary values of the frequency. The branch cut yields a power-law tail decay for late times in the response of a black hole to an initial perturbation. We determine explicitly the first three orders in the power-law and show that the branch cut also yields a new logarithmic behavior T(-2ℓ-5)lnT for late times. Before the tail sets in, the quasinormal modes dominate the black hole response. For electromagnetic perturbations, the quasinormal mode frequencies approach the branch cut at large overtone index n. We determine these frequencies up to n(-5/2) and, formally, to arbitrary order. Highly damped quasinormal modes are of particular interest in that they have been linked to quantum properties of black holes.
Do static atoms outside a Schwarzschild black hole spontaneously excite?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Hongwei; Zhou Wenting
2007-01-01
The spontaneous excitation of a two-level atom held static outside a four dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and in interaction with a massless scalar field in the Boulware, Unruh, and Hartle-Hawking vacuums is investigated, and the contributions of the vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the rate of change of the mean atomic energy are calculated separately. We find that, for the Boulware vacuum, the spontaneous excitation does not occur and the ground-state atoms are stable, while the spontaneous emission rate for excited atoms in the Boulware vacuum, which is well behaved at the event horizon, is not the same as that in the usual Minkowski vacuum. However, for both the Unruh vacuum and the Hartle-Hawking vacuum, our results show that the atom would spontaneously excite, as if there were an outgoing thermal flux of radiation or as if it were in a thermal bath of radiation at a proper temperature which reduces to the Hawking temperature in the spatial asymptotic region, depending on whether the scalar field is in the Unruh or Hartle-Hawking vacuum
High overtones of Schwarzschild-de-Sitter quasinormal spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konoplya, R.A.; Zhidenko, A.
2004-01-01
We find the high overtones of gravitational and electromagnetic quasinormal spectrum of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole. The calculations show that the real parts of the electromagnetic modes asymptotically approach zero. The gravitational modes show more peculiar behavior at large n: the real part oscillates as a function of imaginary even for very high overtones and these oscillations settles to some 'profile' which just repeats itself with further increasing of the overtone number n. This lets us judge that Reω is not a constant as n →∞ but rather some oscillating function. The spacing for imaginary part Imω n+1 -Imω n for electromagnetic perturbations at high n slowly approach k e as n→∞, where k e is the surface gravity. In addition we find the lower QN modes for which the values obtained with numerical methods are in a very good agreement with those obtained through the 6th order WKB technique. (author)
Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.
1996-01-01
We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Bi-conformal symmetry and static Green functions in the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
We study a static massless minimally coupled scalar field created by a source in a static D-dimensional spacetime. We demonstrate that the corresponding equation for this field is invariant under a special transformation of the background metric. This transformation consists of the static conformal transformation of the spatial part of the metric accompanied by a properly chosen transformation of the red-shift factor. Both transformations are determined by one function Ω of the spatial coordinates. We show that in a case of higher dimensional spherically symmetric black holes one can find such a bi-conformal transformation that the symmetry of the D-dimensional metric is enhanced after its application. Namely, the metric becomes a direct sum of the metric on a unit sphere and the metric of 2D anti-de Sitter space. The method of the heat kernels is used to find the Green function in this new space, which allows one, after dimensional reduction, to obtain a static Green function in the original space of the static black hole. The general useful representation of static Green functions is obtained in the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetimes of arbitrary dimension. The exact explicit expressions for the static Green functions are obtained in such metrics for D<6. It is shown that in the four dimensional case the corresponding Green function coincides with the Copson solution.
Habison, Peter
From 1897 to 1899 Karl Schwarzschild worked at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. During these years he developed new measuring techniques in the field of photographic photometry, where he studied particularly the quantitative determination of the departure from the reciprocity law during photographic exposure. This paper concentrates on Schwarzschild's early work in this field and gives an overview of his important Viennese years.
The 100th birthday of the conic constant and Schwarzschild's revolutionary papers in optics
Rakich, Andrew
2005-08-01
In 1905 Karl Schwarzschild published three papers on optics, two of which revolutionized the field of reflecting telescope optics. In his first paper he developed a full theory of the aberrations of reflecting telescopes, generalizing the Eikonal of Bruns to take into account systems with an infinite long conjugate. In the second paper Schwarzschild applied his formulation to a masterful analysis of 2 mirror anastigmatic systems, along the way discovering the so called Ritchey-Chretien aplanat, 18 years Ritchey and Chretien's announcement. Numerous other innovations are given in what must be seen as being among the most important papers on the aberrations of optical systems ever written.
Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner–Nordström black holes with quintessence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Ghaderi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner–Nordström black holes surrounded by quintessence. By using the thermodynamical laws of the black holes, we derive the thermodynamic properties of these black holes and we compare the results with each other. We investigate the mass, temperature and heat capacity as functions of entropy for these black holes. We also discuss the equation of state of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner–Nordström black holes surrounded by quintessence.
Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabbri, R.
1975-01-01
The scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a spherically symmetric nonrotating black hole is studied in the Schwarzschild background, by means of the known expansion of the modified Debye potentials in partial waves. The power reflection coefficients and the phase shifts of the partial waves are evaluated at both high and low frequencies. Then the scattering and absorption cross sections of the black hole are determined. It is shown that the black hole is almost unable to absorb electromagnetic waves when the wave length of the radiation is greater than the Schwarzschild radius
Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor
Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), perhaps the most eminent astronomer of his time, was professor at Göttingen University from 1901 to 1909. Three of his lectures from the years 1904 to 1906 are available in the form of copy-books written by his students Arnold Kohlschütter (1883-1969) and Max Born (1882-1970). Here, an overview of these lectures is given.
Sustainable Commercial Interior Design
Keane, Órla
2009-01-01
This dissertation looks at the environmental benefits of 3 key areas in relation to interior design: Energy, Water and Air; energy efficient lighting, water efficient plumbing fixtures and the effects of interior materials and finishes on indoor air quality. Qualitative research methodology: Extensive literature review of texts available on these topics, and also of the relevant building codes and environmental legislation applicable to Irish interior designers and the built environment. ...
Interior intrusion detection systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))
1991-10-01
The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.
Interior intrusion detection systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C.; Dry, B.
1991-10-01
The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs
An absence theorem for static wave maps in the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Naqing
2005-01-01
In this Letter, we obtain an absence theorem for static wave maps defined from the Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter spacetime into any Riemannian manifold. This work extends the results in [Chinese Ann. Math. B 5 (1984) 737, Lett. Math. Phys. 14 (1987) 343
Augousti, A. T.; Gawelczyk, M.; Siwek, A.; Radosz, A.
2012-01-01
The problem of communication between observers in the vicinity of a black hole in a Schwarzschild metric is considered. The classic example of an infalling observer Alice and a static distant mother station (MS) is extended to include a second infalling observer Bob, who follows Alice in falling towards the event horizon. Kruskal coordinates are…
Statistical metastability of a classical ideal gas in the Schwarzschild gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaina, A.B.; Zaslavskii, O.B.
1990-01-01
A classical ideal gas in the Schwarzschild gravitational field is considered. The lifetime of a gas influenced by thermal fluctuations has been calculated. It is shown that thermal effects can lead to the electric charging of a black hole in a plasma containing particles with different masses. (author)
On scattering of scalar waves in static space-times, particularly Schwarzschild
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beig, R.
1982-01-01
This paper aims at laying foundations of a rigorous scattering theory for scalar waves in a static space-time. The treatment includes geometries which can be thought of as representing the exterior of a black hole. Schwarzschild space-time, as a particular example, is studied in more detail. (Auth.)
Temperature and entropy of Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shankaranarayanan, S.
2003-01-01
In the light of recent interest in quantum gravity in de Sitter space, we investigate semiclassical aspects of four-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time using the method of complex paths. The standard semiclassical techniques (such as Bogoliubov coefficients and Euclidean field theory) have been useful to study quantum effects in space-times with single horizons; however, none of these approaches seem to work for Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time or, in general, for space-times with multiple horizons. We extend the method of complex paths to space-times with multiple horizons and obtain the spectrum of particles produced in these space-times. We show that the temperature of radiation in these space-times is proportional to the effective surface gravity--the inverse harmonic sum of surface gravity of each horizon. For the Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time, we apply the method of complex paths to three different coordinate systems--spherically symmetric, Painleve, and Lemaitre. We show that the equilibrium temperature in Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time is the harmonic mean of cosmological and event horizon temperatures. We obtain Bogoliubov coefficients for space-times with multiple horizons by analyzing the mode functions of the quantum fields near the horizons. We propose a new definition of entropy for space-times with multiple horizons, analogous to the entropic definition for space-times with a single horizon. We define entropy for these space-times to be inversely proportional to the square of the effective surface gravity. We show that this definition of entropy for Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time satisfies the D-bound conjecture
Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry
Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.
2011-01-01
In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…
Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias
2017-12-01
Schwarzschild Metric is the first and the most important solution of Einstein vacuum field equations. This is associated with Lorentz metric of flat spacetime and produces the relativistic potential (Φ) and the field strength (g) outside a spherically symmetric mass or a non-rotating black hole. It has many applications such as gravitational red shift, the precession of Mercury’s orbit, Shapiro time delay etc. However, it is inefficient to explain the rotation curves in large galaxies and clusters of them, causing the necessity for dark matter. On the other hand, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has already explained these rotation curves in many cases, using suitable interpolating function (μ) in Milgrom’s Law. In this presentation, we initially produce a Generalized Schwarzschild potential and the corresponding Metric of spacetime, in order to be in accordance with any isotropic metric of flat spacetime (including Galilean Metric of spacetime which is associated with Galilean Transformation of spacetime). From this Generalized Schwarzschild potential (Φ), we calculate the corresponding field strength (g), which is associated with the interpolating function (μ). In this way, a new relativistic potential is obtained (let us call 2nd Generalized Schwarzschild potential) which describes the gravitational interaction at any distance and for any metric of flat spacetime. Thus, not only the necessity for Dark Matter is eliminated, but also MOND becomes a pure Relativistic Theory of Gravitational Interaction. Then, we pass to the case of flat spacetime with Lorentz metric (Minkowski space), because the experimental data have been extracted using the Relativistic Doppler Shift and the gravitational red shift of Classic Relativity (CR). Thus, we Explain the Rotation Curves in Galaxies (e.g. NGC 3198) and Clusters of them as well as the Solar system, eliminating Dark Matter. This relativistic potential and the corresponding metric of spacetime have been obtained
The region interior to the event horizon of the regular Hayward black hole
Perez-Roman, Ivan; Bretón, Nora
2018-06-01
The Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates allow us to explore the interior of the regular Hayward black hole. The behavior of an infalling particle in traversing the Hayward black hole is compared with the one inside the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom singular black holes. When approaching the origin the test particle trajectories present differences depending if the center is regular or singular. The velocities of the infalling test particle into the modified Hayward black hole are analyzed as well. As compared with the normal Hayward, in the modified Hayward black hole the particle moves faster and the surface gravity is smaller.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wael Akl
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which are invariably heavy and bulky. The transformation acoustics relationships that govern the operation of this class of interior acoustic cloaks are presented. Physical insights are given to relate these relationships to the reasons behind the effectiveness of the proposed interior acoustic cloaks. Finite element models are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of interior acoustic cloaks used in treating the interior walls of circular and square cavities both in the time and frequency domains. The obtained results emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed interior cloaks in eliminating the reflections of the acoustic waves from the walls of the treated cavities and thereby rendering these cavities acoustically quiet. It is important to note here that the proposed interior acoustic cloaks can find applications in acoustic cavities such as aircraft cabins and auditoriums as well as many other critical applications.
Schemmel, Matthias
In contrast to most of his collegues in astronomy and physics, the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild immediately recognized the significance of general relativity for physics and astronomy, and played a pioneering role in its early development. In this contribution, it is argued that the clue for understanding Schwarzschild's exceptional reaction to general relativity lies in the study of his prerelativistic work. Long before the rise of general relativity, Schwarzschild occupied himself with foundational problems on the borderline of physics, astronomy, and mathematics that, from today's perspective, belong to the field of problems of that theory. In this contribution, the example of Schwarzschild's early speculations about the non-Euclidean nature of physical space on cosmological scales is presented and their reflection in his reception of general relativity is discussed.
Interior Space: Representation, Occupation, Well-Being and Interiority
Power, Jacqueline
2014-01-01
This article will provide an overview of space as it is understood and engaged with from within the discipline of interior design/interior architecture. Firstly, the term interior will be described. Secondly, the paper will discuss space as a general concept, before exploring what space is speifically for the interior design/interior architecture discipline. How is space understood? What does space "look" like for interuior designers/interior architects?.
Perancangan Interior “Interior World Center” di Surabaya
Handojo, Renita Olivia
2014-01-01
Interior World Center is a place that contain all needs and matters related to world of interior. The main purpose of Interior World Center is to give access and facilitate people in fulfill their needs that concern and correspond with interior world, that is to say with combine and integrate several interior activity into one in corporated place. Inside of this building there are several commercial space related with the interior world. The commercial spaces will support each other in order ...
Environ Planning Design, 1970
1970-01-01
Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)
Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli
1992-01-01
Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...
Scattering of Ricci scalar perturbations from Schwarzschild black holes in modified gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sibandze, Dan B.; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Nzioki, Anne Marie [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag X54001, Durban (South Africa); Dunsby, Peter K.S. [University of Cape Town, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics and ACGC, Cape Town (South Africa)
2017-06-15
It has already been shown that the gravitational waves emitted from a Schwarzschild black hole in f(R) gravity have no signatures of the modification of gravity from General Relativity, as the Regge-Wheeler equation remains invariant. In this paper we consider the perturbations of Ricci scalar in a vacuum Schwarzschild spacetime, which is unique to higher order theories of gravity and is absent in General Relativity. We show that the equation that governs these perturbations can be reduced to a Volterra integral equation. We explicitly calculate the reflection coefficients for the Ricci scalar perturbations, when they are scattered by the black hole potential barrier. Our analysis shows that a larger fraction of these Ricci scalar waves are reflected compared to the gravitational waves. This may provide a novel observational signature for fourth order gravity. (orig.)
Thermodynamic stability of modified Schwarzschild-AdS black hole in rainbow gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yong-Wan [Chonbuk National University, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Seonam University, Department of Physical Therapy, Namwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jai [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
In this paper, we have extended the previous study of the thermodynamics and phase transition of the Schwarzschild black hole in the rainbow gravity to the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole where metric depends on the energy of a probe. Making use of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the modified dispersion relation, we have obtained the modified local Hawking temperature and thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Moreover, we carry out the analysis of constant temperature slices of a black hole. As a result, we have shown that there also exists another Hawking-Page-like phase transition in which case a locally stable small black hole tunnels into a globally stable large black hole as well as the standard Hawking-Page phase transition from a hot flat space to a black hole. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Z.W.; Zu, X.T. [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Li, H.L. [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China); Yang, S.Z. [China West Normal University, Physics and Space Science College, Nanchong (China)
2016-04-15
We investigate the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The corrections to the Hawking temperature, entropy and the heat capacity are obtained via the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These modifications show that the GUP changes the evolution of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. Specially, the GUP effect becomes susceptible when the radius or mass of the black hole approaches the order of Planck scale, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. Meanwhile, the Planck scale remnant can be confirmed through the analysis of the heat capacity. Those phenomena imply that the GUP may give a way to solve the information paradox. Besides, we also investigate the possibilities to observe the black hole at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the results demonstrate that the black hole cannot be produced in the recent LHC. (orig.)
Schwarzschild black hole in the background of the Einstein universe: some physical effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramachandra, B S; Vishveshwara, C V
2002-01-01
A prototype of an asymptotically non-flat black hole spacetime is that of a Schwarzschild black hole in the background of the Einstein universe, which is a special case of the representation of a black hole in a cosmological background given by Vaidya. Recently, this spacetime has been studied in detail by Nayak et al. They constructed a composite spacetime called the Vaidya-Einstein-Schwarzschild (VES) spacetime. We investigate some of the physical effects inherent to this spacetime. We carry out a background-black hole decomposition of the spacetime in order to separate out the effects due to the background spacetime and the black hole. The physical effects we study include the classical tests - the gravitational redshift, perihelion precession and light bending - and circular geodesics. A detailed classification of geodesics, in general, is also given
Quantum tunneling effect of Dirac particles in a Schwarzschild-Godel space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, D.-J.; Li, S.-M., E-mail: qidejiang0504@126.com [Shenyang Inst. of Engineering, Shenyang (China); Ru, H.-Q. [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China)
2010-11-15
In this paper, motivated by the Kerner and Man fermion tunneling method of 4-dimensional black holes, we further improve the analysis to investigate the quantum tunneling effect of Dirac particles from the five-dimensional Schwarzschild-Godel black hole. We successfully construct a set of appropriate matrices γ{sup μ} for the general covariant Dirac equation and derive the tunneling probability and Hawking temperature, which is exactly the same as that obtained by other methods. (author)
Two fluid plasmas in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzzi, V.; Hines, K.C.
1992-01-01
The 3+1 split of general relativity has been used to investigate the dispersion relation for certain plasma waves, together with the two stream instability, in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole horizon. In contrast to the special relativistic results, the dispersion relations discussed here contain additional terms involving the gravitational acceleration, a, and the lapse function α. Some of these terms are imaginary and should correspond to gravitational damping effects. 5 refs
Quasinormal modes of the near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.
2003-01-01
We present an exact expression for the quasinormal modes of scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational perturbations of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and we show that is why a previous approximation holds exactly in this near extremal regime. In particular, our results give the asymptotic behavior of the quasinormal frequencies for highly damped modes, which has recently attracted much attention due to the proposed identification of its real part with the Barbero-Immirzi parameter
Perturbative calculation of quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musiri, Suphot; Ness, Scott; Siopsis, George
2006-01-01
We calculate analytically quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes including first-order corrections. We consider massive scalar, gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations. Our results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. In the case of electromagnetic perturbations, ours is the first calculation to provide an analytic expression for quasinormal frequencies, because the effective potential vanishes at zeroth order. We show that the first-order correction is logarithmic
Exact Mathisson-Papapetrou equations in the Schwarzschild metric with integrals of motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plyatsko, R.M.; Stefanishin, O.B.
2011-01-01
A new representation for exact Mathisson-Papapetrou equations under the Mathisson-Pirani condition in the Schwarzschild gravitational field, which does not contain third-order derivatives with respect to spinning particle coordinates, has been obtained. For this purpose, the integrals of energy and angular momentum of a spinning particle, as well as a differential relation following from the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations for an arbitrary metric, are used.
The Event Horizon of The Schwarzschild Black Hole in Noncommutative Spaces
Nasseri, Forough
2005-01-01
The event horizon of Schwarzschild black hole is obtained in noncommutative spaces up to the second order of perturbative calculations. Because this type of black hole is non-rotating, to the first order there is no any effect on the event horizon due to the noncommutativity of space. A lower limit for the noncommutativity parameter is also obtained. As a result, the event horizon in noncommutative spaces is less than the event horizon in commutative spaces.
Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Thermal stability of the Nariai black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, Yun Soo
2008-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization
Thermal properties of Green's functions in Rindler, de Sitter, and Schwarzschild spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowker, J.S.
1978-01-01
The conventional massless scalar Green's functions in the Minkowski, de Sitter, and two-dimensional Schwarzschild spaces are reinterpreted as finite-temperature Green's functions and the corresponding averages of the stress-energy operator are calculated. The renormalization adopted consists of subtracting the zero-temperature quantities. In all cases the averages give the stress tensor of a purely Planck-type perfect gas
Stability of Schwarzschild-like solutions in f(R,G) gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Felice, Antonio; Suyama, Teruaki; Tanaka, Takahiro
2011-01-01
We study linear metric perturbations around a spherically symmetric static spacetime for general f(R,G) theories, where R is the Ricci scalar and G is the Gauss-Bonnet term. We find that, unless the determinant of the Hessian of f(R,G) is zero, even-type perturbations have a ghost for any multipole mode. In order for these theories to be plausible alternatives to general relativity, the theory should satisfy the condition that the ghost is massive enough to effectively decouple from the other fields. We study the requirement on the form of f(R,G) which satisfies this condition. We also classify the number of propagating modes both for the odd-type and the even-type perturbations and derive the propagation speeds for each mode.
Gauge-invariant non-spherical metric perturbations of Schwarzschild black-hole spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagar, Alessandro; Rezzolla, Luciano
2005-01-01
The theory of gauge-invariant non-spherical metric perturbations of Schwarzschild black-hole spacetimes is now well established. Yet, as different notations and conventions have been used throughout the years, the literature on the subject is often confusing and sometimes confused. The purpose of this review is to review and collect the relevant expressions related to the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations for the odd and even-parity perturbations of a Schwarzschild spacetime. Special attention is paid to the form they assume in the presence of matter-sources and, for the two most popular conventions in the literature, to the asymptotic expressions and gravitational-wave amplitudes. Besides pointing out some inconsistencies in the literature, the expressions collected here could serve as a quick reference for the calculation of the perturbations of a Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime driven by generic sources and for those approaches in which gravitational waves are extracted from numerically generated spacetimes. (topical review)
Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos; Jing, Jiliang
2017-11-01
We study Dirac quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter (Schwarzschild-AdS) black holes, following the generic principle for allowed boundary conditions proposed in [M. Wang, C. Herdeiro, and M. O. P. Sampaio, Phys. Rev. D 92, 124006 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124006]. After deriving the equations of motion for Dirac fields on the aforementioned background, we impose vanishing energy flux boundary conditions to solve these equations. We find a set of two Robin boundary conditions are allowed. These two boundary conditions are used to calculate Dirac normal modes on empty AdS and quasinormal modes on Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. In the former case, we recover the known normal modes of empty AdS; in the latter case, the two sets of Robin boundary conditions lead to two different branches of quasinormal modes. The impact on these modes of the black hole size, the angular momentum quantum number and the overtone number are discussed. Our results show that vanishing energy flux boundary conditions are a robust principle, applicable not only to bosonic fields but also to fermionic fields.
Initial value formulation for the spherically symmetric dust solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, H.
1990-01-01
An initial value formulation for the dust solution with spherical symmetry is given explicitly in which the initial distributions of dust and its velocity on an initial surface are chosen to be the initial data. As special cases, the Friedmann universe, the Schwarzschild solution in comoving coordinates, and a spherically symmetric and radially inhomogeneous cosmological model are derived
Interior Design in Architectural Education
Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.
2006-01-01
The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2010-01-01
qualities is significantly dependent on our constructive ability to economically and production-technically join building elements. Consequently this paper explores the potential for developing interiority as a theory and design principle for transforming constructive challenges within prefab practice....../S. As a research result the paper suggests a positioning of interiority as a theory and design principle for developing a sensuous prefab practice......., and practical realm of prefabrication, leaving the produced houses as monotonous box-like constructions rather than inhabitable homes. But what are the sensuous qualities actually spatially defining a home, and how to formulate design principles for developing and revealing these qualities within prefab...
Interior design for dentistry.
Unthank, M; True, G
1999-11-01
In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.
Meaning of Interior Tomography
Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong
2013-01-01
The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256
Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.
2017-09-01
Comments are due on a recent paper by McGruder III (2017) in which the author deals with the concept of gravitational repulsion in the context of the Schwarzschild-Droste solution. Repulsion (deceleration) for ingoing particles into a black hole is a concept proposed several times starting from Droste himself in 1916. It is a coordinate effect appearing to an observer at a remote distance from the black hole and when coordinate time is employed. Repulsion has no bearing and relation to the local physics of the black hole, and moreover it cannot be held responsible for accelerating outgoing particles. Thereby, the energy boost of cosmic rays cannot be produced by repulsion.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin; Zhao Zhanyue
2008-01-01
Motivated by the universality of Hawking radiation and that of the anomaly cancellation technique as well as the effective action method, we investigate the Hawking radiation of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates via the cancellation of gravitational anomaly. After performing a dimensional reduction from the four-dimensional isotropic Schwarzschild metric, we show that this reduction procedure will, in general, result in two classes of two-dimensional effective metrics: the conformal equivalent and the inequivalent ones. For the physically equivalent class, the two-dimensional effective metric displays such a distinct feature that the determinant is not equal to the unity √(-g)≠1, but also vanishes at the horizon, the latter of which possibly invalidates the anomaly analysis there. Nevertheless, in this paper we adopt the effective action method to prove that the consistent energy-momentum tensor T r t is divergent on the horizon but √(-g)T t r remains finite there. Meanwhile, through an explicit calculation we show that the covariant energy-momentum tensor T-tilde t r equals zero at the horizon. Therefore the validity of the covariant regularity condition that demands that T-tilde t r = 0 at the horizon has been justified, indicating that the gravitational anomaly analysis can be safely extrapolated to the case where the metric determinant vanishes at the horizon. It is then demonstrated that for the physically equivalent reduced metric, both methods can give the correct Hawking temperature of the isotropic Schwarzschild black hole, while for the inequivalent one with the determinant √(-g) = 1 it can only give half of the correct temperature. We further exclude the latter undesired result by taking into account the general covariance of the energy-momentum tensor under the isotropic coordinate transformation
Geometric Description of the Thermodynamics of the Noncommutative Schwarzschild Black Hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexis Larrañaga
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The thermodynamics of the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole is reformulated within the context of the recently developed formalism of geometrothermodynamics (GTD. Using a thermodynamic metric which is invariant with respect to Legendre transformations, we determine the geometry of the space of equilibrium states and show that phase transitions, which correspond to divergencies of the heat capacity, are represented geometrically as singularities of the curvature scalar. This further indicates that the curvature of the thermodynamic metric is a measure of thermodynamic interaction.
The Cardy-Verlinde formula and topological AdS-Schwarzschild black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youm, Donam
2001-05-01
We consider the brane universe in the background of the topological AdS-Schwarzschild black holes. The induced geometry of the brane is that of a flat or an open radiation dominated FRW-universe. Just like the case of a closed radiation dominated FRW-universe, the temperature and entropy are simply expressed in terms of the Hubble parameter and its time derivative when the brane crosses the black hole horizon. We propose the modified Cardy-Verlinde formula which is valid for any values of the curvature parameter k in the Friedmann equations. (author)
Large N phase transitions and the fate of small Schwarzschild-AdS black holes
Yaffe, Laurence G.
2018-01-01
Sufficiently small Schwarzschild-AdS black holes in asymptotically global AdS5×S5 spacetime are known to become dynamically unstable toward deformation of the internal S5 geometry. The resulting evolution of such an unstable black hole is related, via holography, to the dynamics of supercooled plasma which has reached the limit of metastability in maximally supersymmetric large-N Yang-Mills theory on R ×S3. Puzzles related to the resulting dynamical evolution are discussed, with a key issue involving differences between the large-N limit in the dual field theory and typical large volume thermodynamic limits.
Interior intrusion alarm systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prell, J.A.
1978-01-01
In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system
Wael Akl; A. Baz
2014-01-01
Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which a...
The stability of vacuum solutions in generalised gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madsen, M.S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre); Low, R.J. (Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic (UK). Dept. of Mathematics)
1990-05-10
The stability of the Ricci-flat solutions of a large class of generalised gravity theories is examined. It is shown by use of complementary methods that all such solutions are stable in a given theory if that theory admits a truncation to a quadratic theory in which the solution is stable. In particular, this means that the exterior Schwarzschild solution is stable in any gravity theory constructed purely from the Ricci scalar, provided that it exists in that theory. (orig.).
The stability of vacuum solutions in generalised gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madsen, M.S.; Low, R.J.
1990-01-01
The stability of the Ricci-flat solutions of a large class of generalised gravity theories is examined. It is shown by use of complementary methods that all such solutions are stable in a given theory if that theory admits a truncation to a quadratic theory in which the solution is stable. In particular, this means that the exterior Schwarzschild solution is stable in any gravity theory constructed purely from the Ricci scalar, provided that it exists in that theory. (orig.)
Perturbation of a Schwarzschild Black Hole Due to a Rotating Thin Disk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Čížek, P.; Semerák, O., E-mail: oldrich.semerak@mff.cuni.cz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)
2017-09-01
Will, in 1974, treated the perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole due to a slowly rotating, light, concentric thin ring by solving the perturbation equations in terms of a multipole expansion of the mass-and-rotation perturbation series. In the Schwarzschild background, his approach can be generalized to perturbation by a thin disk (which is more relevant astrophysically), but, due to rather bad convergence properties, the resulting expansions are not suitable for specific (numerical) computations. However, we show that Green’s functions, represented by Will’s result, can be expressed in closed form (without multipole expansion), which is more useful. In particular, they can be integrated out over the source (a thin disk in our case) to yield good converging series both for the gravitational potential and for the dragging angular velocity. The procedure is demonstrated, in the first perturbation order, on the simplest case of a constant-density disk, including the physical interpretation of the results in terms of a one-component perfect fluid or a two-component dust in a circular orbit about the central black hole. Free parameters are chosen in such a way that the resulting black hole has zero angular momentum but non-zero angular velocity, as it is just carried along by the dragging effect of the disk.
Magnetized particle motion and acceleration around a Schwarzschild black hole in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Bobomurat Ahmedov; Rahimov, Ozodbek; Salikhbaev, Umar
2014-01-01
The capture cross section of magnetized particles with nonvanishing magnetic moment by a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field has been studied as an extension of the approach developed in Zakharov (1994 Class. Quantum Grav. 11 1027) for neutral unmagnetized particles in the Reissner–Nordström spacetime. The magnetic moment of the particle is chosen as in de Felice and Sorge (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 469). It is shown that the spin of the particle sustains the stability of particles circularly orbiting around the black hole immersed in a magnetic field, i.e., a spinning particle's motion near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon is more stable than that of a particle with zero spin. It is shown that the magnetic parameter essentially changes the value of the critical angular momentum and affects the process of capture of the particles by the central black hole. Furthermore, the interaction between the magnetic moment of the particle and the magnetic field forces stable circular orbits to shift to the central object, and this effect should be taken into account in astrophysical scenarios related to the accretion discs and in measuring the spin of the black holes. The magnetized particle's acceleration mechanism near the black hole in an external magnetic field is studied. It is shown that due to the presence of a magnetic field, magnetized particles can accelerate to unlimited high energies. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martel, Karl; Poisson, Eric
2005-01-01
We present a formalism to study the metric perturbations of the Schwarzschild spacetime. The formalism is gauge invariant, and it is also covariant under two-dimensional coordinate transformations that leave the angular coordinates unchanged. The formalism is applied to the typical problem of calculating the gravitational waves produced by material sources moving in the Schwarzschild spacetime. We examine the radiation escaping to future null infinity as well as the radiation crossing the event horizon. The waveforms, the energy radiated, and the angular-momentum radiated can all be expressed in terms of two gauge-invariant scalar functions that satisfy one-dimensional wave equations. The first is the Zerilli-Moncrief function, which satisfies the Zerilli equation, and which represents the even-parity sector of the perturbation. The second is the Cunningham-Price-Moncrief function, which satisfies the Regge-Wheeler equation, and which represents the odd-parity sector of the perturbation. The covariant forms of these wave equations are presented here, complete with covariant source terms that are derived from the stress-energy tensor of the matter responsible for the perturbation
Kanti, P.; Pappas, T.
2017-07-01
The absence of a true thermodynamical equilibrium for an observer located in the causal area of a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime has repeatedly raised the question of the correct definition of its temperature. In this work, we consider five different temperatures for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: the bare T0, the normalized TBH, and three effective ones given in terms of both the black-hole and cosmological horizon temperatures. We find that these five temperatures exhibit similarities but also significant differences in their behavior as the number of extra dimensions and the value of the cosmological constant are varied. We then investigate their effect on the energy emission spectra of Hawking radiation. We demonstrate that the radiation spectra for the normalized temperature TBH—proposed by Bousso and Hawking over twenty years ago—leads to the dominant emission curve, while the other temperatures either support a significant emission rate only in a specific Λ regime or have their emission rates globally suppressed. Finally, we compute the bulk-over-brane emissivity ratio and show that the use of different temperatures may lead to different conclusions regarding the brane or bulk dominance.
Interior structure of rotating black holes. I. Concise derivation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Polhemus, Gavin
2011-01-01
This paper presents a concise derivation of a new set of solutions for the interior structure of accreting, rotating black holes. The solutions are conformally stationary, axisymmetric, and conformally separable. Hyper-relativistic counter-streaming between freely-falling collisionless ingoing and outgoing streams leads to mass inflation at the inner horizon, followed by collapse. The solutions fail at an exponentially tiny radius, where the rotational motion of the streams becomes comparable to their radial motion. The papers provide a fully nonlinear, dynamical solution for the interior structure of a rotating black hole from just above the inner horizon inward, down to a tiny scale.
Process design (exterior – interior design)
Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina
2013-01-01
The design is a complex process of spatial organization and creative problem object. It switched to the study of complex natural conditions (analysis and evaluation) and the development of compositional solution structure of the object. Construction and shaping of all buildings whether it is exterior or interior, be it street, Square apartment building, park or greater forest massif, public facility (administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, galleries etc.), residential object (garsion...
A class of solutions for the strong gravity equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1976-12-01
We solve the Einstein equation for strong gravity in the limit that weak gravity is neglected. The class of solutions we find reduces to the Schwarzschild solution (with the weak gravity Newtonian constant replaced by a strong coupling parameter) in the limit M 2 →0 where M is the mass of the strong gravity spin-2 meson. These solutions may be of relevance for the problem of defining temperature in hadronic physics
Solution of the stationary vacuum equations of relativity for conformally flat 3-spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perjes, Z.; Lukacs, B.; Sebestyen, A.; Valentini, A.; Sparling, G.A.J.
1983-08-01
The solution of Einstein's vacuum gravitational equations for stationary space-times with a conformally flat 3-space is presented. There is no other solution of this problem than the Ehlers-rotation generalizations of the three conformastat space-times including the Schwarzschild metric. (author)
Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole.
Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V
2018-03-06
We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs Cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Gravitational waveforms from a point particle orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martel, Karl
2004-01-01
We numerically solve the inhomogeneous Zerilli-Moncrief and Regge-Wheeler equations in the time domain. We obtain the gravitational waveforms produced by a point particle of mass μ traveling around a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M on arbitrary bound and unbound orbits. Fluxes of energy and angular momentum at infinity and the event horizon are also calculated. Results for circular orbits, selected cases of eccentric orbits, and parabolic orbits are presented. The numerical results from the time-domain code indicate that, for all three types of orbital motion, black hole absorption contributes less than 1% of the total flux, so long as the orbital radius r p (t) satisfies r p (t)>5M at all times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2016-05-05
In the context of effective field theory, we consider quantum gravity with minimally coupled massless particles. Fixing the background geometry to be of the Kerr-Schild type, we fully determine the one-loop effective action of the theory whose finite non-local part is induced by the long-distance portion of quantum loops. This is accomplished using the non-local expansion of the heat kernel in addition to a non-linear completion technique through which the effective action is expanded in gravitational curvatures. Via Euclidean methods, we identify a logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of Schwarzschild black hole. Using dimensional transmutation the result is shown to exhibit an interesting interplay between the UV and IR properties of quantum gravity.
Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime: The role of temperature in the emission of Hawking radiation
Pappas, Thomas; Kanti, Panagiota
2017-12-01
We consider a Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole, and focus on the emission of massless scalar fields either minimally or non-minimally coupled to gravity. We use six different temperatures, two black-hole and four effective ones for the SdS spacetime, as the question of the proper temperature for such a background is still debated in the literature. We study their profiles under the variation of the cosmological constant, and derive the corresponding Hawking radiation spectra. We demonstrate that only few of these temperatures may support significant emission of radiation. We finally compute the total emissivities for each temperature, and show that the non-minimal coupling constant of the scalar field to gravity also affects the relative magnitudes of the energy emission rates.
Probing quantum entanglement in the Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation
He, Juan; Ding, Zhi-Yong; Ye, Liu
2018-05-01
In this paper, we deduce the vacuum structure for Dirac fields in the background of Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation and discuss the performance of quantum entanglement between particle and antiparticle modes of a Dirac field with Hawking effect. It is shown that Hawking radiation does not always destroy the physically accessible entanglement, and entanglement amplification may happen in some cases. This striking result is different from that of the single-mode approximation, which holds that the Hawking radiation can only destroy entanglement. Lastly, we analyze the physically accessible entanglement relation outside the event horizon and demonstrate that the monogamy inequality is constantly established regardless of the choice of given parameters.
Tripartite nonlocality for an open Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time
Ding, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan
2017-12-01
In this paper, the behavior of the tripartite nonlocality for a Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time is studied. It is shown that the nonlocality of the ultimate physical accessible state always decreases as the Hawking effect increases monotonically, which is independent of the number of particles located near the event horizon. Besides, the more particles there are located near the event horizon, the more difficult the violation of the Svetlichny inequality becomes. Furthermore, we investigate the property of these particles suffering from a non-Markovian environment, and derive that the nonlocality decreases quickly with the increasing decoherence time accompanied by damping revivals. To preserve tripartite nonlocality in the non-Markovian environment, we propose a scheme by means of prior weak measurement and post measurement reversal. It is worth noticing that the effect is better for larger measurement strengths, while it induces smaller success probability.
Singular Minkowski and Euclidean solutions for SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singleton, D.
1996-01-01
In this paper it is examined a solution to the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system, which is a trivial mathematical extension of recently discovered Schwarzschild- like solutions (Singleton D., Phys. Rev. D, 51 (1955) 5911). Physically, however, this new solution has drastically different properties from the Schwarzschild-like solutions. It is also studied a new classical solution for Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Again this new solution is a mathematically trivial extension of the Belavin-Polyakov-Schwartz-Tyupkin (BPST) (Belavin A. A. et al., Phys. Lett. B, 59 (1975) 85) instanton, but is physically very different. Unlike the usual instanton solution, the present solution is singular on a sphere of arbitrary radius in Euclidean space. Both of these solutions are infinite-energy solutions, so their practical value is somewhat unclear. However, they may be useful in exploring some of the mathematical aspects of classical Yang-Mills theory
Features interior design offices
Novikov, A. S.; National Aviation University, Ukraine
2014-01-01
The article examines the laws and the formation of office space inthe current conditions and investigate the application of the latest technical tools aesthetics to improve the quality of design solutions.
Exact vacuum solution to conformal Weyl gravity and galactic rotation curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannheim, P.D.; Kazanas, D.
1989-01-01
The complete, exact exterior solution for a static, spherically symmetric source in locally conformal invariant Weyl gravity is presented. The solution includes the familiar exterior Schwarzschild solution as a special case and contains an extra gravitational potential term which grows linearly with distance. The obtained solution provides a potential explanation for observed galactic rotation curves without the need for dark matter. The solution also has some interesting implications for cosmology. 9 refs
The interior transmission spectrum in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hickmann, Kyle S
2012-01-01
This paper seeks conditions on acoustic profiles c(x) and b(x) which imply the existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues. The existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues has important implications in the question of unique recovery of the acoustic profile for inverse acoustic scattering theory using the linear sampling method and for the inverse source problem in thermoacoustic tomography. We examine the interior transmission spectrum relative to two acoustic profiles on the unit interval. This research includes the case when the difference of the two acoustic profiles changes sign and is, to the author's knowledge, the only work to date on the interior transmission spectrum allowing this behavior. It is shown that for a large class of acoustic profiles the transmission spectrum is asymptotically sparse. The spectrum exhibits three distinct types of behavior dependent on the relation of the two acoustic profiles. Numerical examples of each type of behavior are given which show how the transmission eigenvalues are distributed depending on the relation between c(x) and b(x). Our method of study is to reduce the interior transmission problem on [0, 1] to a problem of finding roots of a determinant of fundamental solutions to a Sturm–Liouville problem. The asymptotic expansion of solutions of the Sturm–Liouville problem then allows us to analyze properties of the transmission spectrum for large values of the wavenumber. (paper)
Interior design conceptual basis
Sully, Anthony
2015-01-01
Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer’s activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assu...
Interior design and healing architecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Jeppe; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Hansen, Allan Grutt
2015-01-01
. Through a mixed-method study, 43 patients from the outpatient-lung department at Hospital Vendsyssel, Denmark were presented with different types of furniture and materials and were asked about their preferences. Additional questions on their experience of the hospital interior were asked to guide......Hospital design is today influenced by the design concept healing architecture, stating that the patients’ healing process is promoted through accommodating physical surroundings. However, despite the increasing amount of research in the field of healing architecture, research on interior design...... and materials are rather limited. To compliment research in hospital interior design with particular focus on the use of interior textiles, this pilot study explores if the patients’ preferences for more home-like hospital interiors can be linked to a preference for textile-based furniture and materials...
Designing fire safe interiors.
Belles, D W
1992-01-01
Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhadra, Jhumpa; Debnath, Ujjal
2012-01-01
In this work, we have studied accretion of the dark energies in new variable modified Chaplygin gas (NVMCG) and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG) models onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes. We find the expression of the critical four velocity component which gradually decreases for the fluid flow towards the Schwarzschild as well as the Kerr-Newman black hole. We also find the expression for the change of mass of the black hole in both cases. For the Kerr-Newman black hole, which is rotating and charged, we calculate the specific angular momentum and total angular momentum. We showed that in both cases, due to accretion of dark energy, the mass of the black hole increases and angular momentum increases in the case of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)
Schwarzschild black holes as unipolar inductors: Expected electromagnetic power of a merger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyutikov, Maxim
2011-01-01
The motion of a Schwarzschild black hole with velocity v 0 =β 0 c through a constant magnetic field B 0 in vacuum induces a component of the electric field along the magnetic field, generating a nonzero second Poincare electromagnetic invariant * F·F≠0. This will produce (e.g., via radiative effects and vacuum breakdown) an electric charge density of the order of ρ ind =B 0 β 0 /(2πeR G ), where R G =2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius and M is the mass of the black hole; the charge density ρ ind is similar to the Goldreich-Julian density. The magnetospheres of moving black holes resemble in many respects the magnetospheres of rotationally-powered pulsars, with pair formation fronts and outer gaps, where the sign of the induced charge changes. As a result, the black hole will generate bipolar electromagnetic jets each consisting of two counter-aligned current flows (four current flows total), each carrying an electric current of the order I≅eB 0 R G β 0 . The electromagnetic power of the jets is L≅(GM) 2 B 0 2 β 0 2 /c 3 ; for a particular case of merging black holes the resulting Poynting power is L≅(GM) 3 B 0 2 /(c 5 R), where R is the radius of the orbit. In addition, in limited regions near the horizon the first electromagnetic invariant changes sign, so that the induced electric field becomes larger than the magnetic field, E>B. As a result, there will be local dissipation of the magnetic field close to the horizon, within a region with the radial extent ΔR≅R G β 0 . The total energy loss from a system of merging black holes is a sum of two components with similar powers, one due to the rotation of space-time within the orbit, driven by the nonzero angular momentum in the system, and the other due to the linear motion of the black holes through the magnetic field. Since the resulting electrodynamics is in many respects similar to pulsars, merging black holes may generate coherent radio and high energy emission beamed approximately along the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dotti, Gustavo; Gleiser, Reinaldo J [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y Fisica (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)
2009-11-07
The coupled equations for the scalar modes of the linearized Einstein equations around Schwarzschild's spacetime were reduced by Zerilli to a (1+1) wave equation partial deriv{sup 2}PSI{sub z} /partial derivt{sup 2} +HPSI{sub z} =0, where H= -partial deriv{sup 2} /partial derivx{sup 2} + V(x) is the Zerilli 'Hamiltonian' and x is the tortoise radial coordinate. From its definition, for smooth metric perturbations the field PSI{sub z} is singular at r{sub s} = -6M/(l - 1)(l +2), with l being the mode harmonic number. The equation PSI{sub z} obeys is also singular, since V has a second-order pole at r{sub s}. This is irrelevant to the black hole exterior stability problem, where r > 2M > 0, and r{sub s} < 0, but it introduces a non-trivial problem in the naked singular case where M < 0, then r{sub s} > 0, and the singularity appears in the relevant range of r (0 < r < infinity). We solve this problem by developing a new approach to the evolution of the even mode, based on a new gauge invariant function, PSI-circumflex, that is a regular function of the metric perturbation for any value of M. The relation of PSI-circumflex to PSI{sub z} is provided by an intertwiner operator. The spatial pieces of the (1 + 1) wave equations that PSI-circumflex and PSI{sub z} obey are related as a supersymmetric pair of quantum Hamiltonians H and H-circumflex. For M < 0,H-circumflex has a regular potential and a unique self-adjoint extension in a domain D defined by a physically motivated boundary condition at r = 0. This allows us to address the issue of evolution of gravitational perturbations in this non-globally hyperbolic background. This formulation is used to complete the proof of the linear instability of the Schwarzschild naked singularity, by showing that a previously found unstable mode belongs to a complete basis of H-circumflex in D, and thus is excitable by generic initial data. This is further illustrated by numerically solving the linearized equations for
Interior beam searchlight semi-analytical benchmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, Barry D.; Kornreich, Drew E.
2008-01-01
Multidimensional semi-analytical benchmarks to provide highly accurate standards to assess routine numerical particle transport algorithms are few and far between. Because of the well-established 1D theory for the analytical solution of the transport equation, it is sometimes possible to 'bootstrap' a 1D solution to generate a more comprehensive solution representation. Here, we consider the searchlight problem (SLP) as a multidimensional benchmark. A variation of the usual SLP is the interior beam SLP (IBSLP) where a beam source lies beneath the surface of a half space and emits directly towards the free surface. We consider the establishment of a new semi-analytical benchmark based on a new FN formulation. This problem is important in radiative transfer experimental analysis to determine cloud absorption and scattering properties. (authors)
Jia, Shouqing; La, Dongsheng; Ma, Xuelian
2018-04-01
The finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm and Green function algorithm are implemented into the numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time. FDTD method in curved space-time is developed by filling the flat space-time with an equivalent medium. Green function in curved space-time is obtained by solving transport equations. Simulation results validate both the FDTD code and Green function code. The methods developed in this paper offer a tool to solve electromagnetic scattering problems.
Graviatoms with de Sitter Interior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Dymnikova
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a graviatom with de Sitter interior as a new candidate to atomic dark matter generically related to a vacuum dark energy through its de Sitter vacuum interior. It is a gravitationally bound quantum system consisting of a nucleus represented by a regular primordial black hole (RPBH, its remnant or gravitational vacuum soliton G-lump, and a charged particle. We estimate probability of formation of RPBHs and G-lumps in the early Universe and evaluate energy spectrum and electromagnetic radiation of graviatom which can in principle bear information about a fundamental symmetry scale responsible for de Sitter interior and serve as its observational signatures.
Spherically symmetric solution and a satisfactory energy-momentum complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nashed, G.G.L.
2005-01-01
Mikhail et al. obtained two spherically symmetric solution in Moeller tetrad theory of gravitation. They calculated their energy content and obtained a strange value for the second solution, in spite that the associated metric of these solutions is the same (the Schwarzschild metric). We use another method given bu Gibbons and Hawking to calculate the energy content of these solutions. We also obtained a strange value of energy for the second solution. Studying the requirements of the satisfactory energy-momentum complex given by Moeller we find that the second solution which behaves as 1/√r does not transform as a four-vector under Lorentz transformation
Desain Interior Gedung Kesenian Jakarta
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sri Rachmayanti
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the interior design of Gedung Kesenian Jakarta in detail. Another thing is to obtain complete data and analyze the interior design development of GKJ. This study will described in terms of design style and different designs since the early period of this building, the arrival of the Dutch until the present era. Besides aesthetic of interior design, it will review technical factors in the building that related to its interior design, such as acoustic, air conditioning, lighting system, sound system. This research is based on data literartures and interviews with the GKJ. In conclusion, it will discuss the existence of GKJ in relation to local identity, culture and heritage.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Development of a mid-sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cameron, Robert A.
2012-06-28
The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a ground-based observatory for very high-energy (10 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays, planned for operation starting in 2018. It will be an array of dozens of optical telescopes, known as Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACTs), of 8 m to 24 m diameter, deployed over an area of more than 1 square km, to detect flashes of Cherenkov light from showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere by gamma rays. CTA will have improved angular resolution, a wider energy range, larger fields of view and an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over current ACT arrays such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. Several institutions have proposed a research and development program to eventually contribute 36 medium-sized telescopes (9 m to 12 m diameter) to CTA to enhance and optimize its science performance. The program aims to construct a prototype of an innovative, Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (SCT) design that will allow much smaller and less expensive cameras and much larger fields of view than conventional Davies-Cotton designs, and will also include design and testing of camera electronics for the necessary advances in performance, reliability and cost. We report on the progress of the mid-sized SCT development program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun
2003-01-01
We calculate the quasi normal modes (QNMs) for gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole in the five dimensional (5D) spacetime with a continued fraction method. For all the types of perturbations (scalar-gravitational, vector-gravitational, and tensor-gravitational perturbations), the QNMs associated with l = 2, l 3, and l = 4 are calculated. Our numerical results are summarized as follows: (i) The three types of gravitational perturbations associated with the same angular quantum number l have a different set of the quasi normal (QN) frequencies; (ii) There is no purely imaginary frequency mode; (iii) The three types of gravitational perturbations have the same asymptotic behavior of the QNMs in the limit of the large imaginary frequencies, which are given by ωT H -1 → log 3+ 2πi(n+1/2) as n → ∞, where ω, T H , and n are the oscillation frequency, the Hawking temperature of the black hole, and the mode number, respectively. (author)
Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-AdS Black Hole with a Minimal Length
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan-Gang Miao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Using the mass-smeared scheme of black holes, we study the thermodynamics of black holes. Two interesting models are considered. One is the self-regular Schwarzschild-AdS black hole whose mass density is given by the analogue to probability densities of quantum hydrogen atoms. The other model is the same black hole but whose mass density is chosen to be a rational fractional function of radial coordinates. Both mass densities are in fact analytic expressions of the δ-function. We analyze the phase structures of the two models by investigating the heat capacity at constant pressure and the Gibbs free energy in an isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Both models fail to decay into the pure thermal radiation even with the positive Gibbs free energy due to the existence of a minimal length. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to a general mass-smeared form that is also associated with the δ-function and indicate the similar thermodynamic properties for various possible mass-smeared forms based on the δ-function.
Cao, Wei-Guang; Xie, Yi
2018-03-01
Beyond the Einstein-Maxwell model, electromagnetic field might couple with gravitational field through the Weyl tensor. In order to provide one of the missing puzzles of the whole physical picture, we investigate weak deflection lensing for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole under a unified framework that is valid for its two possible polarizations. We obtain its coordinate-independent expressions for all observables of the geometric optics lensing up to the second order in the terms of ɛ which is the ratio of the angular gravitational radius to angular Einstein radius of the lens. These observables include bending angle, image position, magnification, centroid and time delay. The contributions of such a coupling on some astrophysical scenarios are also studied. We find that, in the cases of weak deflection lensing on a star orbiting the Galactic Center Sgr A*, Galactic microlensing on a star in the bulge and astrometric microlensing by a nearby object, these effects are beyond the current limits of technology. However, measuring the variation of the total flux of two weak deflection lensing images caused by the Sgr A* might be a promising way for testing such a coupling in the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchman, L.T.; Bardeen, J.M.
2005-01-01
A first order symmetric hyperbolic tetrad formulation of the Einstein equations developed by Estabrook and Wahlquist and put into a form suitable for numerical relativity by Buchman and Bardeen (the WEBB formulation) is adapted to explicit spherical symmetry and tested for accuracy and stability in the evolution of spherically symmetric black holes (the Schwarzschild geometry). The lapse and shift, which specify the evolution of the coordinates relative to the tetrad congruence, are reset at frequent time intervals to keep the constant-time hypersurfaces nearly orthogonal to the tetrad congruence and the spatial coordinate satisfying a kind of minimal rate of strain condition. By arranging through initial conditions that the constant-time hypersurfaces are asymptotically hyperbolic, we simplify the boundary value problem and improve stability of the evolution. Results are obtained for both tetrad gauges ('Nester' and 'Lorentz') of the WEBB formalism using finite difference numerical methods. We are able to obtain stable unconstrained evolution with the Nester gauge for certain initial conditions, but not with the Lorentz gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martel, Karl; Poisson, Eric
2002-01-01
A one-parameter family of time-symmetric initial data for the radial infall of a particle into a Schwarzschild black hole is constructed within the framework of black-hole perturbation theory. The parameter measures the amount of gravitational radiation present on the initial spacelike surface. These initial data sets are then evolved by integrating the Zerilli-Moncrief wave equation in the presence of the particle. Numerical results for the gravitational waveforms and their power spectra are presented; we show that the choice of initial data strongly influences the waveforms, both in their shapes and their frequency content. We also calculate the total energy radiated by the particle-black-hole system, as a function of the initial separation between the particle and the black hole, and as a function of the choice of initial data. Our results confirm that for large initial separations, a conformally flat initial three-geometry minimizes the initial gravitational-wave content, so that the total energy radiated is also minimized. For small initial separations, however, we show that the conformally flat solution no longer minimizes the energy radiated
THE INNERMOST COLLIMATION STRUCTURE OF THE M87 JET DOWN TO ∼10 SCHWARZSCHILD RADII
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kino, Motoki; Doi, Akihiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2013-09-20
We investigated the detailed inner jet structure of M87 using Very Long Baseline Array data at 2, 5, 8.4, 15, 23.8, 43, and 86 GHz, especially focusing on the multi-frequency properties of the radio core at the jet base. First, we measured the size of the core region transverse to the jet axis, defined as W{sub c}, at each frequency ν, and found a relation between W{sub c} and ν: W{sub c}(ν)∝ν{sup –0.71±0.05}. Then, by combining W{sub c}(ν) and the frequency dependence of the core position r{sub c}(ν), which was obtained in our previous study, we constructed a collimation profile of the innermost jet W{sub c}(r) down to ∼10 Schwarzschild radii (R{sub s}) from the central black hole. We found that W{sub c}(r) smoothly connects with the width profile of the outer edge-brightened, parabolic jet and then follows a similar radial dependence down to several tens of R{sub s}. Closer to the black hole, the measured radial profile suggests a possible change in the jet collimation shape from the outer parabolic one, where the jet shape tends to become more radially oriented. This result could be related to a magnetic collimation process or/and interactions with surrounding materials at the jet base. The present results shed light on the importance of higher-sensitivity/resolution imaging studies of M87 at 86, 43, and 22 GHz; these studies should be examined more rigorously.
Interior Design Factors in Library Facilities.
Jackson, Patricia Ann
When planning the interior of a library facility, the planning team of librarian, library consultant, architect, and interior design consultant must focus attention on the basic principles of interior design and the psychological needs of the user. Colors for an interior should be selected with careful regard to space, light, and emotional and…
VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.
2016-01-01
In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.
Functional textiles in hospital interiors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Jeppe
This PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three years collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The project...... that the physical environments affect the patients’ level of stress and influence their process of recovery and healing. However, although research in this field of hospital design has increased substantially in recent years, knowledge on the use of new materials and textiles in hospital interiors is still rather...... limited. Concerned with the design potentials of using textiles in hospital interiors, the purpose of the PhD project has been to explore the possibilities and design qualities of using these materials in hospital design. Relating to both technical and aesthetic aspects of using functional textiles...
An exact solution in Einstein-Cartan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roque, W.L.
1982-01-01
The exact solution of the field equations of the Einstein-Cartan theory is obtained for an artificial dust of radially polarized spins, with spherical symmetry and static. For a best estimation of the effect due the spin, the energy-momentum metric tensor is considered null. The gravitational field dynamics is studied for several torsion strengths, through the massive and spinless test-particle moviment, in particular for null torsion Schwarzschild solutions is again obtained. It is observed that the gravitational effects related to the torsin (spin) sometimes are attractives sometimes are repulsives, depending of the torsion values and of the test-particle position and velocity. (L.C.) [pt
Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)
2015-04-01
This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.
Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)
2015-04-30
This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.
Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)
2009-09-30
This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.
Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xiaoyi
2009-01-01
This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.
Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.
Yang, Xiaoyi
2009-09-30
This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.
Interior design for passive solar homes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breen, J. C.
1981-07-01
The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.
Interior design for passive solar homes
Breen, J. C.
1981-07-01
The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.
Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.
1984-01-01
For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered
Integrating sustainability in interior design studio
Karslı, Umut Tuğlu
2013-01-01
Teaching methods on concept of sustainability are frequently searched in the interior architecture education. The purpose of this study is to propose a model for integrating sustainability in interior design studio. In this context, the first part of the research defines relationship between sustainability and interior architecture and determines sustainable interior design principles. In the second part, an interior design studio model is proposed and principles determined in the first part ...
Dirac equation for massive neutrinos in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime from a 5D vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sánchez, Pablo Alejandro; Anabitarte, Mariano; Bellini, Mauricio
2011-01-01
Starting from a Dirac equation for massless neutrino in a 5D Ricci-flat background metric, we obtain the effective 4D equation for massive neutrino in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) background metric from an extended SdS 5D Ricci-flat metric. We use the fact that the spin connection is defined to an accuracy of a vector, so that the covariant derivative of the spinor field is strongly dependent of the background geometry. We show that the mass of the neutrino can be induced from the extra space-like dimension.
Saha, T. T.
1984-01-01
An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.
Pappas, T.; Kanti, P.; Pappas, N.
2016-01-01
In this work, we study the propagation of scalar fields in the gravitational background of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de-Sitter black hole as well as on the projected-on-the-brane 4-dimensional background. The scalar fields have also a non-minimal coupling to the corresponding, bulk or brane, scalar curvature. We perform a comprehensive study by deriving exact numerical results for the greybody factors, and study their profile in terms of particle and spacetime properties. We then pro...
Crash simulations for interior design
Poeze, E.; Slaats, P.M.A.
1996-01-01
With the increasing number of compact cars, safety aspects becomes increasingly important for interior designs. The smaller dimensions of these cars do not only decrease the car mass, but also the energy absorption length, resulting in a more severe crash pulse. As a consequence, the inertia loading
Interior Design Trends in Libraries.
Sager, Don, Ed.
2000-01-01
Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…
Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.
Hays, Tricia
This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…
Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
2015-01-01
This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers. .
Conditional stability for a single interior measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honda, Naofumi; McLaughlin, Joyce; Nakamura, Gen
2014-01-01
An inverse problem to identify unknown coefficients of a partial differential equation by a single interior measurement is considered. The equation considered in this paper is a strongly elliptic second order scalar equation which can have complex coefficients in a bounded domain with C 2 boundary. We are given a single interior measurement. This means that we know a given solution of the forward equation in this domain. The equation includes some model equations arising from acoustics, viscoelasticity and hydrology. We assume that the coefficients are piecewise analytic. Our major result is the local Hölder stability estimate for identifying the unknown coefficients. If the unknown coefficient is a complex coefficient in the principal part of the equation, we assumed a condition which we name admissibility assumption for the real part and imaginary part of the difference of two complex coefficients. This admissibility assumption is automatically satisfied if the complex coefficients are real valued. For identifying either the real coefficient in the principal part or the coefficient of the 0th order of the equation, the major result implies global uniqueness for the identification. (paper)
The Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn
Helled, Ravit
2018-05-01
Probing the interiors of the giant planets in our Solar System is not an easy task. This requires a set of observations combined with theoretical models that are used to infer the planetary composition and its depth dependence. The masses of Jupiter and Saturn are 318 and 96 Earth masses, respectively, and since a few decades, we know that they mostly consist of hydrogen and helium. It is the mass of heavy elements (all elements heavier than helium) that is not well determined, as well as its distribution within the planets. While the heavy elements are not the dominating materials in Jupiter and Saturn, they are the key for our understanding of their formation and evolution histories. The planetary internal structure is inferred to fit the available observational constraints including the planetary masses, radii, 1-bar temperatures, rotation rates, and gravitational fields. Then, using theoretical equations of states (EOSs) for hydrogen, helium, their mixtures, and heavier elements (typically rocks and/or ices), a structure model is developed. However, there is no unique solution for the planetary structure, and the results depend on the used EOSs and the model assumptions imposed by the modeler. Standard interior models of Jupiter and Saturn include three main regions: (1) the central region (core) that consists of heavy elements, (2) an inner metallic hydrogen envelope that is helium rich, and (3) an outer molecular hydrogen envelope depleted with helium. The distribution of heavy elements can be either homogenous or discontinuous between the two envelopes. Major model assumptions that can affect the derived internal structure include the number of layers, the heat transport mechanism within the planet (and its entropy), the nature of the core (compact vs. diluted), and the location/pressure where the envelopes are divided. Alternative structure models assume a less distinct division between the layers and/or a less non-homogenous distribution of the heavy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daghigh, Ramin G; Green, Michael D
2009-01-01
We analyze analytically the asymptotic regions of the quasinormal mode frequency spectra with infinitely large overtone numbers for D-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in anti de Sitter spacetimes. In this limit, we confirm the analytic results obtained previously in the literature using different methods. In addition, we show that in certain spacetime dimensions these techniques imply the existence of other regions of the asymptotic quasinormal mode frequency spectrum which have not previously appeared in the literature. For large black holes, some of these modes have a damping rate of 1.2T H , where T H is the Hawking temperature. This is less than the damping rate of the lowest overtone quasinormal mode calculated by other authors. It is not completely clear whether these modes actually exist or are an artifact of an unknown flaw in the analytic techniques being used. We discuss the possibility of the existence of these modes and explore some of the consequences. We also examine the possible connection between the asymptotic quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter black holes and the quantum level spacing of their horizon area spectrum.
Pappas, T.; Kanti, P.; Pappas, N.
2016-07-01
In this work, we study the propagation of scalar fields in the gravitational background of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as on the projected-on-the-brane four-dimensional background. The scalar fields have also a nonminimal coupling to the corresponding, bulk or brane, scalar curvature. We perform a comprehensive study by deriving exact numerical results for the greybody factors, and study their profile in terms of particle and spacetime properties. We then proceed to derive the Hawking radiation spectra for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole, and we study both bulk and brane channels. We demonstrate that the nonminimal field coupling, which creates an effective mass term for the fields, suppresses the energy emission rates while the cosmological constant assumes a dual role. By computing the relative energy rates and the total emissivity ratio for bulk and brane emission, we demonstrate that the combined effect of a large number of extra dimensions and value of the field coupling gives to the bulk channel the clear domination in the bulk-brane energy balance.
SYSTEMS OF INTERIOR STYLING AND TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
samatdinov Marat Orynbaevich
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Increasing the quality of construction works and heat insulation efficiency of building envelope as well as providing additional fire proof and acoustic comfort suppose the use of special construction systems provided with the whole complex of components — composite construction systems. Composite interior systems include structural solutions of dividing walls, floors, suspended ceilings, inner facing of walls and fireproof facing, as well as assembling technology of these constructions. The main components of interior composite systems are gypsum board and gypsum-fiber sheets, gypsum-containing dry mortars. Less often gypsum partition blocks or panels based on Portland cement are used (cement fibrolite plates, aquapanels, etc.. The companies producing these materials are usually the movers of the creation of complex systems of interior facing. The systems are developed by leading Russian design organizations or engineering services of companies-the movers.
INTERIORITY - a prefab case study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvejsel, Marie Frier
Dealing with the general theme of domestic architectural quality, the PhD thesis ‘INTERIORITY’ takes its point of departure in the continuous and increasing need to improve our capability as architects to theoretically articulate the intangible concept of quality, and to reveal it through an active...... been motivated by the particular hypothesis that an introduction of the notion of interiority, as an ability of the spatial envelope itself to address the sensuous scale of furniture, unfolds a particular dual critical potential signifying our experience of domestic architectural quality: On the one......, tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...
COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN
ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay
2016-01-01
In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...
Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.
Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.
1997-01-01
Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…
Colour terms in the interior design process
Attiah, DY; Cheung, TLV; Westland, S; Bromilow, D
2015-01-01
Colour is a very important topic that interior designers need to consider. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of colour application in interior design; in this study we are concerned with colour terms in interior design, mainly the terms designers use and know about. Fifteen interior designers with varied professional backgrounds, but based in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon, Egypt, and Turkey), were interviewed. Previously we reported that fourteen ou...
State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design
Nevada Department of Education, 2008
2008-01-01
Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…
Market Aspects of an Interior Design Program.
Gold, Judy E.
A project was conducted to evaluate a proposed interior design program in order to determine the marketability (job availability in the field of interior design and home furnishings merchandising) and the feasibility (educational requirements for entrance into the interior design and home furnishings merchandising job market) of the program. To…
Exact solutions, numerical relativity and gravitational radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winicour, J.
1986-01-01
In recent years, there has emerged a new use for exact solutions to Einstein's equation as checks on the accuracy of numerical relativity codes. Much has already been written about codes based upon the space-like Cauchy problem. In the case of two Killing vectors, a numerical characteristic initial value formulation based upon two intersecting families of null hypersurfaces has successfully evolved the Schwarzschild and the colliding plane wave vacuum solutions. Here the author discusses, in the context of exact solutions, numerical studies of gravitational radiation based upon the null cone initial value problem. Every stage of progress in the null cone approach has been associated with exact solutions in some sense. He begins by briefly recapping this history. Then he presents two new examples illustrating how exact solutions can be useful
Physics of neutron star interiors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaschke, D.
2001-01-01
Neutron stars are the densest observable bodies in our universe. Born during the gravitational collapse of luminous stars - a birth heralded by spectacular supernova explosions - they open a window on a world where the state of the matter and the strength of the fields are anything but ordinary. This book is a collection of pedagogical lectures on the theory of neutron stars, and especially their interiors, at the forefront of current research. It adresses graduate students and researchers alike, and should be particularly suitable as a text bridging the gap between standard textbook material and the research literature
Magnetohydrodynamics of neutron star interiors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easson, I.; Pethick, C.J.
1979-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic equations for the charged particles in the fluid interior of a neutron star are derived from the Landau-Boltzmann kinetic equations. It is assumed that the protons are normal and the neutrons are superfluid. The dissipative processes associated with the weak interactions are shown to be negligible except in very hot neutron stars; we neglect them here. Among the topics discussed are: the influence of the neutron-proton nuclear force (Fermi liquid corrections) on the magnetohydrodynamics; the effects of the magnetic field on the pressure, viscosity, and heat conductivity tensors; the plasma equation of state; and the form of the generalized Ohm's law
Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, C.L.
1993-01-01
Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment
Byrum, Karen L.; Vassiliev, V.; AGIS Collaboration
2010-03-01
AGIS is a concept for the next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. It will be an array of 36 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) sensitive in the energy range from 50 GeV to 200 TeV. The required improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation relative to the present generation instruments imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of AGIS telescopes. In this submission, we outline the status of the development of the optical and mechanical systems for a novel Schwarzschild-Couder two-mirror aplanatic telescope. This design can provide a field of view and angular resolution significantly better to those offered by the traditional Davies-Cotton optics utilized in present-day IACTs. Other benefits of the novel design include isochronous focusing and compatibility with cost-effective, high quantum efficiency image sensors such as multi-anode PMTs, silicon PMTs (SiPMs), or image intensifiers.
Schwarzschildâde Sitter spacetime: The role of temperature in the emission of Hawking radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Pappas
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a Schwarzschildâde Sitter (SdS black hole, and focus on the emission of massless scalar fields either minimally or non-minimally coupled to gravity. We use six different temperatures, two black-hole and four effective ones for the SdS spacetime, as the question of the proper temperature for such a background is still debated in the literature. We study their profiles under the variation of the cosmological constant, and derive the corresponding Hawking radiation spectra. We demonstrate that only few of these temperatures may support significant emission of radiation. We finally compute the total emissivities for each temperature, and show that the non-minimal coupling constant of the scalar field to gravity also affects the relative magnitudes of the energy emission rates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin Kai, E-mail: lk314159@126.co [Institute of Theoretical Physics, China West Normal University, NanChong, SiChuan 637002 (China); Yang Shuzheng, E-mail: szyangcwnu@126.co [Institute of Theoretical Physics, China West Normal University, NanChong, SiChuan 637002 (China)
2009-10-12
Applying the method beyond semiclassical approximation, fermion tunneling from higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black hole is researched. In our work, the 'tortoise' coordinate transformation is introduced to simplify Dirac equation, so that the equation proves that only the (r-t) sector is important to our research. Because we only need to study the (r-t) sector, the Dirac equation is decomposed into several pairs of equations spontaneously, and we then prove the components of wave functions are proportional to each other in every pair of equations. Therefore, the suitable action forms of the wave functions are obtained, and finally the correctional Hawking temperature and entropy can be determined via the method beyond semiclassical approximation.
The self-force on a non-minimally coupled static scalar charge outside a Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Demian H J; Tsokaros, Antonios A; Wiseman, Alan G
2007-01-01
The finite part of the self-force on a static, non-minimally coupled scalar test charge outside a Schwarzschild black hole is zero. This result is determined from the work required to slowly raise or lower the charge through an infinitesimal distance. Unlike similar force calculations for minimally-coupled scalar charges or electric charges, we find that we must account for a flux of field energy that passes through the horizon and changes the mass and area of the black hole when the charge is displaced. This occurs even for an arbitrarily slow displacement of the non-minimally coupled scalar charge. For a positive coupling constant, the area of the hole increases when the charge is lowered and decreases when the charge is raised. The fact that the self-force vanishes for a static, non-minimally coupled scalar charge in Schwarzschild spacetime agrees with a simple prediction of the Quinn-Wald axioms. However, Zel'nikov and Frolov computed a non-vanishing self-force for a non-minimally coupled charge. Our method of calculation closely parallels the derivation of Zel'nikov and Frolov, and we show that their omission of this unusual flux is responsible for their (incorrect) result. When the flux is accounted for, the self-force vanishes. This correction eliminates a potential counter example to the Quinn-Wald axioms. The fact that the area of the black hole changes when the charge is displaced brings up two interesting questions that did not arise in similar calculations for static electric charges and minimally coupled scalar charges. (1) How can we reconcile a decrease in the area of the black hole horizon with the area theorem which concludes that δArea horizon ≥ 0? The key hypothesis of the area theorem is that the stress-energy tensor must satisfy a null-energy condition T αβ l α l β ≥ 0 for any null vector l α . We explicitly show that the stress-energy associated with a non-minimally coupled field does not satisfy this condition, and this violation of
Conical Stream of the Two-Sided Jets in NGC 4261 over the Range of 103–109 Schwarzschild Radii
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satomi Nakahara
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We report the jet width profile of of the nearby ( ∼ 30 Mpc AGN NGC 4261 for both the approaching jet and the counter jet at radial distances ranging from ∼ 10 3 – 10 9 Schwarzschild radius ( R S from the central engine. Our Very Large Array (VLA and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA observations reveal that the jets maintain a conical structure on both sides over the range 10 3 – 10 9 R S without any structural transition (i.e., parabolic to conical like in the approaching jet in M87. Thus, NGC 4261 will provide a unique opportunity to examine the conical jet hypothesis in blazars, while it may require some additional consideration on the acceleration and collimation process in AGN jets.
SYSTEMS OF INTERIOR STYLING AND TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS
samatdinov Marat Orynbaevich; Chkunin Anatoliy Sergeevich; Ivanov Kazbek Kazbekovich; Rumyantsev Georgiy Borisovich
2016-01-01
Increasing the quality of construction works and heat insulation efficiency of building envelope as well as providing additional fire proof and acoustic comfort suppose the use of special construction systems provided with the whole complex of components — composite construction systems. Composite interior systems include structural solutions of dividing walls, floors, suspended ceilings, inner facing of walls and fireproof facing, as well as assembling technology of these constructions. The ...
All the Four-Dimensional Static, Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetic, M.; Youm, D.
1995-01-01
We present the explicit form for all the four-dimensional, static, spherically symmetric solutions in (4+n)-d Abelian Kaluza-Klein theory by performing a subset of SO(2,n) transformations corresponding to four SO(1,1) boosts on the Schwarzschild solution, supplemented by SO(n)/SO(n-2) transformations. The solutions are parametrized by the mass M, Taub-NUT charge a, and n electric rvec Q and n magnetic rvec P charges. Nonextreme black holes (with zero Taub-NUT charge) have either the Reissner-Nordstroem or Schwarzschild global space-time. Supersymmetric extreme black holes have a null or naked singularity, while nonsupersymmetric extreme ones have a global space-time of extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society
Lu, Ru-Sen; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Roy, Alan L.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Johnson, Michael D.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Beaudoin, Christopher; Bertarini, Alessandra; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Ray; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Broderick, Avery E.; Cappallo, Roger; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Dexter, Jason; Dexter, Matt; Falcke, Heino; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Greer, Christopher H.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Kim, Junhan; Lamb, James; Lindqvist, Michael; Macmahon, David; Marrone, Daniel P.; Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Menten, Karl M.; Moran, James M.; Nagar, Neil M.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Primiani, Rurik A.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Ros, Eduardo; Rottmann, Helge; SooHoo, Jason; Spilker, Justin; Stone, Jordan; Strittmatter, Peter; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Wagner, Jan; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H.; Zensus, J. Anton; Ziurys, Lucy M.
2018-05-01
We report results from very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center, Sgr A*, at 1.3 mm (230 GHz). The observations were performed in 2013 March using six VLBI stations in Hawaii, California, Arizona, and Chile. Compared to earlier observations, the addition of the APEX telescope in Chile almost doubles the longest baseline length in the array, provides additional uv coverage in the N–S direction, and leads to a spatial resolution of ∼30 μas (∼3 Schwarzschild radii) for Sgr A*. The source is detected even at the longest baselines with visibility amplitudes of ∼4%–13% of the total flux density. We argue that such flux densities cannot result from interstellar refractive scattering alone, but indicate the presence of compact intrinsic source structure on scales of ∼3 Schwarzschild radii. The measured nonzero closure phases rule out point-symmetric emission. We discuss our results in the context of simple geometric models that capture the basic characteristics and brightness distributions of disk- and jet-dominated models and show that both can reproduce the observed data. Common to these models are the brightness asymmetry, the orientation, and characteristic sizes, which are comparable to the expected size of the black hole shadow. Future 1.3 mm VLBI observations with an expanded array and better sensitivity will allow more detailed imaging of the horizon-scale structure and bear the potential for a deep insight into the physical processes at the black hole boundary.
Exoplanet's Figure and Its Interior
Mian, Zhang; Cheng-li, Huang
2018-01-01
Along with the development of the observing technology, the observation and study on the exoplanets' oblateness and apsidal precession have achieved significant progress. The oblateness of an exoplanet is determined by its interior density profile and rotation period. Between its Love number k2 and core size exists obviously a negative correlation. So oblateness and k2 can well constrain its interior structure. Starting from the Lane-Emden equation, the planet models based on different polytropic indices are built. Then the flattening factors are obtained by solving the Wavre's integro-differential equation. The result shows that the smaller the polytropic index, the faster the rotation, and the larger the oblateness. We have selected 469 exoplanets, which have simultaneously the observed or estimated values of radius, mass, and orbit period from the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Exoplanet Archive, and calculated their flattening factors under the two assumptions: tidal locking and fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The result shows that the flattening factors are too small to be detected under the tidal locking assumption, and that 28% of exoplanets have the flattening factors larger than 0.1 under the fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The Love numbers under the different polytropic models are solved by the Zharkov's approach, and the relation between k2 and core size is discussed.
Spherically symmetric solutions in abelian Kaluza-Klein theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angus, I.G.
1986-01-01
We present the most general spherically symmetric solution to the field equations of the truncated five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. We also detail some of the special forms of this solution. With the exception of the Gross-Perry-Sorkin monopole and the Schwarzschild solutions we find that most, and we conjecture all, of the solutions have naked curvature singularities. We then proceed to consider higher-dimensional theories with toroidal compactification and we exhibit a class of nonsingular monopole solutions which are the natural generalization of the Gross-Perry-Sorkin monopole to more than five dimensions. We also present some selected solutions including a solution pertaining to a model with a Ricci-flat, but not curvature-flat, internal manifold. All of these other solutions have naked curvature singularities. (orig.)
Tidal constraints on the interior of Venus
Dumoulin, C.; Tobie, G.; Verhoeven, O.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rambaux, N.
2017-12-01
As a prospective study for a future exploration of Venus, we compute the tidal response of Venus' interior assuming various mantle compositions and temperature profiles representative of different scenarios of Venus' formation and evolution. The mantle density and seismic velocities are modeled from thermodynamical equilibria of mantle minerals and used to predict the moment of inertia, Love numbers, and tide-induced phase lag characterizing the signature of the internal structure in the gravity field. The viscoelasticity of the mantle is parameterized using an Andrade rheology. From the models considered here, the moment of inertia lies in the range of 0.327 to 0.342, corresponding to a core radius of 2900 to 3450 km. Viscoelasticity of the mantle strongly increases the potential Love number relative to previously published elastic models. Due to the anelasticity effects, we show that the possibility of a completely solid metal core inside Venus cannot be ruled out based on the available estimate of k2 from the Magellan mission (Konopliv and Yoder, 1996). A Love number k2 lower than 0.27 would indicate the presence of a fully solid iron core, while for larger values, solutions with an entirely or partially liquid core are possible. Precise determination of the Love numbers, k2 and h2, together with an estimate of the tidal phase lag, are required to determine the state and size of the core, as well as the composition and viscosity of the mantle.
Present problems of the solar interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roxburgh, I.W.
1986-01-01
The standard model of solar evolution is reviewed and a number of problems highlighted. A fundamental question is whether there is any mixing of matter in the central regions, since such mixing could radically alter the model of the present Sun and modify our understanding of the evolution of other stars. Standard models of solar evolution become unstable to /sup 3/He driven global oscillations at an age of 3 x 10/sup 8/ years and this may drive some mixing, even if this is not the case the finite amptitude limit of these oscillations is likely to produce modifications in the standard model. Convective overshooting at the bottom of the outer convective zone leads to an increased depth of this zone and small changes in the interior. It is pointed out that the young Sun had a /sup 12/C driven convective core whose extent and duration depends on the extend of overshooting. Such a core is likely to produce a magnetic field which will affect the internal dynamics. The internal rotation of the sun remains an enigma and absence of knowledge of any internal magnetic field makes it difficult to study the problem. Rotationally driven instabilities are ineffective in the central chemically inhomogeneous regions but may contribute to the inward diffusion of lithium from the convective zone. These and other problems are considered, but few solutions are proposed
On the complexity of a combined homotopy interior method for convex programming
Yu, Bo; Xu, Qing; Feng, Guochen
2007-03-01
In [G.C. Feng, Z.H. Lin, B. Yu, Existence of an interior pathway to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point of a nonconvex programming problem, Nonlinear Anal. 32 (1998) 761-768; G.C. Feng, B. Yu, Combined homotopy interior point method for nonlinear programming problems, in: H. Fujita, M. Yamaguti (Eds.), Advances in Numerical Mathematics, Proceedings of the Second Japan-China Seminar on Numerical Mathematics, Lecture Notes in Numerical and Applied Analysis, vol. 14, Kinokuniya, Tokyo, 1995, pp. 9-16; Z.H. Lin, B. Yu, G.C. Feng, A combined homotopy interior point method for convex programming problem, Appl. Math. Comput. 84 (1997) 193-211.], a combined homotopy was constructed for solving non-convex programming and convex programming with weaker conditions, without assuming the logarithmic barrier function to be strictly convex and the solution set to be bounded. It was proven that a smooth interior path from an interior point of the feasible set to a K-K-T point of the problem exists. This shows that combined homotopy interior point methods can solve the problem that commonly used interior point methods cannot solveE However, so far, there is no result on its complexity, even for linear programming. The main difficulty is that the objective function is not monotonically decreasing on the combined homotopy path. In this paper, by taking a piecewise technique, under commonly used conditions, polynomiality of a combined homotopy interior point method is given for convex nonlinear programming.
Kundu, Prasun K.
2017-11-01
In a comment published several years ago in this journal, Mitra [J. Math. Phys. 50, 042502 (2009)] has claimed to prove that a neutral point particle in general relativity as described by the Schwarzschild metric must have zero gravitational mass, i.e., the mass parameter M0 of a Schwarzschild black hole necessarily vanishes. It is shown that the purported proof is incorrect. The error stems from a basic misunderstanding of the mathematical description of coordinate volume element in a differentiable manifold.
Modal response of interior mass based upon external measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, C T; Eli, M; Jorgensen, B R; Woehrle, T.
1999-01-01
Modal response testing has been used to predict the motion of interior masses of a system in which only external instrumentation is allowed. Testing of this form may occasionally be necessary in validation of a computer model, but also has potential as a tool for validating individual assemblies in a QA process. Examination of the external frequency response and mode shapes can offer insight into interior response. The interpretation of these results is improved through parallel analytical solutions. A simple, three-mass model has been examined experimentally and analytically to demonstrate modal theory. These results show the limitations of the external measurement in predicting internal response due to transmissibility. A procedure for utilizing external testing is described. The question posed through this research is whether or not modal correlation analysis can be adapted for use in systems for which instrumentation of critical components is missing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masursky, H [U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA; Kaula, W M [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA); McGill, G E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA); Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Phillips, R J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA); Russell, C T [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics; Schubert, G [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)
1977-06-01
Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50/sup 0/S and 75/sup 0/N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained.
Interior operators and topological connectedness | Castellini ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A categorical notion of interior operator is used in topology to define connectedness and disconnectedness with respect to an interior operator. A commutative diagram of Galois connections is used to show a relationship between these notions and Arhangelskii and Wiegandt's notions of connectedness and ...
Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.
Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J
2015-05-22
We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.
Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability
Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu
2016-01-01
Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, M.A.; Prasanna, A.R.
1988-10-01
Anderson and Lemos (1988) noticed that the direction in which viscous torque transports angular momentum changes, close to a black hole, from outwards to inwards. We find here that close to a black hole the centrifugal force attracts particles towards the hole. We argue that these are particular examples of a general reversal in sense of the inward and outward directions for all dynamical effects of rotation close to the hole. Using results from the recent paper by Abramowicz, Carter and Lasota (1988) we explain that the reversal is not connected with dragging of inertial frames or with the difference between the angular velocities of the hole and of the surrounding matter but rather, it is an effect of curvature. For a Schwarzschild black hole the reversal takes place at the circular photon orbit (r=3M-tilde) because the geodesic curvature, R-tilde=r(1-3M-tilde/r), of the circles r = const. changes its sign there. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Konoplya, Roman; Lemos, Jose P. S.
2003-01-01
We present a thorough analysis of the quasinormal (QN) behavior associated with the decay of scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. As is known, the AdS QN spectrum crucially depends on the relative size of the black hole to the AdS radius. There are three different types of behavior depending on whether the black hole is large, intermediate, or small. The results of previous works, concerning lower overtones for large black holes, are completed here by obtaining higher overtones for all three black hole regimes. There are two major conclusions that one can draw from this work: First, asymptotically for high overtones, all the modes are evenly spaced, and this holds for all three types of regime, large, intermediate, and small black holes, independently of l, where l is the quantum number characterizing the angular distribution; second, the spacing between modes is apparently universal in that it does not depend on the field; i.e., scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational QN modes all have the same spacing for high overtones. We are also able to prove why scalar and gravitational perturbations are isospectral, asymptotically for high overtones, by introducing appropriate superpartner potentials
Bulk and brane decay of a (4+n)-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Scalar radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanti, P.; Grain, J.; Barrau, A.
2005-01-01
In this paper, we extend the idea that the spectrum of Hawking radiation can reveal valuable information on a number of parameters that characterize a particular black hole background--such as the dimensionality of spacetime and the value of coupling constants--to gain information on another important aspect: the curvature of spacetime. We investigate the emission of Hawking radiation from a D-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole emitted in the form of scalar fields, and employ both analytical and numerical techniques to calculate greybody factors and differential energy emission rates on the brane and in the bulk. The energy emission rate of the black hole is significantly enhanced in the high-energy regime with the number of spacelike dimensions. On the other hand, in the low-energy part of the spectrum, it is the cosmological constant that leaves a clear footprint, through a characteristic, constant emission rate of ultrasoft quanta determined by the values of black hole and cosmological horizons. Our results are applicable to 'small' black holes arising in theories with an arbitrary number and size of extra dimensions, as well as to pure 4-dimensional primordial black holes, embedded in a de Sitter spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Ye, Liu
2015-01-01
We explore the performance of various correlation measures for open Dirac system with Hawking effect in Schwarzschild space–time. Our results indicate that the impact of Hawking effect on physical accessible entanglement is weaker than that of decoherence. For generalized amplitude damping (GAD) channel, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is analyzed in detail, and the inequivalence of quantization for Dirac particles in the black hole and Kruskal space–time is verified via quantum discord measure. In addition, as an example for interpreting Bell non-locality, we study the GAD channel with Hawking effect. It can be noticed that there is a boundary line of Bell violation for physically accessible states. That is, quantum non-locality would disappear when Hawking temperature exceeds a certain value. This critical temperature increases as a decoherence parameter decreases. In the case of phase damping (PD) channel, the interaction between the particle and noise environment does not produce bipartite system–environment entanglement. Then we discuss entanglement distributions, and find that the reduced physically accessible entanglement can be redistributed to physical inaccessible region. At last, we extend our investigation to an N-qubit system, and obtain a universal expression of the physical accessible entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Leandro A. [Campus Salinopolis, Universidade Federal do Para, Salinopolis, Para (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, Belem, Para (Brazil); Crispino, Luis C.B. [Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, Belem, Para (Brazil); Higuchi, Atsushi [University of York, Department of Mathematics, Heslington, York (United Kingdom)
2018-02-15
We investigate the radiation to infinity of a massless scalar field from a source falling radially towards a Schwarzschild black hole using the framework of the quantum field theory at tree level. When the source falls from infinity, the monopole radiation is dominant for low initial velocities. Higher multipoles become dominant at high initial velocities. It is found that, as in the electromagnetic and gravitational cases, at high initial velocities the energy spectrum for each multipole with l ≥ 1 approximately is constant up to the fundamental quasinormal frequency and then drops to zero. We also investigate the case where the source falls from rest at a finite distance from the black hole. It is found that the monopole and dipole contributions in this case are dominant. This case needs to be carefully distinguished from the unphysical process where the source abruptly appears at rest and starts falling, which would result in radiation of an infinite amount of energy. We also investigate the radiation of a massless scalar field to the horizon of the black hole, finding some features similar to the gravitational case. (orig.)
Otte, A N; Dickinson, H.; Funk, S.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, C.A.; Karn, P.; Meagher, K.; Naoya, H.; Nguyen, T.; Okumura, A.; Santander, M.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Stier, A.; Tajima, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wakely, S.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D.A.
2015-01-01
We present the development of a novel 11328 pixel silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) camera for use with a ground-based Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder optics as a possible medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The finely pixelated camera samples air-shower images with more than twice the optical resolution of cameras that are used in current Cherenkov telescopes. Advantages of the higher resolution will be a better event reconstruction yielding improved background suppression and angular resolution of the reconstructed gamma-ray events, which is crucial in morphology studies of, for example, Galactic particle accelerators and the search for gamma-ray halos around extragalactic sources. Packing such a large number of pixels into an area of only half a square meter and having a fast readout directly attached to the back of the sensors is a challenging task. For the prototype camera development, SiPMs from Hamamatsu with through silicon via (TSV) technology are used. We give ...
Mercury's Interior from MESSENGER Radio Science Data
Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2017-12-01
The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provided precise radio tracking data in orbit about Mercury for more than 4 years, from March 2011 to April 2015. These geodetic measurements enable us to investigate the interior structure of the planet from the inner core to the crust. The first three years of radio data allowed us to determine the gravity field of Mercury with a resolution of 150 km in the northern hemisphere (degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics) since the periapsis was located at higher latitudes (>65˚N) and 200-500 km altitudes. The comparison of this gravity solution with Mercury's topography, which was retrieved by using over 25 million individual measurements of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), resulted in a preliminary map of the crustal thickness of the planet. However, those results were limited by the resolution of the gravity field since the topography was defined in spherical harmonics up to degree and order 125. The last year of the MESSENGER extended mission was dedicated to a low-altitude campaign, where the spacecraft periapsis was maintained at altitudes between 25 and 100 km. The radio data collected during this mission phase allowed us to significantly improve the resolution of the gravity field locally in the northern hemisphere up to degree and order 100 in spherical harmonics. We present the gravity anomalies and crustal thickness maps that lead to a better understanding on the formation and evolution of specific regions. We present our estimated orientation model, which slightly differs from the solutions that were obtained by using Earth-based radar measurements and the co-registration of MESSENGER imaging and altimetry data. These previous estimates provide a direct measurement of the surface response, whereas the orientation model from gravity is more sensitive to the inner and outer core. A discrepancy between core and surface obliquities may provide fundamental
Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
Stynes, Martin; Zhang, Zhimin
2017-01-01
This volume collects papers associated with lectures that were presented at the BAIL 2016 conference, which was held from 14 to 19 August 2016 at Beijing Computational Science Research Center and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. It showcases the variety and quality of current research into numerical and asymptotic methods for theoretical and practical problems whose solutions involve layer phenomena. The BAIL (Boundary And Interior Layers) conferences, held usually in even-numbered years, bring together mathematicians and engineers/physicists whose research involves layer phenomena, with the aim of promoting interaction between these often-separate disciplines. These layers appear as solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations of various types, and are common in physical problems, most notably in fluid dynamics. This book is of interest for current researchers from mathematics, engineering and physics whose work involves the accurate app roximation of solutions of singularly perturbed diffe...
Digital Interior Design by Stailia Design Oy
Lindroos, Jaana
2017-01-01
The objective of the thesis work is to research and create a web based service in a field of interior design. With my project, I am hoping to find out whether this kind of web service in the field of interior design can work in general and that the process together with the actual order form on internet is smooth from both customer and company point of view. The company has interior design related services but none entirely executed on the web. The target is to create a totally new service/pr...
Computer vision based room interior design
Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola
2015-12-01
This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.
Interior Design's Role in Educational Specifications.
Keller, Mary Ann
1986-01-01
An experienced interior designer, equipped with a well-written educational specification, will specify the best materials and coordinate colors, materials, and furnishings in line with the district's budget. (MLF)
Penerapan Interior Branding pada Hotel Yello
Gunawan, Astri Indrawati
2017-01-01
The development of entertainment and tourism in Surabaya has lead to increasing of tourist arrival. This condition makes hotel businesses flourishing. The 3 star hotel is currently the best-selling hotel due to adequate facilities at current economic level. To cope with the competition, many 3 star hotels applied branding in the interior. Interior branding is formed not only from the visual beauty, but rather to the room's atmosphere that contains stories and unique messages to influence the ...
Discovering the interior of black holes
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.; Yagi, K.
2017-12-01
The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from black hole (BH) mergers provides an inroad toward probing the interior of astrophysical BHs. The general-relativistic description of the BH interior is that of empty spacetime with a (possibly) singular core. Recently, however, the hypothesis that the BH interior does not exist has been gaining traction, as it provides a means for resolving the BH information-loss problem. Here, we propose a simple method for answering the following question: Does the BH interior exist and, if so, does it contain some distribution of matter or is it mostly empty? Our proposal is premised on the idea that, similar to the case of relativistic, ultracompact stars, any BH-like object whose interior has some matter distribution should support fluid modes in addition to the conventional spacetime modes. In particular, the Coriolis-induced Rossby (r-) modes, whose spectrum is mostly insensitive to the composition of the interior matter, should be a universal feature of such BH-like objects. In fact, the frequency and damping time of these modes are determined by only the object's mass and speed of rotation. The r-modes oscillate at a lower frequency, decay at a slower rate, and produce weaker GWs than do the spacetime modes. Hence, they imprint a model-insensitive signature of a nonempty interior in the GW spectrum resulting from a BH merger. We find that future GW detectors, such as Advanced LIGO with its design sensitivity, have the potential of detecting such r-modes if the amount of GWs leaking out quantum mechanically from the interior of a BH-like object is sufficiently large.
Project management in interior design services
Şahinoglu, Alp
1997-01-01
Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references. In this study, the concept of project management is analyzed within the framework of interior design services. Project management has been defined as the managing and coordination of all human and physical resources, in order to accomplish the predetermined goals (aim of the proj...
Interior transmission eigenvalues of a rectangle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sleeman, B D; Stocks, D C
2016-01-01
The problem of scattering of acoustic waves by an inhomogeneous medium is intimately connected with so called inside–outside duality, in which the interior transmission eigenvalue problem plays a fundamental role. Here a study of the interior transmission eigenvalues for rectangular domains of constant refractive index is made. By making a nonstandard use of the classical separation of variables technique both real and complex eigenvalues are determined. (paper)
Contradictions within a Knotworking session of an interior décor project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Svidt, Kjeld
actors with an interest in the specific ‘knot’ (Engeström 2008). Moreover this presentation presents an analysis of contradictions within a Knotworking session of an interior décor project. The interior décor project is targeted a new building for Department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University...... in Denmark aiming to generate an ownership among the users of the building. Through this presentation the audience will discover advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of Knotowkring as a method for making interior décor at a Danish University. Moreover, the audience will notify Knotworking...... been utilized in contexts as the library, hospital and construction industry. By investigating Knotworking in the context of interior décor through an analysis by activity theory systems, this research contributes to knowledge about contradictions within a Knotworking session and potential solutions...
Karl Schwarzschild Lecture: The Ups and Downs of the Hubble Constant (With 12 Figures)
Tammann, G. Andreas
2006-01-01
A brief history of the determination of the Hubble constant H_0 is given. Early attempts following Lemaitre (1927) gave much too high values due to errors of the magnitude scale, Malmquist bias and calibration problems. By 1962 most authors agreed that 75< H_0 <130. After 1975 a dichotomy arose with values near 100 and others around 55. The former came from apparent-magnitude-limited samples and were affected by Malmquist bias. New distance indicators were introduced; they were sometimes claimed to yield high values of H_0, but the most recent data lead to H_0 in the 60's, yet with remaining difficulties as to the zero-point of the respective distance indicators. SNe Ia with their large range and very small luminosity dispersion (avoiding Malmquist bias) offer a unique opportunity to determine the large-scale value of H_0. Their maximum luminosity can be well calibrated from 10 SNe Ia in local parent galaxies whose Cepheids have been observed with HST. An unforeseen difficulty - affecting all Cepheid distances - is that their P-L relation varies from galaxy to galaxy, presumably in function of metallicity. A proposed solution is summarized here. The conclusion is that H_0 = 63.2 +/- 1.3 (random) +/- 5.3 (systematic) on all scales. The expansion age becomes then (with Omega_m=0.3, Omega_Lambda=0.7) 15.1 Gyr.
Determining building interior structures using compressive sensing
Lagunas, Eva; Amin, Moeness G.; Ahmad, Fauzia; Nájar, Montse
2013-04-01
We consider imaging of the building interior structures using compressive sensing (CS) with applications to through-the-wall imaging and urban sensing. We consider a monostatic synthetic aperture radar imaging system employing stepped frequency waveform. The proposed approach exploits prior information of building construction practices to form an appropriate sparse representation of the building interior layout. We devise a dictionary of possible wall locations, which is consistent with the fact that interior walls are typically parallel or perpendicular to the front wall. The dictionary accounts for the dominant normal angle reflections from exterior and interior walls for the monostatic imaging system. CS is applied to a reduced set of observations to recover the true positions of the walls. Additional information about interior walls can be obtained using a dictionary of possible corner reflectors, which is the response of the junction of two walls. Supporting results based on simulation and laboratory experiments are provided. It is shown that the proposed sparsifying basis outperforms the conventional through-the-wall CS model, the wavelet sparsifying basis, and the block sparse model for building interior layout detection.
Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.
2002-12-01
astronomers in his days, when his working place at Altona still belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. This paper is followed by a second one by the same author and deals with the correspondence of H. C. Schumacher and H C. Oersted (1777-1851) and shows how intense and diverse their cooperation was. In a subsequent paper, Wolfgang Kokott describes the role of the Astronomisches Jahrbuch (published from 1776 by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin), a ranking international publication, with Bode's modest Berlin Observatory serving as a clearinghouse of information originating from virtually all European countries. "Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalisation of Astrophysics" is the title of Theodor Schmidt-Kaler's contribution and presents Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy: establishment of course lectures and a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, stimulations and suggestions for astronomy at high school and for the formation of high school teachers, international organisation, and the planning of a southern observatory. Peter Habison describes the contribution of Leo de Ball (1853-1916, Director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna) to international astronomy. Internationalization in astronomy is also discussed in a following paper by Gudrun Wolfschmidt on the establishment of the Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft, the international Astronomische Gesellschaft in 1863 and finally the International Astronomical Union in 1919. In the second but last paper of the book, Hilmar Duerbeck describes the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere in 1849, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht and Ristenpart, to the middle of the 20th century. The paper also includes the astronomical development at the Universidad Catolica and various international expeditions, which aimed at the observations of solar
From geodesics of the multipole solutions to the perturbed Kepler problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Pastora, J. L.; Ospino, J.
2010-01-01
A static and axisymmetric solution of the Einstein vacuum equations with a finite number of relativistic multipole moments (RMM) is written in multipole symmetry adapted (MSA) coordinates up to certain order of approximation, and the structure of its metric components is explicitly shown. From the equation of equatorial geodesics, we obtain the Binet equation for the orbits and it allows us to determine the gravitational potential that leads to the equivalent classical orbital equations of the perturbed Kepler problem. The relativistic corrections to Keplerian motion are provided by the different contributions of the RMM of the source starting from the monopole (Schwarzschild correction). In particular, the perihelion precession of the orbit is calculated in terms of the quadrupole and 2 4 -pole moments. Since the MSA coordinates generalize the Schwarzschild coordinates, the result obtained allows measurement of the relevance of the quadrupole moment in the first order correction to the perihelion frequency-shift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barack, Leor; Sago, Norichika
2011-01-01
We study conservative finite-mass corrections to the motion of a particle in a bound (eccentric) strong-field orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. We assume the particle's mass μ is much smaller than the black hole mass M, and explore post-geodesic corrections of O(μ/M). Our analysis uses numerical data from a recently developed code that outputs the Lorenz-gauge gravitational self-force (GSF) acting on the particle along the eccentric geodesic. First, we calculate the O(μ/M) conservative correction to the periastron advance of the orbit, as a function of the (gauge-dependent) semilatus rectum and eccentricity. A gauge-invariant description of the GSF precession effect is made possible in the circular-orbit limit, where we express the correction to the periastron advance as a function of the invariant azimuthal frequency. We compare this relation with results from fully nonlinear numerical-relativistic simulations. In order to obtain a gauge-invariant measure of the GSF effect for fully eccentric orbits, we introduce a suitable generalization of Detweiler's circular-orbit ''redshift'' invariant. We compute the O(μ/M) conservative correction to this invariant, expressed as a function of the two invariant frequencies that parametrize the orbit. Our results are in good agreement with results from post-Newtonian calculations in the weak-field regime, as we shall report elsewhere. The results of our study can inform the development of analytical models for the dynamics of strongly gravitating binaries. They also provide an accurate benchmark for future numerical-relativistic simulations.
Kowalczyk, Klaudia; Łokas, Ewa L.; Valluri, Monica
2018-05-01
In our previous work we confirmed the reliability of the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild orbit-superposition method to recover the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of spherical dwarf galaxies. Here, we investigate the effect of its application to intrinsically non-spherical objects. For this purpose we use a model of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy formed in a numerical simulation of a major merger of two discy dwarfs. The shape of the stellar component of the merger remnant is axisymmetric and prolate which allows us to identify and measure the bias caused by observing the spheroidal galaxy along different directions, especially the longest and shortest principal axis. The modelling is based on mock data generated from the remnant that are observationally available for dwarfs: projected positions and line-of-sight velocities of the stars. In order to obtain a reliable tool while keeping the number of parameters low we parametrize the total mass distribution as a radius-dependent mass-to-light ratio with just two free parameters we aim to constrain. Our study shows that if the total density profile is known, the true, radially increasing anisotropy profile can be well recovered for the observations along the longest axis whereas the data along the shortest axis lead to the inference of an incorrect, isotropic model. On the other hand, if the density profile is derived from the method as well, the anisotropy is always underestimated but the total mass profile is well recovered for the data along the shortest axis whereas for the longest axis the mass content is overestimated.
A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization
Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.
1990-01-01
We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.
High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors
Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.
2012-12-01
Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D
Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara
2013-01-01
This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…
Interior design. Mastering the master plan.
Mesbah, C E
1995-10-01
Reflecting on the results of the survey, this proposed interior design master planning process addresses the concerns and issues of both CEOs and facility managers in ways that focus on problem-solving strategies and methods. Use of the interior design master plan process further promotes the goals and outcomes expressed in the survey by both groups. These include enhanced facility image, the efficient selection of finishes and furnishings, continuity despite staff changes, and overall savings in both costs and time. The interior design master plan allows administrators and facility managers to anticipate changes resulting from the restructuring of health care delivery. The administrators and facility managers are then able to respond in ways that manage those changes in the flexible and cost-effective manner they are striving for. This framework permits staff members to concentrate their time and energy on the care of their patients--which is, after all, what it's all about.
Inequivalence of interior and exterior dynamical problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santilli, R.M.
1991-09-01
We begin a series of notes with the review of the historical distinction by Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi and other Founding Fathers of analytic dynamics, between the exteriordynamical problem, consisting of motion in vacuum under action-at-a-distance interactions, and the interior dynamical problem, consisting of motion within a resistive medium with the additional presence of contact, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian internal forces. After recalling some of the historical reasons that led to the contemporary, virtually complete restriction of research to the exterior problem, we show that the interior dynamical problem cannot be reduced to the exterior one. This establishes the open character of the central objective of these notes: the identification of the space-time symmetries and relativities that are applicable to interior, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian systems. (author). 29 refs
Penerapan Psikologi Desain pada Elemen Desain Interior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Budi Setiawan
2014-10-01
Full Text Available One of main interior designer’s assignments is to solve the problem within the facility. Problems may occur because the activities of design decision had done or will be done on the facility are not maximized. This problem can be reduced by rethinking the design through psychology design. Utilizing psychology design will help designer decide a better judgment of objects that affects the person using it in routine. The example of interior objects is wall, door, floor, color, and other elements of interior. Desk research method was used to support this article trough data collection from books and other professional institution websites. At the end, the conclusion of this article does not directly impact the result since it took time to persuade judgment of the user, but positively it will construct designer to rethink the design object.
A Primal-Dual Interior Point-Linear Programming Algorithm for MPC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Edlund, Kristian; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Jørgensen, John Bagterp
2009-01-01
Constrained optimal control problems for linear systems with linear constraints and an objective function consisting of linear and l1-norm terms can be expressed as linear programs. We develop an efficient primal-dual interior point algorithm for solution of such linear programs. The algorithm...
Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joudi, Ali; Svedung, Harald; Cehlin, Mathias; Rönnelid, Mats
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Increase building energy efficiency by optimizing surface optical properties. ► Study different scenarios with both interior and exterior reflective coatings. ► Combined thermal effect of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. -- Abstract: The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.
Active control of turbulent boundary layer sound transmission into a vehicle interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caiazzo, A; Alujević, N; Pluymers, B; Desmet, W
2016-01-01
In high speed automotive, aerospace, and railway transportation, the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is one of the most important sources of interior noise. The stochastic pressure distribution associated with the turbulence is able to excite significantly structural vibration of vehicle exterior panels. They radiate sound into the vehicle through the interior panels. Therefore, the air flow noise becomes very influential when it comes to the noise vibration and harshness assessment of a vehicle, in particular at low frequencies. Normally, passive solutions, such as sound absorbing materials, are used for reducing the TBL-induced noise transmission into a vehicle interior, which generally improve the structure sound isolation performance. These can achieve excellent isolation performance at higher frequencies, but are unable to deal with the low-frequency interior noise components. In this paper, active control of TBL noise transmission through an acoustically coupled double panel system into a rectangular cavity is examined theoretically. The Corcos model of the TBL pressure distribution is used to model the disturbance. The disturbance is rejected by an active vibration isolation unit reacting between the exterior and the interior panels. Significant reductions of the low-frequency vibrations of the interior panel and the sound pressure in the cavity are observed. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica
2006-07-01
This work was developed to fit the generation of electric energy for the isolated communities of the interior of the Amazonas State in a context of endogenous development. A regional development is proposed, with the inclusion of the generation of electric energy for these communities in a context of development, rather than the isolated form proposed in the federal government electrification program of 'Luz Para Todos' (Light For All). (author)
Interior point algorithms theory and analysis
Ye, Yinyu
2011-01-01
The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.
Perancangan Interior Museum Film Indonesia Di Surabaya
Limantoro, Lim Renawati
2013-01-01
Surabaya is a city with a thriving cultural variety with a pluralistic society where people in Surabaya is more modern that easy to accept new things that developed in the community. Museum is a public place so that the necessary interior educative and informative and can be used as a sports-themed Indonesian films. The purpose of designing the interior of the film museum in Surabaya this is a venue to preserve Indonesian films and give knowledge to the people of Surabaya on the world of cine...
Interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method for coupled elasto-acoustic media
Dudouit , Yohann; Giraud , Luc; Millot , Florence; Pernet , Sébastien
2016-01-01
We introduce a high order interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin scheme for the nu- merical solution of wave propagation in coupled elasto-acoustic media. A displacement formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same framework. Weakly imposing the correct transmission condition is achieved by the derivation of adapted numerical fluxes. This generalization does not weaken the discontinuous Galerkin method, thus hp-non-conforming m...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xin; Mu Baozhong; Jiang Li; Zhu Jingtao; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Zhanshan; He Pengfei
2011-01-01
Lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal is a radiation sensitive material widely used as EUV and soft x-ray detector. The LiF-based detector has high resolution, in principle limited by the point defect size, large field of view, and wide dynamic range. Using LiF crystal as an imaging detector, a resolution of 900 nm was achieved by a projection imaging of test meshes with a Schwarzschild objective operating at 13.5 nm. In addition, by imaging of a pinhole illuminated by the plasma, an EUV spot of 1.5 μm diameter in the image plane of the objective was generated, which accomplished direct writing of color centers with resolution of 800 nm. In order to avoid sample damage and contamination due to the influence of huge debris flux produced by the plasma source, a spherical normal-incidence condenser was used to collect EUV radiation. Together with a description of experimental results, the development of the Schwarzschild objective, the influence of condenser on energy density and the alignment of the imaging system are also reported.
A proposal of the gauge theory description of the small Schwarzschild black hole in AdS5×S5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, Masanori; Maltz, Jonathan
2017-01-01
Based on 4d N=4 SYM on ℝ 1 ×S 3 , a gauge theory description of a small black hole in AdS 5 ×S 5 is proposed. The change of the number of dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the emission of the scalar fields’ eigenvalues plays a crucial role in this description. By analyzing the microcanonical ensemble, the Hagedorn behavior of long strings at low energy is obtained. Modulo an assumption based on the AdS/CFT duality for a large black hole, the energy of the small ten-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole E∼1/(G 10,N T 7 ) is derived. A heuristic gauge theory argument supporting this assumption is also given. The same argument applied to the ABJM theory correctly reproduces the relation for the eleven-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. One of the consequences of our proposal is that the small and large black holes are very similar when seen from the gauge theory point of view.
Rodrigue, Kamiko Kouemeni Jean; Saleh, Mahamat; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin
2018-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and deficit solid angle. From the metric of the black hole, we derive the expressions of temperature and specific heat using the laws of black hole thermodynamics. Using the null geodesics method and Parikh-Wilczeck tunneling method, we derive the expressions of Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the black hole. The behaviors of the temperature, specific heat, Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein entropy versus the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter (ρ 0) were explicitly plotted. The results show that, when the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter at r=1 (ρ 0) vanish (ρ 0=ɛ =0), these four thermodynamics quantities are reduced to those obtained for the simple case of Schwarzschild black hole. For low entropies, the presence of quintessence-like matter induces a first order phase transition of the black hole and for the higher values of the entropies, we observe the second order phase transition. When increasing ρ 0, the transition points are shifted to lower entropies. The same thing is observed when increasing ɛ 2. In the absence of quintessence-like matter (ρ 0=0), these transition phenomena disappear. Moreover the rate of radiation decreases when increasing ρ 0 or (ɛ ^2).
Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.
Sue A. Ferguson
1999-01-01
This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...
resonant inverter supplied interior permanent magnet (ipm)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
[5] Zhenyue Hong, “DC-voltage link resonant inverters”, Department of Electrical and. Electronic Engineering University of. Canterbury, New Zealand. [6] Kalyan Kumar Halder, Naruttam Kumar Roy and B.C. Ghosh, “Position Sensorless. Control for an Interior Permanent Magnet. Synchronous Motor SVM Drive with ANN.
The interiors of the giant planets - 1983
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smoluchowski, R.
1983-01-01
The last few years brought progress in understanding the interiors of the giant planets especially of the two larger ones which have been visited by Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft. An analysis of the formation of the giant planets also helped to clarify certain important common features. The presently available model of Jupiter is still based on certain somewhat bothersome approximations but it appears to satisfy the main observational constraints. Saturn's interior is much better understood than it was previously although the quantitative aspects of the role of the miscibility gap in the hydrogen-helium system have not yet been entirely resolved. Much attention has been directed at the interiors of Uranus and Neptune and the outstanding question appears to be the location and the amount of ices and methane present in their outer layers. Both the two- and the three-layer models are moderately successful. Serious difficulties arise from the considerable uncertainties concerning the rotational periods of both planets. Also the estimates of the internal heat fluxes and of the magnetic fields of both planets are not sufficiently certain. It is hoped that the forthcoming flyby of these two planets by a Voyager spacecraft will provide important new data for a future study of their interiors. (Auth.)
Discussion on interior greening decoration of residence
Tong, ZhiNeng
2018-02-01
Green plants bring endless natural energy into the room. This paper introduces the functions, principles and functions of indoor greening decoration from different angles. Its conclusion is that it has become an important measure to improve the living environment of the people, and through the interior greening decoration to create a harmonious living space of architecture, human and nature.
Building of Requirement: Liberating Academic Interior Architecture
McLane, Yelena; Dawkins, Jim
2014-01-01
The authors focus on the strategies employed in the recent renovation of the William Johnston Building at Florida State University, in which the historical exterior was preserved, while the interiors were adapted to new functions as classrooms, study centers, and common spaces with intentionally undefined purposes. The building's various use…
Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas
EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int
Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.
George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith
1988-01-01
Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...
Interior Pathways to Dissipation of Mesoscale Energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2018-01-27
This talk at Goethe University asks What Powers Overturning Circulation? How does Ocean Circulation Equilibrate? There is a HUGE reservoir of energy sitting in the interior ocean. Can fluid dynamic instabilities contribute to the mixing required to drive global overturning circulation? Study designed to eliminate distinguished horizontal surfaces such as bottom BL and surface layer
Speed of sound in the solar interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Rhodes, E.J. Jr.
1985-01-01
Frequencies of solar 5-min oscillations can be used to determine directly the sound speed of the solar interior. The determination described does not depend on a solar model, but relies only on a simple asymptotic description of the oscillations in terms of trapped acoustic waves. (author)
Juno's first peek at Jupiter's interior
Guillot, Tristan; Miguel, Yamila; Hubbard, William B.; Kaspi, Yohai; Reese, Daniel; Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Militzer, Burkhard; Wahl, Sean; Folkner, William M.; Anderson, John; Iess, Luciano; Durante, Daniele; Parisi, Marzia; Stevenson, David J.
2017-04-01
The first orbits of Juno around Jupiter have led to a considerable improvement in the measurement of the planet's even gravitational moments. We will discuss how this leads to better constraints on jovian interior models, and how internal differential rotation and equations of state play an important part in the analysis.
Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis
Xu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Bin; Yan, Dongming
2015-01-01
We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models
24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock. ...
Retrofit with Interior Insulation on Solid Masonry Walls in Cool Temperate Climates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Finken, G.R.; Odgaard, Tommy
2015-01-01
For historic buildings, where an alteration of the exterior façade is not wanted, interior insulation can be the solution to improve the indoor climate and reduce heat loss, but might also introduce moisture problems like condensation in the wall. Capillary active/hydrophilic insulation materials...... have been introduced to cope with the moisture problem. An extensive amount of calculations indicating where the challenges lie in the complex work with interior insulation in cool temperate climate has been carried out. In areas with high precipitation like Denmark, capillary active insulation may...
Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf
2009-01-01
The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While the effe......The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models allow quantified assessment, their reliance on the ‘moisture penetration depth’ necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their application to multi-dimensional interior objects. On the other hand, while various recently...... an alternative basis for quantitative evaluation of interior moisture buffering by the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models. The presented methodology uses simple and fast measurements only and can also be applied to multimaterial and/or multidimensional interior elements....
Competing Grain Boundary and Interior Deformation Mechanisms with Varying Sizes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei [University of Tennessee (UT); Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Nieh, T. G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
2018-01-01
In typical coarse-grained alloys, the dominant plastic deformations are dislocation gliding or climbing, and material strengths can be tuned by dislocation interactions with grain boundaries, precipitates, solid solutions, and other defects. With the reduction of grain size, the increase of material strengths follows the classic Hall-Petch relationship up to nano-grained materials. Even at room temperatures, nano-grained materials exhibit strength softening, or called the inverse Hall-Petch effect, as grain boundary processes take over as the dominant deformation mechanisms. On the other hand, at elevated temperatures, grain boundary processes compete with grain interior deformation mechanisms over a wide range of the applied stress and grain sizes. This book chapter reviews and compares the rate equation model and the microstructure-based finite element simulations. The latter explicitly accounts for the grain boundary sliding, grain boundary diffusion and migration, as well as the grain interior dislocation creep. Therefore the explicit finite element method has clear advantages in problems where microstructural heterogeneities play a critical role, such as in the gradient microstructure in shot peening or weldment. Furthermore, combined with the Hall-Petch effect and its breakdown, the above competing processes help construct deformation mechanism maps by extending from the classic Frost-Ashby type to the ones with the dependence of grain size.
Integration of Models of Building Interiors with Cadastral Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gotlib Dariusz
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Demands for applications which use models of building interiors is growing and highly diversified. Those models are applied at the stage of designing and construction of a building, in applications which support real estate management, in navigation and marketing systems and, finally, in crisis management and security systems. They are created on the basis of different data: architectural and construction plans, both, in the analogue form, as well as CAD files, BIM data files, by means of laser scanning (TLS and conventional surveys. In this context the issue of searching solutions which would integrate the existing models and lead to elimination of data redundancy is becoming more important. The authors analysed the possible input- of cadastral data (legal extent of premises at the stage of the creation and updating different models of building’s interiors. The paper focuses on one issue - the way of describing the geometry of premises basing on the most popular source data, i.e. architectural and construction plans. However, the described rules may be considered as universal and also may be applied in practice concerned may be used during the process of creation and updating indoor models based on BIM dataset or laser scanning clouds
Integration of Models of Building Interiors with Cadastral Data
Gotlib, Dariusz; Karabin, Marcin
2017-12-01
Demands for applications which use models of building interiors is growing and highly diversified. Those models are applied at the stage of designing and construction of a building, in applications which support real estate management, in navigation and marketing systems and, finally, in crisis management and security systems. They are created on the basis of different data: architectural and construction plans, both, in the analogue form, as well as CAD files, BIM data files, by means of laser scanning (TLS) and conventional surveys. In this context the issue of searching solutions which would integrate the existing models and lead to elimination of data redundancy is becoming more important. The authors analysed the possible input- of cadastral data (legal extent of premises) at the stage of the creation and updating different models of building's interiors. The paper focuses on one issue - the way of describing the geometry of premises basing on the most popular source data, i.e. architectural and construction plans. However, the described rules may be considered as universal and also may be applied in practice concerned may be used during the process of creation and updating indoor models based on BIM dataset or laser scanning clouds
Family of regular interiors for nonrotating black holes with T00=T11
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizalde, Emilio; Hildebrandt, Sergi R.
2002-01-01
We find the general solution for the spacetimes describing the interior of static black holes with an equation of state of the type T 0 0 =T 1 1 (T being the stress-energy tensor). This form is the one expected from taking into account different quantum effects associated with strong gravitational fields. We recover all the particular examples found in the literature. We remark that all the solutions found follow the natural scheme of an interior core linked smoothly with the exterior solution by a transient region. We also discuss their local energy properties and give the main ideas involved in a possible generalization of the scheme in order to include other realistic types of sources
Interiors Construction Manual integrated planning, finishing and fitting out, technical servcies
Hausladen, Gerhard
2010-01-01
Soccer stadiums, airports, theaters, museums it falls to very few architects to tackle spectacular building tasks like these. The everyday work of most architects is more often focused on ""manageable"" projects like the renovation, remodeling, or rebuilding of single- and multi-family houses, schools, and offices. Whatever the nature of the building task, interior construction is always a significant design and qualitative challenge that calls for highly detailed technical expertise. After all, it affects the realm that will be brought to life and utilized by the user when the task is finished, and whose aesthetic and functional serviceability will be put to the test each and every day. The Interior Construction Manual supports planners in their daily work as a practical planning aid and reference work with the relevant standards, guidelines, reference details, and constructional solutions, all illustrated by built example projects. It brings together the crucial facts on all aspects of interior construction...
Elemen Pembentuk Makna pada Sebuah Interior Arsitektur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dila Hendrassukma
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Along with the increasing needs of the community, also increasing the need for space to accommodated those needs. With limited space available nowadays, it is not uncommon to change the old buildings’ function as a place to meet the social growing need of the space. However, it is must be remembered by architects and interior architects when changing the functions of a space that the old space has its own histories and particular meaning to people who had ever occupied it. Those histories and meanings should be included in the creation of the new function. Article gives and describes elements that need to be known in order to understand the sense of a space, such as drawing plans, scale, proportion, movement, transition and access that embodied in the architecture and interior space. Qualitative methods by literature study is used in the making of this article..
Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior
Spichak, Viacheslav V
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...
Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.
Quantum state of the black hole interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.
2015-01-01
If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of “Fermi sea” of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a “firewall”, as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.
Realization of FRC interior and exterior furniture
Šonka, Š.; Frantová, M.; Štemberk, P.; Havrda, J.; Janouch, P.
2017-09-01
This article deals with the implementation of fibre reinforced concrete for interior and exterior furniture. The use of fibre reinforced concrete for non-traditional and small structures brings some specifics in design and realization. These are, in particular, the design of a suitable mixture, the choice of the shape of the structure in relation to the technological possibilities of realization, the static effects and finally the actual production of the element.
Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Vargas Marcos
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.
Memahami Estetika dari Sudut Pandang Desain Interior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunida Sofiana
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The term aesthetic has always become part of design. Without aesthetic, design has just a functional object. Aesthetic in design, particularly in interior design, has been influenced by many factors, which are aesthetic value, aesthetic perception, and time frame. Aesthetic has subjective meaning related to time frame and objective meaning related to implementation of element and principles of design on aesthetic term. Aesthetic perception is how we judge and see the object using our own thinking and value. Time frame is where and when the aesthetic value happens. Interior design trend right now has been influenced by technology in many ways so the concept of modern design theme is always the best choice for designer. However, using modern theme as a design concept has to be implemented as a whole theme and related to aesthetical value so that the design will gain much appreciation from others. This paper used deductive method to explain the theory of aesthetic and the implementation of aesthetic value in interior design context. Design should speak louder than it looked.
Crane cabins' interior space multivariate anthropometric modeling.
Essdai, Ahmed; Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar; Popović, Vladimir
2018-01-01
Previous research has shown that today's crane cabins fail to meet the needs of a large proportion of operators. Performance and financial losses and effects on safety should not be overlooked as well. The first aim of this survey is to model the crane cabin interior space using up-to-date crane operator anthropometric data and to compare the multivariate and univariate method anthropometric models. The second aim of the paper is to define the crane cabin interior space dimensions that enable anthropometric convenience. To facilitate the cabin design, the anthropometric dimensions of 64 crane operators in the first sample and 19 more in the second sample were collected in Serbia. The multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the population on the basis of a set of 8 anthropometric dimensions, have been developed. The percentile method was also used on the same set of data. The dimensions of the interior space, necessary for the accommodation of the crane operator, are 1174×1080×1865 mm. The percentiles results for the 5th and 95th model are within the obtained dimensions. The results of this study may prove useful to crane cabin designers in eliminating anthropometric inconsistencies and improving the health of operators, but can also aid in improving the safety, performance and financial results of the companies where crane cabins operate.
PCX, Interior-Point Linear Programming Solver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czyzyk, J.
2004-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: PCX solves linear programming problems using the Mehrota predictor-corrector interior-point algorithm. PCX can be called as a subroutine or used in stand-alone mode, with data supplied from an MPS file. The software incorporates modules that can be used separately from the linear programming solver, including a pre-solve routine and data structure definitions. 2 - Methods: The Mehrota predictor-corrector method is a primal-dual interior-point method for linear programming. The starting point is determined from a modified least squares heuristic. Linear systems of equations are solved at each interior-point iteration via a sparse Cholesky algorithm native to the code. A pre-solver is incorporated in the code to eliminate inefficiencies in the user's formulation of the problem. 3 - Restriction on the complexity of the problem: There are no size limitations built into the program. The size of problem solved is limited by RAM and swap space on the user's computer
Asymmetric interiors for small black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College,City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science,University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)
2016-08-16
We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. We then show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. The ingoing field admits a simple operator representation in the CFT, even inside a small black hole at late times, which leads to a simple CFT description of infalling geodesics. This means classical infalling observers will experience the classical geometry in the interior. The outgoing piece of the field is more subtle. In an eternal two-sided geometry it can be represented as an operator on the left CFT. In a stable one-sided geometry it can be described using entanglement via the PR construction. But in an evaporating black hole trans-horizon entanglement breaks down at the Page time, which means that for old black holes the PR construction fails and the outgoing field does not see local geometry. This picture of the interior allows the CFT to reconcile unitary Hawking evaporation with the classical experience of infalling observers.
Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity
Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha
2011-11-01
In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.
Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi dust solutions in f (R) gravity
Sussman, Roberto A.; Jaime, Luisa G.
2017-12-01
We derive a class of non-static inhomogeneous dust solutions in f(R) gravity described by the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric. The field equations are fully integrated for all parameter subcases and compared with analogous subcases of LTB dust solutions of GR. Since the solutions do not admit regular symmetry centres, we have two possibilities: (i) a spherical dust cloud with angle deficit acting as the source of a vacuum Schwarzschild-like solution associated with a global monopole, or (ii) fully regular dust wormholes without angle deficit, whose rest frames are homeomorphic to the Schwarzschild-Kruskal manifold or to a 3d torus. The compatibility between the LTB metric and generic f(R) ansatzes furnishes an ‘inverse procedure’ to generate LTB solutions whose sources are found from the f(R) geometry. While the resulting fluids may have an elusive physical interpretation, they can be used as exact non-perturbative toy models in theoretical and cosmological applications of f(R) theories.
Kajian Gaya Interior Pada Restoran Tip Top di Kota Medan
Kevin
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to identify / determine the style of interior design that is applied to the Tip Top Restaurant in Medan as well as the public perception of the interior arrangement of Tip Top Restaurant in Medan by using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research methods now that the observation / observation, observation of interior elements Tip Top restaurant is analyzed based on the criteria of interior design, this is done in order to ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ejima, Takeo; Kondo, Yuzi; Watanabe, Makoto
2000-01-01
'Two-color' multilayers reflecting both He-I (58.4 nm) and He-II (30.4 nm) resonance lines have been designed and fabricated for reflection coatings of Schwarzschild objectives of micro-UPS instruments. They are designed so that their reflectances for both He-I and He-II resonance lines are more than 20%. The 'two-color' multilayers are piled double layers coated with top single layers. Fabricated are multilayers of SiC(top layer)-Mg/SiC(double layers) and SiC(top layer)-Mg/Y 2 O 3 (double layers), and their reflectances for the He-I and the He-II are 23% and 17%, and 20% and 23%, respectively
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Mingzhi [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Institute of Physics, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan Normal University, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan (China); Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Institute of Physics, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan Normal University, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China)
2017-04-15
We present firstly the equation of motion for a test scalar particle coupling to the Einstein tensor in the Schwarzschild-Melvin black hole spacetime through the short-wave approximation. Through analyzing Poincare sections, the power spectrum, the fast Lyapunov exponent indicator and the bifurcation diagram, we investigate the effects of the coupling parameter on the chaotic behavior of the particles. With the increase of the coupling strength, we find that the motion of the coupled particle for the chosen parameters becomes more regular and order for the negative couple constant. While, for the positive one, the motion of the coupled particles first undergoes a series of transitions betweens chaotic motion and regular motion and then falls into horizon or escapes to spatial infinity. Our results show that the coupling brings about richer effects for the motion of the particles. (orig.)
49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.
2010-10-01
... Design Requirements § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved design and materials. If a tank is divided into compartments, a separate system shall be provided for... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12...
Temporal trends of forest interior conditions in the United States
Kurt Riitters; James. Wickham
2012-01-01
Nature's benefits derived from forest interior environments cannot be sustained if the natural capital of forest interior area is not sustained. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1 percent net...
Interior design students win two IDEC Student Design Competition awards
Watson-Bloch, Cathy
2005-01-01
Interior Design students in the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech won two of the four awards presented in the 2004-2005 Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) Student Design Competition. Winners were selected at the International IDEC Conference in Savannah, Ga. with Virginia Tech Interior Design students winning second place and honorable mention.
Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry
2014-01-01
Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.
Haines, R. F.
1975-01-01
The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.
Interior Design 1992 Buyers Guide issue.
1992-01-30
The Interior Design Magazine Buyers Guide is compiled with you, the designer, in mind. So it's packed with the most comprehensive collection of sources available anyplace--arranged for fast, easy access. First, the Keyword Index presents all the Buyers Guide product categories alphabetically (see the first tab divider). Refer to the page number indicated in the Product Index (second tab divider) to view various manufacturers of products under each category heading. Addresses, phone and fax numbers, regional and international showroom/representatives are located in the A-Z Index (third tab divider) in alphabetical order. Consult the table of contents for trade associations, lighting consultants, marts, and other useful sections.
Interior point decoding for linear vector channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadayama, T
2008-01-01
In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem
Interior point decoding for linear vector channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wadayama, T [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: wadayama@nitech.ac.jp
2008-01-15
In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem.
Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Che-Yu [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Stanford University, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)
2018-01-15
The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite. (orig.)
Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity.
Chen, Che-Yu; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin
2018-01-01
The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barboza, Luciano Vitoria [Sul-riograndense Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology (IFSul), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: luciano@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br
2009-07-01
This paper presents an overview about the maximum load ability problem and aims to study the main factors that limit this load ability. Specifically this study focuses its attention on determining which electric system buses influence directly on the power demand supply. The proposed approach uses the conventional maximum load ability method modelled by an optimization problem. The solution of this model is performed using the Interior Point methodology. As consequence of this solution method, the Lagrange multipliers are used as parameters that identify the probable 'bottlenecks' in the electric power system. The study also shows the relationship between the Lagrange multipliers and the cost function in the Interior Point optimization interpreted like sensitivity parameters. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, the approach was applied to an IEEE test system and to assess its performance, a real equivalent electric system from the South- Southeast region of Brazil was simulated. (author)
Int-Soft Interior Hyperideals of Ordered Semihypergroups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asghar Khan
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is to study ordered semihypergroups in the context of int-soft interior hyperideals. In this paper, the notion of int-soft interior hyperideals are studied and their related properties are discussed. We present characterizations of interior hyperideals in terms of int-soft interior hyperideals. The concepts of int-soft hyperideals and int-soft interior hyperideals coincide in a regular as well as in intra-regular ordered semihypergroups. We prove that every int-soft hyperideal is an int-soft interior hyperideal but the converse is not true which is shown with help of an example. Furthermore we characterize simple ordered semihypergroups by means of int-soft hyperideals and int-soft interior hyperideals.
Short run hydrothermal coordination with network constraints using an interior point method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez Lezama, Jesus Maria; Gallego Pareja, Luis Alfonso; Mejia Giraldo, Diego
2008-01-01
This paper presents a lineal optimization model to solve the hydrothermal coordination problem. The main contribution of this work is the inclusion of the network constraints to the hydrothermal coordination problem and its solution using an interior point method. The proposed model allows working with a system that can be completely hydraulic, thermal or mixed. Results are presented on the IEEE 14 bus test system
New family of exact solutions for colliding plane gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurtsever, U.
1988-01-01
We construct an infinite-parameter family of exact solutions to the vacuum Einstein field equations describing colliding gravitational plane waves with parallel polarizations. The interaction regions of the solutions in this family are locally isometric to the interiors of those static axisymmetric (Weyl) black-hole solutions which admit both a nonsingular horizon, and an analytic extension of the exterior metric to the interior of the horizon. As a member of this family of solutions we also obtain, for the first time, a colliding plane-wave solution where both of the two incoming plane waves are purely anastigmatic, i.e., where both incoming waves have equal focal lengths
On the interior of (quantum) black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, R.
2013-01-01
Different approaches to quantum gravity conclude that black holes may possess an inner horizon, in addition to the (quantum corrected) outer ‘Schwarzschild’ horizon. In this Letter we assume the existence of this inner horizon and explain the physical process that might lead to the tunneling of particles through it. It is shown that the tunneling would produce a flux of particles with a spectrum that deviates from the pure thermal one. Under the appropriate approximation the extremely high temperature of this horizon is calculated for an improved quantum black hole. It is argued that the flux of particles tunneled through the horizons affects the dynamics of the black hole interior leading to an endogenous instability
Interior design of the lunar outpost
Kennedy, Kriss J.
1990-01-01
This paper is part of an ongoing study on the interior design of a lunar outpost habitat facility. The concept presented represents the work done up to and including August 1989. This concept is part of NASA's ongoing effort to explore alternative options for planet surface systems habitation. Results of a volume analog study to determine the required pressurized volume are presented along with an internal layout of the habitat facility. The concept presented in this paper is a constructible lunar habitat that provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is a 16-m diameter spherical pneumatic structure which contains 2145 cubic meters of volume. Five levels of living and working areas make up the 742 sq m of floor space. A 2-m vertical circulation shaft at the center allows for transfer of crew and equipment.
Planetary Interior Modeling and Tectonic Implications
Phillips, R. J.
1985-01-01
A technique is described for estimating spectral admittance functions using Pioneer Venus gravity and topography data. These admittance functions provide a convenient means to carry out systematic geophysical studies over much of the surface of Venus with a variety of interior density models. The admittance functions are calculated in the observation space of line-of-sight (LOS) gravity. Both closed and open system petrological models are considered for the Tharsis region of Mars. An analytic theory for isostatic compensation on one-plate planet is applied, including membrane stresses in the lithosphere, self gravitation, and rotational ellipticity. Crucial to this stress modeling and also to the petrological modeling is the observation that the earliest fracturing seen in the Tharsis region is associated with isostatic stresses. The radial fractures that extend far from Tharsis are associated with an additional and/or a completely different mechanism.
Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis
Xu, Wenzhuo
2015-02-01
We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.
The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)
Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.
2014-01-01
The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.
Review on Application of Building Information Modelling in Interior Design Industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abd Hamid Abu Bakar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM is a flourishing device and approach for Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC which assist; the planning, design, constructions and operation with particular to commence the designing in several components of the building, a comprehensive understanding of the activities and needed in all aspects. An aspect of activities and needs is the first step to be analysed in the design and it is the responsibility of professionals’ interior designers. To solve the problems, is required to attach with the certain factors such as space planning, specifications fixture, equipment and material, furniture and finishing, lighting fixing and service management. BIM application can provide interior designers such as simulation, analysis, design process and solution with team members. Furthermore, some of the interior designer also using BIM as to organize, documenting data and optimise detail information in solving the problem in the develop process. BIM technology and practices not only to improve the construction and design process development that only the project faster, cost effectively, and prolong but it also helps to increase the capacity of BIM professional by improvise the careers and fields. In the Malaysian context, BIM is still fresh in interior desogn industry.
Analytical optimization of interior PCM for energy storage in a lightweight passive solar room
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Wei; Wang Xin; Zhang Yinping
2009-01-01
Lightweight envelopes are widely used in modern buildings but they lack sufficient thermal capacity for passive solar utilization. An attractive solution to increase the building thermal capacity is to incorporate phase change material (PCM) into the building envelope. In this paper, a simplified theoretical model is established to optimize an interior PCM for energy storage in a lightweight passive solar room. Analytical equations are presented to calculate the optimal phase change temperature and the total amount of latent heat capacity and to estimate the benefit of the interior PCM for energy storage. Further, as an example, the analytical optimization is applied to the interior PCM panels in a direct-gain room with realistic outdoor climatic conditions of Beijing. The analytical results agree well with the numerical results. The analytical results show that: (1) the optimal phase change temperature depends on the average indoor air temperature and the radiation absorbed by the PCM panels; (2) the interior PCM has little effect on average indoor air temperature; and (3) the amplitude of the indoor air temperature fluctuation depends on the product of surface heat transfer coefficient h in and area A of the PCM panels in a lightweight passive solar room.
Injury, Interiority, and Isolation in Men's Suicidality.
Oliffe, John L; Creighton, Genevieve; Robertson, Steve; Broom, Alex; Jenkins, Emily K; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Ferlatte, Olivier
2017-07-01
Men's high suicide rates have been linked to individual risk factors including history of being abused as a child, single marital status, and financial difficulties. While it has also been suggested that the normative influences of hegemonic masculinities are implicated in men's suicide, the gendered experiences of male suicidality are poorly understood. In the current photovoice study, 20 men who previously had suicidal thoughts, plans, and/or attempts were interviewed as a means to better understanding the connections between masculinities and their experiences of suicidality. The study findings revealed injury, interiority, and isolation as interconnected themes characterizing men's suicidality. Injury comprised an array of childhood and/or cumulative traumas that fueled men's ruminating thoughts inhibiting recovery and limiting hopes for improved life quality. In attempting to blunt these traumas, many men described self-injuring through the overuse of alcohol and other drugs. The interiority theme revealed how suicidal thoughts can fuel hopelessness amid summonsing remedies from within. The challenges to self-manage, especially when experiencing muddled thinking and negative thought were evident, and led some participants to summons exterior resources to counter suicidality. Isolation included separateness from others, and was linked to abandonment issues and not having a job and/or partner. Self-isolating also featured as a protection strategy to avoid troubling others and/or reducing exposure to additional noxious stimuli. The study findings suggest multiple intervention points and strategies, the majority of which are premised on promoting men's social connectedness. The destigmatizing value of photovoice methods is also discussed.
Interior Design Based on Forough Farrokhzad Poetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahsa Sanami
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to correlate between art, literature, architect and visualization to translate the emotions and aspirations embodied in a well-known poet such as Forough Farrokhzad. Forough Farrokhzad widely regarded as a famous Iranian poet and an advocate for women’s liberation and independence. She wrote during a time when Iranian women were facing extensive discrimination and prejudice. Many of her works are rich in feminist related aspects of Iranian women. By visualization of Forough’s inner feelings, one can see a great revaluation in society towards women feelings and emotions. Like any other human, poets and artist both have thoughts and dreams rich in colors and words capsulizing their imaginary world in possible dreams which are all related to each person’s personality, culture, environment and etc. One of the ways to understand a poet is to understand the depth of his/her thoughts through his/her poems. Thus the main purpose of this research is to review interior design based on in depth analysis of related poems. Psychoanalysis of symbols, themes and colors used in poems, can be used to supplement words in extracting symptoms and energy depicting the poet inner feelings and imaginations when designing. The results of the discussing symbols and colors used by Forough in most of her poems, indicate her interest in life, death, love, society, intellectuality and philosophy. Finally the researchers through usage of visual effects and pictures used in her designs tries to assist the viewers to understand and feel the poet’s emotions and passions for life at the time of creating the poems. Thus, it can be assumed that the interior design is based on poetry rich in motion and dynamism.
La temperatura del interior de la tierra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eslava R. Jesús A.
1993-10-01
Full Text Available The problem of defining the Earth interior temperature is analized from Heat Flow observations and the acceptance of convection processes in the mantle. Comparative analyses of thermal, adiabatic, and melting point profiles, allow to obtain the optimum temperature profile, wich fits the seismic model of a liquid external core.
EI problema de definir la temperatura del interior de la Tierra, se analiza a partir de las observaciones del flujo térmico y la aceptación de procesos de convección en el manto.
Análisis comparativos de perfiles térmicos, adiabáticos y de puntos de fusión, permiten obtener un perfil óptimo de distribución de temperaturas, que además satisface la observación sísmica de un núcleo externo líquido.
Emma F. Betts; Jeremy B. Jones
2009-01-01
With climatic warming, wildfire occurrence is increasing in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Loss of catchment vegetation during fire can impact streams directly through altered solute and debris inputs and changed light and temperature regimes. Over longer time scales, fire can accelerate permafrost degradation, altering catchment hydrology and stream nutrient...
Kajian Estetika Interior Restoran Boncafe Di Jalan Pregolan Surabaya
Fanuel W., Yemima
2014-01-01
Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is a restaurant in Surabaya located at Pregolan Street 2, Tegal sari, Central Surabaya. Boncafe Pregolan restaurant built in 2007. The interior of Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is divided into several rooms, main entrance area, main dining area I, main dining area II, smoking dining area, and terrace dining. The aesthetic of interior Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is interesting to be analyzed, because of the interior's plays inside. The design principles implemented t...
New regular black hole solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2011-01-01
In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.
Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.
2004-12-01
Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth in the future. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT), in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that these important members of the solar system are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission's RRT technique is analogous to doing a ``CAT scan" of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate >1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use a redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Deep interior has two targets (S-type 1999 ND43 and V-type Nyx ) whose composition bracket the diversity of solar system materials that we are likely to encounter, and are richly complementary.
Optimal Power Flow by Interior Point and Non Interior Point Modern Optimization Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Połomski
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The idea of optimal power flow (OPF is to determine the optimal settings for control variables while respecting various constraints, and in general it is related to power system operational and planning optimization problems. A vast number of optimization methods have been applied to solve the OPF problem, but their performance is highly dependent on the size of a power system being optimized. The development of the OPF recently has tracked significant progress both in numerical optimization techniques and computer techniques application. In recent years, application of interior point methods to solve OPF problem has been paid great attention. This is due to the fact that IP methods are among the fastest algorithms, well suited to solve large-scale nonlinear optimization problems. This paper presents the primal-dual interior point method based optimal power flow algorithm and new variant of the non interior point method algorithm with application to optimal power flow problem. Described algorithms were implemented in custom software. The experiments show the usefulness of computational software and implemented algorithms for solving the optimal power flow problem, including the system model sizes comparable to the size of the National Power System.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun
2003-01-01
We investigate the electromagnetic radiation released during the high energy collision of a charged point particle with a four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. We show that the spectra is flat, and well described by a classical calculation. We also compare the total electromagnetic and gravitational energies emitted, and find that the former is suppressed in relation to the latter for very high energies. These results could apply to the astrophysical world in the case that charged stars and small charged black holes are out there colliding into large black holes, and to a very high energy collision experiment in a four-dimensional world. In this latter scenario the calculation is to be used for the moments just after black hole formation, when the collision of charged debris with the newly formed black hole is certainly expected. Since the calculation is four dimensional, it does not directly apply to TeV-scale gravity black holes, as these inhabit a world of six to eleven dimensions, although our results should qualitatively hold when extrapolated with some care to higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu
2014-01-01
In this Letter, we analytically explore the effect of the Hawking radiation on the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles in the background of Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that when the Hawking effect is almost nonexistent, corresponding to the case of an almost extreme black hole, the quantum properties of physically accessible state are the same for the initial situation. For finite Hawking temperature T, the accessible quantum correlation monotonously decreases along with increasing T owing to the thermal fields generated by the Hawking effect, and the accessible quantum non-locality will be disappeared when the Hawking temperature is more than a fixed value which increases with the parameter r of Werner state growing. Then we analyze the redistribution of quantum correlation, and find that for the case of the Hawking temperature being infinite, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the quantum correlation of physically accessible state is equal to the one of the inaccessible states. Moreover, due to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics, for the Dirac fields the accessible classical correlation decreases with increase of the Hawking temperature, which is different for the scalar fields. For Bell non-locality, we also find that the quantum non-locality is always extinct for physically inaccessible states, and the strength of the non-locality decreases with enlarging intensity of Hawking effect when the non-locality is existent in physically accessible state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei
2015-01-01
We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS_5×S"5 spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate the scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric and Quevedo metric, respectively and we find that the scalar curvature in the Weinhold metric is always vanishing, while in the Ruppeiner metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential, and in the Quevedo metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed number of colors and to the vanishing of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential.
Fluid/gravity correspondence and the CFM black brane solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casadio, R. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cavalcanti, R.T. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)
2016-10-15
We consider the lower bound for the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio, obtained from the fluid/gravity correspondence, in order to constrain the post-Newtonian parameter of brane-world metrics. In particular, we analyse the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati (CFM) effective solutions for the gravity side of the correspondence and argue that including higher-order terms in the hydrodynamic expansion can lead to a full agreement with the experimental bounds, for the Eddington-Robertson-Schiff post-Newtonian parameter in the CFM metrics. This lends further support to the physical relevance of the viscosity-to-entropy ratio lower bound and fluid/gravity correspondence. Hence we show that CFM black branes are, effectively, Schwarzschild black branes. (orig.)
A primal-dual interior point method for large-scale free material optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weldeyesus, Alemseged Gebrehiwot; Stolpe, Mathias
2015-01-01
Free Material Optimization (FMO) is a branch of structural optimization in which the design variable is the elastic material tensor that is allowed to vary over the design domain. The requirements are that the material tensor is symmetric positive semidefinite with bounded trace. The resulting...... optimization problem is a nonlinear semidefinite program with many small matrix inequalities for which a special-purpose optimization method should be developed. The objective of this article is to propose an efficient primal-dual interior point method for FMO that can robustly and accurately solve large...... of iterations the interior point method requires is modest and increases only marginally with problem size. The computed optimal solutions obtain a higher precision than other available special-purpose methods for FMO. The efficiency and robustness of the method is demonstrated by numerical experiments on a set...
Titan's interior from Cassini-Huygens
Tobie, G.; Baland, R.-M.; Lefevre, A.; Monteux, J.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Mitri, G.
2013-09-01
The Cassini-Huygens mission has brought many informations about Titan that can be used to infer its interior structure: the gravity field coefficients (up to degree 3, [1]), the surface shape (up to degree 6, [2]), the tidal Love number [1], the electric field [3], and the orientation of its rotation axis [4]. The measured obliquity and gravity perturbation due to tides, as well as the electric field, are lines of evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the ice surface of Titan [5,1,3]. The observed surface shape and gravity can be used to further constrain the structure of the ice shell above the internal ocean. The presence of a significant topography associated with weak gravity anomalies indicates that deflections of internal interface or lateral density variations may exist to compensate the topography. To assess the sources of compensation, we consider interior models including interface deflections and/or density variations, which reproduces simultaneously the surface gravity and long-wavelength topography data [6]. Furthermore, in order to test the long-term mechanical stability of the internal mass anomalies, we compute the relaxation rate of each internal interface in response to surface mass load. We show that the topography can be explained either by defections of the ocean/ice interface or by density variations in an upper crust [6]. For non-perfectly compensated models of the outer ice shell, the present-day structure is stable only for a conductive layer above a relatively cold ocean (for bottom viscosity > 1016 Pa.s, T residual gravity anomalies. The existence of mass anomalies in the rocky core is a most likely explanation. However, as the observed geoid and topography are mostly sensitive to the lateral structure of the outer ice shell, no information can be retrieved on the ice shell thickness, ocean density and/or size of the rocky core. Constraints on these internal parameters can be obtained from the tidal Love number and
Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.
1982-08-01
This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued
10. The surface and interior of venus
Masursky, H.; Kaula, W.M.; McGill, G.E.; Pettengill, G.H.; Phillips, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Schubert, G.; Shapiro, I.I.
1977-01-01
Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50??S and 75??N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.
Magnetic field generations in planetary interiors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, R.N.
1981-01-01
One of the most fundamental properties of some better known planets is their internally generated magnetic field. A successful explanation of such magnetic fields in 'large hot planetary interiors' remains elusive. Starting from Sir Joseph Larmor's discussions of 'How could a rotating body such as Sun become a magnet' (1979) to present day general consensus that 'the existence of the geomagnetic field is a manifestation of a finite amplitude instability of the Earth's core', significant theoretical developments have taken place in this field. The essential ingredients of the successful theories are the presence of a rotating fluid core of large size having sufficiently high electrical conductivity and energy source to drive the convection. These theories use equations of Newton and Maxwell to generate the requisite kind of the magnetic and velocity fields in response to the preferred distribution of the energy sources. Studies before early seventies, were devoted, mainly, to resolve the kinematics of the problem, and have convincingly demonstrated the plausibility of regeneration action of the organised motion. However, the main problem of the dynamo-processes is yet in the early stages of development despite important contributions made by Soward and Busse. A review of some of these developments is presented. (author)
Magnetism and the interior of the moon
Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.
1974-01-01
During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.
Field Dependence and Vocational Choice of Interior Design Students.
Davis, Diane M.; And Others
One hundred ninety-three interior design college students were administered the Group Embedded Figures Test, a measure of field dependence, in order to evaluate two of Witkin's hypotheses regarding career choice. The career-differentiation hypothesis predicted that students electing to major in interior design would be field independent because…
Virtual Interior Design Based On VRML AND JAVA
Qi, Shaoliang
Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. In this paper, we use vrml and java to discuss the virtual interior design. EAI and JASI are used to realize the interaction between user and virtual interior scene.
Mood perception of interior colors in a gym
Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko
2002-06-01
When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.
The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.
1999-01-01
This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...
Design for subjective well-being in interior architecture
Petermans, A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.
2014-01-01
Can interior environments engage people in pleasurable and meaningful experiences and thereby have a positive influence on their happiness? This paper discusses why and how interior architects might want to consider implementing ideas in relation to ‘design for subjective well-being’. Despite of
Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum
Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.
2006-01-01
This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…
Interior spatial layout with soft objectives using evolutionary computation
Chatzikonstantinou, I.; Bengisu, E.
2016-01-01
This paper presents the design problem of furniture arrangement in a residential interior living space, and addresses it by means of evolutionary computation. Interior arrangement is an important and interesting problem that occurs commonly when designing living spaces. It entails determining the
Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study
Clemons, Stephanie A.
2006-01-01
Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…
Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework
Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy
2007-01-01
An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…
DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES
A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...
Knotworking In An Interior Décor Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Fisker, Anna Marie
2016-01-01
These days, new buildings are being built at Aalborg University in Denmark, why interior décor processes are initiated. Planning the interior décor of Aalborg University is centralized at the Shared Service Center, where internal architects furnish the spaces and buy the selected furniture withou...
Interior-Point Methods for Linear Programming: A Review
Singh, J. N.; Singh, D.
2002-01-01
The paper reviews some recent advances in interior-point methods for linear programming and indicates directions in which future progress can be made. Most of the interior-point methods belong to any of three categories: affine-scaling methods, potential reduction methods and central path methods. These methods are discussed together with…
Resilience of Athabascan subsistence systems to interior Alaska's changing climate
Gary P. Kofinas; F. Stuart Chapin; Shauna BurnSilver; Jennifer I. Schmidt; Nancy L. Fresco; Knut Kielland; Stephanie Martin; Anna Springsteen; T. Scott Rupp
2010-01-01
Subsistence harvesting and wild food production by Athabascan peoples is part of an integrated social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We describe effects of recent trends and future climate change projections on the boreal ecosystem of interior Alaska and relate changes in ecosystem services to Athabascan subsistence. We focus primarily on moose, a keystone...
Yang, S A
2002-10-01
This paper presents an effective solution method for predicting acoustic radiation and scattering fields in two dimensions. The difficulty of the fictitious characteristic frequency is overcome by incorporating an auxiliary interior surface that satisfies certain boundary condition into the body surface. This process gives rise to a set of uniquely solvable boundary integral equations. Distributing monopoles with unknown strengths over the body and interior surfaces yields the simple source formulation. The modified boundary integral equations are further transformed to ordinary ones that contain nonsingular kernels only. This implementation allows direct application of standard quadrature formulas over the entire integration domain; that is, the collocation points are exactly the positions at which the integration points are located. Selecting the interior surface is an easy task. Moreover, only a few corresponding interior nodal points are sufficient for the computation. Numerical calculations consist of the acoustic radiation and scattering by acoustically hard elliptic and rectangular cylinders. Comparisons with analytical solutions are made. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the current solution method.
Dream Home: a multiview stereoscopic interior design system
Hsiao, Fu-Jen; Teng, Chih-Jen; Lin, Chung-Wei; Luo, An-Chun; Yang, Jinn-Cherng
2010-01-01
In this paper, a novel multi-view stereoscopic interior design system, "Dream Home", has been developed to bring users new interior design experience. Different than other interior design system before, we put emphasis on its intuitive manipulation and multi-view stereoscopic visualization in real time. Users can do their own interior design just using their hands and eyes without any difficulty. They manipulate furniture cards directly as they wish to setup their living room in the model house task space, get the multi-view 3D visual feedback instantly, and re-adjust cards until they are satisfied. No special skills are required, and you can explore your design talent arbitrarily. We hope that "Dream Home" will make interior design more user-friendly, more intuitive, and more vivid.
From thermodynamics to the solutions in gravity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou
2014-01-01
In a recent work, we present a new point of view to the relation of gravity and thermodynamics, in which we derive the Schwarzschild solution through thermodynamic considerations by the aid of the Misner–Sharp mass in an adiabatic system. In this Letter we continue to investigate the relation between gravity and thermodynamics for obtaining solutions via thermodynamics. We generalize our studies on gravi-thermodynamics in Einstein gravity to modified gravity theories. By using the first law with the assumption that the Misner–Sharp mass is the mass for an adiabatic system, we reproduce the Boulware–Deser–Cai solution in Gauss–Bonnet gravity. Using this gravi-thermodynamic thought, we obtain a NEW class of solution in F(R) gravity in an n-dimensional (n≥3) spacetime which permits three-type (n−2)-dimensional maximally symmetric subspace, as an extension of our recent three-dimensional black hole solution, and four-dimensional Clifton–Barrow solution in F(R) gravity
From thermodynamics to the solutions in gravity theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongsheng Zhang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In a recent work, we present a new point of view to the relation of gravity and thermodynamics, in which we derive the Schwarzschild solution through thermodynamic considerations by the aid of the Misner–Sharp mass in an adiabatic system. In this Letter we continue to investigate the relation between gravity and thermodynamics for obtaining solutions via thermodynamics. We generalize our studies on gravi-thermodynamics in Einstein gravity to modified gravity theories. By using the first law with the assumption that the Misner–Sharp mass is the mass for an adiabatic system, we reproduce the Boulware–Deser–Cai solution in Gauss–Bonnet gravity. Using this gravi-thermodynamic thought, we obtain a NEW class of solution in F(R gravity in an n-dimensional (n≥3 spacetime which permits three-type (n−2-dimensional maximally symmetric subspace, as an extension of our recent three-dimensional black hole solution, and four-dimensional Clifton–Barrow solution in F(R gravity.
Event horizon and scalar potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duruisseau, J.P.; Tonnelat, M.A.
1977-01-01
The introduction of a scalar potential with a more general scheme than General Relativity eliminates the event horizon. Among possible solutions, the Schwarzschild one represents a singular case. A study of the geodesic properties of the matching with an approximated interior solution are given. A new definition of the gravitational mass and chi function is deduced. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bacoccoli, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Organizacao da Industria do Petroleo (ONIP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2004-07-01
Due to the development of the fields, already discovered in the deep waters of the Southeastern Atlantic Margin, the Brazilian domestic production will shortly be equivalent to the consumption. Despite reaching this goal, the exploration of large interior basins is still considered a challenge. Surprisingly, after the discoveries in the Solimoes Basin, as well after the opening of the Brazilian Petroleum Sector in 1997, the present level of the exploration activities in these basins is far below the previous historical averages. The available data are still now considered too scarce, to perform a proper evaluation. Apparently, a vicious circle has been established: due to the a priori low attractiveness new data are not acquired and because the lack of new data the attractiveness cannot be modified nor improved. The Parnaiba Basin is usually mentioned as an example of this poor amount of data. A modest coverage of ancient 2D seismic lines, and obsolete aero magnetic survey and thirty one exploratory wells, mostly located without geophysical support, represents all the available data in this vast basin with an area over 600,000 sq km. Recent regional geologic interpretations in such interior basins, as in Solimoes, Parana and also Parnaiba, are pointing out the presence of remarkable intraplate tectonic events, successively reactivated along the geologic time. It is now intended that these events can play an important role in the control of the petroleum system and in focalizing the new exploration activities. However, efforts should be applied in the revision of some regulatory rules, in Brazil, in order to better stimulate the onshore exploration and particularly the exploration of the interior basins. As recommended by the new Brazilian Petroleum Law, part of the government takes shall be effectively applied to acquire more geologic and geophysical data in the onshore areas (author)
Statistical interior properties of globular proteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou-Ting, Jiang; Tai-Quan, Wu; Lin-Xi, Zhang; Ting-Ting, Sun
2009-01-01
The character of forming long-range contacts affects the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins deeply. As the different ability to form long-range contacts between 20 types of amino acids and 4 categories of globular proteins, the statistical properties are thoroughly discussed in this paper. Two parameters N C and N D are defined to confine the valid residues in detail. The relationship between hydrophobicity scales and valid residue percentage of each amino acid is given in the present work and the linear functions are shown in our statistical results. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity scale defined by chemical derivatives of the amino acids and nonpolar phase of large unilamellar vesicle membranes is the most effective technique to characterise the hydrophobic behavior of amino acid residues. Meanwhile, residue percentage P i and sequential residue length L i of a certain protein i are calculated under different conditions. The statistical results show that the average value of P i as well as L i of all-α proteins has a minimum among these 4 classes of globular proteins, indicating that all-α proteins are hardly capable of forming long-range contacts one by one along their linear amino acid sequences. All-β proteins have a higher tendency to construct long-range contacts along their primary sequences related to the secondary configurations, i.e. parallel and anti-parallel configurations of β sheets. The investigation of the interior properties of globular proteins give us the connection between the three-dimensional structure and its primary sequence data or secondary configurations, and help us to understand the structure of protein and its folding process well. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Solutions of the linearized Bach-Einstein equation in the static spherically symmetric case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, H.J.
1985-01-01
The Bach-Einstein equation linearized around Minkowski space-time is completely solved. The set of solutions depends on three parameters; a two-parameter subset of it becomes asymptotically flat. In that region the gravitational potential is of the type phi = -m/r + epsilon exp (-r/l). Because of the different asymptotic behaviour of both terms, it became necessary to linearize also around the Schwarzschild solution phi = -m/r. The linearized equation resulting in this case is discussed using qualitative methods. The result is that for m = 2l phi = -m/r + epsilon r -2 exp (-r/l) u, where u is some bounded function; m is arbitrary and epsilon again small. Further, the relation between the solution of the linearized and the full equation is discussed. (author)
Black holes in the Universe: Generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Shen Yougen; Faraoni, Valerio
2011-01-01
We present new exact solutions which presumably describe black holes in the background of a spatially flat, pressureless dark-matter- or dark matter plus dark energy (DM+DE)- or quintom-dominated Universe. These solutions generalize Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metrics. For a dark-matter- or (DM+DE)-dominated universe, the area of the black hole apparent horizon (AH) decreases with the expansion of the Universe while that of the cosmic AH increases. However, for a quintom-dominated universe, the black hole AH first shrinks and then expands, while the cosmic AH first expands and then shrinks. A (DM+DE)-dominated universe containing a black hole will evolve to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution with both AHs approaching constant size. In a quintom-dominated universe, the black hole and cosmic AHs will coincide at a certain time, after which the singularity becomes naked, violating cosmic censorship.
Interiors of Vaidya's radiating metric: Gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayos, F.; Jaen, X.; Llanta, E.; Senovilla, J.M.M.
1992-01-01
Using the Darmois junction conditions, we give the necessary and sufficient conditions for the matching of a general spherically symmetric metric to a Vaidya radiating solution. We present also these conditions in terms of the physical quantities of the corresponding energy-momentum tensors. The physical interpretation of the results and their possible applications are studied, and we also perform a detailed analysis of previous work on the subject by other authors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urano, Miho; Tomimatsu, Akira; Saida, Hiromi
2009-01-01
The mechanical first law (MFL) of black hole spacetimes is a geometrical relation which relates variations of the mass parameter and horizon area. While it is well known that the MFL of an asymptotic flat black hole is equivalent to its thermodynamical first law, however we do not know the detail of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant which possess a black hole and cosmological event horizons. This paper aims to formulate an MFL of the two-horizon spacetimes. For this purpose, we try to include the effects of two horizons in the MFL. To do so, we make use of the Iyer-Wald formalism and extend it to regard the mass parameter and the cosmological constant as two independent variables which make it possible to treat the two horizons on the same footing. Our extended Iyer-Wald formalism preserves the existence of the conserved Noether current and its associated Noether charge, and gives an abstract form of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant. Then, as a representative application of this formalism, we derive the MFL of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) spacetime. Our MFL of the SdS spacetime relates the variations of three quantities: the mass parameter, the total area of the two horizons and the volume enclosed by the two horizons. If our MFL is regarded as a thermodynamical first law of the SdS spacetime, it offers a thermodynamically consistent description of the SdS black hole evaporation process: the mass decreases while the volume and the entropy increase. In our suggestion, a generalized second law is not needed to ensure the second law of SdS thermodynamics for its evaporation process.
Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing
Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária
2017-06-01
We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies
CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust
Noack, Lena; Labbe, Francois; Boiveau, Thomas; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim
2014-05-01
We present a new code developed for simulating convection in terrestrial planets and icy moons. The code CHIC is written in Fortran and employs the finite volume method and finite difference method for solving energy, mass and momentum equations in either silicate or icy mantles. The code uses either Cartesian (2D and 3D box) or spherical coordinates (2D cylinder or annulus). It furthermore contains a 1D parametrised model to obtain temperature profiles in specific regions, for example in the iron core or in the silicate mantle (solving only the energy equation). The 2D/3D convection model uses the same input parameters as the 1D model, which allows for comparison of the different models and adaptation of the 1D model, if needed. The code has already been benchmarked for the following aspects: - viscosity-dependent rheology (Blankenbach et al., 1989) - pseudo-plastic deformation (Tosi et al., in preparation phase) - subduction mechanism and plastic deformation (Quinquis et al., in preparation phase) New features that are currently developed and benchmarked include: - compressibility (following King et al., 2009 and Leng and Zhong, 2008) - different melt modules (Plesa et al., in preparation phase) - freezing of an inner core (comparison with GAIA code, Huettig and Stemmer, 2008) - build-up of oceanic and continental crust (Noack et al., in preparation phase) The code represents a useful tool to couple the interior with the surface of a planet (e.g. via build-up and erosion of crust) and it's atmosphere (via outgassing on the one hand and subduction of hydrated crust and carbonates back into the mantle). It will be applied to investigate several factors that might influence the habitability of a terrestrial planet, and will also be used to simulate icy bodies with high-pressure ice phases. References: Blankenbach et al. (1989). A benchmark comparison for mantle convection codes. GJI 98, 23-38. Huettig and Stemmer (2008). Finite volume discretization for dynamic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z
1982-01-01
A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.
Development of an anti-flood board to protect the interiors and exteriors of the infrastructure
Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel; Sevcik, Ladislav; Martinec, Tomas; Kulhavy, Petr
2018-06-01
This article deals with the development of an anti-flood board to protect the interior and exterior of various infrastructures, such a houses, cottages or industrial buildings. It was designed prototypes and assembled numerical simulations. In Central Europe and in particular in the Czech Republic, floods are an integral part of the natural water cycle and cause great loss of life and great property damage. The development of new types of mobile anti-flood boards is very important as the design solution is developed for flood protection with regard to minimizing weight, cost of production, easy manipulation, simplicity and speed of installation.
Design team simplifies interior to aid patient recuperation.
Fishback, B W; Krewson, C
1981-02-16
Vanderbilt University Medical Center's architect and interior designer coordinated efforts to minimize medical components by painting them a neutral color and sought a unified approach throughout the building to make it more personal without a substantial cost increase.
3D radar wavefield tomography of comet interiors
Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik
2018-04-01
Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their surface and interior structure in detail and at high resolution. The interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography. Radar tomography can be performed using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology. Our feasibility study primarily focuses on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated in various frequency bands between 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Using realistic numerical experiments, we demonstrate that wavefield techniques can generate high resolution tomograms of comets nuclei with arbitrary shape and complex interior properties.
Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolini, Piero; Singleton, Douglas
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no-hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal “bits” on the horizon and “voxels”, representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels
Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2007 Appropriations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vincent, Carol H; Bearden, David M; Corn, M. L; Gorte, Ross W; Humphries, Marc; Sheikh, Pervaze A; Whiteman, David L; Boren, Susan; Walke, Roger; Bea, Keith
2007-01-01
... of Health and Human Services. It also includes funding for arts and cultural agencies; the Environmental Protection Agency, which was recently transferred to the appropriations subcommittees that deal with Interior and Related Agencies...
Dynamical measurements of the interior structure of exoplanets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Juliette C.; Batygin, Konstantin
2013-01-01
Giant gaseous planets often reside on orbits in sufficient proximity to their host stars for the planetary quadrupole gravitational field to become non-negligible. In presence of an additional planetary companion, a precise characterization of the system's orbital state can yield meaningful constraints on the transiting planet's interior structure. However, such methods can require a very specific type of system. This paper explores the dynamic range of applicability of these methods and shows that interior structure calculations are possible for a wide array of orbital architectures. The HAT-P-13 system is used as a case study, and the implications of perturbations arising from a third distant companion on the feasibility of an interior calculation are discussed. We find that the method discussed here is likely to be useful in studying other planetary systems, allowing the possibility of an expanded survey of the interiors of exoplanets.
Vibrant Interior Reflects Lifestyle. 1974 Award Winning Architecture
American School and University, 1974
1974-01-01
The design of the student center at Essex Community College in Baltimore County, Maryland, reflects youthful lifestyles in the interior decor while providing exterior design to harmonize with existing campus buildings. (Author/MF)
Early User Appraisal of the MDARS Interior Robot
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Laird, R
1999-01-01
The Mobile Detection Assessment Response System (MDARS) is a joint Army-Navy effort to field interior and exterior autonomous platforms for security and inventory assessment functions at DoD warehouses and storage sites...
Support-free interior carving for 3D printing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Xie
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Recent interior carving methods for functional design necessitate a cumbersome cut-and-glue process in fabrication. We propose a method to generate interior voids which not only satisfy the functional purposes but are also support-free during the 3D printing process. We introduce a support-free unit structure for voxelization and derive the wall thicknesses parametrization for continuous optimization. We also design a discrete dithering algorithm to ensure the printability of ghost voxels. The interior voids are iteratively carved by alternating the optimization and dithering. We apply our method to optimize the static and rotational stability, and print various results to evaluate the efficacy. Keywords: Interior carving, Support-free, Voxels dithering, Shape optimization, 3D printing
Effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces
Odabaşıoğlu, Seden
2015-01-01
Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-152). The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces. Area in color harmony is the relative amount of different color areas represented as a proportion on which color harmony depends. Colors in the color ...
Interior design as a motivation for creating creative spaces
Weiner, Nina
2013-01-01
The thesis underlines the importance of a thoughtful, systematic and modern way of designing classrooms due to its effects on productivity and creativity of pupils. The theoretical part focuses on the relationship between creativity and art classroom; a particular attention is given to the elements of interior design of art classrooms, enabling such organisation of space that fosters creativity in pupils. The emphasis is given on colour and lights as essential elements of interior design. In ...
Perancangan Interior Redesain Restoran Bambuden 2 Di Makassar
Limewa, Jaquliene Feby
2017-01-01
Chinese restaurant is one of the most popular places in the community. Rebranding interior design Bambuden 2 restaurant in Makassar is an interior design of a restaurant that presents dominant chinese food, by offering a blend of Oriental character & Elegant Nuance by adding Bar within the restaurant in different scope area. The restaurant is designed is one restaurant that is designed for the middle to top, with a system of waiter service or waitress to tables. The planned facilities inc...
Trends in CAD education in interior design programs
Ko, Hye Mi
1990-01-01
This research investigated Computer Aided Design (CAD) education in the interior design. program focusing on educators' opinions about creativity aspects including computer application, teaching materials and teaching methods as well as other trends in CAD education. A questionnaire was sent to one hundred eighty-two members of the Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC). A frequency distribution was used on 69 usable returned surveys to describe the sample characteristi...
Architecture, landscape architecture and interior- Hons B 2009
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Osman, A
2010-03-01
Full Text Available will be as follows: 1. History of Urban Form 2. Urban Renewal and Reactions 3. Urban Order, Security and Power 4. Colonial Impact on Urban From 5. Memory and Conservation 6. Considering the Public and Private Realm 7. Housing and Urban Form ? Type, Poetics 8....e. ?interior design? / ?inte- rior architecture?). Interior design is the reaction to ?found? space and follows three modes of produc- tion: installation, insertion and intervention. Archi- tectural theory pertinent to the discipline?s ontology...
Perancangan Interior Pusat Pendidikan Fashion Di Kota Samarinda
William, Livia Gabrielle
2016-01-01
Interior Education Center Fashion in Samarinda City aims to find education center of fashion that can complete student's facilities, finding educational center of fashion that produces interior design educational, informative, and presentative, find educational center of fashion which can show elements of Indonesian culture, discover fashion education center that can attract people in Samarinda. The expected benefits of this research is for the public forum for people who have become fashion ...
Interior Gradient Estimates for Nonuniformly Parabolic Equations II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lieberman Gary M
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We prove interior gradient estimates for a large class of parabolic equations in divergence form. Using some simple ideas, we prove these estimates for several types of equations that are not amenable to previous methods. In particular, we have no restrictions on the maximum eigenvalue of the coefficient matrix and we obtain interior gradient estimates for so-called false mean curvature equation.
Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail
Udall, B.
2012-12-01
After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations
Environmental Approach In Interior Design Education In Turkey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derya Adıgüzel
2013-12-01
Full Text Available These days there has been a severe encroachment on nature, a large amount of waste being generated, and natural resources being used irresponsibly during the design, application and usage phases of buildings. Environmental sensitivity is necessary during the construction of new buildings and re-usage of current buildings to resolve environmental problems. In order to increase environmental sensitivity, a great responsibility falls onto interior design along with other disciplines during the creation of living spaces. The accumulation of knowledge from career training and the level of awareness will determine the practical development of environmentally sensitive interior design. Therefore the purpose of this article is to make a determination of the current state of environmental design in interior design education in Turkey. The degree to which environmental design is reflected in the curricula of interior design departments was studied. The relationship between the awareness level of the students and the educational programs will be presented through three samples. Surveys were conducted at three universities that have varying degrees of environmental design within the interior design curricula. As a result, the importance of having an environmentally conscious design understanding within the curricula of interior design and recommendations for improving the environmental design awareness of students will be presented in this article.
Effects of coloured lighting on the perception of interior spaces.
Odabaşioğlu, Seden; Olguntürk, Nіlgün
2015-02-01
Use of coloured lighting in interior spaces has become prevalent in recent years. Considerable importance is ascribed to coloured lighting in interior and lighting design. The effects of colour on the perception of interior spaces have been studied as surface colour; but here, the effects of three different types of chromatic light were investigated. The lighting differed in colour (red, green and white) and perceptions of interior space were assessed. 97 participants (59 women, 38 men; M age = 21.4 yr.) evaluated the experiment room on a questionnaire assessing eight evaluative factors: Pleasantness, Arousal, Aesthetics, Usefulness, Comfort, Spaciousness, Colour, and Lighting quality. Perceptions of the room differed by colour of lighting for some of the evaluative factors, but there was no sex difference in perceptions. Interior spaces may be perceived as equally pleasant under white, green and red lighting. Under white lighting a space is perceived as more useful, spacious, clear, and luminous. Green lighting would make the same effect. Green and white lighting were perceived equally comfortable in an interior space. Chromatic coloured lighting was perceived to be more aesthetic than white lighting. The results support previous findings for some evaluative factors, but differed for others.
Scout-view assisted interior micro-CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Kriti Sen; Narayanan, Shree; Agah, Masoud; Holzner, Christian; Vasilescu, Dragoş M; Jin, Xin; Hoffman, Eric A; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge
2013-01-01
Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms. (paper)
SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skidmore, T. E.
2016-01-01
Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.
SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2016-10-14
Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.
Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves and wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zerbini, Sergio
2016-01-01
In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering, in addition, a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such a potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which are traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials, which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild space-time. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter. (paper)
Interior point algorithms: guaranteed optimality for fluence map optimization in IMRT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleman, Dionne M [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada); Glaser, Daniel [Division of Optimization and Systems Theory, Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Romeijn, H Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2117 (United States); Dempsey, James F, E-mail: aleman@mie.utoronto.c, E-mail: romeijn@umich.ed, E-mail: jfdempsey@viewray.co [ViewRay, Inc. 2 Thermo Fisher Way, Village of Oakwood, OH 44146 (United States)
2010-09-21
One of the most widely studied problems of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning problem is the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem, the problem of determining the amount of radiation intensity, or fluence, of each beamlet in each beam. For a given set of beams, the fluences of the beamlets can drastically affect the quality of the treatment plan, and thus it is critical to obtain good fluence maps for radiation delivery. Although several approaches have been shown to yield good solutions to the FMO problem, these solutions are not guaranteed to be optimal. This shortcoming can be attributed to either optimization model complexity or properties of the algorithms used to solve the optimization model. We present a convex FMO formulation and an interior point algorithm that yields an optimal treatment plan in seconds, making it a viable option for clinical applications.
Interior point algorithms: guaranteed optimality for fluence map optimization in IMRT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleman, Dionne M; Glaser, Daniel; Romeijn, H Edwin; Dempsey, James F
2010-01-01
One of the most widely studied problems of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning problem is the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem, the problem of determining the amount of radiation intensity, or fluence, of each beamlet in each beam. For a given set of beams, the fluences of the beamlets can drastically affect the quality of the treatment plan, and thus it is critical to obtain good fluence maps for radiation delivery. Although several approaches have been shown to yield good solutions to the FMO problem, these solutions are not guaranteed to be optimal. This shortcoming can be attributed to either optimization model complexity or properties of the algorithms used to solve the optimization model. We present a convex FMO formulation and an interior point algorithm that yields an optimal treatment plan in seconds, making it a viable option for clinical applications.
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect as a probe of the solar interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L.H.; Cheng, Q.L.; Zhang, H.Q.; Peng, Q.H.
1997-01-01
We relate the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect to the effective absorption of the electronic collective motion energy by retaining the imaginary part of the index of refraction associated with the charged-current scattering and show that the small angle MSW solution to the solar neutrino anomaly can be used as a probe of the physical conditions of the solar interior if it is correct. We find that the constraint on the absorption imposed by the small angle MSW solution and the theoretical estimate of the absorption by the Boltzmann kinetic theory are consistent, which shows that a consistent theoretical picture can be developed when plasma absorption processes are taken into account. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Emotion and interior space design: an ergonomic perspective.
Reddy, Swathi Matta; Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Karmakar, Sougata
2012-01-01
Interaction between the users and their environment is spontaneous and unavoidable. This interaction can be positive or negative. A good interior space is about considering all the physical, environmental and cognitive elements and harmonizing them to make it a space that feels right, functionally and emotionally. The important element that has to be considered the most in an interior space is the "user". Balancing all these elements is a challenging job and results in a perfect interior space design. This paper intends to bring to light the necessity of designing an optimum interior space, which is a balance of the user's choice and the mandatory standards that ought to be followed for user safety and convenience. There has to be an intervening domain of ergonomics which will guide to bring out a balance between the personal choice of the user and the usual standards followed. It should also provide a step-by-step information, guidance and direction to act to the specifications and standards systematically to adapt an integrated approach of handling all the elements holistically which will indeed result in a good interior space.
Development of a Virtual Reality Solution for End User Involvement in Interior Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Jesper Bendix
2016-01-01
This paper describes development and test of a prototype Virtual Reality system aimed at user involvement in hospital design. User needs and functional requirements are captured by interviews and observations in three case studies of ongoing projects in Denmark. Based on the identified requirements......, a prototype is developed based on a multitouch display for manipulating room layout in a floor plan view and a set of Oculus Rift glasses for experiencing the design in Virtual Reality. Together with users from the studied cases, test scenarios were performed to identify possible benefits, challenges...
Solution to Problem 11432 [2009,463] - Interior evaluation and boundary evaluation
Lossers, O.P.
2011-01-01
Proposed by Marian Tetiva, National College "Gheorghe Rosca Codreanu," Birlad, Romania. Let P be a polynomial of degree n with complex coefficients and with p(0) = 0. Show that for any complex alfa with alfa <1 there exist complex numbers Z1, .... , Zn+2, all of norm 1, such that P(a) = P(z1) + ...
Schwarzschild, Karl (1873-1916)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Mathematical physicist, born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, at first worked on celestial mechanics, including POINCARÉ's theory of rotating bodies, the tidal deformation of moons and LAPLACE's origin of the solar system. He became professor at Göttingen and Potsdam. He wrote on relativity and quantum theory. He early on proposed that space was non-Euclidean, giving a lower limit for the radius of...
A complete solution for GP-B's gyroscopic precession by retarded gravitational theory
Tang, Keyun
Mainstream physicists generally believe that Mercury’s Perihelion precession and GP-B’ gyroscopic precession are two of the strongest evidences supporting Einstein’ curved spacetime and general relativity. However, most classical literatures and textbooks (e.g. Ohanain: Gravitation and Spacetime) paint an incorrect picture of Mercury’s orbit anomaly, namely Mercury’s perihelion precessed 43 arc-seconds per century; a correct picture should be that Mercury rotated 43 arc-seconds per century more than along Newtonian theoretical orbit. The essence of Le Verrier’s and Newcomb’s observation and analysis is that the angular speed of Mercury is slightly faster than the Newtonian theoretical value. The complete explanation to Mercury’s orbit anomaly should include two factors, perihelion precession is one of two factors, in addition, the change of orbital radius will also cause a change of angular speed, which is another component of Mercury's orbital anomaly. If Schwarzschild metric is correct, then the solution of the Schwarzschild orbit equation must contain three non-ignorable items. The first corresponds to Newtonian ellipse; the second is a nonlinear perturbation with increasing amplitude, which causes the precession of orbit perihelion; this is just one part of the angular speed anomaly of Mercury; the third part is a linear perturbation, corresponding to a similar figure of the Newton's ellipse, but with a minimal radius; this makes no contribution to the perihelion precession of the Schwarzschild orbit, but makes the Schwarzschild orbital radius slightly smaller, leading to a slight increase in Mercury’s angular speed. All classical literatures of general relativity ignored this last factor, which is a gross oversight. If you correctly take all three factors into consideration, the final result is that the difference between the angles rotated along Schwarzschild’s orbit and the angle rotated along Newton’s orbit for one hundred years should
Temperature evolution during dissipative collapse
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We investigate the gravitational collapse of a radiating sphere evolving into a final static configuration described by the interior Schwarzschild solution. The temperature profiles of this par- ticular model are obtained within the framework of causal thermodynamics. The overall temperature evolution is enhanced by ...
On stellar collapse: continual or oscillatory. A short comment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, P.T.
1980-01-01
We comment on a previously published paper on the oscillatory dynamics of stellar collapse and conclude that the Schwarzschild interior solution applied to the 'inflection points' can never give rise to a 'turning back' motion, in spite of the fact that the geodesic equation really does not always describe an attractive gravitational acceleration
Surface phenomena and the evolution of radiating fluid spheres in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, L.; Jimenez, J.; Esculpi, M.; Ibanez, J.
1989-01-01
A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres (Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri) is extended to the case in which surface phenomena are taken into account. The equations have been integrated numerically for a model derived from the Schwarzschild interior solution, bringing out the effects of surface tension on the evolution of the spheres. 17 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seitz, M.G.
1982-01-01
Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results
26 CFR 49.4253-9 - Exemption for certain interior communication systems.
2010-04-01
... Exemption for certain interior communication systems. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by section 4251 do... rendered through the use of an interior communication system. (b) Interior communication system. The term “interior communication system” means any system: (1) No part of which is situated off the premises of the...
On ethics and the earthquake resistant interior design of buildings.
Hurol, Yonca
2014-03-01
The most common tectonic quality of modern structures, such as frame systems, is their flexibility; they are open for change. Although this characteristic is a big advantage in comparison to the inflexible masonry structures of the past, it might also create some serious problems, such as e.g. the lack of safety in the event of an earthquake, if the flexibility is not used consciously by architects and interior designers. This article attempts to define and establish some rules for the interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems. The rules for making subtractions from these structures and extending them by making additions to them are contained within this article. The main objective of this article is to derive some ethical values from these rules. Thus, the conclusion of the article focuses on the derivation of some ethical values for achieving earthquake resistant interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems.
PhD Thesis: Functional Textiles in Hospital Interiors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Jeppe Emil
The PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three-year collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The thesis...... years, knowledge on the use of interior materials and textiles are still rather limited. Contemporary hospital design has been widely criticised of being too institutional and clinical, and one of the main reasons for this experience may be related to the use of ‘cold’, hard-surfaced materials...... of plastic, vinyl and steel. These materials also dominate the new hospitals, designed and constructed these years, and despite the increased focus on the design concept healing architecture, the rational requirements of ef cient cleaning and maintenance still seems to direct the interior design of hospital...
Model Based Control of Moisture Sorption in a Historical Interior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Zítek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel scheme for microclimate control in historical exhibition rooms, inhibiting moisture sorption phenomena that are inadmissible from the preventive conservation point of view. The impact of air humidity is the most significant harmful exposure for a great deal of the cultural heritage deposited in remote historical buildings. Leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, the proposed non-linear model-based control protects exhibits from harmful variations in moisture content by compensating the temperature drifts with an adequate adjustment of the air humidity. Already implemented in a medieval interior since 1999, the proposed microclimate control has proved capable of permanently maintaining constant a desirable moisture content in organic or porous materials in the interior of a building.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)
2011-11-01
This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.
Magnetic Modeling of Inflated Low-mass Stars Using Interior Fields No Larger than ˜10 kG
MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J.
2017-11-01
We have previously reported on models of low-mass stars in which the presence of inflated radii is ascribed to magnetic fields that impede the onset of convection. Some of our magneto-convection models have been criticized because, when they were first reported by Mullan & MacDonald, the deep interior fields were found to be very large (50-100 MG). Such large fields are now known to be untenable. For example, Browning et al. used stability arguments to suggest that interior fields in low-mass stars cannot be larger than ˜1 MG. Moreover, 3D models of turbulent stellar dynamos suggest that fields generated in low-mass interiors may be not much stronger than 10-20 kG. In the present paper, we present magneto-convective models of inflated low-mass stars in which the interior fields are not permitted to be stronger than 10 kG. These models are used to fit empirical data for 15 low-mass stars for which precise masses and radii have been measured. We show that our 10 kG magneto-convective models can replicate the empirical radii and effective temperatures for 14 of the stars. In the case of the remaining star (in the Praesepe cluster), two different solutions have been reported in the literature. We find that one of these solutions can be fitted well with our model using the nominal age of Praesepe (800 Myr). However, the second solution cannot be fitted unless the star’s age is assumed to be much younger (˜150 Myr).
Interior near-field acoustical holography in flight.
Williams, E G; Houston, B H; Herdic, P C; Raveendra, S T; Gardner, B
2000-10-01
In this paper boundary element methods (BEM) are mated with near-field acoustical holography (NAH) in order to determine the normal velocity over a large area of a fuselage of a turboprop airplane from a measurement of the pressure (hologram) on a concentric surface in the interior of the aircraft. This work represents the first time NAH has been applied in situ, in-flight. The normal fuselage velocity was successfully reconstructed at the blade passage frequency (BPF) of the propeller and its first two harmonics. This reconstructed velocity reveals structure-borne and airborne sound-transmission paths from the engine to the interior space.
Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staub, W.P.
1978-01-01
A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings
Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization in Interior Architecture Education
Arslan, Ali Riza; Dazkir, Sibel Seda
2017-01-01
We explored how beginning-level interior architecture students develop skills to create mental visualizations of three-dimensional objects and environments, how they develop their technical drawing skills, and whether or not physical and computer generated models aid this design process. We used interviews and observations to collect data. The…
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole
Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos
2009-10-01
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.
Computer-assisted ergonomic analysis for vehicle interior design
Punte, P.A.J.; Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.
2000-01-01
TNO Human Factors is involved in the process of designing and testing a new concept for driver workplaces in passenger cars, i.e. with a horizontally fixed driver seat and adjustable pedals, steering wheel and instrument panel. This new concept is intended to achieve an interior space and
Radon measurements in the interior of the great pyramid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kenawy, M A; Morsy, A A [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). College for Girls
1991-01-01
Radon concentration measurements were made in the interior of the great pyramid of ''Cheops'' at Giza. Measurements were carried out using CR-39 as a solid state nuclear track detector. The CR-39 sheets were placed inside the Queen's and King's chambers and along the ascending corridor leading to them. An evaluation of the radon concentration is presented and discussed. (author).
Penerapan Tipografi dalam Sistem Signage pada Interior Ruang Publik
Ulli Aulia Ruki; Amarena Nediari
2014-01-01
Sistem signage diaplikasikan pada sebuah interior ruang publik dengan memerhatikan dasar tipografi. Manfaat signage adalah memberikan kemudahan para pengguna ruang publik dalam mencapai tujuan saat mereka berada di dalam sebuah bangunan. Hal mendasar yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merencanakan sistem signage adalah kejelasan bentuk huruf serta kemudahan untuk dibaca. Masih banyak desainer yang kurang memerhatikan desain signage, sehingga terkadang desainnya memberikan kesan hanya s...
77 FR 45650 - Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012
2012-08-01
... the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill for fiscal year 2012, the House of... management services in support of the Departmental and bureau missions and to better direct scarce resources... been conducted as they are a major partner in the Federal wildland fire management program. On June 19...
Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liao Lian Ying
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.
Exploring the Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Interior Design Education
Afacan, Yasemin
2016-01-01
This study explores how blended learning can contribute to interior design students' learning outcomes, their engagement with non-studio courses and affect their learning achievements. Within the framework of the study, a blended learning experience was carried out in "IAED 342 Building Performance" module at Bilkent University, Turkey.…
U-CrAc Flexible Interior Doctrine, Agile Learning Environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss
2012-01-01
The research domain of this article is flexible learning environment for immediate use. The research question is: How can the learning environment support an agile learning process? The research contribution of this article is a flexible interior doctrine. The research method is action research...
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos
2009-01-01
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.
The Integration of Interior Architecture Education with Digital Design Approaches
Yazicioglu, Deniz Ayse
2011-01-01
It is inevitable that as a result of progress in technology and the changes in the ways with which design is conceived, interior architecture schools should be updated according to these requirements and that new educational processes should be tried out. It is for this reason that the scope and aim of this study have been determined as being the…
Service-Learning and Interior Design: A Case Study
Sterling, Mary
2007-01-01
The case study approach was used to analyze experiential learning through its three components: knowledge, action, and reflection. Two interior design courses were integrated through a university service-learning project. The restoration/adaptive reuse of a 95-year-old library building was to serve as a prototype for future off-campus…
Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits
Jurado, Juan A.
2011-01-01
Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…
The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): design and development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Adkins, Phillip W.
2016-01-01
During 2014 and 2015, NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission proceeded successfully through Phase C, Design and Development. An X-ray (0.2-12 keV) astrophysics payload destined for the International Space Station, NICER is manifested for launch in early 2017...
Perceptions of Interior Design Program Chairs Regarding Credentials for Faculty
Miller, Beth R.
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether program chairs in interior design have a preferred degree credential for candidates seeking a full-time, tenure-track position or other full-time position at their institution and to determine if there is a correlation between this preference and the program chair's university's demographics,…
Improving FCS Accountability: Increasing STEM Awareness with Interior Design Modules
Etheredge, Jessica; Moody, Dana; Cooper, Ashley
2014-01-01
This paper demonstrates ways in which family and consumer sciences (FCS) educators can explore more opportunities to integrate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) principles into secondary education curriculum. Interior design is used as a case study for creating learning modules that incorporate STEM principles in a creative and…
Group Dynamics in the Interior Design Studio: Student Perceptions
Hill, Caroline
2008-01-01
This article presents the findings of a study measuring the classroom climates in collegiate interior design studios and considers these findings within the group dynamics theory framework. Three groups of students completed the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) questionnaire. Five of the six CCES subscale F ratios were statistically…
Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow
Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.
2001-01-01
The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The
Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience
Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.
2012-01-01
Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet
The Attitudes of Interior Design Students towards Sustainability
Ruff, Caimen Leigh; Olson, Margot A.
2009-01-01
To measure attitudes toward environmental issues, interior design students responded to a four-part survey: demographics, ecology, sustainability, and comments. The ecology section was composed of modifications of questions from the New Ecological Paradigm Scale (Dunlap et al. "Journal of Environmental Education," 9:10-19, 2000). The researchers…
Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Genni Fragnelli
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.
Pertimbangan Aspek Kejiwaan terhadap Feng Shui dalam Perancangan Interior
C. Indrani, Hedy
2003-01-01
The truth of applying feng shui in interior design is always doubted because feng shui is still consider mystically, unlogic, and unusual, therefore it needs facts of this potential feng shui. As knowledge, feng shui psychologically plays important role for home design that it increases psychological life of the residents.
Resonant inverter supplied Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, rotor position in relation to the resonant frequency component current in the stator winding of DC-voltage link resonant inverter supplied Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor has been developed. Six reference frames are used to relate the rotor position angle to the resonant frequency component current ...
Hot-start Giant Planets Form with Radiative Interiors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berardo, David; Cumming, Andrew, E-mail: david.berardo@mcgill.ca, E-mail: andrew.cumming@mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2017-09-10
In the hot-start core accretion formation model for gas giants, the interior of a planet is usually assumed to be fully convective. By calculating the detailed internal evolution of a planet assuming hot-start outer boundary conditions, we show that such a planet will in fact form with a radially increasing internal entropy profile, so that its interior will be radiative instead of convective. For a hot outer boundary, there is a minimum value for the entropy of the internal adiabat S {sub min} below which the accreting envelope does not match smoothly onto the interior, but instead deposits high entropy material onto the growing interior. One implication of this would be to at least temporarily halt the mixing of heavy elements within the planet, which are deposited by planetesimals accreted during formation. The compositional gradient this would impose could subsequently disrupt convection during post-accretion cooling, which would alter the observed cooling curve of the planet. However, even with a homogeneous composition, for which convection develops as the planet cools, the difference in cooling timescale will change the inferred mass of directly imaged gas giants.
Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior. 355. Figure 2. Zonal and meridional components of the time-dependent residual velocity at a few selected depths as marked above each panel, are plotted as contours of constant velocity in the longitude-latitude plane. The left panels show the zonal component, ...
Primal-Dual Interior Point Multigrid Method for Topology Optimization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kočvara, Michal; Mohammed, S.
2016-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 5 (2016), B685-B709 ISSN 1064-8275 Grant - others:European Commission - EC(XE) 313781 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : topology optimization * multigrid method s * interior point method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/kocvara-0462418.pdf
A smartphone photogrammetry method for digitizing prosthetic socket interiors.
Hernandez, Amaia; Lemaire, Edward
2017-04-01
Prosthetic CAD/CAM systems require accurate 3D limb models; however, difficulties arise when working from the person's socket since current 3D scanners have difficulties scanning socket interiors. While dedicated scanners exist, they are expensive and the cost may be prohibitive for a limited number of scans per year. A low-cost and accessible photogrammetry method for socket interior digitization is proposed, using a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry services. 15 two-dimensional images of the socket's interior are captured using a smartphone camera. A 3D model is generated using cloud-based software. Linear measurements were comparing between sockets and the related 3D models. 3D reconstruction accuracy averaged 2.6 ± 2.0 mm and 0.086 ± 0.078 L, which was less accurate than models obtained by high quality 3D scanners. However, this method would provide a viable 3D digital socket reproduction that is accessible and low-cost, after processing in prosthetic CAD software. Clinical relevance The described method provides a low-cost and accessible means to digitize a socket interior for use in prosthetic CAD/CAM systems, employing a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry software.
Remarks on interior transmission eigenvalues, Weyl formula and branching billiards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakshtanov, E; Vainberg, B
2012-01-01
This paper contains the Weyl formula for the counting function of the interior transmission problem when the latter is parameter elliptic. Branching billiard trajectories are constructed, and the second term of the Weyl asymptotics is estimated from above under some conditions on the set of periodic billiard trajectories. (paper)
Interior Point Methods for Large-Scale Nonlinear Programming
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan
2005-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 4-5 (2005), s. 569-582 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : nonlinear programming * interior point methods * KKT systems * indefinite preconditioners * filter methods * algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005
49 CFR 38.155 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.155 Section 38.155 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH... passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able to lean against the assist...
49 CFR 38.29 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.29 Section 38.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES... boarding passenger from the front door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able to lean...
49 CFR 38.77 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.77 Section 38.77 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES... passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able to lean against the assist...
Woody debris dynamics in Interior West forests and woodlands
John D. Shaw; James Long; Raffaella Marzano; Matteo Garbarino
2012-01-01
Managers are interested in the dynamics of down woody material because of its role as a fuel component, a feature of wildlife habitat, a carbon pool, and other characteristics. We analyzed nearly 9,000 plots from the Interior West, spanning the range from sparse juniper and mesquite woodland to dense spruce-fir forests, in order to characterize down woody material as...
Forward scatter radar for remote intelligence of building interiors
Rossum, W.L. van; Wit, J.J.M. de
2017-01-01
Through-wall radar allows for remote intelligence of building interiors including stand-off detection and tracking of persons inside a building. However, reliable radar tracking of people inside a building is not trivial. Conventional, monostatic through-wall radar measures the backscatter of moving
Perancangan Interior Nestlé's Cereal World Di Surabaya
Mariana Wibowo, Linda Gunawan
2014-01-01
Nestlé's Cereal World is a new facility in foodservice industry, which people can explore and obtain a new experience about cereal through 4 main facilities: attraction, discover, dining, and shopping. Nestlé's Cereal World design will use Nestlé's interior branding, which the tangible and intangible design will represent the Nestlé's Cereal identity.
Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
2009-01-01
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…
Radon measurements in the interior of the great pyramid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenawy, M.A.; Morsy, A.A.
1991-01-01
Radon concentration measurements were made in the interior of the great pyramid of ''Cheops'' at Giza. Measurements were carried out using CR-39 as a solid state nuclear track detector. The CR-39 sheets were placed inside the Queen's and King's chambers and along the ascending corridor leading to them. An evaluation of the radon concentration is presented and discussed. (author)
The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors
Pasqualini, Isabella; Blefari, Maria Laura; Tadi, Tej; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf
2018-01-01
The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification) and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location). However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented architectonic space. PMID
The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors.
Pasqualini, Isabella; Blefari, Maria Laura; Tadi, Tej; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf
2018-01-01
The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification) and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location). However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented architectonic space.
The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isabella Pasqualini
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location. However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented
Pengaruh Elemen Interior Restoran terhadap Pengalaman Nostalgia Konsumen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miranti Sari Rahma
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Selama beberapa tahun terakhir, restoran bertema "nostalgia" menjadi populer di Bandung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi unsur-unsur lingkungan yang disukai konsumen di restoran yang dapat mempengaruhi respon pengalaman nostalgia konsumen di restoran. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif eksploratif untuk menentukan variabel yang dapat digunakan sebagai stimulus eksperimen berikutnya guna mendapatkan respon persepsi, emosi, dan sikap. Data hasil eksperimen dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA, menunjukkan bahwa (1 elemen interior restoran yang paling mempengaruhi pengalaman nostalgia konsumen di restoran; (2 meskipun gaya modern dapat membangkitkan respon persepsi, emosi dan sikap nostalgia, elemen dekoratif dan furnitur kolonial paling efektif dapat membangkitkan pengalaman nostalga; (3 ditemukan juga hubungan antara persepsi, emosi, dan sikap kaitannya dengan proses persepsi, emosi dapat mempengaruhi sikap konsumen di restoran, hal ini sejalan dengan mekanisme persepsi dimana kontribusi pengalaman masa lalu dapat membangkitkan emosi sehingga mempengaruhi persepsi dan munculnya sikap konsumen di restoran. Effect of Restaurant Interior Elements on Consumer Nostalgic Experience Abstract. In the last few years, ‘nostalgic’ restaurants have become quite popular in Bandung. This study was aimed at exploring interior elements that may evoke a nostalgic experience in consumers in a restaurant. In this study, an exploratory descriptive method was applied to determine the variables to be used as stimulus in the experiment to get perception, emotion, and attitude responses. The data of this research were analyzed by ANOVA and showed that: (1 interior elements of the restaurant influenced the nostalgic experience by consumers; (2 colonial decorative elements and colonial style furniture, even if other interior elements have a modern style, can evoke nostalgic perceptions, emotions, and attitudes; (3 a link was found between perceptions
Relativistic static thin dust disks with an inner edge: An infinite family of new exact solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Gutierrez-Pineres, Antonio C.; Vina-Cervantes, Viviana M.
2009-01-01
An infinite family of new exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations is presented. The solutions are static and axially symmetric and correspond to an infinite family of thin dust disks with a central inner edge. The metric functions of all the solutions can be explicitly computed, and can be expressed in a simple manner in terms of oblate spheroidal coordinates. The energy density of all the disks of the family is positive everywhere and well behaved, so that the corresponding energy-momentum tensor is in full agreement with all the energy conditions. Moreover, although the total mass of the disks is infinite, the solutions are asymptotically flat and the Riemann tensor is regular everywhere, as it is shown by computing the curvature scalars. Now, besides its importance as a new family of exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations, the main importance of this family of solutions is that it can be easily superposed with the Schwarzschild solution in order to describe thin disks surrounding a central black hole. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of this superposition will be presented in a subsequent paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nouri, N.; Plaster, B.
2014-12-11
An experiment may face the challenge of real-time determination of the magnetic field vector components present within some interior region of the experimental apparatus over which it is impossible to directly measure the field components during the operation of the experiment. As a solution to this problem, we propose a general concept which provides for a unique determination of the field components within such an interior region solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. The method is general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements which maximizes their sensitivity to successive terms in a multipole expansion of the field.
Inversion of Gravity Anomalies Using Primal-Dual Interior Point Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaron A. Velasco
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Structural inversion of gravity datasets based on the use of density anomalies to derive robust images of the subsurface (delineating lithologies and their boundaries constitutes a fundamental non-invasive tool for geological exploration. The use of experimental techniques in geophysics to estimate and interpret di erences in the substructure based on its density properties have proven e cient; however, the inherent non-uniqueness associated with most geophysical datasets make this the ideal scenario for the use of recently developed robust constrained optimization techniques. We present a constrained optimization approach for a least squares inversion problem aimed to characterize 2-Dimensional Earth density structure models based on Bouguer gravity anomalies. The proposed formulation is solved with a Primal-Dual Interior-Point method including equality and inequality physical and structural constraints. We validate our results using synthetic density crustal structure models with varying complexity and illustrate the behavior of the algorithm using di erent initial density structure models and increasing noise levels in the observations. Based on these implementations, we conclude that the algorithm using Primal-Dual Interior-Point methods is robust, and its results always honor the geophysical constraints. Some of the advantages of using this approach for structural inversion of gravity data are the incorporation of a priori information related to the model parameters (coming from actual physical properties of the subsurface and the reduction of the solution space contingent on these boundary conditions.
RECYCLED TEXTILES USED IN AUTOMOTIVE INTERIORS. CASE STUDY- FORD MOTOR COMPANY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CUC Sunhilde
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The environmental movement is affecting all industries, but the textile and automotive industries are two of the few that are constantly being criticized. The automotive industry is the subject of much research, it is the largest manufacturing activity, there is a complex supply chain, is resource intensive and emits various hazardous gases and waste products. The article reviews the current state of automotive industry regarding the textile application. Automotive textiles have been classified as belonging to a category called “Mobiltech” which is one of the main streams of technical textiles. The term means all type of textile components e.g. fibers, filaments, yarns and the fabric used in automobiles. They are classed as technical textile because of the very high performance specifications and special properties required, different from those used in clothing and other applications. The performance of the automotive textiles depends on the fibre properties, fabric structures and various finishes used in the manufacturing processes. After a short presentation of used fibres in car interiors, with advantages and disadvantages it is presented the sustainable textile solutions for the automotive industry. The paper focuses in particular of the use of recycling of textile waste to highlight how the processes of recycled textiles and sustainable textiles production are linked in the automotive sector. A case study with Ford Motor Company outlines and examines their design, development and manufacture process for automotive textiles for car seat coverings and interiors
Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Takaguchi, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shizuka
Instability of calculation process and increase of calculation time caused by increasing size of continuous optimization problem remain the major issues to be solved to apply the technique to practical industrial systems. This paper proposes an enhanced quadratic programming algorithm based on interior point method mainly for improvement of calculation stability. The proposed method has dynamic estimation mechanism of active constraints on variables, which fixes the variables getting closer to the upper/lower limit on them and afterwards releases the fixed ones as needed during the optimization process. It is considered as algorithm-level integration of the solution strategy of active-set method into the interior point method framework. We describe some numerical results on commonly-used bench-mark problems called “CUTEr” to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, the test results on large-sized ELD problem (Economic Load Dispatching problems in electric power supply scheduling) are also described as a practical industrial application.
Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.
2009-01-01
The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
The Crucible Group operates on the basis of good faith –– producing best effort non-consensus texts. ..... science and technology-based solutions to agricultural production constraints, it is ...... In 1997 researchers at Case Western Reserve Medical School in Ohio (US) ...... Is there a need to update the system-wide IP audit?