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Sample records for schwann cell differentiation

  1. Arf6 mediates Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Tsumura, Hideki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Tanoue, Akito; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-09-25

    During development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells wrap neuronal axons, becoming the myelin sheaths that help axonal functions. While the intercellular signals controlling the myelination process between Schwann cells and peripheral neurons are well studied, the transduction of these signals in Schwann cells still remains elusive. Here, we show that Arf6, an Arf protein of the small GTPase family, is involved in promoting the myelination process. Knockdown of Arf6 with the small-interfering (si)RNA in primary Schwann cells markedly decreases dibutyl-cyclic AMP-induced myelin marker protein expression, indicating that Arf6 plays a role in differentiation-like phenotypic changes. To obtain in vivo evidence, we generated small-hairpin (sh)RNA transgenic mice targeting Arf6 for Schwann cells. Transgenic mice exhibited reduced myelin thickness compared to littermate controls, consistent with the defective myelin formation observed in the transgenic mouse-derived Schwann cell and neuronal culture system. Transgenic mice also exhibited decreased phosphorylation of myelination-related signaling molecules such as Akt kinase cascade proteins as well as downregulation of myelin marker proteins. These results suggest that signaling through Arf6 is required for Schwann cell myelination, adding Arf6 to the list of intracellular signaling molecules involved in the myelination process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Schwann cells promote neuronal differentiation of bone marrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been suggested that the BMSCs have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under specific experimental conditions, using chemical factors. In this study, we showed that BMSCs can be induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when they are co-cultured with Schwann cells by Brdu pulse label technology.

  3. Biology of Schwann cells.

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    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Schwann cells promote neuronal differentiation of bone marrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Schwann cells lose myelin, are activated and proliferate within the distal nerve segment to produce a variety of neurotrophic factors, cytokines and cell adhesion molecules thereby providing the path- way for regenerating axons. This process is collectively called Wallerian degeneration (Fawcet et al., 1990; ...

  5. Differential regulation of NAB corepressor genes in Schwann cells

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    Sachdev Shrikesh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myelination of peripheral nerves by Schwann cells requires not only the Egr2/Krox-20 transactivator, but also the NGFI-A/Egr-binding (NAB corepressors, which modulate activity of Egr2. Previous work has shown that axon-dependent expression of Egr2 is mediated by neuregulin stimulation, and NAB corepressors are co-regulated with Egr2 expression in peripheral nerve development. NAB corepressors have also been implicated in macrophage development, cardiac hypertrophy, prostate carcinogenesis, and feedback regulation involved in hindbrain development. Results To test the mechanism of NAB regulation in Schwann cells, transfection assays revealed that both Nab1 and Nab2 promoters are activated by Egr2 expression. Furthermore, direct binding of Egr2 at these promoters was demonstrated in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of myelinating sciatic nerve, and binding of Egr2 to the Nab2 promoter was stimulated by neuregulin in primary Schwann cells. Although Egr2 expression activates the Nab2 promoter more highly than Nab1, we surprisingly found that only Nab1 – but not Nab2 – expression levels were reduced in sciatic nerve from Egr2 null mice. Analysis of the Nab2 promoter showed that it is also activated by ETS proteins (Ets2 and Etv1/ER81 and is bound by Ets2 in vivo. Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that induction of Nab2 expression in Schwann cells involves not only Egr2, but also ETS proteins that are activated by neuregulin stimulation. Although Nab1 and Nab2 play partially redundant roles, regulation of Nab2 expression by ETS factors explains several observations regarding regulation of NAB genes. Finally, these data suggest that NAB proteins are not only feedback inhibitors of Egr2, but rather that co-induction of Egr2 and NAB genes is involved in forming an Egr2/NAB complex that is crucial for regulation of gene expression.

  6. Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells into Schwann Cell Phenotype in Comparison with Bone Marrow Stem Cells

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    Zolikha Golipoor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sBone marrow is the traditional source of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, but adipose tissue appears to be an alternative and more readily available source. In this study, rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were induced to differentiate into Schwann-like cells and compared with rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs for their Schwann-like cells differentiation potential. Materials and MethodsBMSCs and ADSCs were characterized for expression of MSCs-specific markers, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. They were induced to differentiate into Schwann-like cells and analyzed for expression of the Schwann specific markers. The immunocytochemical differentiation markers were S-100 and real time quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR markers were S100, P75 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol- 2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and Annexin V-Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC/ Propidium iodide (PI double labeling method were employed to detect early stage cell apoptosis.ResultsBMSCs and ADSCs showed similarities in expression of the MSC-specific markers, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Both quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that BMSCs and ADSCs had equal expression of the Schwann-specific markers following Schwann-like cells differentiation. However, gene expression of P75 was higher in BMSCs compared with ADSCs. MTT assay and flow cytometry found that of the total BMSCs and ADSCs in the culture medium, 20% to 30% of the cells died, but the remaining cell population remained strongly attached to the substrate and differentiated.ConclusionComparative analysis showed that Schwann-like cell differentiation potential of ADSCs was slightly decreased in comparison with BMSCs. Therefore, BMSCs are more favorable choice than ADSCs for tissue engineering.

  7. Neural stem cells promote nerve regeneration through IL12-induced Schwann cell differentiation.

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    Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Jong-Hang; Hsu, Tai-Yu; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Hsu; Chi, Ya-Hui; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is a slow, complicated process that could be improved by implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or nerve conduit. Implantation of NSCs along with conduits promotes the regeneration of damaged nerve, likely because (i) conduit supports and guides axonal growth from one nerve stump to the other, while preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth and retaining neurotrophic factors; and (ii) implanted NSCs differentiate into Schwann cells and maintain a growth factor enriched microenvironment, which promotes nerve regeneration. In this study, we identified IL12p80 (homodimer of IL12p40) in the cell extracts of implanted nerve conduit combined with NSCs by using protein antibody array and Western blotting. Levels of IL12p80 in these conduits are 1.6-fold higher than those in conduits without NSCs. In the sciatic nerve injury mouse model, implantation of NSCs combined with nerve conduit and IL12p80 improves motor recovery and increases the diameter up to 4.5-fold, at the medial site of the regenerated nerve. In vitro study further revealed that IL12p80 stimulates the Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). These results suggest that IL12p80 can trigger Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through Stat3 phosphorylation and enhance the functional recovery and the diameter of regenerated nerves in a mouse sciatic nerve injury model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells by indirect co-culture with Schwann cells

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    Li Xiaojie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs could be subject to neural differentiation induced only by Schwann cell (SC factors, we co-cultured ADSCs and SCs in transwell culture dishes. Immunoassaying, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR were performed (1, 3, 7, 14 d and the co-cultured ADSCs showed gene and protein expression of S-100, Nestin, and GFAP. Further, qRT-PCR disclosed relative quantitative differences in the above three gene expressions. We think ADSCs can undergo induced neural differentiation by being co-cultured with SCs, and such differentia­tions begin 1 day after co-culture, become apparent after 7 days, and thereafter remain stable till the 14th day.

  9. MAL Overexpression Leads to Disturbed Expression of Genes That Influence Cytoskeletal Organization and Differentiation of Schwann Cells

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    Daniela Schmid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developing peripheral nervous system, a coordinated reciprocal signaling between Schwann cells and axons is crucial for accurate myelination. The myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL is a component of lipid rafts that is important for targeting proteins and lipids to distinct domains. MAL overexpression impedes peripheral myelinogenesis, which is evident by a delayed onset of myelination and reduced expression of the myelin protein zero (Mpz/P0 and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR . This study shows that MAL overexpression leads to a significant reduction of Mpz and p75NTR expression in primary mouse Schwann cell cultures, which was already evident before differentiation, implicating an effect of MAL in early Schwann cell development. Their transcription was robustly reduced, despite normal expression of essential transcription factors and receptors. Further, the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways important for Schwann cell differentiation were correctly induced, highlighting that other so far unknown rate limiting factors do exist. We identified novel genes expressed by Schwann cells in a MAL-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. A number of those, including S100a4, RhoU and Krt23, are implicated in cytoskeletal organization and plasma membrane dynamics. We showed that S100a4 is predominantly expressed by nonmyelinating Schwann cells, whereas RhoU was localized within myelin membranes, and Krt23 was detected in nonmyelinating as well as in myelinating Schwann cells. Their differential expression during early peripheral nerve development further underlines their possible role in influencing Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

  10. Schwann Cell Myelination

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    Salzer, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Myelinated nerve fibers are essential for the rapid propagation of action potentials by saltatory conduction. They form as the result of reciprocal interactions between axons and Schwann cells. Extrinsic signals from the axon, and the extracellular matrix, drive Schwann cells to adopt a myelinating fate, whereas myelination reorganizes the axon for its role in conduction and is essential for its integrity. Here, we review our current understanding of the development, molecular organization, and function of myelinating Schwann cells. Recent findings into the extrinsic signals that drive Schwann cell myelination, their cognate receptors, and the downstream intracellular signaling pathways they activate will be described. Together, these studies provide important new insights into how these pathways converge to activate the transcriptional cascade of myelination and remodel the actin cytoskeleton that is critical for morphogenesis of the myelin sheath. PMID:26054742

  11. Critical period of axoglial signaling between neuregulin-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor required for early Schwann cell survival and differentiation.

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    Ma, Zhenzhong; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Fei; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-29

    During peripheral nervous system development, successful communication between axons and Schwann cells is required for proper function of both myelinated and nonmyelinated nerve fibers. Alternatively spliced proteins belonging to the neuregulin1 (NRG1) gene family of growth and differentiation factors are essential for Schwann cell survival and peripheral nerve development. Although recent studies have strongly implicated membrane-bound NRG1 forms (type III) in the myelination at late stages, little is known about the role of soluble, heparin-binding forms of NRG1 (type I/II) in regulating early Schwann cell development in vivo. These forms are rapidly released from axons in vitro by Schwann-cell-secreted neurotrophic factors and, unlike membrane-bound forms, have a unique ability to diffuse and adhere to heparan sulfate-rich cell surfaces. Here, we show that axon-derived soluble NRG1 translocates from axonal to Schwann cell surfaces in the embryonic chick between days 5 and 7, corresponding to the critical period of Schwann cell survival. Downregulating endogenous type I/II NRG1 signaling either with a targeted NRG1 antagonist or by shRNA blocks their differentiation from precursors into immature Schwann cells and increases programmed cell death, whereas upregulating NRG1 rescues Schwann cells. Exogenous BDNF also promotes Schwann cell survival through promoting the local release of axonal NRG1. Consistently, increased Schwann cell death occurs both in trkB knock-out mice and after knocking down axonal trkB in chick embryos, which can then be rescued with soluble NRG1. These findings suggest a localized, axoglial feedback loop through soluble NRG1 and BDNF critical for early Schwann cell survival and differentiation.

  12. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

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    Bacallao, Ketty; Monje, Paula V

    2015-01-01

    Isolated Schwann cells (SCs) respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1). To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC) activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC), a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the uncoupling of signals

  13. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

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    Ketty Bacallao

    Full Text Available Isolated Schwann cells (SCs respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1. To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC, a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the

  14. Electrical Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Schwann-Cell-Like Phenotypes Using Inkjet-Printed Graphene Circuits.

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    Das, Suprem R; Uz, Metin; Ding, Shaowei; Lentner, Matthew T; Hondred, John A; Cargill, Allison A; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Mallapragada, Surya; Claussen, Jonathan C

    2017-04-01

    Graphene-based materials (GBMs) have displayed tremendous promise for use as neurointerfacial substrates as they enable favorable adhesion, growth, proliferation, spreading, and migration of immobilized cells. This study reports the first case of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes through the application of electrical stimuli from a graphene-based electrode. Electrical differentiation of MSCs into SC-like phenotypes is carried out on a flexible, inkjet-printed graphene interdigitated electrode (IDE) circuit that is made highly conductive (sheet resistance < 1 kΩ/sq) via a postprint pulse-laser annealing process. MSCs immobilized on the graphene printed IDEs and electrically stimulated/treated (etMSCs) display significant enhanced cellular differentiation and paracrine activity above conventional chemical treatment strategies [≈85% of the etMSCs differentiated into SC-like phenotypes with ≈80 ng mL -1 of nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion vs. 75% and ≈55 ng mL -1 for chemically treated MSCs (ctMSCs)]. These results help pave the way for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration where the flexible graphene electrodes could conform to the injury site and provide intimate electrical simulation for nerve cell regrowth. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate into a Schwann Cell Phenotype and Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

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    Jung, Namhee; Park, Saeyoung; Choi, Yoonyoung; Park, Joo-Won; Hong, Young Bin; Park, Hyun Ho Choi; Yu, Yeonsil; Kwak, Geon; Kim, Han Su; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Jae Kwang; Jo, Inho; Choi, Byung-Ok; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2016-11-09

    Schwann cells (SCs), which produce neurotropic factors and adhesive molecules, have been reported previously to contribute to structural support and guidance during axonal regeneration; therefore, they are potentially a crucial target in the restoration of injured nervous tissues. Autologous SC transplantation has been performed and has shown promising clinical results for treating nerve injuries and donor site morbidity, and insufficient production of the cells have been considered as a major issue. Here, we performed differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) into SC-like cells (T-MSC-SCs), to evaluate T-MSC-SCs as an alternative to SCs. Using SC markers such as CAD19 , GFAP , MBP , NGFR , S100B , and KROX20 during quantitative real-time PCR we detected the upregulation of NGFR , S100B , and KROX20 and the downregulation of CAD19 and MBP at the fully differentiated stage. Furthermore, we found myelination of axons when differentiated SCs were cocultured with mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. The application of T-MSC-SCs to a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury produced marked improvements in gait and promoted regeneration of damaged nerves. Thus, the transplantation of human T-MSCs might be suitable for assisting in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  16. New Insights on Schwann Cell Development

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    Monk, Kelly R.; Feltri, M. Laura; Taveggia, Carla

    2015-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells are glial cells that are in intimate contact with axons throughout development. Schwann cells generate the insulating myelin sheath and provide vital trophic support to the neurons that they ensheathe. Schwann cell precursors arise from neural crest progenitor cells, and a highly ordered developmental sequence controls the progression of these cells to become mature myelinating or non-myelinating Schwann cells. Here, we discuss both seminal discoveries and recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive Schwann cell development and myelination with a focus on cell-cell and cell-matrix signaling events. PMID:25921593

  17. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

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    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  18. Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve

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    Shunsuke eNishimoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron–SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders.

  19. Concomitant differentiation of a population of mouse embryonic stem cells into neuron-like cells and Schwann cell-like cells in a slow-flow microfluidic device

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    Ramamurthy, Poornapriya; White, Joshua B.; Park, Joong Yull; Hume, Richard I.; Ebisu, Fumi; Mendez, Flor; Takayama, Shuichi; Barald, Kate F

    2016-01-01

    Background To send meaningful information to the brain, an inner ear cochlear implant (CI) must become closely coupled to as large and healthy a population of remaining Spiral Ganglion Neurons (SGN) as possible. Inner ear gangliogenesis depends on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a directionally attractant neurotrophic cytokine made by both Schwann and supporting cells (Bank et al., 2012). MIF-induced mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived “neurons” could potentially substitute for lost or damaged SGN. mESC-derived “Schwann cells” produce MIF as do all Schwann cells (Huang et al., 2002; Roth et al., 2007, 2008) and could attract SGN to “ cell coated” implant. Results Neuron- and Schwann cell-like cells were produced from a common population of mESC in an ultra-slow flow microfluidic device. As the populations interacted; “neurons” grew over the “Schwann cell” lawn and early events in myelination were documented. Blocking MIF on the Schwann cell side greatly reduced directional neurite outgrowth. MIF-expressing “Schwann cells” were used to “coat” a CI: mouse SGN and MIF-induced “neurons” grew directionally to the CI and to a wild type but not MIF-knock out Organ of Corti explant. Conclusions Two novel stem cell-based approaches for treating the problem of sensorineural hearing loss are described. PMID:27761977

  20. Neurotropin® Accelerates the Differentiation of Schwann Cells and Remyelination in a Rat Lysophosphatidylcholine-Induced Demyelination Model

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    Hozo Matsuoka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurotropin® (NTP, a non-protein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus, is clinically used for the treatment of neuropathic pain in Japan and China, although its effect on peripheral nerve regeneration remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NTP on Schwann cells (SCs in vitro and in vivo, which play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In SCs, NTP upregulated protein kinase B (AKT activity and Krox20 and downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activity under both growth and differentiation conditions, enhanced the expression of myelin basic protein and protein zero under the differentiation condition. In a co-culture of dorsal root ganglion neurons and SCs, NTP accelerated myelination of SCs. To further investigate the influence of NTP on SCs in vivo, lysophosphatidylcholine was injected into the rat sciatic nerve, leading to the focal demyelination. After demyelination, NTP was administered systemically with an osmotic pump for one week. NTP improved the ratio of myelinated axons and motor, sensory, and electrophysiological function. These findings reveal novel effects of NTP on SCs differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and indicate NTP as a promising treatment option for peripheral nerve injuries and demyelinating diseases.

  1. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

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    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Alternative for Schwann Cells in Rat Spinal Cord Injury

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    Zaminy, Arash; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghi, Yousef; Noroozian, Mohsen; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Piryaei, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord has a limited capacity to repair; therefore, medical interventions are necessary for treatment of injuries. Transplantation of Schwann cells has shown a great promising result for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, harvesting Schwann cell has been limited due to donor morbidity and limited expansion capacity. Furthermore, accessible sources such as bone marrow stem cells have drawn attentions to themselves. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of bone marrow-derived Schwann cell on functional recovery in adult rats after injury. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured from adult rats’ bone marrow and induced into Schwann cells in vitro. Differentiation was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Next, Schwann cells were seeded into collagen scaffolds and engrafted in 3 mm lateral hemisection defects. For 8 weeks, motor and sensory improvements were assessed by open field locomotor scale, narrow beam, and tail flick tests. Afterwards, lesioned spinal cord was evaluated by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. Results: In vitro observations showed that differentiated cells had Schwann cell morphology and markers. In this study, we had four groups (n = 10 each): laminectomy, control, scaffold and scaffold + Schwann cells. Locomotor and sensory scores of cell grafted group were significantly better than control and scaffold groups. In histology, axonal regeneration and remyelination were better than control and scaffold groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that bone marrow-derived Schwann cells can be considered as a cell source for Schwann cells in SCI treatment. PMID:23748888

  3. Schwann-like cells differentiated from human dental pulp stem cells combined with a pulsed electromagnetic field can improve peripheral nerve regeneration.

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    Hei, Wei-Hong; Kim, Soochan; Park, Joo-Cheol; Seo, Young-Kwon; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Schwann-like cells combined with pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on peripheral nerve regeneration. Schwann-like cells were derived from human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and verified with CD104, S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), laminin, and P75 NTR immunocytochemistry. Gene expression of P75 NTR and S100 were analyzed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6-week-old) were divided into seven groups (n = 10 each): control, sham, PEMF, hDPSCs, hDPSCs + PEMF, Schwann-like cells, Schwann-like cells + PEMF. Cells were transplanted (1 × 10 6 /10µl/rat) at crush-injury site or combined with PEMF (50 Hz, 1 h/day, 1 mT). Nerve regeneration was evaluated with functional test, histomorphometry and retrograde labelled neurons. Schwann-like cells expressed CD104, S100, GFAP, laminin, and p75 neurotrophin receptor (P75 NTR ). P75 NTR and S100 mRNA expression was highest in Schwann-like cells + PEMF group, which also showed increased Difference and Gap scores. Axons and retrograde labeled neurons increased in all treatment groups. Schwann-like cells, hDPSCs with or without PEMF, and PEMF only improved peripheral nerve regeneration. Schwann-like cells + PEMF showed highest regeneration ability; PEMF has additive effect on hDPSCs, Schwann-like cell in vitro and nerve regeneration ability after transplantation in vivo. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by

  5. Schwann Cells Can Be Reprogrammed to Multipotency by Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Darius; Heimann, Peter; Zander, Christin; Imielski, Yvonne; Heidbreder, Meike; Heilemann, Mike; Kaltschmidt, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Adult neural crest related-stem cells persist in adulthood, making them an ideal and easily accessible source of multipotent cells for potential clinical use. Recently, we reported the presence of neural crest-related stem cells within adult palatal ridges, thus raising the question of their localization in their endogenous niche. Using immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and correlative fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, we identified myelinating Schwann cells within palatal ridges as a putative neural crest stem cell source. Palatal Schwann cells expressed nestin, p75NTR, and S100. Correlative fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed the exclusive nestin expression within myelinating Schwann cells. Palatal neural crest stem cells and nestin-positive Schwann cells isolated from adult sciatic nerves were able to grow under serum-free conditions as neurospheres in presence of FGF-2 and EGF. Spheres of palatal and sciatic origin showed overlapping expression pattern of neural crest stem cell and Schwann cell markers. Expression of the pluripotency factors Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Oct4, the NF-κB subunits p65, p50, and the NF-κB-inhibitor IκB-β were up-regulated in conventionally cultivated sciatic nerve Schwann cells and in neurosphere cultures. Finally, neurospheres of palatal and sciatic origin were able to differentiate into ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cell types emphasizing their multipotency. Taken together, we show that nestin-positive myelinating Schwann cells can be reprogrammed into multipotent adult neural crest stem cells under appropriate culture conditions. PMID:21466279

  6. PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Schwann-like cells derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells rapidly de-differentiate in the absence of stimulating medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroni, Alessandro; Smith, Richard J P; Lu, Li; Reid, Adam J

    2016-02-01

    Finding a viable cell-based therapy to address peripheral nerve injury holds promise for enhancing the currently suboptimal microsurgical approaches to peripheral nerve repair. Autologous nerve grafting is the current gold standard for surgical repair of nerve gaps; however, this causes donor nerve morbidity in the patient, and the results remain unsatisfactory. Transplanting autologous Schwann cells (SCs) results in similar morbidity, as well as limited cell numbers and restricted potential for expansion in vitro. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), 'differentiated' towards an SC-like phenotype in vitro (dASCs), have been presented as an alternative to SC therapies. The differentiation protocol stimulates ASCs to mimic the SC phenotype; however, the efficacy of dASCs in nerve repair is not yet convincing, and the practicality of the SC-like phenotype is unproven. Here, we examined the stability of dASCs by withdrawing differentiation medium for 72 h after the full 18-day differentiation protocol, and measuring changes in morphology, gene expression, and protein levels. Withdrawal of differentiation medium from dASCs resulted in a rapid reversion to stem cell-like characteristics. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in gene and protein expression of growth factors that were expressed at high levels following 'differentiation'. Therefore, we question the relevance of differentiation to an SC-like phenotype, as withdrawal of differentiation medium, a model of transplantation into an injured nerve, results in rapid reversion of the dASC phenotype to stem cell-like characteristics. Further investigation into the differentiation process and the response of dASCs to an injured environment must be undertaken prior to the use of dASCs in peripheral nerve repair therapies. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience

  8. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  9. Schwann Cell Precursors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Myelin Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Seop; Lee, Jungwoon; Lee, Da Yong; Kim, Young-Dae; Kim, Jae Yun; Lim, Hyung Jin; Lim, Sungmin; Cho, Yee Sook

    2017-06-06

    Schwann cells play a crucial role in successful nerve repair and regeneration by supporting both axonal growth and myelination. However, the sources of human Schwann cells are limited both for studies of Schwann cell development and biology and for the development of treatments for Schwann cell-associated diseases. Here, we provide a rapid and scalable method to produce self-renewing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), using combined sequential treatment with inhibitors of the TGF-β and GSK-3 signaling pathways, and with neuregulin-1 for 18 days under chemically defined conditions. Within 1 week, hPSC-derived SCPs could be differentiated into immature Schwann cells that were functionally confirmed by their secretion of neurotrophic factors and their myelination capacity in vitro and in vivo. We propose that hPSC-derived SCPs are a promising, unlimited source of functional Schwann cells for treating demyelination disorders and injuries to the peripheral nervous system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Schwann Cell Precursors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Myelin Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seop Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells play a crucial role in successful nerve repair and regeneration by supporting both axonal growth and myelination. However, the sources of human Schwann cells are limited both for studies of Schwann cell development and biology and for the development of treatments for Schwann cell-associated diseases. Here, we provide a rapid and scalable method to produce self-renewing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs, using combined sequential treatment with inhibitors of the TGF-β and GSK-3 signaling pathways, and with neuregulin-1 for 18 days under chemically defined conditions. Within 1 week, hPSC-derived SCPs could be differentiated into immature Schwann cells that were functionally confirmed by their secretion of neurotrophic factors and their myelination capacity in vitro and in vivo. We propose that hPSC-derived SCPs are a promising, unlimited source of functional Schwann cells for treating demyelination disorders and injuries to the peripheral nervous system.

  11. Lysophospholipid receptors are differentially expressed in rat terminal Schwann cells, as revealed by a single cell rt-PCR and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Hiroaki; Yaoi, Takeshi; Oda, Ryo; Okajima, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-04-22

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals, are known to play an important role in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, the molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. By using our previously reported method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs, we have analyzed the difference in expression patterns of lysophospholipid (LPL) receptor genes (LPA1, LPA2, LPA3, S1P1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5) between TSCs and myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs). LPL, which includes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is the bioactive lipid that induces a myriad of cellular responses through specific members of G-protein coupled receptors for LPA. It turned out that LPA3 was expressed only in TSCs, whereas S1P1 was expressed in TSCs and skeletal muscle, but not in MSCs. Other types of LPL receptor genes, including LPA1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, were expressed in both types of Schwann cells. None of the LPL receptor gene family showed MSCs-specific expression.

  12. A novel marker for terminal Schwann cells, homocysteine-responsive ER-resident protein, as isolated by a single cell PCR-differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo; Yaoi, Takeshi; Okajima, Seiichiro; Kobashi, Hiroaki; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2003-09-05

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals are known to play important roles in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. We have established a method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs so that cDNA analysis can be done properly. The expression of 1-2% of whole mRNAs was compared between myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs) and TSCs, and it turned out that approximately one-third of the bands could be categorized as cell-type-specific bands. TSCs thus constitute a distinct entity from the viewpoint of gene expression. As one of the cDNA clones belonging to TSC-specific bands was identified homocysteine-responsive ER-resident protein (Herp), and in situ hybridization confirmed that Herp mRNA is expressed in TSCs on motor nerve terminals but not in MSCs, both in developing and adult rats. In conclusion, we have been able to identify Herp as a novel molecular marker for TSCs.

  13. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A.; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; de Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B. J.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M.; Mirsky, Rhona; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Jessen, Kristján R.

    2015-01-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell-mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that

  14. The effect of myelinating Schwann cells on axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, R

    2001-04-01

    Myelinating Schwann cells control the number of neurofilaments and elevate the phosphorylation state of neurofilaments in the axon, eventually leading to the typical large axon caliber. Conversely, absence of myelin leads to lower amounts of neurofilaments, reduced phosphorylation levels, and smaller axon diameters. In addition, myelinating Schwann cells mediate the spacing of Na(+) channel clusters during development of the node of Ranvier. When axons are associated with mutant Schwann cells in inherited neuropathies, their calibers are reduced and their neurofilaments are less phosphorylated and more closely spaced. Also, axonal transport is reduced and axons degenerate at the distal ends of long nerves. Myelin-associated glycoprotein may mediate some aspects of Schwann cell-axon communication, but much remains to be learned about the molecular bases of Schwann cell-axon communication. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Trophic Effects of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Schwann Cells in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsubasa; Osako, Yohei; Ito, Masataka; Murakami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yuki; Horibe, Hiroshi; Iohara, Koichiro; Takeuchi, Norio; Okui, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Hidenori; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakashima, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have demonstrated a potential for neurotrophy and neurodifferentiation. We have recently isolated mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) gradient, which has high neurotrophic/angiogenic potential. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of MDPSC transplantation on peripheral nerve regeneration. Effects of MDPSC transplantation were examined in a rat sciatic nerve defect model and compared with autografts and control conduits containing collagen scaffold. Effects of conditioned medium of MDPSCs were also evaluated in vitro. Transplantation of MDPSCs in the defect demonstrated regeneration of myelinated fibers, whose axons were significantly higher in density compared with those in autografts and control conduits only. Enhanced revascularization was also observed in the MDPSC transplants. The MDPSCs did not directly differentiate into Schwann cell phenotype; localization of these cells near Schwann cells induced several neurotrophic factors. Immunofluorescence labeling demonstrated reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation in resident Schwann cells in the MDPSC transplant compared with control conduits. These trophic effects of MDPSCs on proliferation, migration, and antiapoptosis in Schwann cells were further elucidated in vitro. The results demonstrate that MDPSCs promote axon regeneration through trophic functions, acting on Schwann cells, and promoting angiogenesis.

  16. After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Pilch, Kjara S; van der Lans, Milou; Fazal, Shaline V; Benito, Cristina; Wagstaff, Laura J; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R

    2017-09-13

    There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair. Using genetic lineage-tracing and scanning-block face electron microscopy, we show that injury of sciatic nerves from mice of either sex triggers extensive and unexpected Schwann cell elongation and branching to form long, parallel processes. Repair cells are 2- to 3-fold longer than myelin and Remak cells and 7- to 10-fold longer than immature Schwann cells. Remarkably, when repair cells transit back to myelinating cells, they shorten ∼7-fold to generate the typically short internodes of regenerated nerves. The present experiments define novel morphological transitions in injured nerves and show that repair Schwann cells have a cell-type-specific structure that differentiates them from other cells in the Schwann cell lineage. They also provide the first direct evidence using genetic lineage tracing for two basic assumptions in Schwann cell biology: that myelin and Remak cells generate the elongated cells that build Bungner bands in injured nerves and that such cells can transform to myelin cells after regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After injury to peripheral nerves, the myelin and Remak Schwann cells distal to the injury site reorganize and modify their properties to form cells that support the survival of injured neurons, promote axon growth, remove myelin-associated growth inhibitors, and guide regenerating axons to their targets. We show that the

  17. STAT3 Controls the Long-Term Survival and Phenotype of Repair Schwann Cells during Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Cristina; Davis, Catherine M; Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Turmaine, Mark; Meijer, Dies; Poli, Valeria; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R

    2017-04-19

    After nerve injury, Schwann cells convert to a phenotype specialized to promote repair. But during the slow process of axonal regrowth, these repair Schwann cells gradually lose their regeneration-supportive features and eventually die. Although this is a key reason for the frequent regeneration failures in humans, the transcriptional mechanisms that control long-term survival and phenotype of repair cells have not been studied, and the molecular signaling underlying their decline is obscure. We show, in mice, that Schwann cell STAT3 has a dual role. It supports the long-term survival of repair Schwann cells and is required for the maintenance of repair Schwann cell properties. In contrast, STAT3 is less important for the initial generation of repair Schwann cells after injury. In repair Schwann cells, we find that Schwann cell STAT3 activation by Tyr705 phosphorylation is sustained during long-term denervation. STAT3 is required for maintaining autocrine Schwann cell survival signaling, and inactivation of Schwann cell STAT3 results in a striking loss of repair cells from chronically denervated distal stumps. STAT3 inactivation also results in abnormal morphology of repair cells and regeneration tracks, and failure to sustain expression of repair cell markers, including Shh, GDNF, and BDNF. Because Schwann cell development proceeds normally without STAT3, the function of this factor appears restricted to Schwann cells after injury. This identification of transcriptional mechanisms that support long-term survival and differentiation of repair cells will help identify, and eventually correct, the failures that lead to the deterioration of this important cell population. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although injured peripheral nerves contain repair Schwann cells that provide signals and spatial clues for promoting regeneration, the clinical outcome after nerve damage is frequently poor. A key reason for this is that, during the slow growth of axons through the proximal

  18. Sox2 expression in Schwann cells inhibits myelinationin vivoand induces influx of macrophages to the nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sheridan L; Dun, Xin-Peng; Doddrell, Robin D S; Mindos, Thomas; Drake, Louisa K; Onaitis, Mark W; Florio, Francesca; Quattrini, Angelo; Lloyd, Alison C; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Parkinson, David B

    2017-09-01

    Correct myelination is crucial for the function of the peripheral nervous system. Both positive and negative regulators within the axon and Schwann cell function to ensure the correct onset and progression of myelination during both development and following peripheral nerve injury and repair. The Sox2 transcription factor is well known for its roles in the development and maintenance of progenitor and stem cell populations, but has also been proposed in vitro as a negative regulator of myelination in Schwann cells. We wished to test fully whether Sox2 regulates myelination in vivo and show here that, in mice, sustained Sox2 expression in vivo blocks myelination in the peripheral nerves and maintains Schwann cells in a proliferative non-differentiated state, which is also associated with increased inflammation within the nerve. The plasticity of Schwann cells allows them to re-myelinate regenerated axons following injury and we show that re-myelination is also blocked by Sox2 expression in Schwann cells. These findings identify Sox2 as a physiological regulator of Schwann cell myelination in vivo and its potential to play a role in disorders of myelination in the peripheral nervous system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Involvement of the Tyro3 receptor and its intracellular partner Fyn signaling in Schwann cell myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Takada, Shuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ito, Akihito; Ogata, Toru; Terada, Nobuo; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-10-01

    During early development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cell precursors proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into premyelinating Schwann cells. After birth, Schwann cells envelop neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Although some molecular mechanisms underlying myelination by Schwann cells have been identified, the whole picture remains unclear. Here we show that signaling through Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase and its binding partner, Fyn nonreceptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, is involved in myelination by Schwann cells. Impaired formation of myelin segments is observed in Schwann cell neuronal cultures established from Tyro3-knockout mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Indeed, Tyro3-knockout mice exhibit reduced myelin thickness. By affinity chromatography, Fyn was identified as the binding partner of the Tyro3 intracellular domain, and activity of Fyn is down-regulated in Tyro3-knockout mice, suggesting that Tyro3, acting through Fyn, regulates myelination. Ablating Fyn in mice results in reduced myelin thickness. Decreased myelin formation is observed in cultures established from Fyn-knockout mouse DRG. Furthermore, decreased kinase activity levels and altered expression of myelination-associated transcription factors are observed in these knockout mice. These results suggest the involvement of Tyro3 receptor and its binding partner Fyn in Schwann cell myelination. This constitutes a newly recognized receptor-linked signaling mechanism that can control Schwann cell myelination. © 2015 Miyamoto et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Contribution of Schwann Cells to Remyelination in a Naturally Occurring Canine Model of CNS Neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kegler

    with p75NTR/Sox2-positive cells. This study provides novel insights into the involvement of Schwann cells in CNS remyelination under natural occurring CNS inflammation. Targeting p75NTR/Sox2-expressing Schwann cells to enhance their differentiation into competent remyelinating cells appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for inflammatory/demyelinating CNS diseases.

  1. Adhesion of axolemmal fragments to Schwann cells: a signal- and target-specific process closely linked to axolemmal induction of Schwann cell mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, G.; Pleasure, D.

    1985-01-01

    Radioiodinated rat CNS axolemmal fragments adhered to cultured rat Schwann cells by a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent process independent of extracellular ionized calcium. Adhesion showed target and signal specificity; axolemmal fragments adhered to endoneurial or dermal fibroblasts to a much lesser extent than to Schwann cells, and plasma membrane fragments from skeletal muscle, erythrocytes, or PNS myelin adhered to Schwann cells to a lesser extent than did axolemmal fragments. Brief trypsinization removed 94 to 97% of bound radioactivity from Schwann cells previously incubated with 125 I-axolemmal fragments for up to 24 hr, indicating that adhesion was largely a surface phenomenon rather than the result of rapid internalization of axolemmal fragments by the Schwann cells. When adhesion was compared to the axolemmal mitogenic response of Schwann cells, the concentration of axolemmal fragments yielding half-maximal adhesion was the same as the concentration producing half-maximal stimulation of Schwann cell mitosis. Trypsin digestion, homogenization, or heating of axolemmal fragments before application to cultured Schwann cells diminished adhesion and axolemmal fragment-induced stimulation of Schwann cell mitosis in a parallel fashion. Whereas adhesion of axolemmal fragments to the surfaces of the cultured Schwann cells reached completion within 4 hr in this assay system, induction of Schwann cell mitosis by the fragments required contact with Schwann cells for a minimum of 6 to 8 hr and reached a maximum when the axolemmal fragments had adhered to the Schwann cells for 24 hr or more

  2. Myelinating cocultures of rodent stem cell line-derived neurons and immortalized Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Kawakami, Emiko; Endo, Kentaro; Misawa, Hidemi; Watabe, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Myelination is one of the most remarkable biological events in the neuron-glia interactions for the development of the mammalian nervous system. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell interactions in myelin synthesis in vitro, establishment of the myelinating system in cocultures of continuous neuronal and glial cell lines are desirable. In the present study, we performed co-culture experiments using rat neural stem cell-derived neurons or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motoneurons with immortalized rat IFRS1 Schwann cells to establish myelinating cultures between these cell lines. Differentiated neurons derived from an adult rat neural stem cell line 1464R or motoneurons derived from a mouse ES cell line NCH4.3, were mixed with IFRS1 Schwann cells, plated, and maintained in serum-free F12 medium with B27 supplement, ascorbic acid, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Myelin formation was demonstrated by electron microscopy at 4 weeks in cocultures of 1464R-derived neurons or NCH4.3-derived motoneurons with IFRS1 Schwann cells. These in vitro coculture systems utilizing the rodent stable stem and Schwann cell lines can be useful in studies of peripheral nerve development and regeneration. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  3. Direct Genesis of Functional Rodent and Human Schwann Cells from Skin Mesenchymal Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Krause

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports of directed reprogramming have raised questions about the stability of cell lineages. Here, we have addressed this issue, focusing upon skin-derived precursors (SKPs, a dermally derived precursor cell. We show by lineage tracing that murine SKPs from dorsal skin originate from mesenchymal and not neural crest-derived cells. These mesenchymally derived SKPs can, without genetic manipulation, generate functional Schwann cells, a neural crest cell type, and are highly similar at the transcriptional level to Schwann cells isolated from the peripheral nerve. This is not a mouse-specific phenomenon, since human SKPs that are highly similar at the transcriptome level can be made from neural crest-derived facial and mesodermally derived foreskin dermis and the foreskin SKPs can make myelinating Schwann cells. Thus, nonneural crest-derived mesenchymal precursors can differentiate into bona fide peripheral glia in the absence of genetic manipulation, suggesting that developmentally defined lineage boundaries are more flexible than widely thought.

  4. Mesenchymal-epithelial transition of pancreatic cancer cells at perineural invasion sites is induced by Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii-Nishimura, Yoko; Yamazaki, Ken; Masugi, Yohei; Douguchi, Junya; Kurebayashi, Yutaka; Kubota, Naoto; Ojima, Hidenori; Kitago, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2018-02-19

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes invasion and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the importance of its reverse process, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), for PDAC remains unclear. We aimed to characterize the histological finding "focal differentiation" in PDAC at perineural invasion sites in the context of MET and to investigate the role of Schwann cells in inducing tumor MET. Tumor differentiation and immunohistochemical expressions of E-cadherin, SMAD3, and vimentin at perineural invasion sites were examined in 168 PDAC tissues. Four PDAC cell lines were co-cultured with Schwann cells to investigate cell morphology, motility, or EMT-related markers using immunocytochemistry and quantitative PCR. Of 168 tumors, 124 (74%) showed focal differentiation with enhanced E-cadherin membrane expression (P grade 1/2 tumor, tumors with focal differentiation showed worse survival compared to those without focal differentiation (P = 0.019). PDAC cells co-cultured with Schwann cells demonstrated a sheet-like appearance, increased E-cadherin expression, decreased expressions of SMAD3 and vimentin, and reduced cell motility. In conclusion, MET-like change is induced by Schwann cells, suggesting that Schwann cells contribute to PDAC colonization in pancreatic nerves through activating the MET machinery inside tumor cells in the pancreatic tumor microenvironment. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Glycolaldehyde induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in Schwann cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cell injury is caused by diabetic neuropathy. The apoptosis of Schwann cells plays a pivotal role in diabetic nerve dysfunction. Glycolaldehyde is a precursor of advanced glycation end products that contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we examined whether glycolaldehyde induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and apoptosis in rat Schwann cells. Schwann cells treated with 500 μM glycolaldehyde showed morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Glycolaldehyde activated apoptotic signals, such as caspase-3 and caspase-8. Furthermore, it induced ER stress response involving RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK, inositol-requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1α (IRE1α, and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α. In addition, glycolaldehyde activated CCAAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP, an ER stress response factor crucial to executing apoptosis. Knockdown of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which is involved in the promotion of cell survival following ER stress, enhanced glycolaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that Nrf2 plays a protective role in the cytotoxicity caused by glycolaldehyde. Taken together, these findings indicate that glycolaldehyde is capable of inducing apoptosis and ER stress in Schwann cells. The ER stress induced by glycolaldehyde may trigger the glycolaldehyde-induced apoptosis in Schwann cells. This study demonstrated for the first time that glycolaldehyde induced ER stress.

  6. A Schwann cell mitogen accompanying regeneration of motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, F J; O'Brien, J A; Li, M; Smith, A G; Murphy, L J; Hunt, S P

    1997-12-11

    Motor neurons are the only adult mammalian neurons of the central nervous system to regenerate following injury. This ability is dependent on the environment of the peripheral nerve and an intrinsic capacity of motor neurons for regrowth. We report here the identification, using a technique known as messenger RNA differential display, of an extracellular signalling molecule, previously described as the pancreatic secreted protein Reg-2, that is expressed solely in regenerating and developing rat motor and sensory neurons. Axon-stimulated Schwann cell proliferation is necessary for successful regeneration, and we show that Reg-2 is a potent Schwann cell mitogen in vitro. In vivo, Reg-2 protein is transported along regrowing axons and inhibition of Reg-2 signalling significantly retards the regeneration of Reg-2-containing axons. During development, Reg-2 production by motor and sensory neurons is regulated by contact with peripheral targets. Strong candidates for peripheral factors regulating Reg-2 production are cytokines of the LIF/CNTF family, because Reg-2 is not expressed in developing motor or sensory neurons of mice carrying a targeted disruption of the LIF receptor gene, a common component of the receptor complexes for all of the LIF/CNTF family.

  7. TACE (ADAM17) inhibits Schwann cell myelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Rosa La; Cerri, Federica; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Bachi, Angela; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Blobel, Carl P; Quattrini, Angelo; Salzer, James L; Taveggia, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α–converting enzyme (TACE; also known as ADAM17) is a proteolytic sheddase that is responsible for the cleavage of several membrane-bound molecules. We report that TACE cleaves neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III in the epidermal growth factor domain, probably inactivating it (as assessed by deficient activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway), and thereby negatively regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelination. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of TACE in vitro in dorsal root ganglia neurons accelerates the onset of myelination and results in hypermyelination. In agreement, motor neurons of conditional knockout mice lacking TACE specifically in these cells are significantly hypermyelinated, and small-caliber fibers are aberrantly myelinated. Further, reduced TACE activity rescues hypomyelination in NRG1 type III haploinsufficient mice in vivo. We also show that the inhibitory effect of TACE is neuron-autonomous, as Schwann cells lacking TACE elaborate myelin of normal thickness. Thus, TACE is a modulator of NRG1 type III activity and is a negative regulator of myelination in the PNS. PMID:21666671

  8. Schwann cells for spinal cord repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oudega

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of spinal cord injury appears to demand a multifactorial repair strategy. One of the components that will likely be included is an implant that will fill the area of lost nervous tissue and provide a growth substrate for injured axons. Here we will discuss the role of Schwann cells (SCs in cell-based, surgical repair strategies of the injured adult spinal cord. We will review key studies that showed that intraspinal SC grafts limit injury-induced tissue loss and promote axonal regeneration and myelination, and that this response can be improved by adding neurotrophic factors or anti-inflammatory agents. These results will be compared with several other approaches to the repair of the spinal cord. A general concern with repair strategies is the limited functional recovery, which is in large part due to the failure of axons to grow across the scar tissue at the distal graft-spinal cord interface. Consequently, new synaptic connections with spinal neurons involved in motor function are not formed. We will highlight repair approaches that did result in growth across the scar and discuss the necessity for more studies involving larger, clinically relevant types of injuries, addressing this specific issue. Finally, this review will reflect on the prospect of SCs for repair strategies in the clinic.

  9. The Wound Microenvironment Reprograms Schwann Cells to Invasive Mesenchymal-like Cells to Drive Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Melanie P; Byrne, Elizabeth; Camarillo Guerrero, Luis F; Cattin, Anne-Laure; Zakka, Leila; Ashraf, Azhaar; Burden, Jemima J; Khadayate, Sanjay; Lloyd, Alison C; Marguerat, Samuel; Parrinello, Simona

    2017-09-27

    Schwann cell dedifferentiation from a myelinating to a progenitor-like cell underlies the remarkable ability of peripheral nerves to regenerate following injury. However, the molecular identity of the differentiated and dedifferentiated states in vivo has been elusive. Here, we profiled Schwann cells acutely purified from intact nerves and from the wound and distal regions of severed nerves. Our analysis reveals novel facets of the dedifferentiation response, including acquisition of mesenchymal traits and a Myc module. Furthermore, wound and distal dedifferentiated Schwann cells constitute different populations, with wound cells displaying increased mesenchymal character induced by localized TGFβ signaling. TGFβ promotes invasion and crosstalks with Eph signaling via N-cadherin to drive collective migration of the Schwann cells across the wound. Consistently, Tgfbr2 deletion in Schwann cells resulted in misdirected and delayed reinnervation. Thus, the wound microenvironment is a key determinant of Schwann cell identity, and it promotes nerve repair through integration of multiple concerted signals. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuregulin 1 functionalization of organic fibers for Schwann cell guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonazzini, Ilaria; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario; Cecchini, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve lesions is a clinical problem where the functional recovery is often far from being satisfactory, although peripheral nerves generally retain good potential for regeneration. Here, we develop a novel scaffold approach based on bioactive fibers of poly(ε-caprolactone) where nanotopographical guidance and neuregulin 1 (NRG1) cues are combined. We interface them with rat primary Schwann cells (SCs), the peripheral glial cells that drive initial regeneration of injured nerves, and found that the combination of NRG1 with parallel nano-fibrous topographies is effective in improving SC growth up to 72 h, alignment to fiber topography, and bipolar differentiation, opening original perspectives for nerve repair applications.

  11. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 Promotes Schwann Cell Myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Elias, Anthony; Lee, Taeweon; Maurel, Patrice; Kim, Haesun A

    2017-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) inhibits the activities of various metalloproteinases including matrix metalloproteinases and ADAM family proteins. In the peripheral nervous system, ADAM17, also known as TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), cleaves the extracellular domain of Nrg1 type III, an axonal growth factor that is essential for Schwann cell myelination. The processing by ADAM17 attenuates Nrg1 signaling and inhibits Schwann cell myelination. TIMP-3 targets ADAM17, suggesting a possibility that TIMP-3 may elicit a promyelinating function in Schwann cells by relieving ADAM17-induced myelination block. To investigate this, we used a myelinating coculture system to determine the effect of TIMP-3 on Schwann cell myelination. Treatment with TIMP-3 enhanced myelin formation in cocultures, evident by an increase in the number of myelin segments and upregulated expression of Krox20 and myelin protein. The effect of TIMP-3 was accompanied by the inhibition of ADAM17 activity and an increase in Nrg1 type III signaling in cocultures. Accordingly, the N-terminus fragment of TIMP-3, which exhibits a selective inhibitory function toward ADAM17, elicited a similar myelination-promoting effect and increased Nrg1 type III activity. TIMP-3 also enhanced laminin production in cocultures, which is likely to aid Schwann cell myelination.

  12. Rat bone marrow-derived Schwann-like cells differentiated by the optimal inducers combination on microfluidic chip and their functional performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Tian

    Full Text Available Numerous researches demonstrated the possibility of derivation of Schwann-like (SC-like cells in vitro from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs. However, the concentration of the induce factors were different in those studies, especially for the critical factors forskolin (FSK and β-heregulin (HRG. Here, we used a new and useful method to build an integrated microfluidic chip for rapid analyses of the optimal combination between the induce factors FSK and HRG. The microfluidic device was mainly composed of an upstream concentration gradient generator (CGG and a downstream cell culture module. Rat BMSCs were cultured in the cell chambers for 11 days at the different concentrations of induce factors generated by CGG. The result of immunofluorescence staining on-chip showed that the group of 4.00 µM FSK and 250.00 ng/ml HRG presented an optimal effect to promote the derivation of SC-like cells. Moreover, the optimal SC-like cells obtained on-chip were further tested using DRG co-culture and ELISA to detect their functional performance. Our findings demonstrate that SC-like cells could be obtained with high efficiency and functional performance in the optimal inducers combination.

  13. Sox2 expression in Schwann cells inhibits myelination in vivo and induces influx of macrophages to the nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sheridan L.; Onaitis, Mark W.; Florio, Francesca; Quattrini, Angelo; Lloyd, Alison C.; D'Antonio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Correct myelination is crucial for the function of the peripheral nervous system. Both positive and negative regulators within the axon and Schwann cell function to ensure the correct onset and progression of myelination during both development and following peripheral nerve injury and repair. The Sox2 transcription factor is well known for its roles in the development and maintenance of progenitor and stem cell populations, but has also been proposed in vitro as a negative regulator of myelination in Schwann cells. We wished to test fully whether Sox2 regulates myelination in vivo and show here that, in mice, sustained Sox2 expression in vivo blocks myelination in the peripheral nerves and maintains Schwann cells in a proliferative non-differentiated state, which is also associated with increased inflammation within the nerve. The plasticity of Schwann cells allows them to re-myelinate regenerated axons following injury and we show that re-myelination is also blocked by Sox2 expression in Schwann cells. These findings identify Sox2 as a physiological regulator of Schwann cell myelination in vivo and its potential to play a role in disorders of myelination in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:28743796

  14. Edaravone combined with Schwann cell transplantation may repair spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone has been shown to delay neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving nerve function and the microenvironment after spinal cord injury. Edaravone can provide a favorable environment for the treatment of spinal cord injury using Schwann cell transplantation. This study used rat models of complete spinal cord transection at T 9. Six hours later, Schwann cells were transplanted in the head and tail ends of the injury site. Simultaneously, edaravone was injected through the caudal vein. Eight weeks later, the PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells had survived and migrated to the center of the spinal cord injury region in rats after combined treatment with edaravone and Schwann cells. Moreover, the number of PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells in the rat spinal cord was more than that in rats undergoing Schwann cell transplantation alone or rats without any treatment. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers was greater in rats treated with edaravone combined withSchwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation alone. The results demonstrated that lower extremity motor function and neurophysiological function were better in rats treated with edaravone and Schwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation only. These data confirmed that Schwann cell transplantation combined with edaravone injection promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of rats with spinal cord injury and improved neurological function.

  15. Cellular Scale Anisotropic Topography Guides Schwann Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that were flat or presented repeating cellular scale anisotropic topographical cues, 30 or 60 µm in width, and observed with timelapse microscopy. SC motion was directed parallel to the long axis of the topography on both the groove floor and the plateau, with accompanying differences in velocity and directional persistence in comparison to SC motion on flat substrates. In addition, feature dimension affected SC morphology, alignment, and directional persistence. Plateaus and groove floors presented distinct cues which promoted differential motility and variable interaction with the topographical features. SC on the plateau surfaces tended to have persistent interactions with the edge topography, while SC on the groove floors tended to have infrequent contact with the corners and walls. Our observations suggest the capacity of SC to be guided without continuous contact with a topographical cue. SC exhibited a range of distinct motile morphologies, characterized by their symmetry and number of extensions. Across all conditions, SC with a single extension traveled significantly faster than cells with more or no extensions. We conclude that SC motility is complex, where persistent motion requires cellular asymmetry, and that anisotropic topography with cellular scale features can direct SC motility. PMID:21949703

  16. YAP/TAZ initiate and maintain Schwann cell myelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Matthew; Kim, Hyukmin; Santerre, Maryline; Krupka, Alexander J; Han, Seung Baek; Zhai, Jinbin; Cho, Jennifer Y; Park, Raehee; Harris, Michele; Kim, Seonhee; Sawaya, Bassel E; Kang, Shin H; Barbe, Mary F; Cho, Seo-Hee; Lemay, Michel A; Son, Young-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear exclusion of the transcriptional regulators and potent oncoproteins, YAP/TAZ, is considered necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Here we show that nuclear YAP/TAZ are essential regulators of peripheral nerve development and myelin maintenance. To proliferate, developing Schwann cells (SCs) require YAP/TAZ to enter S-phase and, without them, fail to generate sufficient SCs for timely axon sorting. To differentiate, SCs require YAP/TAZ to upregulate Krox20 and, without them, completely fail to myelinate, resulting in severe peripheral neuropathy. Remarkably, in adulthood, nuclear YAP/TAZ are selectively expressed by myelinating SCs, and conditional ablation results in severe peripheral demyelination and mouse death. YAP/TAZ regulate both developmental and adult myelination by driving TEAD1 to activate Krox20. Therefore, YAP/TAZ are crucial for SCs to myelinate developing nerve and to maintain myelinated nerve in adulthood. Our study also provides a new insight into the role of nuclear YAP/TAZ in homeostatic maintenance of an adult tissue. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20982.001 PMID:28124973

  17. The Transcription Factors EBF1 and EBF2 Are Positive Regulators of Myelination in Schwann Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruzzo, Diego; Nobbio, Lucilla; Sterlini, Bruno; Consalez, G Giacomo; Benfenati, Fabio; Schenone, Angelo; Corradi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Myelin formation by Schwann cells is tightly controlled by multiple pathways and regulatory molecules. The Ebf2 gene, belonging to the Ebf family of transcription factors regulating cell development and differentiation, is expressed in Schwann cells, and Ebf2 knockout mice show peripheral nerve defects. We also found that Ebf1 is expressed in Schwann cells. To investigate Ebf function in myelination, we silenced Ebf genes in myelinating dorsal root ganglia cultures. Combined downregulation of Ebf genes leads to a severe impairment of myelin formation that is completely rescued by their specific overexpression, suggesting that the expression level of Ebf genes strongly influences axon myelination. In addition, by profiling Ebf target genes, we found several transcripts belonging to pathways actively involved in peripheral myelination, including Gliomedin, a gene with a role in the formation of the nodes of Ranvier and recently implicated in the pathogenesis of the nodo-paranodopathies. Our results suggest that Ebf genes act as positive regulators of myelination and directly regulate the promoter of Gliomedin.

  18. Schwann cell myelination requires integration of laminin activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen K.; Yang, Dong-Hua; Patel, Rajesh; Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney; Takagi, Junichi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Yurchenco, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. The BM composition, structural bonds and ligands needed to mediate this process, however, are not well understood. Mice hypomorphic for laminin γ1-subunit expression that assembled endoneurial BMs with reduced component density exhibited an axonal sorting defect with amyelination but normal Schwann cell proliferation, the latter unlike the null. To identify the basis for this, and to dissect participating laminin interactions, LAMC1 gene-inactivated dorsal root ganglia were treated with recombinant laminin-211 and -111 lacking different architecture-forming and receptor-binding activities, to induce myelination. Myelin-wrapping of axons by Schwann cells was found to require higher laminin concentrations than either proliferation or axonal ensheathment. Laminins that were unable to polymerize through deletions that removed critical N-terminal (LN) domains, or that lacked cell-adhesive globular (LG) domains, caused reduced BMs and almost no myelination. Laminins engineered to bind weakly to α6β1 and/or α7β1 integrins through their LG domains, even though they could effectively assemble BMs, decreased myelination. Proliferation depended upon both integrin binding to LG domains and polymerization. Collectively these findings reveal that laminins integrate scaffold-forming and cell-adhesion activities to assemble an endoneurial BM, with myelination and proliferation requiring additional α6β1/α7β1-laminin LG domain interactions, and that a high BM ligand/structural density is needed for efficient myelination. PMID:22767514

  19. Rab27a/Slp2-a complex is involved in Schwann cell myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Feng; Gu, Yun; Wei, Zhong-Ya; Shen, Yun-Tian; Jin, Zi-Han; Yuan, Ying; Gu, Xiao-Song; Chen, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Myelination of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system is an intricate process involving myelin protein trafficking. Recently, the role and mechanism of the endosomal/lysosomal system in myelin formation were emphasized. Our previous results demonstrated that a small GTPase Rab27a regulates lysosomal exocytosis and myelin protein trafficking in Schwann cells. In this present study, we established a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron and Schwann cell co-culture model to identify the signals associated with Rab27a during myelination. First, Slp2-a, as the Rab27a effector, was endogenously expressed in Schwann cells. Second, Rab27a expression significantly increased during Schwann cell myelination. Finally, Rab27a and Slp2-a silencing in Schwann cells not only reduced myelin protein expression, but also impaired formation of myelin-like membranes in DRG neuron and Schwann cell co-cultures. Our findings suggest that the Rab27a/Slp2-a complex affects Schwann cell myelination in vitro .

  20. YAP and TAZ control peripheral myelination and the expression of laminin receptors in Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitelon, Yannick; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Catignas, Kathleen; Berti, Caterina; Palmisano, Marilena; Williamson, Courtney; Ameroso, Dominique; Abiko, Kansho; Hwang, Yoonchan; Gregorieff, Alex; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Asmani, Mohammadnabi; Zhao, Ruogang; Sim, Fraser James; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Svaren, John; Feltri, Maria Laura

    2016-07-01

    Myelination is essential for nervous system function. Schwann cells interact with neurons and the basal lamina to myelinate axons using known receptors, signals and transcription factors. In contrast, the transcriptional control of axonal sorting and the role of mechanotransduction in myelination are largely unknown. Yap and Taz are effectors of the Hippo pathway that integrate chemical and mechanical signals in cells. We describe a previously unknown role for the Hippo pathway in myelination. Using conditional mutagenesis in mice, we show that Taz is required in Schwann cells for radial sorting and myelination and that Yap is redundant with Taz. Yap and Taz are activated in Schwann cells by mechanical stimuli and regulate Schwann cell proliferation and transcription of basal lamina receptor genes, both necessary for radial sorting of axons and subsequent myelination. These data link transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway and of mechanotransduction to myelin formation in Schwann cells.

  1. Estrogen and progesterone stimulate Schwann cell proliferation in a sex- and age-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1999-01-01

    The effects of estrogen and progesterone on Schwann cell proliferation were studied in cultured segments of the rat sciatic nerve from adult male, female, and newborn rats, by measurement of [3H thymidine incorporation or bromo-deoxy-uridine- (BrdU)-labelling and immunocytochemistry. Estrogen (100...... for estrogen and progesterone and that these receptors may be involved in the control of Schwann cell proliferation. It also shows that the response of Schwann cells to sex hormones varies with sex and perhaps also with age....... in Schwann cells from male rats at high concentrations. The proliferative effects of estrogen and progesterone were blocked when the segments were cultured in the presence of inhibitors of their respective receptors, ICI 128 780 and zk 112994. The data suggest that Schwann cells possess distinct receptors...

  2. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System-Schwann Cells ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 8. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - Schwann Cells – Regulators of the Periphery. Yasmin Khan Medha S Rajadhyaksha. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 8-15 ...

  3. Schwann Cell Glycogen Selectively Supports Myelinated Axon Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angus M; Evans, Richard D; Black, Joel; Ransom, Bruce R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Interruption of energy supply to peripheral axons is a cause of axon loss. We determined if glycogen was present in mammalian peripheral nerve, and if it supported axon conduction during aglycemia. Methods We used biochemical assay and electron microscopy to determine the presence of glycogen, and electrophysiology to monitor axon function. Results Glycogen was present in sciatic nerve, its concentration varying directly with ambient [glucose]. Electron microscopy detected glycogen granules primarily in myelinating Schwann cell cytoplasm and these diminished after exposure to aglycemia. During aglycemia, conduction failure in large myelinated axons (A fibers) mirrored the time-course of glycogen loss. Latency to CAP failure was directly related to nerve glycogen content at aglycemia onset. Glycogen did not benefit the function of slow-conducting, small diameter unmyelinated axons (C fibers) during aglycemia. Blocking glycogen breakdown pharmacologically accelerated CAP failure during aglycemia in A fibers, but not in C fibers. Lactate was as effective as glucose in supporting sciatic nerve function, and was continuously released into the extracellular space in the presence of glucose and fell rapidly during aglycemia. Interpretation Our findings indicated that glycogen is present in peripheral nerve, primarily in myelinating Schwann cells, and exclusively supports large diameter, myelinated axon conduction during aglycemia. Available evidence suggests that peripheral nerve glycogen breaks down during aglycemia and is passed, probably as lactate, to myelinated axons to support function. Unmyelinated axons are not protected by glycogen and are more vulnerable to dysfunction during periods of hypoglycemia. PMID:23034913

  4. In vitro study of neural stem cells and activated Schwann cells cocultured on electrospinning polycaprolactone scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan BY

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Baoyou Fan,1,2,* Xianhu Zhou,1,2,* Lina Wang,3,* Zhijian Wei,1,2 Wei Lin,1,2 Yiming Ren,1,2 Guidong Shi,1,2 Xin Cheng,1,2 Lianyong Wang,3 Shiqing Feng,1,2 1International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Spinal Cord Injury, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 2Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-neuroinjury Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, 3Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: To investigate the biocompatibility of electrospinning polycaprolactone (PCL fiber scaffolds and coculture system, which consisted of neural stem cells (NSCs and activated Schwann cells (ASCs. Materials and methods: ASCs were isolated from sciatic nerves, ligated for 7 days, in 4-week-old Wistar rats, and the NSCs were isolated from the hippocampus of E14.5 Wistar rat embryos. ASCs, NSCs and ASCs combined with NSCs were 3D cultured on the electrospinning PCL fiber scaffolds. Crystal violet staining was used to find the suitable density of ASCs for growth, and the proliferation of NSCs and ASCs were tested by Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8 assay, and cell adhesion, differentiation of NSCs and myelin basic protein (MBP expression of ASCs were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Distribution and morphology were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: The average diameter of fibers in electrospinning PCL scaffolds was approximately 7.93±1.41 μm. ASCs could grow well at the density of 2×104/cm2, and a certain number of cells extended along the longitudinal axis of fibers, and the shape of the cells was spindle, which was consistent with crystal violet staining results. The CCK-8 experiment showed ASCs could proliferate gradually on the PCL scaffold within 7 days, as

  5. Macrophage polarization in nerve injury: do Schwann cells play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Anne Stratton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to peripheral nerve injury, the inflammatory response is almost entirely comprised of infiltrating macrophages. Macrophages are a highly plastic, heterogenic immune cell, playing an indispensable role in peripheral nerve injury, clearing debris and regulating the microenvironment to allow for efficient regeneration. There are several cells within the microenvironment that likely interact with macrophages to support their function - most notably the Schwann cell, the glial cell of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells express several ligands that are known to interact with receptors expressed by macrophages, yet the effects of Schwann cells in regulating macrophage phenotype remains largely unexplored. This review discusses macrophages in peripheral nerve injury and how Schwann cells may regulate their behavior.

  6. Netrin-1 induces proliferation of Schwann cells through Unc5b receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Seo, In Ae; Seo, Eunhui; Seo, Su-Yeong; Lee, Hye Jeong; Park, Hwan Tae

    2007-01-01

    Netrin and its receptors, DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer) and Unc5, are proposed to be involved in the axon guidance and neuroglial migration during development. However, accumulating evidence implies that they may also participate in the cell survival and apoptosis. Here, we show that netrin-1 induces proliferation of Schwann cells. Unc5b is the sole receptor expressed in RT4 schwannoma cells and adult primary Schwann cells, and netrin-1 and Unc5b are found to be expressed in the injured sciatic nerve. It was also found that the netrin-1-induced Schwann cell proliferation was blocked by the specific inhibition of Unc5b expression with RNAi. These data suggest that netrin-1 could be an endogenous trophic factor for Schwann cells in the injured peripheral nerves

  7. Peripheral Nerve Repair with Cultured Schwann Cells: Getting Closer to the Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina O. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are a frequent and disabling condition, which affects 13 to 23 per 100.000 persons each year. Severe cases, with structural disruption of the nerve, are associated with poor functional recovery. The experimental treatment using nerve grafts to replace damaged or shortened axons is limited by technical difficulties, invasiveness, and mediocre results. Other therapeutic choices include the adjunctive application of cultured Schwann cells and nerve conduits to guide axonal growth. The bone marrow is a rich source of mesenchymal cells, which can be differentiated in vitro into Schwann cells and subsequently engrafted into the damaged nerve. Alternatively, undifferentiated bone marrow mesenchymal cells can be associated with nerve conduits and afterward transplanted. Experimental studies provide evidence of functional, histological, and electromyographical improvement following transplantation of bone-marrow-derived cells in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. This paper focuses on this new therapeutic approach highlighting its direct translational and clinical utility in promoting regeneration of not only acute but perhaps also chronic cases of peripheral nerve damage.

  8. Schwann cells promote post-traumatic nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain through MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlehnert, Maike; Derksen, Angelika; Hagenacker, Tim; Kindermann, David; Schäfers, Maria; Pawlak, Mathias; Kieseier, Bernd C; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd

    2017-10-02

    The activation of T helper cells requires antigens to be exposed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) via MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules. Expression of MHC-II is generally limited to professional APCs, but other cell types can express MHC-II under inflammatory conditions. However, the importance of these conditional APCs is unknown. We and others have previously shown that Schwann cells are potentially conditional APCs, but the functional relevance of MHC-II expression by Schwann cells has not been studied in vivo. Here, we conditionally deleted the MHC-II β-chain from myelinating Schwann cells in mice and investigated how this influenced post-traumatic intraneural inflammation and neuropathic pain using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. We demonstrate that deletion of MHC-II in myelinating Schwann cells reduces thermal hyperalgesia and, to a lesser extent, also diminishes mechanical allodynia in CCI in female mice. This was accompanied by a reduction of intraneural CD4+ T cells and greater preservation of preferentially large-caliber axons. Activation of T helper cells by MHC-II on Schwann cells thus promotes post-traumatic axonal loss and neuropathic pain. Hence, we provide experimental evidence that Schwann cells gain antigen-presenting function in vivo and modulate local immune responses and diseases in the peripheral nerves.

  9. Expression of cell adhesion molecules in normal nerves, chronic axonal neuropathies and Schwann cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P H; Figarella-Branger, D; Daniel, L; Bianco, N; Pellet, W; Pellissier, J F

    1997-10-22

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a role in the normal development and regeneration of tissues as well as in the biological behaviour of tumors. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of various CAMs, such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), its polysialylated isoform (PSA-NCAM), epithelial (E-) cadherin, and beta1 integrins (alpha2beta1, alpha5beta1, alpha6beta1) in a series of frozen specimens of 10 normal nerves, 5 axonal neuropathies, 26 benign Schwannomas and 2 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MNST). NCAM was expressed by non-myelinating Schwann cells from normal nerves and overexpressed by Schwann cells from patients with chronic axonal neuropathies and Schwannomas. The expression was lower in MNST. Expression of PSA-NCAM was heterogeneously displayed by Schwann cells from the various tissues studied. Anti E-cadherin immunoreactivity was present in myelin sheath in normal nerves and axonopathies. It was expressed in some Schwannomas especially in vestibular Schwannomas. Integrins VLA alpha2 and VLA alpha6 were widely expressed by Schwann cells from normal nerves, axonal neuropathies and Schwannomas but their expression was low in MNST. VLA alpha5 was not expressed by Schwann cells from normal nerve and Schwannomas but present in chronic axonal neuropathies and MNST. In addition VLA alpha6 was strongly expressed by perineurial cells. These data show that CAMs have a characteristic pattern of expression in normal nerve. Also, some CAMs are always expressed by Schwann cells but the expression of others differs in normal nerves versus axonopathies or tumors, suggesting a role of the microcellular environment in the regulation of CAM expression. Schwannomas have different pattern of expression than MNST.

  10. Regulation of Schwann cell proliferation in cultured segments of the adult rat sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1998-01-01

    Schwann cell proliferation was studied in cultured segments of the rat sciatic nerve by measurement of [3H] thymidine incorporation or through bromodeoxyuridine-(BrdU)-labelling and immunocytochemistry. The aim was to delineate mechanisms involved in the injury-induced proliferative response...... together with morphological evaluation of myelin association showed that proliferation occurred in Schwann cells. The results are consistent with a model in which Schwann cell proliferation is enhanced by Ca2+ through activation of calmodulin-dependent and/or PKCdependent mechanisms. Inhibition is achieved...... through the cAMP system. Together, these results show that Schwann cells regulate proliferation differently in an integrated environment, e.g. the nerve structure, than in isolation as primary monocultures....

  11. Regulation of Schwann cell proliferation in cultured segments of the adult rat sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1998-01-01

    Schwann cell proliferation was studied in cultured segments of the rat sciatic nerve by measurement of [3H] thymidine incorporation or through bromodeoxyuridine-(BrdU)-labelling and immunocytochemistry. The aim was to delineate mechanisms involved in the injury-induced proliferative response...... through the cAMP system. Together, these results show that Schwann cells regulate proliferation differently in an integrated environment, e.g. the nerve structure, than in isolation as primary monocultures....

  12. The mRNA of transferrin is expressed in Schwann cells during their maturation and after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, C; Setton, C P; Soto, E F; Pasquini, J M

    2007-09-01

    Transferrin, the iron carrier protein, has been shown to be involved in oligodendroglial cell differentiation in the central nervous system but little is known about its role in the peripheral nervous system. In the present work, we have studied the presence of transferrin and of its mRNA in rat sciatic nerves and in Schwann cells isolated at embryonic and adult ages as well as during the regeneration process that follows nerve crush. We have also studied the correlation between the expression of the mRNAs of transferrin and the expression of mature myelin markers in the PNS. We show that transferrin is present in whole sciatic nerves at late stages of embryonic life as well as at postnatal day 4 and in adult rats. We demonstrate for the first time, that in normal conditions, the transferrin mRNA is expressed in Schwann cells isolated from sciatic nerves between embryonic days 14 and 18, being absent at later stages of development and in adult animals. In adult rats, 3 days after sciatic nerve crushing, the mRNA of transferrin is expressed in the injured nerve, but 7 days after injury its expression disappears. Transferrin protein in the sciatic nerve closely follows the expression of its mRNA indicating that under these circumstances, it appears to be locally synthesized. Transferrin in the PNS could have a dual role. During late embryonic ages it could be locally synthesized by differentiating Schwann cells, acting as a pro-differentiating factor. A similar situation would occur during the regeneration that follows Wallerian degeneration. In the adult animals on the other hand, Schwann cells could pick up transferrin from the circulation or/and from the axons, sub serving possible trophic actions closely related to myelin maintenance.

  13. Neurospheres from rat adipose-derived stem cells could be induced into functional Schwann cell-like cells in vitro

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    Shan Yanchang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schwann cells (SC which are myelin-forming cells in peripheral nervous system are very useful for the treatment of diseases of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient large number of SC for clinical use, so alternative cell systems are desired. Results Using a procedure similar to the one used for propagation of neural stem cells, we could induce rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC into floating neurospheres. In addition to being able to differentiate into neuronal- and glial-like cells, neurospheres could be induced to differentiate into SC-like cells. SC-like cells were bi- or tri-polar in shape and immunopositive for nestin and SC markers p75, GFAP and S-100, identical to genuine SC. We also found that SC-like cells could induce the differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells efficiently, perhaps through secretion of soluble substances. We showed further that SC-like cells could form myelin structures with PC12 cell neurites in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ADSC could differentiate into SC-like cells in terms of morphology, phenotype and functional capacities. SC-like cells induced from ADSC may be useful for the treatment of neurological diseases.

  14. Mouse Schwann cells activate MHC class I and II restricted T-cell responses, but require external peptide processing for MHC class II presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer Zu Hörste, Gerd; Heidenreich, Holger; Mausberg, Anne K.; Lehmann, Helmar C.; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.; Saavedra, José T.; Baas, Frank; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Wiendl, Heinz; Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells are the myelinating glia cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In inflammatory neuropathies like the Guillain-Barr syndrome (GBS) Schwann cells become target of an autoimmune response, but may also modulate local inflammation. Here, we tested the functional relevance of Schwann

  15. Mechanosensory organ regeneration in zebrafish depends on a population of multipotent progenitor cells kept latent by Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mario; Ceci, Maria Laura; Gutiérrez, Daniela; Anguita-Salinas, Consuelo; Allende, Miguel L

    2016-04-07

    Regenerating damaged tissue is a complex process, requiring progenitor cells that must be stimulated to undergo proliferation, differentiation and, often, migratory behaviors and morphological changes. Multiple cell types, both resident within the damaged tissue and recruited to the lesion site, have been shown to participate. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the activation of progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation after injury, and their regulation by different cells types, are not fully understood. The zebrafish lateral line is a suitable system to study regeneration because most of its components are fully restored after damage. The posterior lateral line (PLL) is a mechanosensory system that develops embryonically and is initially composed of seven to eight neuromasts distributed along the trunk and tail, connected by a continuous stripe of interneuromastic cells (INCs). The INCs remain in a quiescent state owing to the presence of underlying Schwann cells. They become activated during development to form intercalary neuromasts. However, no studies have described if INCs can participate in a regenerative event, for example, after the total loss of a neuromast. We used electroablation in transgenic larvae expressing fluorescent proteins in PLL components to completely ablate single neuromasts in larvae and adult fish. This injury results in discontinuity of the INCs, Schwann cells, and the PLL nerve. In vivo imaging showed that the INCs fill the gap left after the injury and can regenerate a new neuromast in the injury zone. Further, a single INC is able to divide and form all cell types in a regenerated neuromast and, during this process, it transiently expresses the sox2 gene, a neural progenitor cell marker. We demonstrate a critical role for Schwann cells as negative regulators of INC proliferation and neuromast regeneration, and that this inhibitory property is completely dependent on active ErbB signaling. The potential

  16. Ribosomal trafficking is reduced in Schwann cells following induction of myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, James M; Shah, Sameer B

    2015-01-01

    Local synthesis of proteins within the Schwann cell periphery is extremely important for efficient process extension and myelination, when cells undergo dramatic changes in polarity and geometry. Still, it is unclear how ribosomal distributions are developed and maintained within Schwann cell projections to sustain local translation. In this multi-disciplinary study, we expressed a plasmid encoding a fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunit (L4-GFP) in cultured primary rat Schwann cells. This enabled the generation of high-resolution, quantitative data on ribosomal distributions and trafficking dynamics within Schwann cells during early stages of myelination, induced by ascorbic acid treatment. Ribosomes were distributed throughout Schwann cell projections, with ~2-3 bright clusters along each projection. Clusters emerged within 1 day of culture and were maintained throughout early stages of myelination. Three days after induction of myelination, net ribosomal movement remained anterograde (directed away from the Schwann cell body), but ribosomal velocity decreased to about half the levels of the untreated group. Statistical and modeling analysis provided additional insight into key factors underlying ribosomal trafficking. Multiple regression analysis indicated that net transport at early time points was dependent on anterograde velocity, but shifted to dependence on anterograde duration at later time points. A simple, data-driven rate kinetics model suggested that the observed decrease in net ribosomal movement was primarily dictated by an increased conversion of anterograde particles to stationary particles, rather than changes in other directional parameters. These results reveal the strength of a combined experimental and theoretical approach in examining protein localization and transport, and provide evidence of an early establishment of ribosomal populations within Schwann cell projections with a reduction in trafficking following initiation of myelination.

  17. ATP released by injured neurons activates Schwann cells

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    Samuele eNegro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Injured nerve terminals of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs can regenerate. This remarkable and complex response is governed by molecular signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of this synapse: motor axon nerve terminal (MAT, perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs, and muscle fibre. The nature of signals that govern MAT regeneration is ill-known. In the present study the spider toxin α-Latrotoxin has been used as tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuroregeneration. Indeed this neurotoxin induces an acute, specific, localized and fully reversible damage of the presynaptic nerve terminal, and its action mimics the cascade of events that leads to nerve terminal degeneration in injured patients and in many neurodegenerative conditions. Here we provide evidence of an early release by degenerating neurons of ATP as alarm messenger, that contributes to the activation of a series of intracellular pathways within SCs that are crucial for nerve regeneration: Ca2+, cAMP, ERK1/2, and CREB. These results contribute to define the cross-talk taking place among degenerating nerve terminals and PSCs, involved in the functional recovery of the NMJ.

  18. Cthrc1 is a negative regulator of myelination in Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Richard, Laurence; Coulpier, Fanny; Blugeon, Corinne; Gilardi-Hebenstreit, Pascale; Vallat, Jean-michel; Lindner, Volkhard; Charnay, Patrick; Decker, Laurence

    2012-03-01

    The analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in the initial interaction between neurons and Schwann cells is a key issue in understanding the myelination process. We recently identified Cthrc1 (Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1) as a gene upregulated in Schwann cells upon interaction with the axon. Cthrc1 encodes a secreted protein previously shown to be involved in migration and proliferation in different cell types. We performed a functional analysis of Cthrc1 in Schwann cells by loss-of- and gain-of-function approaches using RNA interference knockdown in cell culture and a transgenic mouse line that overexpresses the gene. This work establishes that Cthrc1 enhances Schwann cell proliferation but prevents myelination. In particular, time-course analysis of myelin formation intransgenic animals reveals that overexpression of Cthrc1 in Schwann cells leads to a delay in myelin formation with cells maintaining a proliferative state. Our data, therefore, demonstrate that Cthrc1 plays a negative regulatory role, fine-tuning the onset of peripheral myelination.

  19. Immortalized Adult Rodent Schwann Cells as In Vitro Models to Study Diabetic Neuropathy

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    Kazunori Sango

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have established spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell lines from normal adult mice and rats and murine disease models. One of the normal mouse cell lines, IMS32, possesses some biological properties of mature Schwann cells and high proliferative activities. The IMS32 cells under hyperglycemic and/or hyperlipidemic conditions have been utilized to investigate the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, especially the polyol pathway hyperactivity, glycation, increased oxidative stress, and reduced synthesis of neurotrophic factors. In addition to the mouse cell lines, our current study focuses on the characterization of a normal rat cell line, IFRS1, under normal and high glucose conditions. These Schwann cell lines can be valuable tools for exploring the detailed mechanisms leading to diabetic neuropathy and novel therapeutic approaches against that condition.

  20. Regulation of retinoid receptors by retinoic acid and axonal contact in Schwann cells.

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    Maria-Jesus Latasa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schwann cells (SCs are the cell type responsible for the formation of the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system (PNS. As retinoic acid (RA and other retinoids have a profound effect as regulators of the myelination program, we sought to investigate how their nuclear receptors levels were regulated in this cell type. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, by using Schwann cells primary cultures from neonatal Wistar rat pups, as well as myelinating cocultures of Schwann cells with embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, we have found that sustained expression of RXR-γ depends on the continuous presence of a labile activator, while axonal contact mimickers produced an increase in RXR-γ mRNA and protein levels, increment that could be prevented by RA. The upregulation by axonal contact mimickers and the transcriptional downregulation by RA were dependent on de novo protein synthesis and did not involve changes in mRNA stability. On the other hand, RAR-β mRNA levels were only slightly modulated by axonal contact mimickers, while RA produced a strong transcriptional upregulation that was independent of de novo protein synthesis without changes in mRNA stability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All together, our results show that retinoid receptors are regulated in a complex manner in Schwann cells, suggesting that they could have a prominent role as regulators of Schwann cell physiology.

  1. Axon degeneration: make the Schwann cell great again

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    Keit Men Wong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonal degeneration is a pivotal feature of many neurodegenerative conditions and substantially accounts for neurological morbidity. A widely used experimental model to study the mechanisms of axonal degeneration is Wallerian degeneration (WD, which occurs after acute axonal injury. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS, WD is characterized by swift dismantling and clearance of injured axons with their myelin sheaths. This is a prerequisite for successful axonal regeneration. In the central nervous system (CNS, WD is much slower, which significantly contributes to failed axonal regeneration. Although it is well-documented that Schwann cells (SCs have a critical role in the regenerative potential of the PNS, to date we have only scarce knowledge as to how SCs 'sense' axonal injury and immediately respond to it. In this regard, it remains unknown as to whether SCs play the role of a passive bystander or an active director during the execution of the highly orchestrated disintegration program of axons. Older reports, together with more recent studies, suggest that SCs mount dynamic injury responses minutes after axonal injury, long before axonal breakdown occurs. The swift SC response to axonal injury could play either a pro-degenerative role, or alternatively a supportive role, to the integrity of distressed axons that have not yet committed to degenerate. Indeed, supporting the latter concept, recent findings in a chronic PNS neurodegeneration model indicate that deactivation of a key molecule promoting SC injury responses exacerbates axonal loss. If this holds true in a broader spectrum of conditions, it may provide the grounds for the development of new glia-centric therapeutic approaches to counteract axonal loss.

  2. An innovative protocol for schwann cells extracellular matrix proteins extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L; Zomer Volpato, F; Cagol, N; Siciliano, M; Migliaresi, C; Motta, A; Sala, R

    2016-12-01

    The evidence that extracellular matrix (ECM) components could represent new targets for drugs designed to approach degenerative disease, requires their analysis. Before the analysis, proteins should be extracted from ECM and solubilized. Currently, few protocols for ECM proteins extraction and solubilization are available in literature, and most of them are based mainly on the use of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin, which often lead to proteins damage. Moreover, no methods have been so far proposed to solubilize Schwann Cell ECM, which may represent an important target for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. In our study, we propose to solubilize SC ECM through the use of surfactants and urea. We compared our method of solubilization, with one of that proposed in literature for a general ECM, mainly based on the use of enzymes. We want to highlight the benefit of solubilizing SC ECM, avoiding the use of proteolytic enzymes. To compare the amount of proteins extracted with both methods, MicroBCA assay was used, while the quality of the proteins extracted was observed through the SDS-PAGE. The results obtained confirm a better solubilization of SC ECM proteins with the proposed protocol, both quantitatively and qualitatively, showing a higher concentration of proteins extracted and a better enrichment of protein fractions, if compared to the enzyme-based protocol. Our results show that SC ECM could be efficiently solubilized through the use of surfactant and urea, avoiding the use of enzyme-base methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 3175-3180, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Efficacy of various durations of in vitro predegeneration on the cell count and purity of rat Schwann-cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Armin; Täger, Joachim; Kohler, Konrad; Manoli, Theodora; Haerle, Max; Werdin, Frank; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Sinis, Nektarios

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of Schwann-cell cultivation can be enhanced by in vitro predegeneration of the harvested cells compared to immediate culture. The aim of this study was to improve Schwann-cell culture efficacy by comparing three different durations of predegeneration. The sciatic and median nerves of 6-8-week-old Lewis rats were harvested and subjected to either 2-day, 7-day, or 14-day predegeneration in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and 1% Penicillin/Streptomycin. Afterward, tissue was enzymatically dissociated and placed in a modified melanocyte growth medium. The cell count was determined immediately after dissociation while the cell purity was determined one subculture/trypsinization cycle later after cell attachment to the culture plate by means of optical microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Particular attention was then paid to the Schwann-cell-to-fibroblast relation. The cumulative cell count in the culture was 5.8 x 10(5) for 2-day, 1.12 x 10(6) for 7-day, and 1.48 x 10(6) for 14-day predegeneration. The culture purity was approximately equal for 2- and 7-day predegeneration (88% Schwann cells, 12% fibroblasts after 2 days; 85% Schwann cells, 15% fibroblasts after 7 days). After 14 days, however, cell cultures were significantly debased by fibroblast proliferation (57% Schwann cells, 43% fibroblasts). In vitro predegeneration is a particularly suitable procedural method to increase the cultural Schwann-cell yield. The number of cultivated rat Schwann cells is doubled by 7-day in vitro predegeneration in comparison to 2-day predegeneration. After 14-day predegeneration, however, the culture is significantly debased by fibroblasts. Therefore, 7-day in vitro predegeneration is an advisable predegeneration period.

  4. Mycolactone cytotoxicity in Schwann cells could explain nerve damage in Buruli ulcer.

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    Junichiro En

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a chronic painless skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The local nerve damage induced by M. ulcerans invasion is similar to the nerve damage evoked by the injection of mycolactone in a Buruli ulcer mouse model. In order to elucidate the mechanism of this nerve damage, we tested and compared the cytotoxic effect of synthetic mycolactone A/B on cultured Schwann cells, fibroblasts and macrophages. Mycolactone induced much higher cell death and apoptosis in Schwann cell line SW10 than in fibroblast line L929. These results suggest that mycolactone is a key substance in the production of nerve damage of Buruli ulcer.

  5. Specific inhibition of secreted NRG1 types I-II by heparin enhances Schwann Cell myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Gordon, Aaron; Sukhanov, Natalya; Peles, Elior

    2016-07-01

    Primary cultures of mixed neuron and Schwann cells prepared from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are extensively used as a model to study myelination. These dissociated DRG cultures have the particular advantage of bypassing the difficulty in purifying mouse Schwann cells, which is often required when using mutant mice. However, the drawback of this experimental system is that it yields low amounts of myelin. Here we report a simple and efficient method to enhance myelination in vitro. We show that the addition of heparin or low molecular weight heparin to mixed DRG cultures markedly increases Schwann cells myelination. The myelin promoting activity of heparin results from specific inhibition of the soluble immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing isoforms of neuregulin 1 (i.e., NRG1 types I and II) that negatively regulates myelination. Heparin supplement provides a robust and reproducible method to increase myelination in a simple and commonly used culture system. GLIA 2016;64:1227-1234. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with Schwann cell transplantation promotes spinal cord injury recovery

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    Chuan-gang Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cell transplantation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy each promote recovery from spinal cord injury, but it remains unclear whether their combination improves therapeutic results more than monotherapy. To investigate this, we used Schwann cell transplantation via the tail vein, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or their combination, in rat models of spinal cord contusion injury. The combined treatment was more effective in improving hindlimb motor function than either treatment alone; injured spinal tissue showed a greater number of neurite-like structures in the injured spinal tissue, somatosensory and motor evoked potential latencies were notably shorter, and their amplitudes greater, after combination therapy than after monotherapy. These findings indicate that Schwann cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy is more effective than either treatment alone in promoting the recovery of spinal cord in rats after injury.

  7. Dynamic Quantification of Host Schwann Cell Migration into Peripheral Nerve Allografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Elizabeth L.; Myckatyn, Terence M.; Tong, Alice Y.; Yee, Andrew; Yan, Ying; Magill, Christina K.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Host Schwann cell (SC) migration into nerve allografts is the limiting factor in the duration of immunosuppression following peripheral nerve allotransplantation, and may be affected by different immunosuppressive regimens. Our objective was to compare SC migration patterns between clinical and experimental immunosuppression regimens both over time and at the harvest endpoint. Eighty mice that express GFP under the control of the Schwann cell specific S100 promoter were engrafted with allogeneic, nonfluorescent sciatic nerve grafts. Mice received immunosuppression with either tacrolimus (FK506), or experimental T-cell triple costimulation blockade (CSB), consisting of CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, and anti-inducible costimulator monoclonal antibody. Migration of GFP-expressing host SCs into wild-type allografts was assessed in vivo every 3 weeks until 15 weeks postoperatively, and explanted allografts were evaluated for immunohistochemical staining patterns to differentiate graft from host SCs. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus exhibited a plateau of SC migration, characterized by significant early migration (< 3 weeks) followed by a constant level of host SCs in the graft (15 weeks). At the endpoint, graft fluorescence was decreased relative to surrounding host nerve, and donor SCs persisted within the graft. CSB-treated mice displayed gradually increasing migration of host SCs into the graft, without the plateau noted in tacrolimus-treated mice, and also maintained a population of donor SCs at the 15-week endpoint. SC migration patterns are affected by immunosuppressant choice, particularly in the immediate postoperative period, and the use of a single treatment of CSB may allow for gradual population of nerve allografts with host SCs. PMID:20633557

  8. The role of p38alpha in Schwann cells in regulating peripheral nerve myelination and repair.

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    Roberts, Sheridan L; Dun, Xin-Peng; Dee, Gemma; Gray, Bethany; Mindos, Thomas; Parkinson, David B

    2017-04-01

    Myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is controlled by both positive and negative regulators within Schwann cells to ensure timely onset and correct myelin thickness for saltatory conduction by neurons. Transcription factors such as Sox10, octamer-binding transcription factor 6 (Oct6) and Krox20 form a positive regulatory network, whereas negative regulators such as cJun and Sox2 oppose myelination in Schwann cells. The role of the p38 MAPK pathway has been studied in PNS myelination, but its precise function remains unclear, with both positive and negative effects of p38 activity reported upon both myelination and processes of nerve repair. To clarify the role of p38 MAPK in the PNS, we have analysed mice with a Schwann cell-specific ablation of the major p38 isoform, p38alpha. In line with previous findings of an inhibitory role for p38 MAPK, we observe acceleration of post-natal myelination in p38alpha null nerves, a delay in myelin down-regulation following injury, together with a small increase in levels of re-myelination following injury. Finally we explored roles for p38alpha in controlling axonal regeneration and functional repair following PNS injury and observe that loss of p38alpha function in Schwann cells does not appear to affect these processes as previously reported. These studies therefore provide further proof for a role of p38 MAPK signalling in the control of myelination by Schwann cells in the PNS, but do not show an apparent role for signalling by this MAP kinase in Schwann cells controlling other elements of Wallerian degeneration and functional repair following injury. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13793. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Essential and distinct roles for cdc42 and rac1 in the regulation of Schwann cell biology during peripheral nervous system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benninger, Yves; Thurnherr, Tina; Pereira, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    -specific conditional gene targeting to show that members of the Rho GTPases, cdc42 and rac1, have different and essential roles in axon sorting by Schwann cells. Our results indicate that although cdc42 is required for normal Schwann cell proliferation, rac1 regulates Schwann cell process extension and stabilization...

  10. Early regenerative effects of NGF-transduced Schwann cells in peripheral nerve repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakhbazau, A.; Kawasoe, J.; Hoyng, S.A.; Kumar, R.; van Minnen, J.; Verhaagen, J.; Midha, R.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury leads to a rapid and robust increase in the synthesis of neurotrophins which guide and support regenerating axons. To further optimize neurotrophin supply at the earliest stages of regeneration, we over-expressed NGF in Schwann cells (SCs) by transducing these cells with a

  11. Pro-neurogenic effects of andrographolide on RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuben; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Lv, Peizhen; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration remains a challenge to the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Andrographolide (Andro) is the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata, which has been applied in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, in ancient China. Andro has been reported to facilitate the reduction of edema and to exert analgesic effects in the treatment of various diseases. These findings suggest that Andro may be considered a promising anti-inflammatory agent that may suppress destruction and accelerate proliferation of Schwann cells following peripheral nerve injury. In the present study, the effects of Andro on RSC96 cells were investigated in vitro. The RSC96 cell line is a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line, which was originally derived from a long-term culture of rat primary Schwann cells. RSC96 cells were treated with a range of 0 to 50 µM Andro prior to the MTT assay. Cell proliferation, morphology, synthesis and nerve-specific gene expression were performed to detect the effect of Andro on RSC96 cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the recommended doses of Andro ranged between 0.78 and 12.5 µM, among which the most obvious response was observed when used at 3.125 µM (P<0.05). DNA content was improved in Andro groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Andro was able to promote the gene expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and the specific Schwann cell marker S100β (P<0.05). The results of a viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry were also improved in Andro groups. These results indicated that Andro may accelerate proliferation of RSC96 cells in vitro, whilst maintaining the Schwann cell phenotype; therefore, the present study may provide valuable evidence for the further exploration of the effects of Andro on peripheral nerves. PMID:27599453

  12. Schwann Cells Increase Prostate and Pancreatic Tumor Cell Invasion Using Laminin Binding A6 Integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Isis C; Chopra, Harsharon; Das, Lipsa; Gard, Jaime M C; Nagle, Raymond B; Cress, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Human pancreatic and prostate cancers metastasize along nerve axons during perineural invasion. The extracellular matrix laminin class of proteins is an abundant component of both myelinated and non-myelinated nerves. Analysis of human pancreatic and prostate tissue revealed both perineural and endoneural invasion with Schwann cells surrounded or disrupted by tumor, respectively. Tumor and nerve cell co-culture conditions were used to determine if myelinating or non-myelinating Schwann cell (S16 and S16Y, respectively) phenotype was equally likely to promote integrin-dependent cancer cell invasion and migration on laminin. Conditioned medium from S16 cells increased tumor cell (DU145, PC3, and CFPAC1) invasion into laminin approximately 1.3-2.0 fold compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) treated cells. Integrin function (e.g., ITGA6p formation) increased up to 1.5 fold in prostate (DU145, PC3, RWPE-1) and pancreatic (CFPAC1) cells, and invasion was dependent on ITGA6p formation and ITGB1 as determined by function-blocking antibodies. In contrast, conditioned medium isolated from S16Y cells (non-myelinating phenotype) decreased constitutive levels of ITGA6p in the tumor cells by 50% compared to untreated cells and decreased ITGA6p formation 3.0 fold compared to S16 treated cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed loss of ITGA6p formation as reversible and independent of overall loss of ITGA6 expression. These results suggest that the myelinating phenotype of Schwann cells within the tumor microenvironment increased integrin-dependent tumor invasion on laminin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mycobacterium leprae induces NF-κB-dependent transcription repression in human Schwann cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Renata M.S.; Calegari-Silva, Teresa Cristina; Hernandez, Maristela O.; Saliba, Alessandra M.; Redner, Paulo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Lopes, Ulisses G.

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, invades peripheral nerve Schwann cells, resulting in deformities associated with this disease. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in the regulation of host immune antimicrobial responses. We aimed in this work to investigate NF-κB signaling pathways in the human ST88-14 Schwannoma cell line infected with M. leprae. Gel shift and supershift assays indicate that two NF-κB dimers, p65/p50 and p50/p50, translocate to the nucleus in Schwann cells treated with lethally irradiated M. leprae. Consistent with p65/p50 and p50/p50 activation, we observed IκB-α degradation and reduction of p105 levels. The nuclear translocation of p50/p50 complex due to M. leprae treatment correlated with repression of NF-κB-driven transcription induced by TNF-α. Moreover, thalidomide inhibited p50 homodimer nuclear translocation induced by M. leprae and consequently rescues Schwann cells from NF-κB-dependent transcriptional repression. Here, we report for the first time that M. leprae induces NF-κB activation in Schwann cells and thalidomide is able to modulate this activation

  14. Dicer in Schwann cells is required for myelination and axonal integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Jorge A.; Baumann, Reto; Norrmén, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Dicer is responsible for the generation of mature micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and loading them into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC functions as a probe that targets mRNAs leading to translational suppression and mRNA degradation. Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system undergo re...

  15. Spatiotemporal distribution and function of N-cadherin in postnatal Schwann cells: A matter of adhesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Mikael; Wicher, Grzegorz; Limbach, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    ), and myenteric plexi. In the sciatic nerve, N-cadherin decreases with age and progress of myelination. In adult animals, N-cadherin was found exclusively in nonmyelinating Schwann cells. The distribution of N-cadherin in developing E17 DRG primary cultures is similar to what was observed in vivo. Functional...

  16. Neural Progenitor-Like Cells Induced from Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Myelination of Schwann Cells in Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunzhou; Nguyen, Phuong; Xu, Qilin; Park, Wonse; Lee, Sumin; Furuhashi, Akihiro; Le, Anh D

    2017-02-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as potential candidates for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that human gingiva-derived MSCs (GMSCs) could be directly induced into multipotent NPCs (iNPCs) under minimally manipulated conditions without the introduction of exogenous genes. Using a crush-injury model of rat sciatic nerve, we demonstrate that GMSCs transplanted to the injury site could differentiate into neuronal cells, whereas iNPCs could differentiate into both neuronal and Schwann cells. After crush injury, iNPCs, compared with GMSCs, displayed superior therapeutic effects on axonal regeneration at both the injury site and the distal segment of the injured sciatic nerve. Mechanistically, transplantation of GMSCs, especially iNPCs, significantly attenuated injury-triggered increase in the expression of c-Jun, a transcription factor that functions as a major negative regulator of myelination and plays a central role in dedifferentiation/reprogramming of Schwann cells into a progenitor-like state. Meanwhile, our results also demonstrate that transplantation of GMSCs and iNPCs consistently increased the expression of Krox-20/EGR2, a transcription factor that governs the expression of myelin proteins and facilitates myelination. Altogether, our findings suggest that transplantation of GMSCs and iNPCs promotes peripheral nerve repair/regeneration, possibly by promoting remyelination of Schwann cells mediated via the regulation of the antagonistic myelination regulators, c-Jun and Krox-20/EGR2. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:458-470. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  17. The influence of electrospun fibre size on Schwann cell behaviour and axonal outgrowth

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    Gnavi, S., E-mail: sara.gnavi@unito.it [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, Orbassano 10043 (Italy); Neuroscience Institute of the Cavalieri-Ottolenghi Foundation, University of Torino, Orbassano 10043 (Italy); Fornasari, B.E., E-mail: benedettaelena.fornasari@unito.it [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, Orbassano 10043 (Italy); Neuroscience Institute of the Cavalieri-Ottolenghi Foundation, University of Torino, Orbassano 10043 (Italy); Tonda-Turo, C., E-mail: chiara.tondaturo@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico of Torino, Torino 10100 (Italy); Ciardelli, G., E-mail: gianluca.ciardelli@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico of Torino, Torino 10100 (Italy); CNR-IPCF UOS, Pisa 56124 (Italy); Zanetti, M., E-mail: marco.zanetti@unito.it [Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, Torino 10100 (Italy); Geuna, S., E-mail: stefano.geuna@unito.it [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, Orbassano 10043 (Italy); Neuroscience Institute of the Cavalieri-Ottolenghi Foundation, University of Torino, Orbassano 10043 (Italy); Perroteau, I., E-mail: isabelle.perroteau@unito.it [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, Orbassano 10043 (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Fibrous substrates functioning as temporary extracellular matrices can be prepared easily by electrospinning, yielding fibrous matrices suitable as internal fillers for nerve guidance channels. In this study, gelatin micro- or nano-fibres were prepared by electrospinning by tuning the gelatin concentration and solution flow rate. The effect of gelatin fibre diameter on cell adhesion and proliferation was tested in vitro using explant cultures of Schwann cells (SC) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Cell adhesion was assessed by quantifying the cell spreading area, actin cytoskeleton organization and focal adhesion complex formation. Nano-fibres promoted cell spreading and actin cytoskeleton organization, increasing cellular adhesion and the proliferation rate. However, both migration rate and motility, quantified by transwell and time lapse assays respectively, were greater in cells cultured on micro-fibres. Finally, there was more DRG axon outgrowth on micro-fibres. These data suggest that the topography of electrospun gelatin fibres can be adjusted to modulate SC and axon organization and that both nano- and micro-fibres are promising fillers for the design of devices for peripheral nerve repair. - Highlights: • Electrospinning used to produce gelatin nano- and micro-fibre matrices. • Nano-fibre matrices promote Schwann cell organization and increase proliferation rate. • Micro-fibre matrices promote Schwann cell migration. • Micro-fibre matrices promote axonal outgrowth.

  18. Development of a Functional Schwann Cell Phenotype from Autologous Porcine Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rutten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs are a potential resource for making Schwann cells to repair damaged peripheral nerves. However, many methods of producing Schwann-like cells can be laborious with the cells lacking a functional phenotype. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method using autologous BM-MNCs to produce a phenotypic and functional Schwann-like cell. Adult porcine bone marrow was collected and enriched for BM-MNCs using a SEPAX device, then cells cultured in Neurobasal media, 4 mM L-glutamine and 20% serum. After 6–8 days, the cultures expressed Schwann cell markers, S-100, O4, GFAP, were FluoroMyelin positive, but had low p75(NGF expression. Addition of neuregulin (1–25 nM increased p75(NGF levels at 24–48 hrs. We found ATP dose-dependently increased intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, with nucleotide potency being UTP=ATP>ADP>AMP>adenosine. Suramin blocked the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i but α, β,-methylene-ATP had little effect suggesting an ATP purinergic P2Y2 G-protein-coupled receptor is present. Both the Schwann cell markers and ATP-induced [Ca2+]i sensitivity decreased in cells passaged >20 times. Our studies indicate that autologous BM-MNCs can be induced to form a phenotypic and functional Schwann-like cell which could be used for peripheral nerve repair.

  19. Dose-dependent effects of ouabain on spiral ganglion neurons and Schwann cells in mouse cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Guan, Hong-Xia; Yang, Kun; Xiao, Bo-Kui; Liao, Hua; Jiang, Yang; Zhou, Tao; Hua, Qing-Quan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed in fully investigating the toxicities of ouabain to mouse cochlea and the related cellular environment, and providing an optimal animal model system for cell transplantation in the treatment of auditory neuropathy (AN) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Different dosages of ouabain were applied to mouse round window. The auditory brainstem responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were used to evaluate the cochlear function. The immunohistochemical staining and cochlea surface preparation were performed to detect the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), Schwann cells and hair cells. Ouabain at the dosages of 0.5 mM, 1 mM and 3 mM selectively and permanently destroyed SGNs and their functions, while leaving the hair cells relatively intact. Ouabain at 3 mM resulted in the most severe SGNs loss and induced significant loss of Schwann cells started as early as 7 days and with further damages at 14 and 30 days after ouabain exposure. The application of ouabain to mouse round window induces damages of SGNs and Schwann cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, this study established a reliable and accurate animal model system of AN and SNHL.

  20. Schwann cell interactions with polymer films are affected by groove geometry and film hydrophilicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasseri, S A; Downes, S; Terenghi, G

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable polymer scaffold made of a polycaprolactone/polylactic acid (PCL/PLA) film. Surface properties such as topography and chemistry have a vital influence on cell–material interactions. Surface modifications of PCL/PLA films were performed using topographical cues and UV–ozone treatment to improve Schwann cell organisation and behaviour. Schwann cell attachment, alignment and proliferation were evaluated on the grooved UV–ozone treated and non-treated films. Solvent casting of the polymer solution on patterned silicon substrates resulted in films with different groove shapes: V (V), sloped (SL) and square (SQ) shapes. Pitted films, with no grooves, were prepared as a negative control. The UV–ozone treatment was performed to increase hydrophilicity. The process specifications for UV–ozone treatment were evaluated and 5 min radiation time and 6 cm distance to the UV source were suggested as the optimal practise. When cultured on grooved films, Schwann cells elongated on the V and SL shape grooves without crossing over, and grew in the direction of the grooves. However, there was less elongation with more crossing over on the SQ shape grooves. The maximum cell length (511 μm) was observed on the treated V-grooved films. The cells cultured on pitted UV–ozone treated surfaces showed random arrangements with no increase in length. We have demonstrated that the synergic effects of physical cues combined with UV–ozone treatment have the potential to enhance Schwann cell morphology and alignment. (paper)

  1. Rac1 controls Schwann cell myelination through cAMP and NF2/merlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Moon, Chandra; Niehaus, Karen; Zheng, Yi; Ratner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    During peripheral nervous system development, Schwann cells (SCs) surrounding single large axons differentiate into myelinating SCs. Previous studies implicate RhoGTPases in SC myelination, but the mechanisms involved in RhoGTPase regulation of SC myelination are unknown. Here, we show that SC myelination is arrested in Rac1 conditional knockout (Rac1-CKO) mice. Rac1 knockout abrogated phosphorylation of the effector p21-activated kinase (PAK) and decreased NF2/merlin phosphorylation. Mutation of NF2/merlin rescued the myelin deficit in Rac1-CKO mice in vivo, and the shortened processes in cultured Rac1-CKO SCs in vitro. Mechanistically, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and E-cadherin expression were decreased in the absence of Rac1, and both were restored by mutation of NF2/merlin. Reduced cAMP is a cause of the myelin deficiency in Rac1-CKO mice, as elevation of cAMP by rolipram in Rac1-CKO mice in vivo allowed myelin formation. Thus NF2/merlin and cAMP function downstream of Rac1 signaling in SC myelination, and cAMP levels control Rac1-regulated SC myelination. PMID:23197717

  2. The serum of dysautonomia patients enhances proliferation and signaling in Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Rein H; Pollard, Katherine A; Alshekhlee, Amer; Chelimsky, Thomas C; Berti-Mattera, Liliana N

    2010-01-04

    Disorders of the autonomic nervous system, or dysautonomias, affect a large segment of the population, especially women, and represent a diagnostic challenge. Identification of biomarkers for autonomic disorders, and the subsequent development of screening methods, would benefit diagnosis and symptom management. We studied the effect of sera from fifteen well-characterized dysautonomia patients (mean age 49+/-16 years, 10 females, 5 males) and ten control subjects (mean age 31+/-14 years, 5 females, 5 males) on the proliferation of cultured Schwann cells and activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in these cells. We correlated characteristics of patients with the effects on cell proliferation and signaling. Overall, we observed a significant increase in proliferation when Schwann cells were incubated with sera from female dysautonomia patients when compared to control subjects and male patients. Interestingly, removal of IgGs significantly reduced the proliferative effect of patient sera. We also observed significant activation of p38 MAPK following incubation with both male and female patient sera. These results suggest that patient sera contain factors that contribute to aberrant Schwann cell proliferation and signaling and may ultimately lead to autonomic nerve dysfunction. Our observations represent a promising first step in the identification of dysautonomia biomarkers.

  3. A Combination Tissue Engineering Strategy for Schwann Cell-Induced Spinal Cord Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    NUMBER New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 Martin Luther King Jr Blvd Newark NJ 07102-1824 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...brainstem project throughout the spinal cord and participate in pain modulation and autonomic and motor responses (Lindvall et al., 1983). The...Zhou XH, Ning GZ, Feng SQ, Kong XH, Chen JT, Zheng YF, Ban DX, Liu T, Li H, Wang P. 2012. Transplantation of autologous activated Schwann cells in

  4. Low grade Schwann cell neoplasms with leptomeningeal dissemination: clinicopathologic and autopsy findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F.; Blakeley, Jaishri; Langmead, Shannon; Olivi, Alessandro; Tufaro, Anthony; Tabbarah, Abeer; Berkenblit, Gail; Sacks, Justin M.; Newsome, Scott D.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of low grade Schwann cell neoplasms is an exceptionally rare occurrence, and has not been well documented in the literature. We encountered two cases of leptomeningeal dissemination of low grade Schwann cell neoplasms. Patient 1 was a 63-year-old woman with NF1 and a progressive low grade MPNST developing from a diffuse/plexiform orbital neurofibroma that arose in childhood. The neoplasm demonstrated local and leptomeningeal dissemination intracranially leading to the patient’s death. There was partial loss of H3K27 tri-methylation, p16 and collagen IV. Patient 2 was a 60-year-old man without NF1 who presented with cranial nerve symptoms and a disseminated neoplasm with a Schwann cell phenotype. The neoplasm stabilized after irradiation and chemotherapy but the patient died of medical complications. Autopsy findings documented disseminated leptomeningeal disease in the intracranial and spinal compartment. H3K27M tri-methylation was preserved. The clinicopathologic and autopsy findings are studied and presented, and the literature is reviewed. PMID:27666764

  5. Schwann Cells Metabolize Extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Jonathan D.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The 3′,5′-cAMP–adenosine pathway (3′,5′-cAMP→5′-AMP→adenosine) and the 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway (2′,3′-cAMP→2′-AMP/3′-AMP→adenosine) are active in the brain. Oligodendrocytes participate in the brain 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway via their robust expression of 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; converts 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP). Because Schwann cells also express CNPase, it is conceivable that the 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway exists in the peripheral nervous system. To test this and to compare the 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway to the 3′,5′-cAMP–adenosine pathway in Schwann cells, we examined the metabolism of 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, 3′,5′-cAMP, and 5′-AMP in primary rat Schwann cells in culture. Addition of 2′,3′-cAMP (3, 10, and 30 µM) to Schwann cells increased levels of 2′-AMP in the medium from 0.006 ± 0.002 to 21 ± 2, 70 ± 3, and 187 ± 10 nM/µg protein, respectively; in contrast, Schwann cells had little ability to convert 2′,3′-cAMP to 3′-AMP or 3′,5′-cAMP to either 3′-AMP or 5′-AMP. Although Schwann cells slightly converted 2′,3′-cAMP and 2′-AMP to adenosine, they did so at very modest rates (e.g., 5- and 3-fold, respectively, more slowly compared with our previously reported studies in oligodendrocytes). Using transected myelinated rat sciatic nerves in culture medium, we observed a time-related increase in endogenous intracellular 2′,3′-cAMP and extracellular 2′-AMP. These findings indicate that Schwann cells do not have a robust 3′,5′-cAMP–adenosine pathway but do have a 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway; however, because the pathway mostly involves 2′-AMP formation rather than 3′-AMP, and because the conversion of 2′-AMP to adenosine is slow, metabolism of 2′,3′-cAMP mostly results in the accumulation of 2′-AMP. Accumulation of 2′-AMP in peripheral nerves postinjury could have

  6. The insulin-like growth factors I and II stimulate proliferation of different types of Schwann cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondell, M; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1997-01-01

    A combination of immunocytochemistry for glial specific antigens and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and teasing was used to identify proliferating cells in cultured rat sciatic nerve segments. The nerve segments were exposed to insulin, or the insulin-like growth factors IGF-I and IGF-II. Teasing...... in combination with BrdU immunocytochemistry showed that around 93% of the proliferating cells in the nerve segments were Schwann cells. Immunostaining for BrdU and GFAP (glial fibrillary acid protein) showed that IGF-II enhanced proliferation of Schwann cells surrounding unmyelinated nerve fibres. In contrast......, truncated IGF-I promoted proliferation of Schwann cells of myelinated nerve fibres while insulin increased proliferation of both cell types....

  7. In vitro cytocompatibility assessment of amorphous carbon structures using neuroblastoma and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shilpee; Sharma, Ashutosh; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-05-01

    The development of scaffolds for neural tissue engineering application requires an understanding of cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration of neuronal cells. Considering the potential application of carbon as scaffold materials and the lack of understanding of compatibility of amorphous carbon with neuronal cells, the carbon-based materials in the forms of carbon films and continuous electrospun carbon nanofibers having average diameter of ~200 nm are being investigated with or without ultraviolet (UV) and oxy-plasma (OP) treatments for cytocompatibility property using mouse Neuroblastoma (N2a) and rat Schwann cells (RT4-D6P2T). The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction establishes the amorphous nature and surface-bonding characteristics of the studied carbon materials. Although both UV and OP treatments make carbon surfaces more hydrophilic, the cell viability of N2a cells is statistically more significant on OP treated fibers/films compared to UV fiber/film substrates after 4 days in culture. The electrospun carbon fibrous substrate provides the physical guidance to the cultured Schwann cells. Overall, the experimental results of this study demonstrate that the electrospun amorphous carbon nanofibrous scaffolds can be used as a suitable biomaterial substrate for supporting cell adhesion and proliferation of neuronal cells in the context of their applications as artificial nerve implants. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Myelin repair by Schwann cells in the regenerating goldfish visual pathway: regional patterns revealed by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nona, S.N.; Stafford, C.A.; Cronly-Dillon, J.R. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology); Duncan, A. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Anatomy); Scholes, J. (University Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1994-07-01

    In the regenerating goldfish optic nerves, Schwann cells of unknown origin reliably infiltrate the lesion site forming a band of peripheral-type myelinating tissue by 1-2 months, sharply demarcated form the adjacent new CNS myelin. To investigate this effect, we have interfered with cell proliferation by locally X-irradiating the fish visual pathway 24 h after the lesion. As assayed by immunohistochemistry and EM, irradiation retards until 6 months formation of new myelin by Schwann cells at the lesion site, and virtually abolishes oligodendrocyte myelination distally, but has little or no effect on nerve fibre regrowth. Optic nerve astrocyte processes normally fail to re-infiltrate the lesion, but re-occupy it after irradiation, suggesting that they are normally excluded by early cell proliferation at this site. Moreover, scattered myelinating Schwann cells also appear in the oligodendrocyte-depleted distal optic nerve after irradiation, although only as far as the optic tract. (Author).

  9. A combination of Schwann-cell grafts and aerobic exercise enhances sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Oliveira Goulart

    Full Text Available Despite the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system, severe nerve lesions lead to loss of target-organ innervation, making complete functional recovery a challenge. Few studies have given attention to combining different approaches in order to accelerate the regenerative process.Test the effectiveness of combining Schwann-cells transplantation into a biodegradable conduit, with treadmill training as a therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of repair after mouse nerve injury.Sciatic nerve transection was performed in adult C57BL/6 mice; the proximal and distal stumps of the nerve were sutured into the conduit. Four groups were analyzed: acellular grafts (DMEM group, Schwann cell grafts (3×105/2 µL; SC group, treadmill training (TMT group, and treadmill training and Schwann cell grafts (TMT + SC group. Locomotor function was assessed weekly by Sciatic Function Index and Global Mobility Test. Animals were anesthetized after eight weeks and dissected for morphological analysis.Combined therapies improved nerve regeneration, and increased the number of myelinated fibers and myelin area compared to the DMEM group. Motor recovery was accelerated in the TMT + SC group, which showed significantly better values in sciatic function index and in global mobility test than in the other groups. The TMT + SC group showed increased levels of trophic-factor expression compared to DMEM, contributing to the better functional outcome observed in the former group. The number of neurons in L4 segments was significantly higher in the SC and TMT + SC groups when compared to DMEM group. Counts of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons revealed that TMT group had a significant increased number of neurons compared to DMEM group, while the SC and TMT + SC groups had a slight but not significant increase in the total number of motor neurons.These data provide evidence that this combination of therapeutic strategies can significantly improve functional

  10. Ablation of Perk in Schwann Cells Improves Myelination in the S63del Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, Mariapaola; Musner, Nicolò; Silvestri, Nicholas; Ungaro, Daniela; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Cavener, Douglas R; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2016-11-02

    In factory cells, the accumulation of misfolded protein provokes the unfolded protein response (UPR). For example, deletion of serine 63 (S63del) in myelin protein zero (P0) induces P0 accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of Schwann cells and a persistent UPR associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B (CMT1B) demyelinating peripheral neuropathy in human and mouse. PERK (protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase) is the ER stress sensor that attenuates global translation by phosphorylating eIF2α. Inhibition of the eIF2α holophosphatase GADD34:PP1, increases the phosphorylation of eIF2α in Schwann cells and largely rescues S63del neuropathy. Nonetheless, reducing phosphorylation of eIF2α, by Perk haploinsufficiency, also ameliorates the myelin defects of S63del nerves. This contradictory finding prompted us to investigate whether the beneficial effect of Perk deficiency on myelination could derive from neurons. To test this hypothesis, we generated and compared Schwann cell- and neuron-specific ablation of Perk in S63del nerves. Our data suggest that the detrimental effect of Perk in CMT1B derives primarily from Schwann cells. Furthermore, we show that Perk loss of function in Schwann cells restores myelination without diminishing accumulation of P0 or markers of ER stress, suggesting that Perk may modulate myelination through a pathway independent of the UPR. In many endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related disorders, activation of the unfolded protein sensor protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) kinase is beneficial. Nonetheless, in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B neuropathy mice, we show that activation of PERK in Schwann cells, but not in neurons, is detrimental for myelination. PERK may interfere with myelination, independent of its role in ER stress. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611350-12$15.00/0.

  11. Schwann cell to axon transfer of ribosomes: toward a novel understanding of the role of glia in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Court, F.A.; Hendriks, W.T.J.; Mac Gillavry, H.D.; Alvarez, J.; van Minnen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Schwann cells play pivotal roles in the development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. Here, we show that intact sciatic nerve axons of mice contain a small population of ribosomes, which increases by several orders of magnitude when axons are desomatized (severed from their cell

  12. Septin 7: Actin cross-organization is required for axonal association of Schwann cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro D Roth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin sheaths present two distinct domains: compacted myelin spirals and flanking non-compacted cytoplasmic channels, where lipid and protein segregation is established by unknown mechanisms. Septins, a conserved family of membrane and cytoskeletal interacting GTPases, form intracellular diffusion barriers during cell division and neurite extension and are expressed in myelinating cells. Septins, particularly septin 7 (Sept7, the central constituent of septin polymers, are associated with the cytoplasmic channels of myelinating cells. Here we show that Schwann cells deprived of Sept7 fail to wrap around axons from dorsal root ganglion neurons and exhibit disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Likewise, Sept7 distribution is dependent on microfilament but not microtubule organization.

  13. Schwann Cell Migration Induced by Earthworm Extract via Activation of PAs and MMP2/9 Mediated through ERK1/2 and p38

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The earthworm, which has stasis removal and wound-healing functions, is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine in China. Schwann cell migration is critical for the regeneration of injured nerves. Schwann cells provide an essentially supportive activity for neuron regeneration. However, the molecular migration mechanisms induced by earthworms in Schwann cells remain unclear. Here, we investigate the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK and p38 pathways for earthworm-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9 production in Schwann cells. Moreover, earthworm induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK, activate the downstream signaling expression of PAs and MMPs in a time-dependent manner. Earthworm-stimulated ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and SB203580, resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. The results were confirmed using small interfering ERK1/2 and p38 RNA. These results demonstrated that earthworms can stimulate Schwann cell migration and up-regulate PAs and MMP2/9 expression mediated through the MAPK pathways, ERK1/2 and p38. Taken together, our data suggests the MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38-, PAs (uPA, tPA-, MMP (MMP2, MMP9 signaling pathway of Schwann cells regulated by earthworms might play a major role in Schwann cell migration and nerve regeneration.

  14. Interactions between intraspinal Schwann cells and the cellular constituents normally occurring in the spinal cord: an ultrastructural study in the irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, T.J.; Gilmore, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Relationships between intraspinal Schwann cells and neuroglia, particularly astrocytes, were studied following X-irradiation of the spinal cord in 3-day old rats. Initially, this exposure results in a depletion of the neuroglial population. By 10 days post-irradiation (P-I), gaps occur in the glia limitans, although the overlying basal lamina remains intact. Development of and myelination by intraspinal Schwann cells is well underway by 15 days P-I. These Schwann cell-occupied regions have a paucity of astrocyte processes, a finding which persists throughout the study (60 days P-I), and several types of Schwann cell-neuroglial interfaces are observed. The gaps in the glia limitans widen as the P-I interval increases. At 45 and 60 days P-I, the basal lamina no longer forms a singular, continuous covering over the spinal cord surface, but follows instead a rather tortuous course over the disrupted glia limitans and the intraspinal Schwann cells. Although the mode of initial occurrence of Schwann cells within the spinal cord is not yet understood, the data indicate that the astrocyte population is involved in that process, as well as in limiting the further development of Schwann cells within the substance of the spinal cord. (Auth.)

  15. A co-culture microtunnel technique demonstrating a significant contribution of unmyelinated Schwann cells to the acceleration of axonal conduction in Schwann cell-regulated peripheral nerve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji; Shimba, Kenta; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2017-08-14

    Schwann cells (SCs) contribute to the regulation of axonal conduction in a myelin-dependent and -independent manner. However, due to the lack of investigative techniques that are able to record axonal conduction under conditions that control the proliferation of specific SC types, little is known about the extent to which myelinated SCs (mSCs) and unmyelinated SCs (umSCs) modulate axonal conduction. In this study, a microtunnel-electrode approach was applied to a neuron/SC co-culture technique. Rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and SCs were co-cultured in a microtunnel-electrode device, which enabled recording of the conduction delay in multiple axons passing through microtunnels. Despite the absence of nuclei in the microtunnel when SCs were eliminated, cultured cells were densely packed and expressed S100 beta (an SC marker) at a rate of 96% in neuron/SC co-culture, indicating that SCs migrated into the microtunnel. In addition, supplementation with ascorbic acid after 6 days in vitro (DIV) successfully induced myelination from 22 DIV. Activity recording experiments indicated that the conduction delay decreased with culture length from 17 DIV in the neuron/SC co-culture but not in neuron monoculture. Interestingly, the SC-modulated shortening of conduction delay was attenuated at 17 DIV and 22 DIV by supplementing the culture medium with ascorbic acid and, at the same time, suppressing SC proliferation, suggesting that immature umSCs increased axonal conduction velocity in a cell density-dependent manner before the onset of myelination. These results suggest that this method is an effective tool for investigating the contributions of mSCs or umSCs to the regulation of axonal conduction.

  16. Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca2+ Signaling during Myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca2+ increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination.

  17. Study of the Peripheral Nerve Fibers Myelin Structure Changes during Activation of Schwann Cell Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdiyan, Ekaterina E; Allakhverdiev, Elvin S; Maksimov, Georgy V

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a new type of mechanism by which neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the properties of peripheral nerve fibers myelin. Our data show the importance of the relationship between the changes in the number of Schwann cell (SC) acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and the axon excitation (different intervals between action potentials (APs)). Using Raman spectroscopy, an effect of activation of SC AChRs on the myelin membrane fluidity was investigated. It was found, that ACh stimulates an increase in lipid ordering degree of the myelin lipids, thus providing evidence for specific role of the "axon-SC" interactions at the axon excitation. It was proposed, that during the axon excitation, the SC membrane K+- depolarization and the Ca2+-influx led to phospholipase activation or exocytosis of intracellular membrane vesicles and myelin structure reorganization.

  18. Impact of Scaffold Micro and Macro Architecture on Schwann Cell Proliferation under Dynamic Conditions in a Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M; Hoffman, John; Yu, Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells from the patients themselves, several approaches have been taken to enhance cell proliferation rates to produce complete and uniform cellularization of scaffolds. The most common approach is the application of a bioreactor to enhance cell proliferation rate and therefore reduce the time needed to obtain sufficiently significant number of glial cells, prior to implantation.In this study, we show the application of a rotating wall bioreactor system for studying Schwann cell proliferation on nanofibrous spiral shaped scaffolds, prepared by solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. The scaffolds were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), which has ideal mechanical properties and upon degradation does not produce acidic byproducts. The spiral scaffolds were coated with aligned or random nanofibers, produced by electrospinning, to provide a substrate that mimics the native extracellular matrix and the essential contact guidance cues.At the 4 day time point, an enhanced rate of cell proliferation was observed on the open structured nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in a rotating wall bioreactor, as compared to static culture conditions. However, the cell proliferation rate on the other contemporary scaffolds architectures such as the tubular and cylindrical scaffolds show reduced cell proliferation in the bioreactor as compared to static conditions, at the same time point. Moreover, the rotating wall bioreactor does not alter the orientation or the phenotype of the Schwann cells on the aligned nanofiber containing scaffolds, wherein, the cells remain aligned along the length of the scaffolds. Therefore, these open structured spiral scaffolds

  19. Schwann Cell Exosomes Mediate Neuron-Glia Communication and Enhance Axonal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Leal, Rodrigo; Court, Felipe A

    2016-04-01

    The functional and structural integrity of the nervous system depends on the coordinated action of neurons and glial cells. Phenomena like synaptic activity, conduction of action potentials, and neuronal growth and regeneration, to name a few, are fine tuned by glial cells. Furthermore, the active role of glial cells in the regulation of neuronal functions is underscored by several conditions in which specific mutation affecting the glia results in axonal dysfunction. We have shown that Schwann cells (SCs), the peripheral nervous system glia, supply axons with ribosomes, and since proteins underlie cellular programs or functions, this dependence of axons from glial cells provides a new and unexplored dimension to our understanding of the nervous system. Recent evidence has now established a new modality of intercellular communication through extracellular vesicles. We have already shown that SC-derived extracellular vesicles known as exosomes enhance axonal regeneration, and increase neuronal survival after pro-degenerative stimuli. Therefore, the biology nervous system will have to be reformulated to include that the phenotype of a nerve cell results from the contribution of two nuclei, with enormous significance for the understanding of the nervous system in health and disease.

  20. Effects of Angelica Extract on Schwann Cell Proliferation and Expressions of Related Proteins

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    Xiaowen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of Angelica extract (AE on Schwann cell proliferation and expressions of related proteins, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Proliferation activity and cell cycles of SCs were evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry methods, respectively, after 12 h treatment of AE at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/L. SCs were treated by 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/L AE for 24 h or 48 h; the related genes mRNA and proteins expressions in SCs were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. At the concentration range of 125–2000 mg/L, the SC proliferation was induced by AE in a dose-dependent manner, especially 1000 and 2000 mg/L; cells in drug-treated groups showed the most increase. Cells counts were ascended significantly in (G2/M + S phase compared to control group. BDNF, NCAM, and PCNA protein expressions significantly increased at drug-treated groups. Relative genes mRNA expressions levels were also significantly higher compared to control group. The results indicated that AE facilitated SC proliferation and related genes and proteins expressions, which provided a basic guideline for nerve injury repair in clinic.

  1. Label-free quantitative proteomic profiling identifies disruption of ubiquitin homeostasis as a key driver of Schwann cell defects in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamaleky Sarvestany, Arwin; Hunter, Gillian; Tavendale, Amy; Lamont, Douglas J; Llavero Hurtado, Maica; Graham, Laura C; Wishart, Thomas M; Gillingwater, Thomas H

    2014-11-07

    Low levels of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein cause the neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons and atrophy of skeletal muscle. Recent work demonstrated that low levels of SMN also trigger pathological changes in Schwann cells, leading to abnormal axon myelination and disrupted deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in peripheral nerve. However, the molecular pathways linking SMN depletion to intrinsic defects in Schwann cells remained unclear. Label-free proteomics analysis of Schwann cells isolated from SMA mouse peripheral nerve revealed widespread changes to the Schwann cell proteome, including disruption to growth/proliferation, cell death/survival, and molecular transport pathways. Functional clustering analyses revealed significant disruption to a number of proteins contributing to ubiquitination pathways, including reduced levels of ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 (Uba1). Pharmacological suppression of Uba1 in Schwann cells was sufficient to reproduce the defective myelination phenotype seen in SMA. These findings demonstrate an important role for SMN protein and ubiquitin-dependent pathways in maintaining Schwann cell homeostasis and provide significant additional experimental evidence supporting a key role for ubiquitin pathways and, Uba1 in particular, in driving SMA pathogenesis across a broad range of cells and tissues.

  2. Schwann Cell-Mediated Preservation of Vision in Retinal Degenerative Diseases via the Reduction of Oxidative Stress: A Possible Mechanism.

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    Mahmoudzadeh, Raziyeh; Heidari-Keshel, Saeed; Lashay, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    After injury to the central nervous system (CNS), regeneration is often inadequate, except in the case of remyelination. This remyelination capacity of the CNS is a good example of a stem/precursor cell-mediated renewal process. Schwann cells have been found to act as remyelinating agents in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), but several studies have highlighted their potential role in remyelination in the CNS too. Schwann cells are able to protect and support retinal cells by secreting growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Retinal degenerative diseases can be highly debilitating, and they are a major concern in countries with an ageing populations. One of the leading causes of permanent loss of vision in the West is a retinal degenerative disease known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the United States, nearly 1.75 million people over the age of 40 have advanced AMD, and it is estimated that this number will increase to approximately 3 million people by 2020. One of the most common pathways involved in the initiation and development of retinal diseases is the oxidative stress pathway. In patients with diabetes, Schwann cells have been shown to be able to secrete large amounts of antioxidant enzymes that protect the PNS from the oxidative stress that results from fluctuations in blood glucose levels. This antioxidant ability may be involved in the mechanism by which Schwann cells are able to promote reconstruction in the CNS, especially in individuals with retinal injuries and degenerative diseases.

  3. Schwann Cell and Axon: An Interlaced Unit-From Action Potential to Phenotype Expression.

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    Court, Felipe A; Alvarez, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a model of a peripheral axon with a great deal of autonomy from its cell body-the autonomous axon-but with a substantial dependence on its ensheathing Schwann cell (SC), the axon-SC unit. We review evidence in several fields and show that (i) axons can extend sprouts and grow without the concurrence of the cell body, but regulated by SCs; (ii) axons synthesize their proteins assisted by SCs that supply them with ribosomes and, probably, with mRNAs by way of exosomes; (iii) the molecular organization of the axoplasm, i.e., its phenotype, is regulated by the SC, as illustrated by the axonal microtubular content, which is down-regulated by the SC; and (iv) the axon has a program for self-destruction that is boosted by the SC. The main novelty of this model axon-SC unit is that it breaks with the notion that all proteins of the nerve cell are specified by its own nucleus. The notion of a collaborative specification of the axoplasm by more than one nucleus, which we present here, opens a new dimension in the understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and is also a frame of reference to understand other tissues or cell associations.

  4. Human autologous serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in human Schwann cell culture.

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    Parisa Goodarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group or autologous serum (2nd group. After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35 and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32, 97/33% (SD=1.22 and 11.77 (SD=2.58 days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00, 97.55% (SD=1.33 and 10.33 days (SD=1.65 in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05. The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03. The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.

  5. Mycobacterium leprae downregulates the expression of PHEX in Schwann cells and osteoblasts

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    Sandra R Boiça Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathy and bone deformities, lifelong sequelae of leprosy that persist after treatment, result in significant impairment to patients and compromise their social rehabilitation. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidase on the X chromosome (PHEX is a Zn-metalloendopeptidase, which is abundantly expressed in osteoblasts and many other cell types, such as Schwann cells, and has been implicated in phosphate metabolism and X-linked rickets. Here, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium leprae stimulation downregulates PHEX transcription and protein expression in a human schwannoma cell line (ST88-14 and human osteoblast lineage. Modulation of PHEX expression was observed to a lesser extent in cells stimulated with other species of mycobacteria, but was not observed in cultures treated with latex beads or with the facultative intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Direct downregulation of PHEX by M. leprae could be involved in the bone resorption observed in leprosy patients. This is the first report to describe PHEX modulation by an infectious agent.

  6. Ponatinib promotes a G1 cell-cycle arrest of merlin/NF2-deficient human schwann cells.

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    Petrilli, Alejandra M; Garcia, Jeanine; Bott, Marga; Klingeman Plati, Stephani; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena R; Yan, Denise; Zou, Bing; Mittal, Rahul; Telischi, Fred F; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Chang, Long-Sheng; Welling, D Bradley; Copik, Alicja J; Fernández-Valle, Cristina

    2017-05-09

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC). Merlin-deficient HSC had higher levels of phosphorylated PDGFRα/β, and SRC than merlin-expressing HSC. A similar phosphorylation pattern was observed in phospho-protein arrays of human vestibular schwannoma samples compared to normal HSC. Ponatinib reduced merlin-deficient HSC viability in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing phosphorylation of PDGFRα/β, AKT, p70S6K, MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and STAT3. These changes were associated with decreased cyclin D1 and increased p27Kip1levels, leading to a G1 cell-cycle arrest as assessed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Ponatinib did not modulate ABL, SRC, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or paxillin phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that ponatinib is a potential therapeutic agent for NF2-associated schwannomas and warrants further in vivo investigation.

  7. Peripheral nervous system plasmalogens regulate Schwann cell differentiation and myelination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Eira, Jessica; Lopes, André T.; Malheiro, Ana R.; Sousa, Vera; Luoma, Adrienne; Avila, Robin L.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Just, Wilhelm W.; Kirschner, Daniel A.; Sousa, Mónica M.; Brites, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a developmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, cataracts, abnormal ossification, impaired motor development, and intellectual disability. The underlying etiology of RCDP is a deficiency in the biosynthesis of ether phospholipids, of which

  8. De novo fatty acid synthesis by Schwann cells is essential for peripheral nervous system myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Laura; Pereira, Jorge A; Norrmén, Camilla; Pohl, Hartmut B F; Tinelli, Elisa; Trötzmüller, Martin; Figlia, Gianluca; Dimas, Penelope; von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Schwager, Rachel; Jessberger, Sebastian; Semenkovich, Clay F; Köfeler, Harald C; Suter, Ueli

    2018-02-06

    Myelination calls for a remarkable surge in cell metabolism to facilitate lipid and membrane production. Endogenous fatty acid (FA) synthesis represents a potentially critical process in myelinating glia. Using genetically modified mice, we show that Schwann cell (SC) intrinsic activity of the enzyme essential for de novo FA synthesis, fatty acid synthase (FASN), is crucial for precise lipid composition of peripheral nerves and fundamental for the correct onset of myelination and proper myelin growth. Upon FASN depletion in SCs, epineurial adipocytes undergo lipolysis, suggestive of a compensatory role. Mechanistically, we found that a lack of FASN in SCs leads to an impairment of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-regulated transcriptional program. In agreement, defects in myelination of FASN-deficient SCs could be ameliorated by treatment with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone ex vivo and in vivo . Our results reveal that FASN-driven de novo FA synthesis in SCs is mandatory for myelination and identify lipogenic activation of the PPARγ transcriptional network as a putative downstream functional mediator. © 2018 Montani et al.

  9. Study of biocompatibility of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) with Schwann cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Kai-Gang; Xie, Xue-Tao

    2007-05-11

    No satisfactory method currently exists for repairing long peripheral nerve defects. Efforts have been made to fabricate bioactive artificial nerve conduits, comprised of a biomaterial pre-seeded with Schwann cells (SCs), which creating a favorable micro-environment for axonal regeneration, to be an alternative to autografting by means of tissue engineering. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) possesses special biological characteristics and is comprehensively researched for tissue repairing at varied tissues and organs. This study investigated the biocompatibility of SIS with SCs in vitro. Cultured rat SCs were seeded on SIS. Cell morphology was observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The viability of SCs was measured by MTT assay. Secretion of NGF-beta and BDNF was quantitatively assessed by ELISA, and NGF-beta mRNA and BDNF mRNA were semi-quantitatively assessed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that SCs could adhere, migrate and proliferate on the surface of SIS in good condition with productive function of secreting growth factors. SIS has a good biocompatibility with SCs and SIS pre-seeded with SCs has potential to be an alternate candidate of autografting for repairing long peripheral nerve defects.

  10. A new electrospun graphene-silk fibroin composite scaffolds for guiding Schwann cells.

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    Zhao, Yahong; Gong, Jiahuan; Niu, Changmei; Wei, Ziwei; Shi, Jiaqi; Li, Guohui; Yang, Yumin; Wang, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Graphene (Gr) has been made of various forms used for repairing peripheral nerve injury with favorable electroactivity, however, graphene-based scaffolds in peripheral nerve regeneration are still rarely reported due to the difficulty of realizing uniform dispersion of graphene and electroactive materials at nanoscale as well as lacking biocompatibility. In this paper, graphene-silk fibroin (SF) composite nanofiber membranes with different mass ratios were prepared via electrospinning. Microscopic observation revealed that electrospun Gr/SF membranes had a nanofibrous structure. Electrochemical analysis provided electroactivity characterization of the Gr/SF membranes. The physiochemical results showed that the physiochemical properties of electrospun Gr/SF membranes could be changed by varying Gr concentration. Swelling ratio and contact angle measurements confirmed that electrospun Gr/SF membranes possessed large absorption capacity and hydrophilic surface, and the mechanical property was improved with increasing Gr concentration. Additionally, in-vitro cytotoxicity with L929 revealed that all the electrospun Gr/SF membranes are biocompatible. Moreover, the morphology and quantity showed that the membranes supported the survival and growth of the cultured Schwann cells. Collectively, all of the results suggest that the electrospun Gr/SF membranes combine the excellent electrically conductivity and mechanical strength of the graphene with biocompatibility property of silk to mimic the natural neural cell micro-environment for nerve development.

  11. Role of Schwann cells in the regeneration of penile and peripheral nerves

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    Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system. The end point of SC development is the formation of myelinating and nonmyelinating cells which ensheath large and small diameter axons, respectively. They play an important role in axon regeneration after injury, including cavernous nerve injury that leads to erectile dysfunction (ED. Despite improvement in radical prostatectomy surgical techniques, many patients still suffer from ED postoperatively as surgical trauma causes traction injuries and local inflammatory changes in the neuronal microenvironment of the autonomic fibers innervating the penis resulting in pathophysiological alterations in the end organ. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary evidence regarding: (1 the origin and development of SCs in the peripheral and penile nerve system; (2 Wallerian degeneration and SC plastic change following peripheral and penile nerve injury; (3 how SCs promote peripheral and penile nerve regeneration by secreting neurotrophic factors; (4 and strategies targeting SCs to accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration. We searched PubMed for articles related to these topics in both animal models and human research and found numerous studies suggesting that SCs could be a novel target for treatment of nerve injury-induced ED.

  12. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CNTF to schwann cells within reconstructed peripheral nerve grafts enhances adult retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Ying; Leaver, Simone G; Plant, Giles W; Hendriks, William T J; Niclou, Simone P; Verhaagen, J.; Harvey, Alan R; Cui, Qi

    We recently described a method for reconstituting peripheral nerve (PN) sheaths using adult Schwann cells (SCs). Reconstructed PN tissue grafted onto the cut optic nerve supports the regeneration of injured adult rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. To determine whether genetic manipulation of

  13. Puerarin may protect against Schwann cell damage induced by glucose fluctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bing; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Rui; Xia, Xin-Xin; Han, Ping-Ping; Cao, Li-Jun; Liu, Yong-Hui; Sun, Lian-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Puerarin is one of the major active ingredients in Gegen, a traditional Chinese herb that has been reported to have a wide variety of beneficial pharmacology functions. Previous studies have implicated that the damaging effects of hyperglycemia resulting from oxidative stress and glucose fluctuation may be more dangerous than constant high glucose in the development of diabetes-related complications. The present study focuses on the effects of puerarin on glucose fluctuation-induced oxidative stress-induced Schwann cell (SC) apoptosis in vitro. Primarily cultured SCs were exposed to different conditions and the effect of puerarin on cell viability was determined by MTT assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Apoptosis was confirmed by the Annexin V-FITC/PI and TUNEL method. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression levels of bax and bcl-2. Western blot was performed to analyze the expression levels of some important transcription factors and proteins. The results showed that incubating SCs with intermittent high glucose for 48 h decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells whereas treating with puerarin protected SCs against glucose fluctuation-induced cell damage. Further study demonstrated that puerarin suppressed activation of apoptosis-related proteins including PARP and caspase-3, downregulation of bcl-2, and upregulation of intracellular distribution of bax from cytosol to mitochondria, which was induced by glucose fluctuation. Moreover, puerarin inhibited the elevation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial depolarization induced by glucose fluctuation. These results suggest that puerarin may protect SCs against glucose fluctuation-induced cell injury through inhibiting apoptosis as well as oxidative stress.

  14. P2X7 purinoceptors contribute to the death of Schwann cells transplanted into the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, J; Lee, S; Wu, D; Yeh, J; Ellamushi, H; Wheeler, A P; Warnes, G; Zhang, Y; Bo, X

    2013-01-01

    The potential to use Schwann cells (SCs) in neural repair for patients suffering from neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases is well recognized. However, significant cell death after transplantation hinders the clinical translation of SC-based therapies. Various factors may contribute to the death of transplanted cells. It is known that prolonged activation of P2X7 purinoceptors (P2X7R) can lead to death of certain types of cells. In this study, we show that rat SCs express P2X7R and expo...

  15. Schwann cell mitochondria as key regulators in the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Daisuke; Iino, Masamitsu

    2017-03-01

    Formation of myelin sheaths by Schwann cells (SCs) enables rapid and efficient transmission of action potentials in peripheral axons, and disruption of myelination results in disorders that involve decreased sensory and motor functions. Given that construction of SC myelin requires high levels of lipid and protein synthesis, mitochondria, which are pivotal in cellular metabolism, may be potential regulators of the formation and maintenance of SC myelin. Supporting this notion, abnormal mitochondria are found in SCs of neuropathic peripheral nerves in both human patients and the relevant animal models. However, evidence for the importance of SC mitochondria in myelination has been limited, until recently. Several studies have recently used genetic approaches that allow SC-specific ablation of mitochondrial metabolic activity in living animals to show the critical roles of SC mitochondria in the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve axons. Here, we review current knowledge about the involvement of SC mitochondria in the formation and dysfunction of myelinated axons in the peripheral nervous system.

  16. Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Signaling during Myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Daisuke; Sagara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Junji; Kanemaru, Kazunori; Okubo, Yohei; Iino, Masamitsu

    2015-09-29

    Schwann cells (SCs) myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca(2+) increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. BMP7 retards peripheral myelination by activating p38 MAPK in Schwann cells

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    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yahong; Peng, Su; Zhang, Shuqiang; Wang, Meihong; Chen, Yeyue; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yumin; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) myelination is pivotal for the proper physiological functioning of the nervous system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) inversely correlates with myelin gene expression during peripheral myelination, which suggests that BMP7 is likely a negative regulator for myelin gene expression. Our experiments further showed that the application of BMP7 attenuates the cAMP induced myelin gene expression in SCs. Downstream pathway analysis suggested that both p38 MAPK and SMAD are activated by exogenous BMP7 in SCs. The pharmacological intervention and gene silence studies revealed that p38 MAPK, not SMAD, is responsible for BMP7-mediated suppression of myelin gene expression. In addition, c-Jun, a potential negative regulator for peripheral myelination, was up-regulated by BMP7. In vivo experiments showed that BMP7 treatment greatly impaired peripheral myelination in newborn rats. Together, our results established that BMP7 is a negative regulator for peripheral myelin gene expression and that p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis might be the main downstream target of BMP7 in this process. PMID:27491681

  18. Implications of Schwann Cells Biomechanics and Mechanosensitivity for Peripheral Nervous System Physiology and Pathophysiology

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    Gonzalo Rosso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bones around the central nervous system (CNS provides it with highly effective physiologically crucial mechanical protection. The peripheral nervous system (PNS, in contrast, lacks this barrier. Consequently, the long held belief is that the PNS is mechanically vulnerable. On the other hand, the PNS is exposed to a variety of physiological mechanical stresses during regular daily activities. This fact prompts us to question the dogma of PNS mechanical vulnerability. As a matter of fact, impaired mechanics of PNS nerves is associated with neuropathies with the liability to mechanical stresses paralleled by significant impairment of PNS physiological functions. Our recent biomechanical integrity investigations on nerve fibers from wild-type and neuropathic mice lend strong support in favor of natural mechanical protection of the PNS and demonstrate a key role of Schwann cells (SCs therein. Moreover, recent works point out that SCs can sense mechanical properties of their microenvironment and the evidence is growing that SCs mechanosensitivity is important for PNS development and myelination. Hence, SCs exhibit mechanical strength necessary for PNS mechanoprotection as well as mechanosensitivity necessary for PNS development and myelination. This mini review reflects on the intriguing dual ability of SCs and implications for PNS physiology and pathophysiology.

  19. A history of plant biotechnology: from the Cell Theory of Schleiden and Schwann to biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil, Indra K

    2008-09-01

    Plant biotechnology is founded on the principles of cellular totipotency and genetic transformation, which can be traced back to the Cell Theory of Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, and the discovery of genetic transformation in bacteria by Frederick Griffith, respectively. On the 25th anniversary of the genetic transformation of plants, this review provides a historical account of the evolution of the theoretical concepts and experimental strategies that led to the production and commercialization of biotech (transformed or transgenic) plants expressing many useful genes, and emphasizes the beneficial effects of plant biotechnology on food security, human health, the environment, and conservation of biodiversity. In so doing, it celebrates and pays tribute to the contributions of scores of scientists who laid the foundation of modern plant biotechnology by their bold and unconventional thinking and experimentation. It highlights also the many important lessons to be learnt from the fascinating history of plant biotechnology, the significance of history in science teaching and research, and warns against the danger of the growing trends of ignoring history and historical illiteracy.

  20. Epalrestat increases intracellular glutathione levels in Schwann cells through transcription regulation

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    Keisuke Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS, approved in Japan, is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Here we report that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH, which is important for protection against oxidative injury, through transcription regulation. Treatment of Schwann cells with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. EPS increased the mRNA levels of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in regulating the expression of γ-GCS. ELISA revealed that EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2, tert-butylhydroperoxide, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride, and menadione, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting against oxidative stress. This is the first study to show that EPS induces GSH biosynthesis via the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has new beneficial properties that may prevent the development and progression of disorders caused by oxidative stress.

  1. Mechanosensitivity of Embryonic Neurites Promotes Their Directional Extension and Schwann Cells Progenitors Migration

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    Gonzalo Rosso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Migration of Schwann cells (SCs progenitors and neurite outgrowth from embryonic dorsal root ganglions (DRGs are two central events during the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. How these two enthralling events preceding myelination are promoted is of great relevance from basic research and clinical aspects alike. Recent evidence demonstrates that biophysical cues (extracellular matrix stiffness and biochemical signaling act in concert to regulate PNS myelination. Microenvironment stiffness of SCs progenitors and embryonic neurites dynamically changes during development. Methods: DRG explants were isolated from day 12.5 to 13.5 mice embryos and plated on laminin-coated substrates with varied stiffness values. After 4 days in culture and immunostaining with specific markers, neurite outgrowth pattern, SCs progenitors migration, and growth cone shape and advance were analyzed with confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results: We found out that growing substrate stiffness promotes directional neurite outgrowth, SCs progenitors migration, growth cone advance and presumably axons fasciculation. Conclusions: DRG explants are in vitro models for the research of PNS development, myelination and regeneration. Consequently, we conclude the following: Our observations point out the importance of mechanosensitivity for the PNS. At the same time, they prompt the investigation of the important yet unclear links between PNS biomechanics and inherited neuropathies with myelination disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. Finally, they encourage the consideration of mechanosensitivity in bioengineering of scaffolds to aid nerve regeneration after injury.

  2. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

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    Lauren Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf, neutrophin-3 (nt-3, platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb, and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  3. Recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration using an oriented collagen scaffold containing Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-Ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Fukahori, Mioko; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito

    2017-07-01

    Regeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles such that they can perform complex functions, is particularly difficult to achieve. Synkinesis after RLN neogenesis leads to uncoordinated movement of laryngeal muscles. Recently, some basic research studies have used cultured Schwann cells (SCs) to repair peripheral nerve injuries. This study aimed to regenerate the RLN using an oriented collagen scaffold containing cultured SCs. Preliminary animal experiment. A 10-mm-long autologous canine cervical ansa was harvested. The nerve tissue was scattered and subcultured on oriented collagen sheets in reduced serum medium. After verifying that the smaller cultivated cells with high nucleus-cytoplasm ratios were SCs, collagen sheets with longitudinally oriented cells were rolled and inserted into a 20-mm collagen conduit. The fabricated scaffolds containing SCs were autotransplanted to a 20-mm deficient RLN, and vocal fold movements and histological characteristics were observed. Scaffolds containing cultured SCs were successfully fabricated. Immunocytochemical examination revealed that these isolated and cultured cells, identified as SCs, expressed S-100 protein and GFAP but not vimentin. The orientation of SCs matched that of the oriented collagen sheet. Two months after successful transplantation, laryngeal endoscopy revealed coordinated movement of the bilateral vocal folds by external stimulation under light general anesthesia. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the regenerated RLN lacked epineurium surrounding the nerve fibers and was interspersed with collagen fibers. Myelin protein zero was expressed around many axons. Partial regeneration of RLN was achieved through the use of oriented collagen scaffolding. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1622-1627, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

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    Sweet, Lauren; Kang, Yunqing; Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf), neutrophin-3 (nt-3), platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  5. Changes in the Coding and Non-coding Transcriptome and DNA Methylome that Define the Schwann Cell Repair Phenotype after Nerve Injury

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    Peter J. Arthur-Farraj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Repair Schwann cells play a critical role in orchestrating nerve repair after injury, but the cellular and molecular processes that generate them are poorly understood. Here, we perform a combined whole-genome, coding and non-coding RNA and CpG methylation study following nerve injury. We show that genes involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition are enriched in repair cells, and we identify several long non-coding RNAs in Schwann cells. We demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor C-JUN regulates the expression of certain micro RNAs in repair Schwann cells, in particular miR-21 and miR-34. Surprisingly, unlike during development, changes in CpG methylation are limited in injury, restricted to specific locations, such as enhancer regions of Schwann cell-specific genes (e.g., Nedd4l, and close to local enrichment of AP-1 motifs. These genetic and epigenomic changes broaden our mechanistic understanding of the formation of repair Schwann cell during peripheral nervous system tissue repair.

  6. Netrin-1 induces the migration of Schwann cells via p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway mediated by the UNC5B receptor

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    Lv, Jianwei [General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No. 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052 (China); Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong [Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Ma, Xinlong, E-mail: gengxiao502@163.com [General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No. 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052 (China); Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Zhang, Yang; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu [Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2015-08-14

    Schwann cells (SCs) play an essentially supportive role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve system (PNS). As Netrin-1 is crucial for the normal development of nervous system (NS) and can direct the process of damaged PNS regeneration, our study was designed to determine the role of Netrin-1 in RSC96 Schwann cells (an immortalized rat Schwann cell line) proliferation and migration. Our studies demonstrated that Netrin-1 had no effect on RSC96 cells proliferation, while significantly promoted RSC96 cells migration. The Netrin-1-induced RSC96 cells migration was significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38 and PI3K through pretreatment with SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, but not inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK by U0126-EtOH and SP600125 individually. Treatment with Netrin-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. QRT-PCR indicated that Netrin-1 and only its receptors Unc5a, Unc5b and Neogenin were expressed in RSC96 cells, among which Unc5b expressed the most. And UNC5B protein was significantly increased after stimulated by Netrin-1. In conclusion, we show here that Netrin-1-enhanced SCs migration is mediated by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signal cascades via receptor UNC5B, which suggests that Netrin-1 could serve as a new therapeutic strategy and has potential application value for PNS regeneration. - Highlights: • Netrin-1 attracts RSC96 Schwann cells migration in a dose dependent manner. • Netrin-1 induced Schwann cells migration is p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling dependent. • UNC5B may be dominant receptor mediating Netrin-1′ effect on RSC96 cells motility. • Netrin-1 may promote peripheral nerve repair by enhancing Schwann cells motility.

  7. Navigating neurites utilize cellular topography of Schwann cell somas and processes for optimal guidance

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    Lopez-Fagundo, Cristina; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Ramchal, Talisha D.; Dingle, Yu-Ting L.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The path created by aligned Schwann cells (SCs) after nerve injury underlies peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed geometric bioinspired substrates to extract key information needed for axon guidance by deconstructing the topographical cues presented by SCs. We have previously reported materials that directly replicate SC topography with micro- and nanoscale resolution, but a detailed explanation of the means of directed axon extension on SC topography has not yet been described. Here, using neurite tracing and time-lapse microscopy, we analyzed the SC features that influence axon guidance. Novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) materials, fabricated via photolithography, incorporated bioinspired topographical components with the shapes and sizes of aligned SCs, namely somas and processes, where the length of the processes were varied but the soma geometry and dimensions were kept constant. Rat dorsal root ganglia neurites aligned to all materials presenting bioinspired topography after a 5 days in culture and to bioinspired materials presenting soma and process features after only 17 hours in culture. Key findings of this study were: Neurite response to underlying bioinspired topographical features was time dependent, where at 5 days, neurites aligned most strongly to materials presenting combinations of soma and process features, with higher than average density of either process or soma features; but at 17 hours they aligned more strongly to materials presenting average densities of soma and process features and to materials presenting process features only. These studies elucidate the influence of SC topography on axon guidance in a time-dependent setting and have implications for the optimization of nerve regeneration strategies. PMID:23557939

  8. The efficacy of Schwann cell transplantation on motor function recovery after spinal cord injuries in animal models: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Younesian, Somaye; Safari, Saeed; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Moghadas Jafari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    This article aimed to assess the efficacy of Schwann cell transplantation on motor function recovery in animal model of spinal cord injuries via meta-analysis. An extended search was carried out in the electronic databases of Medline (via PubMed), EMBASE (via OvidSP), CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Web of Science (BIOSIS), and ProQuest. Finally, 41 eligible studies conducted on 1046 animals including 517 control animals and 529 transplanted animals were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were reported. The findings showed that treatment with Schwann cells leads to a modest motor function recovery after spinal cord injury (SMD=0.85; 95% CI: 0.63-1.07; pcells in acute phase of the injury (immediately after the injury) (OR=4.30; 95% CI: 1.53-12.05; p=0.007), application of mesenchymal/skin-derived precursors (OR=2.34; 95% CI: 1.28-4.29; p=0.008), and cells with human sources are associated with an increase in efficacy of Schwann cells (OR=10.96; 95% CI: 1.49-80.77; p=0.02). Finally, it seems that the efficacy of Schwann cells in mice is significantly lower than rats (OR=0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.41; p=0.009). Transplantation of Schwann cells can moderately improve motor function recovery. It seems that inter-species differences might exist regarding the efficacy of this cells. Therefore, this should be taken into account when using Schwann cells in clinical trials regarding spinal cord injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Schwann cell-derived Apolipoprotein D controls the dynamics of post-injury myelin recognition and degradation

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    Nadia eGarcía-Mateo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of lipids, particularly signaling lipids that control neuroinflammation, is crucial for the regeneration capability of a damaged nervous system. Knowledge of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals after nervous system injury is extensive, most of them being proteins acting through well-known receptors and intracellular cascades. However, the role of lipid binding extracellular proteins able to modify the fate of lipids released after injury is not well understood.Apolipoprotein D (ApoD is an extracellular lipid binding protein of the Lipocalin family induced upon nervous system injury. Our previous study shows that axon regeneration is delayed without ApoD, and suggests its participation in early events during Wallerian degeneration. Here we demonstrate that ApoD is expressed by myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells and is induced early upon nerve injury. We show that ApoD, known to bind arachidonic acid (AA, also interacts with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC in vitro. We use an in vivo model of nerve crush injury, a nerve explant injury model, and cultured macrophages exposed to purified myelin, to uncover that: (i ApoD regulates denervated Schwann cell-macrophage signaling, dampening MCP1- and Tnf-dependent macrophage recruitment and activation upon injury; (ii ApoD controls the over-expression of the phagocytosis activator Galectin-3 by infiltrated macrophages; (iii ApoD controls the basal and injury-triggered levels of LPC and AA; (iv ApoD modifies the dynamics of myelin-macrophage interaction, favoring the initiation of phagocytosis and promoting myelin degradation.Regulation of macrophage behaviour by Schwann-derived ApoD is therefore a key mechanism conditioning nerve injury resolution. These results place ApoD as a lipid binding protein controlling the signals exchanged between glia, neurons and blood-borne cells during nerve recovery after injury, and open the possibility for a therapeutic use of ApoD as a regeneration

  10. Both Laminin and Schwann cell Dystroglycan are necessary for proper clustering of Sodium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhi, S.; Zambroni, D.; Del Carro, U.; Amadio, S.; Sirkowski, E. E.; Scherer, SS.; Campbell, K.; Moore, S.A.; Chen, Z-L.; Strickland, S.; Di Muzio, A.; Uncini, A.; Wrabetz, L.; Feltri, ML.

    2005-01-01

    Nodes of Ranvier are specialized axonal domains, where voltage-gated sodium channels cluster. How axons cluster molecules in discrete domains is largely unknown. Both axons and glia probably provide constraining mechanisms that contribute to domain formation. Proper sodium channel clustering in peripheral nerves depends on contact from Schwann cell microvilli, where at least one molecule, gliomedin, binds the sodium channel complex and induces its clustering. Furthermore, mice lacking Schwann cell dystroglycan have aberrant microvilli and poorly clustered sodium channels. Dystroglycan could interact at the basal lamina or at the axon-glial surface. Since dystroglycan is a laminin receptor, and laminin-2 mutations (merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy, MDC1A) cause reduced nerve conduction velocity, we asked whether laminins are involved. Here we show that the composition of both laminins and the dystroglycan complex at nodes differs from that of internodes. Mice defective in laminin-2 have poorly formed microvilli and abnormal sodium clusters. These abnormalities are similar, albeit less severe, than those of mice lacking dystroglycan. However, mice lacking all Schwann cell laminins show severe nodal abnormalities, suggesting other laminins compensate for the lack of laminin 2. Thus, even though laminins are located at a distance from the axo-glial junction, they are required for proper clustering of sodium channels. Laminins, through their specific nodal receptors and cytoskeletal linkages, may participate in the formation of mechanisms that constrain clusters at nodes. Finally, abnormal sodium channel clusters are present in a patient with MDC1A, providing a molecular basis for the reduced nerve conduction velocity in this disorder. PMID:16221851

  11. Macrophage-derived microvesicles promote proliferation and migration of Schwann cell on peripheral nerve repair

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    Zhan, Chuan, E-mail: zhchuansy@163.com; Ma, Cheng-bin; Yuan, Hong-mou; Cao, Bao-yuan; Zhu, Jia-jun

    2015-12-04

    Background: Macrophages have been implicated in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, whether macrophages-derived microvesicles (MVs) are involved in this process remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of macrophages-derived MVs on proliferation and migration of Schwann cells (SCs) were evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Human monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1) was successfully driven to M1 and M2 phenotypes by delivery of either IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively. SCs incubated with M1 or M2 macrophages-derived MVs, the cell migration and proliferation were assessed, and expression levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Laminin were measured. A rat model of sciatic nerve was established and the effects of macrophages-derived MVs on nerve regeneration were investigated. Results: M2-derived MVs elevated migration, proliferation, NFG and Laminin protein levels of SCs compared with M1-or M0-derived MVs. The relative expression levels of miR-223 were also increased in M2 macrophages and M2-derived MVs. Transfected M2 macrophages with miR-223 inhibitor then co-incubated with SCs, an inhibition of cell migration and proliferation and a down-regulated levels of NFG and Laminin protein expression were observed. In vivo, M2-derived MVs significantly increased the infiltration and axon number of SCs. Conclusion: M2-derived MVs promoted proliferation and migration of SCs in vitro and in vivo, which provided a therapeutic strategy for nerve regeneration. - Highlights: • M2 macrophages-derived MVs elevated migration and proliferation of SCs. • M2 macrophages-derived MVs up-regulated NFG and Laminin expression of SCs. • MiR-223 expression was increased in M2 macrophages-derived MVs. • MiR-223 inhibitor reduced migration and proliferation of SCs co-incubated with MVs. • MiR-223 inhibitor down-regulated NFG and Laminin levels of SCs co-incubated with MVs.

  12. Cadm3 (Necl-1) interferes with the activation of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling cascade and inhibits Schwann cell myelination in vitro.

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    Chen, Ming-Shuo; Kim, Hyosung; Jagot-Lacoussiere, Léonard; Maurel, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    Axo-glial interactions are critical for myelination and the domain organization of myelinated fibers. Cell adhesion molecules belonging to the Cadm family, and in particular Cadm3 (axonal) and its heterophilic binding partner Cadm4 (Schwann cell), mediate these interactions along the internode. Using targeted shRNA-mediated knockdown, we show that the removal of axonal Cadm3 promotes Schwann cell myelination in the in vitro DRG neuron/Schwann cell myelinating system. Conversely, over-expressing Cadm3 on the surface of DRG neuron axons results in an almost complete inability by Schwann cells to form myelin segments. Axons of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons, which do not normally support the formation of myelin segments by Schwann cells, express higher levels of Cadm3 compared to DRG neurons. Knocking down Cadm3 in SCG neurons promotes myelination. Finally, the extracellular domain of Cadm3 interferes in a dose-dependent manner with the activation of ErbB3 and of the pro-myelinating PI3K/Akt pathway, but does not interfere with the activation of the Mek/Erk1/2 pathway. While not in direct contradiction, these in vitro results shed lights on the apparent lack of phenotype that was reported from in vivo studies of Cadm3 -/- mice. Our results suggest that Cadm3 may act as a negative regulator of PNS myelination, potentially through the selective regulation of the signaling cascades activated in Schwann cells by axonal contact, and in particular by type III Nrg-1. Further analyses of peripheral nerves in the Cadm -/- mice will be needed to determine the exact role of axonal Cadm3 in PNS myelination. GLIA 2016;64:2247-2262. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Immunofluorescent characterization of non-myelinating Schwann cells and their interactions with immune cells in mouse mesenteric lymph node

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    Zhongli Shi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS influences the immune system in a general fashion by regulating the systemic concentration of humoral substances, whereas the autonomic nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system according to local interactions. Data concerning the mechanisms of this bidirectional crosstalk of the peripheral nervous system (PNS and immune system remain limited. To gain a better understanding of local interactions of the PNS and immune system, we have used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, coupled with confocal microscopy, to investigate the non-myelinating Schwann cell (NMSC-immune cell interactions in mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. Our results demonstrate i the presence of extensive NMSC processes and even of cell bodies in each compartment of the mouse mesenteric lymph node; ii close associations/interactions of NMSC processes with blood vessels (including high endothelial venules and the lymphatic vessel/sinus; iii close contacts/associations of NMSC processes with various subsets of dendritic cells (such as CD4+CD11c+, CD8+CD11c+ dendritic cells, macrophages (F4/80+ and CD11b+ macrophages, and lymphocytes. Our novel findings concerning the distribution of NMSCs and NMSC-immune cell interactions inside the mouse lymph node should help to elucidate the mechanisms through which the PNS affects cellular- and humoral-mediated immune responses or vice versa in health and disease.

  14. Schwann cell autophagy induced by SAHA, 17-AAG, or clonazepam can reduce bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy

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    Watanabe, T; Nagase, K; Chosa, M; Tobinai, K

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma but bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BiPN) has emerged as a serious potential complication of this therapy. Animal studies suggest that bortezomib predominantly causes pathological changes in Schwann cells. A tractable system to evaluate combination drugs for use with bortezomib is essential to enable continuing clinical benefit from this drug. Methods: Rat schwannoma cells were pretreated with vincristine (VCR), histone deacetylase inhibitors, anticonvulsants, or a heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor. To then monitor aggresome formation as a result of proteasome inhibition and the activation of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), we performed double-labelling immunofluorescent analyses of a cellular aggregation-prone protein marker. Results: Aggresome formation was interrupted by VCR, whereas combination treatments with bortezomib involving suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin, or clonazepam appear to facilitate the disposal of unfolded proteins via CMA, inducing HSP70 and lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A). Conclusions: This schwannoma model can be used to test BiPN-reducing drugs. The present data suggest that aggresome formation in Schwann cells is a possible mechanism of BiPN, and drugs that induce HSP70 or LAMP-2A have the potential to alleviate this complication. Combination clinical trials are warranted to confirm the relevance of these observations. PMID:20959823

  15. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells reduces cystic cavity and promotes functional recovery after contusion injury of adult rat spinal cord.

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    Kamada, Takahito; Koda, Masao; Dezawa, Mari; Anahara, Reiko; Toyama, Yoshiro; Yoshinaga, Katsunori; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Koshizuka, Shuhei; Nishio, Yutaka; Mannoji, Chikato; Okawa, Akihiko; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells (hBMSC-SC) promotes functional recovery after contusive spinal cord injury of adult rats. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) were cultured from bone marrow of adult human patients and induced into Schwann cells (hBMSC-SC) in vitro. Schwann cell phenotype was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Growth factors secreted from hBMSC-SC were detected using cytokine antibody array. Immunosuppressed rats were laminectomized and their spinal cords were contused using NYU impactor (10 g, 25 mm). Nine days after injury, a mixture of Matrigel and hBMSC-SC (hBMSC-SC group) was injected into the lesioned site. Five weeks after transplantation, cresyl-violet staining revealed that the area of cystic cavity was smaller in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of anti-growth-associated protein-43-positive nerve fibers was significantly larger in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. At the same time, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase- or serotonin-positive fibers was significantly larger at the lesion epicenter and caudal level in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. In electron microscopy, formation of peripheral-type myelin was recognized near the lesion epicenter in the hBMSC-SC group. Hind limb function recovered significantly in the hBMSC-SC group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the functions of hBMSC-SC are comparable to original Schwann cells in rat spinal cord injury models, and are thus potentially useful treatments for patients with spinal cord injury. © 2010 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  16. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

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    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  17. The analgesic effect on neuropathic pain of retrogradely transported botulinum neurotoxin A involves Schwann cells and astrocytes.

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    Sara Marinelli

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing debate is about whether botulinum neurotoxins are retrogradely transported from the site of injection. Immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 (cl-SNAP-25, the protein of the SNARE complex targeted by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A, could represent an excellent approach to investigate the mechanism of action on the nociceptive pathways at peripheral and/or central level. After peripheral administration of BoNT/A, we analyzed the expression of cl-SNAP-25, from the hindpaw's nerve endings to the spinal cord, together with the behavioral effects on neuropathic pain. We used the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in CD1 mice as animal model of neuropathic pain. We evaluated immunostaining of cl-SNAP-25 in the peripheral nerve endings, along the sciatic nerve, in dorsal root ganglia and in spinal dorsal horns after intraplantar injection of saline or BoNT/A, alone or colocalized with either glial fibrillar acidic protein, GFAP, or complement receptor 3/cluster of differentiation 11b, CD11b, or neuronal nuclei, NeuN, depending on the area investigated. Immunofluorescence analysis shows the presence of the cl-SNAP-25 in all tissues examined, from the peripheral endings to the spinal cord, suggesting a retrograde transport of BoNT/A. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiments to ascertain if BoNT/A was able to interact with the proliferative state of Schwann cells (SC. We found that BoNT/A modulates the proliferation of SC and inhibits the acetylcholine release from SC, evidencing a new biological effect of the toxin and further supporting the retrograde transport of the toxin along the nerve and its ability to influence regenerative processes. The present results strongly sustain a combinatorial action at peripheral and central neural levels and encourage the use of BoNT/A for the pathological pain conditions difficult to treat in clinical practice and dramatically impairing patients' quality of life.

  18. Side-To-Side Nerve Bridges Support Donor Axon Regeneration Into Chronically Denervated Nerves and Are Associated With Characteristic Changes in Schwann Cell Phenotype.

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    Hendry, J Michael; Alvarez-Veronesi, M Cecilia; Snyder-Warwick, Alison; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-11-01

    Chronic denervation resulting from long nerve regeneration times and distances contributes greatly to suboptimal outcomes following nerve injuries. Recent studies showed that multiple nerve grafts inserted between an intact donor nerve and a denervated distal recipient nerve stump (termed "side-to-side nerve bridges") enhanced regeneration after delayed nerve repair. To examine the cellular aspects of axon growth across these bridges to explore the "protective" mechanism of donor axons on chronically denervated Schwann cells. In Sprague Dawley rats, 3 side-to-side nerve bridges were placed over a 10-mm distance between an intact donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) distal nerve stump. Green fluorescent protein-expressing TIB axons grew across the bridges and were counted in cross section after 4 weeks. Immunofluorescent axons and Schwann cells were imaged over a 4-month period. Denervated Schwann cells dedifferentiated to a proliferative, nonmyelinating phenotype within the bridges and the recipient denervated CP nerve stump. As donor TIB axons grew across the 3 side-to-side nerve bridges and into the denervated CP nerve, the Schwann cells redifferentiated to the myelinating phenotype. Bridge placement led to an increased mass of hind limb anterior compartment muscles after 4 months of denervation compared with muscles whose CP nerve was not "protected" by bridges. This study describes patterns of donor axon regeneration and myelination in the denervated recipient nerve stump and supports a mechanism where these donor axons sustain a proregenerative state to prevent deterioration in the face of chronic denervation.

  19. Combination of grafted Schwann cells and lentiviral-mediated prevention of glial scar formation improve recovery of spinal cord injured rats.

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    Do-Thi, Anh; Perrin, Florence E; Desclaux, Mathieu; Saillour, Paulette; Amar, Lahouari; Privat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    The present study was intended to combine three therapeutic approaches in a well-defined rat model of spinal cord injury, a lateral hemisection at thoracic level. A guidance channel was implanted at the lesion site. This channel was seeded with native Schwann cells or Schwann cells that had been previously transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying the GDNF gene. Thereafter, these experiences were reproduced in animals injected with lentiviral vectors carrying a shRNA for GFAP (Lv-shGFAP), which has recently been shown to block glial scar formation. Functional evaluations showed that Lv-shGFAP induced a significant improvement in recovery in animals grafted with Schwann cells. Histological studies demonstrated the outgrowth of axons in the guidance channel containing Schwann cells transduced or not with GDNF. This axonal growth was enhanced in rats receiving Lv-shGFAP vector. Also, a significant increase of serotonergic innervation of the injured hemicord, distal to the lesion, was found only in animals treated with Lv-shGFAP vectors. Importantly, this study confirms that glial scar formation is a major impediment for axonal sprouting after spinal cord injury, and emphasizes the importance of serotonergic innervation for locomotor function. Moreover we show a significant additive effect of a combinatorial approach to axonal regeneration in the injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentrated growth factor increases Schwann cell proliferation and neurotrophic factor secretion and promotes functional nerve recovery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yue; Sun, Xiaolin; Wen, Chaoju; Shahmoradi, Mahdi; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-02-01

    Concentrated growth factor (CGF) is a newly generated complex that comprises a fibrin matrix incorporating growth factors and plasmatic and leukocyte cytokines. It has been widely used in bone regenerative medicine. However, the effect of CGF on peripheral nerve regeneration had not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using CGF for nerve regeneration by i) investigating the effect of CGF on the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) and secretion of neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line‑derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro; and ii) analyzing the effect of CGF on functional nerve recovery after nerve injury in vivo. CGF was prepared from venous blood taken from rats, and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we noted that it featured a fiber‑like appearance with pore size ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µm. The soluble component of CGF was used to produce conditioned media with which to treat the Schwann cell line. A cell counting kit-8 assay and cell cycle analysis were both used to study the proliferative effect of CGF on SCs. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that there was an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of NGF and GDNF, both of which are markers of SC neurotrophic secretion. A model of sciatic nerve crush injury was established for the in vivo experiment, and CGF was found to increase the sciatic functional index (indicative of nerve function). We noted that CGF increased SC proliferation and secretion of neurotrophic factors in vitro, and promoted functional recovery after peripheral nerve injuries in vivo. These results suggest that CGF is a promising candidate biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration, and may potentially be utilized to repair nerve injuries.

  1. Acute Putrescine Supplementation with Schwann Cell Implantation Improves Sensory and Serotonergic Axon Growth and Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injured Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgulescu, J Bryan; Patel, Samik P; Louro, Jack; Andrade, Christian M; Sanchez, Andre R; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) transplantation exhibits significant potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair and its use as a therapeutic modality has now progressed to clinical trials for subacute and chronic human SCI. Although SC implants provide a receptive environment for axonal regrowth and support functional recovery in a number of experimental SCI models, axonal regeneration is largely limited to local systems and the behavioral improvements are modest without additional combinatory approaches. In the current study we investigated whether the concurrent delivery of the polyamine putrescine, started either 30 min or 1 week after SCI, could enhance the efficacy of SCs when implanted subacutely (1 week after injury) into the contused rat spinal cord. Polyamines are ubiquitous organic cations that play an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell division, cytoskeletal organization, and cell differentiation. We show that the combination of putrescine with SCs provides a significant increase in implant size, an enhancement in axonal (sensory and serotonergic) sparing and/or growth, and improved open field locomotion after SCI, as compared to SC implantation alone. These findings demonstrate that polyamine supplementation can augment the effectiveness of SCs when used as a therapeutic approach for subacute SCI repair.

  2. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  3. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

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    Park, Kyoung Ho [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Sang Won, E-mail: swyeo@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Troy, Frederic A., E-mail: fatroy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen City (China)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  4. [AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON REPAIR OF SCIATIC NERVE INJURY BY Schwann-LIKE CELLS DERIVED FROM UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Yuzhou

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of using Schwann-like cells derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCBMSCs) as the seed cells to repair large sciatic nerve defect in rats so as to provide the experimental evidence for clinical application of hUCBMSCs. Fourty-five male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats in SPF grade, weighing 200-250 g, were selected. The hUCBMSCs were harvested and cultured from umbilical cord blood using lymphocyte separating and high molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch, and then was identified. The hUCBMSCs of 3rd generation were induced to Schwann-like cells, and then was identified by chemical derivatization combined with cytokine. The acellular nerve basal membrane conduit was prepared as scaffold material by the sciatic nerve of SD rats through repeated freezing, thawing, and washing. The tissue engineered nerve was prepared after 7 days of culturing Schwann-like cells (1 x 10(7) cells/mL) on the acellular nerve basal membrane conduit using the multi-point injection. The 15 mm sciatic nerve defect model was established in 30 male SD rats, which were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rats each group). Defect was repaired with tissue engineered nerve in group A, with acellular nerve basal membrane conduit in group B, and with autologous sciatic nerve in group C. The nerve repair was evaluated through general observation, sciatic function index (SFI), nerve electrophysiology, weight of gastrocnemius muscle, and Masson staining after operation. The hUCBMSCs showed higher expression of surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells, and Schwann-like cells showed positive expression of glia cell specific markers such as S100b, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and P75. At 8 weeks after operation, the acellular nerve basal membrane conduit had no necrosis and liquefaction, with mild adhesion, soft texture, and good continuity at nerve anastomosis site in group A; group B had similar appearance to group A; adhesion of group C was milder than that

  5. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with theprogenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic andstochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a ...

  6. Regulated viral BDNF delivery in combination with Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration through capillary alginate hydrogels after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwen; Sandner, Beatrice; Schackel, Thomas; Nicholson, LaShae; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Puttagunta, Radhika; Müller, Rainer; Weidner, Norbert; Blesch, Armin

    2017-09-15

    Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally. In addition, we examined whether SC injection into the caudal spinal parenchyma would further enhance regeneration of descending axons to re-enter the host spinal cord. Our data show that both serotonergic and descending axons traced by biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) extend throughout the scaffolds. The number of regenerating axons is significantly increased when caudal BDNF expression is activated and transient BDNF delivery is able to sustain axons after gene expression is switched off. Descending axons are confined to the caudal graft/host interface even with continuous BDNF expression for 8weeks. Only with a caudal injection of SCs, a pathway facilitating axonal regeneration through the host/graft interface is generated allowing axons to successfully re-enter the caudal spinal cord. Recovery from spinal cord injury is poor due to the limited regeneration observed in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Biomaterials, cell transplantation and growth factors that can guide axons across a lesion site, provide a cellular substrate, stimulate axon growth and have shown some promise in increasing the growth distance of regenerating axons. In the present study, we combined an alginate biomaterial with linear channels with transplantation of Schwann cells within

  7. Combined effects of rat Schwann cells and 17β-estradiol in a spinal cord injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoo, Zeinab; Moradi, Fateme; Aryanpour, Roya; Piryaei, Abbas; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Abbasi, Yusef; Hosseini, Amir; Hassanzadeh, Sajad; Taklimie, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Beyer, Cordian; Zendedel, Adib

    2018-04-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic event which burdens the affected individuals and the health system. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising repair strategy after SCI. However, a large number of SCs do not survive following transplantation. Previous studies demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects different cell types and reduces tissue damage in SCI experimental animal model. In the current study, we evaluated the protective potential of E2 on SCs in vitro and investigated whether the combination of hormonal and SC therapeutic strategy has a better effect on the outcome after SCI. Primary SC cultures were incubated with E2 for 72 h. In a subsequent experiment, thoracic contusion SCI was induced in male rats followed by sustained administration of E2 or vehicle. Eight days after SCI, DiI-labeled SCs were transplanted into the injury epicenter in vehicle and E2-treated animals. The combinatory regimen decreased neurological and behavioral deficits and protected neurons and oligodendrocytes in comparison to vehicle rats. Moreover, E2 and SC significantly decreased the number of Iba-1+ (microglia) and GFAP + cells (astrocyte) in the SCI group. In addition, we found a significant reduction of mitochondrial fission-markers (Fis1) and an increase of fusion-markers (Mfn1 and Mfn2) in the injured spinal cord after E2 and SC treatment. These data demonstrated that E2 protects SCs against hypoxia-induced SCI and improves the survival of transplanted SCs.

  8. Influence of Genetically Modified Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells on the Expression of Schwann Cell Molecular Determinants in Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Galieva, L R; Mukhamedshina, Y O; Akhmetzyanova, E R; Gilazieva, Z E; Arkhipova, S S; Garanina, E E; Rizvanov, A A

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) unavoidably results in death of not only neurons but also glial cells. In particular, the death of oligodendrocytes leads to impaired nerve impulse conduction in intact axons. However, after SCI, the Schwann cells (SCs) are capable of migrating towards an area of injury and participating in the formation of functional myelin. In addition to SCI, cell-based therapy can influence the migration of SCs and the expression of their molecular determinants. In a number of cases, it can be explained by the ability of implanted cells to secrete neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Genetically modified stem and progenitor cells overexpressing NTFs have recently attracted special attention of researchers and are most promising for the purposes of regenerative medicine. Therefore, we have studied the effect of genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells on the expression of SC molecular determinants in SCI.

  9. A spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell line from aldose reductase-deficient mice as a useful tool for studying polyol pathway and aldehyde metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Naoko; Yako, Hideji; Takaku, Shizuka; Kato, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Takafumi; Nishito, Yasumasa; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Ogasawara, Saori; Mizukami, Hiroki; Yagihashi, Soroku; Chung, Sookja K; Sango, Kazunori

    2018-03-01

    The increased glucose flux into the polyol pathway via aldose reductase (AR) is recognized as a major contributing factor for the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, whereas little is known about the functional significance of AR in the peripheral nervous system. Spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell lines established from long-term cultures of AR-deficient and normal C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerves can be useful tools for studying the physiological and pathological roles of AR. These cell lines, designated as immortalized knockout AR Schwann cells 1 (IKARS1) and 1970C3, respectively, demonstrated distinctive Schwann cell phenotypes, such as spindle-shaped morphology and immunoreactivity to S100, p75 neurotrophin receptor, and vimentin, and extracellular release of neurotrophic factors. Conditioned media obtained from these cells promoted neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth of cultured adult mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed significantly down-regulated mRNA expression of polyol pathway-related enzymes, sorbitol dehydrogenase and ketohexokinase, in IKARS1 cells compared with those in 1970C3 cells. In contrast, significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of aldo-keto reductases (AKR1B7 and AKR1B8) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH1L2, ALDH5A1, and ALDH7A1) was detected in IKARS1 cells compared with 1970C3 cells. Exposure to reactive aldehydes (3-deoxyglucosone, methylglyoxal, and 4-hydroxynonenal) significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of AKR1B7 and AKR1B8 in IKARS1 cells, but not in 1970C3 cells. Because no significant differences in viability between these two cell lines after exposure to these aldehydes were observed, it can be assumed that the aldehyde detoxification is taken over by AKR1B7 and AKR1B8 in the absence of AR. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrani Bose

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic and stochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell ...

  11. Curcumin accelerates the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats through reducing Schwann cells apoptosis and promoting myelinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Qing

    2017-08-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) play an indispensable role in the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Curcumin can reduce SCs apoptosis, and promote the regeneration and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves. However, the corresponding mechanisms are not clear. The article was aimed to explore the effect and corresponding mechanisms of curcumin on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. After surgery induced sciatic nerve injury, the model rats were divided into three groups and treated with curcumin, curcumin+PD98059 and curcumin+IGF-1 respectively for 4days. The phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, and the expression of LC3-II, Beclin 1 and p62 were measured using western blotting. After treatment for 60days, myelination of the injured sciatic nerve was evaluated by MBP immunohistochemical staining and the expression of PMP22, Fibrin and S100 were determined using qRT-PCR and western blotting. In vitro, RSC96 cells were starved for 12h to induce autophagy, and received DMSO, curcumin, PD98059+curcumin, IGF-1+curcumin and BFA1 respectively. The phosphorylation of Erk1/2、Akt and the expression of LC3-II, Beclin 1, p62, PMP22, Fibrin and S100 were measured using western blotting, and the cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Curcumin could promote injury-induced cell autophagy, remyelination and axon regeneration in sciatic nerve of rats. In vitro, curcumin could accelerate cell autophagy through regulating autophagy related Erk1/2 and Akt pathway, prevent cell apoptosis and promote expression of PMP22 and S100, and reduced deposition of Fibrin in cultured RSC96 SCs. Curcumin could accelerate injured sciatic nerve repair in rats through reducing SCs apoptosis and promoting myelinization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Adult skin-derived precursor Schwann cell grafts form growths in the injured spinal cord of Fischer rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Kumar, Ranjan; Führmann, Tobias; Tam, Roger; Vulic, Katarina; Forero, Juan; Lucas-Osma, Ana M; Fenrich, Keith; Assinck, Peggy; Lee, Michael J; Moulson, Aaron; Shoichet, Molly S; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Biernaskie, Jeff; Fouad, Karim

    2017-10-25

    In this study, GFP+ skin-derived precursor Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) from adult rats were grafted into the injured spinal cord of immunosuppressed rats. Our goal was to improve grafted cell survival in the injured spinal cord, which is typically low. Cells were grafted in hyaluronan-methylcellulose hydrogel (HAMC) or hyaluronan-methylcellulose modified with laminin- and fibronectin-derived peptide sequences (eHAMC). The criteria for selection of hyaluronan was for its shear-thinning properties, making the hydrogel easy to inject, methylcellulose for its inverse thermal gelation, helping to keep grafted cells in situ, and fibronectin and laminin to improve cell attachment and, thus, prevent cell death due to dissociation from substrate molecules (i.e., anoikis). Post-mortem examination revealed large masses of GFP+ SKP-SCs in the spinal cords of rats that received cells in HAMC (5 out of n = 8) and eHAMC (6 out of n = 8). Cell transplantation in eHAMC caused significantly greater spinal lesions compared to lesion and eHAMC only control groups. A parallel study showed similar masses in the contused spinal cord of rats after transplantation of adult GFP+ SKP-SCs without a hydrogel or immunosuppression. These findings suggest that adult GFP+ SKP-SCs, cultured/transplanted under the conditions described here, have a capacity for uncontrolled proliferation. Growth-formation in pre-clinical research has also been documented after transplantation of: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (Itakura et al., 2015), embryonic stem cells and embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (Brederlau et al., 2006; Dressel et al., 2008), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (Jeong et al., 2011) and rat nerve-derived SCs following in vitro expansion for ˃11 passages (Funk et al., 2007; Langford et al., 1988; Morrissey et al., 1991). It is of upmost importance to define the precise culture/transplantation parameters for maintenance of normal cell function and safe

  13. Laminin 211 inhibits protein kinase A in Schwann cells to modulate neuregulin 1 type III-driven myelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidinelli, Monica; Poitelon, Yannick; Shin, Yoon Kyoung; Ameroso, Dominique; Williamson, Courtney; Ferri, Cinzia; Pellegatta, Marta; Espino, Kevin; Mogha, Amit; Monk, Kelly; Podini, Paola; Taveggia, Carla; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Park, Hwan Tae

    2017-01-01

    Myelin is required for proper nervous system function. Schwann cells in developing nerves depend on extrinsic signals from the axon and from the extracellular matrix to first sort and ensheathe a single axon and then myelinate it. Neuregulin 1 type III (Nrg1III) and laminin α2β1γ1 (Lm211) are the key axonal and matrix signals, respectively, but how their signaling is integrated and if each molecule controls both axonal sorting and myelination is unclear. Here, we use a series of epistasis experiments to show that Lm211 modulates neuregulin signaling to ensure the correct timing and amount of myelination. Lm211 can inhibit Nrg1III by limiting protein kinase A (PKA) activation, which is required to initiate myelination. We provide evidence that excessive PKA activation amplifies promyelinating signals downstream of neuregulin, including direct activation of the neuregulin receptor ErbB2 and its effector Grb2-Associated Binder-1 (Gab1), thereby elevating the expression of the key transcription factors Oct6 and early growth response protein 2 (Egr2). The inhibitory effect of Lm211 is seen only in fibers of small caliber. These data may explain why hereditary neuropathies associated with decreased laminin function are characterized by focally thick and redundant myelin. PMID:28636612

  14. Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration based on tissue engineering strategy using Schwann cells and PLGA: in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Lv, Peizhen; Zhu, Yongjia; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Fuben; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Salidriside (SDS), a phenylpropanoid glycoside derived from Rhodiola rosea L, has been shown to be neuroprotective in many studies, which may be promising in nerve recovery. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of SDS on engineered nerve constructed by Schwann cells (SCs) and Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were studied in vitro. We further investigated the effect of combinational therapy of SDS and PLGA/SCs based tissue engineering on peripheral nerve regeneration based on the rat model of nerve injury by sciatic transection. The results showed that SDS dramatically enhanced the proliferation and function of SCs. The underlying mechanism may be that SDS affects SCs growth through the modulation of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF and CNTF). 12 weeks after implantation with a 12 mm gap of sciatic nerve injury, SDS-PLGA/SCs achieved satisfying outcomes of nerve regeneration, as evidenced by morphological and functional improvements upon therapy by SDS, PLGA/SCs or direct suture group assessed by sciatic function index, nerve conduction assay, HE staining and immunohistochemical analysis. Our results demonstrated the significant role of introducing SDS into neural tissue engineering to promote nerve regeneration.

  15. Gpr126/Adgrg6 Has Schwann Cell Autonomous and Nonautonomous Functions in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogha, Amit; Harty, Breanne L; Carlin, Dan; Joseph, Jessica; Sanchez, Nicholas E; Suter, Ueli; Piao, Xianhua; Cavalli, Valeria; Monk, Kelly R

    2016-12-07

    Schwann cells (SCs) are essential for proper peripheral nerve development and repair, although the mechanisms regulating these processes are incompletely understood. We previously showed that the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor Gpr126/Adgrg6 is essential for SC development and myelination. Interestingly, the expression of Gpr126 is maintained in adult SCs, suggestive of a function in the mature nerve. We therefore investigated the role of Gpr126 in nerve repair by studying an inducible SC-specific Gpr126 knock-out mouse model. Here, we show that remyelination is severely delayed after nerve-crush injury. Moreover, we also observe noncell-autonomous defects in macrophage recruitment and axon regeneration in injured nerves following loss of Gpr126 in SCs. This work demonstrates that Gpr126 has critical SC-autonomous and SC-nonautonomous functions in remyelination and peripheral nerve repair. Lack of robust remyelination represents one of the major barriers to recovery of neurological functions in disease or following injury in many disorders of the nervous system. Here we show that the adhesion class G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr126/Adgrg6 is required for remyelination, macrophage recruitment, and axon regeneration following nerve injury. At least 30% of all approved drugs target GPCRs; thus, Gpr126 represents an attractive potential target to stimulate repair in myelin disease or following nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612351-17$15.00/0.

  16. Behaviour of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in an experimental model of toxic demyelination of the central nervous system Comportamento de oligodendrócitos e células de Schwann em modelo experimental de desmielinização tóxica do sistema nervoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguita Lühers Graça

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are engaged in myelin production, maintenance and repairing respectively in the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Whereas oligodendrocytes act only within the CNS, Schwann cells are able to invade the CNS in order to make new myelin sheaths around demyelinated axons. Both cells have some limitations in their activities, i.e. oligodendrocytes are post-mitotic cells and Schwann cells only get into the CNS in the absence of astrocytes. Ethidium bromide (EB is a gliotoxic chemical that when injected locally within the CNS, induce demyelination. In the EB model of demyelination, glial cells are destroyed early after intoxication and Schwann cells are free to approach the naked central axons. In normal Wistar rats, regeneration of lost myelin sheaths can be achieved as early as thirteen days after intoxication; in Wistar rats immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide the process is delayed and in rats administered cyclosporine it may be accelerated. Aiming the enlightening of those complex processes, all events concerning the myelinating cells in an experimental model are herein presented and discussed.Oligodendrócitos e células de Schwann realizam a produção e manutenção das bainhas de mielina, respectivamente no sistema nervoso central (SNC e periférico (SNP. As células de Schwann, à diferença dos oligodendrócitos, são capazes de invadir o SNC para remielinizar axônios desmielinizados, sempre que os astrócitos tenham sido destruídos. O brometo de etídio é uma droga gliotóxica usada para induzir desmielinização com o desaparecimento precoce de astrócitos, de modo que as células de Schwann têm liberdade para invadir o SNC. Em ratos Wistar normais, a remielinização é detectada treze dias após desmielinização; em ratos Wistar imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida a reparação do tecido é tardia, enquanto que em animais tratados com ciclosporina ela

  17. The transforming growth factor-betas: multifaceted regulators of the development and maintenance of skeletal muscles, motoneurons and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Ian S; Koishi, Kyoko

    2002-01-01

    This review discusses the roles of the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) as part of a complex network that regulates the development and maintenance of the neuromuscular system. The actions of the TGF-betas often vary depending on which other growth factors are present, making it difficult to extrapolate results from in vitro experiments to the in vivo situation. A new approach has therefore been needed to understand the physiological functions of the TGF-betas. The behaviours (proliferation, fusion, apoptosis) of many of the cells in the neuromuscular system have a complex pattern which varies in space and time. The actions of growth factors in this system can thus be deduced based on how well their pattern of expression correlates with known cellular behaviours. Hypotheses based on this molecular anatomical evidence can then be further tested with genetically modified mice. From this type of evidence, we suggest that: (1) TGF-beta1 is an autocrine regulator of Schwann cells; (2) maternally-derived TGF-beta1 helps to suppress self and maternal immune attack; (3) TGF-beta2 regulates when and where myoblasts fuse to myotubes; (4) motoneuron survival is regulated by multiple sources of TGF-betas, with TGF-beta2 being the more important isoform. The concept of TGF-beta1 as a regulator of secondary myotube formation is not supported by either the location of the TGF-beta1 in developing muscles or by the phenotype of TGF-beta1-/- mice. The review concludes with a discussion of whether all of these of postulated functions can occur independently of each other, within the confines of the neuromuscular system.

  18. Immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and functional analysis of axonal regeneration through peripheral nerve grafts containing Schwann cells expressing BDNF, CNTF or NT3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Godinho

    Full Text Available We used morphological, immunohistochemical and functional assessments to determine the impact of genetically-modified peripheral nerve (PN grafts on axonal regeneration after injury. Grafts were assembled from acellular nerve sheaths repopulated ex vivo with Schwann cells (SCs modified to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a secretable form of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, or neurotrophin-3 (NT3. Grafts were used to repair unilateral 1 cm defects in rat peroneal nerves and 10 weeks later outcomes were compared to normal nerves and various controls: autografts, acellular grafts and grafts with unmodified SCs. The number of regenerated βIII-Tubulin positive axons was similar in all grafts with the exception of CNTF, which contained the fewest immunostained axons. There were significantly lower fiber counts in acellular, untransduced SC and NT3 groups using a PanNF antibody, suggesting a paucity of large caliber axons. In addition, NT3 grafts contained the greatest number of sensory fibres, identified with either IB4 or CGRP markers. Examination of semi- and ultra-thin sections revealed heterogeneous graft morphologies, particularly in BDNF and NT3 grafts in which the fascicular organization was pronounced. Unmyelinated axons were loosely organized in numerous Remak bundles in NT3 grafts, while the BDNF graft group displayed the lowest ratio of umyelinated to myelinated axons. Gait analysis revealed that stance width was increased in rats with CNTF and NT3 grafts, and step length involving the injured left hindlimb was significantly greater in NT3 grafted rats, suggesting enhanced sensory sensitivity in these animals. In summary, the selective expression of BDNF, CNTF or NT3 by genetically modified SCs had differential effects on PN graft morphology, the number and type of regenerating axons, myelination, and locomotor function.

  19. Schwann cells sense and control acetylcholine spillover at the neuromuscular junction by α7 nicotinic receptors and butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Konstantin A; Girard, Emmanuelle; Nikitashina, Alexandra D; Colasante, Cesare; Bernard, Véronique; Nurullin, Leniz; Leroy, Jacqueline; Samigullin, Dmitry; Colak, Omer; Nikolsky, Evgenii; Plaud, Benoit; Krejci, Eric

    2014-09-03

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are key components of the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ). How the TSCs sense the synaptic activity in physiological conditions remains unclear. We have taken advantage of the distinct localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at the NMJ to bring out the function of different ACh receptors (AChRs). AChE is clustered by the collagen Q in the synaptic cleft and prevents the repetitive activation of muscle nicotinic AChRs. We found that BChE is anchored at the TSC by a proline-rich membrane anchor, the small transmembrane protein anchor of brain AChE. When BChE was specifically inhibited, ACh release was significant depressed through the activation of α7 nAChRs localized on the TSC and activated by the spillover of ACh. When both AChE and BChE were inhibited, the spillover increased and induced a dramatic reduction of ACh release that compromised the muscle twitch triggered by the nerve stimulation. α7 nAChRs at the TSC may act as a sensor for spillover of ACh adjusted by BChE and may represent an extrasynaptic sensor for homeostasis at the NMJ. In myasthenic rats, selective inhibition of AChE is more effective in rescuing muscle function than the simultaneous inhibition of AChE and BChE because the concomitant inhibition of BChE counteracts the positive action of AChE inhibition. These results show that inhibition of BChE should be avoided during the treatment of myasthenia and the pharmacological reversal of residual curarization after anesthesia. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411870-14$15.00/0.

  20. Schwann cells genetically modified to express S100A4 increases GAP43 expression in spiral ganglion neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Tang, Li

    2017-07-04

    Schwann cells (SCs) have been reported as a possible source of neurotrophic support for spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). This study was aimed to investigate whether S100A4 was contributed in the functional effects of SCs on SGNs. SCs were transfected with S100A4 vector or small interfering RNA (siRNA) against S100A4, and the transfection efficiency was verified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blot. The migration of transfected SCs was determined by Transwell assay, and the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor precursor (VEGF) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) were measured by Western blot. Co-culture of either S100A4 overexpressed or suppressed SCs with SGNs, and the growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) expression in SGNs was detected by immunofluorescence (IF), qPCR and Western blot. The migration of SCs was significantly enhanced by S100A4 overexpression (P < 0.001), while was suppressed by S100A4 knockdown (P < 0.01). Further, the expressions of VEGF and MMP-9 were notably up-regulated by S100A4 overexpression, while were down-regulated by S100A4 knockdown. Moreover, co-culture with the S100A4 overexpressed SCs significantly increased the expression of GAP43 in SGNs (P < 0.01). As expected, co-culture with S100A4 knockdown SCs decreased GAP43 level (P < 0.05). S100A4 enhanced the migratory ability of SCs. SCs genetically modified to overexpress the S100A4 could up-regulate the GAP43 expression in SGNs.

  1. Schwann cell-specific deletion of the endosomal PI 3-kinase Vps34 leads to delayed radial sorting of axons, arrested myelination, and abnormal ErbB2-ErbB3 tyrosine kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Anne M; Mammel, Anna E; Robinson, Danielle C; Chin, Andrea L; Condon, Alec F; Robinson, Fred L

    2017-09-01

    The PI 3-kinase Vps34 (Pik3c3) synthesizes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), a lipid critical for both endosomal membrane traffic and macroautophagy. Human genetics have implicated PI3P dysregulation, and endosomal trafficking in general, as a recurring cause of demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy. Here, we investigated the role of Vps34, and PI3P, in mouse Schwann cells by selectively deleting Vps34 in this cell type. Vps34-Schwann cell knockout (Vps34 SCKO ) mice show severe hypomyelination in peripheral nerves. Vps34 -/- Schwann cells interact abnormally with axons, and there is a delay in radial sorting, a process by which large axons are selected for myelination. Upon reaching the promyelinating stage, Vps34 -/- Schwann cells are significantly impaired in the elaboration of myelin. Nerves from Vps34 SCKO mice contain elevated levels of the LC3 and p62 proteins, indicating impaired autophagy. However, in the light of recent demonstrations that autophagy is dispensable for myelination, it is unlikely that hypomyelination in Vps34 SCKO mice is caused by impaired autophagy. Endosomal trafficking is also disturbed in Vps34 -/- Schwann cells. We investigated the activation of the ErbB2/3 receptor tyrosine kinases in Vps34 SCKO nerves, as these proteins, which play essential roles in Schwann cell myelination, are known to traffic through endosomes. In Vps34 SCKO nerves, ErbB3 was hyperphosphorylated on a tyrosine known to be phosphorylated in response to neuregulin 1 exposure. ErbB2 protein levels were also decreased during myelination. Our findings suggest that the loss of Vps34 alters the trafficking of ErbB2/3 through endosomes. Abnormal ErbB2/3 signaling to downstream targets may contribute to the hypomyelination observed in Vps34 SCKO mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Activation of MAPK overrides the termination of myelin growth and replaces Nrg1/ErbB3 signals during Schwann cell development and myelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Maria E.; McShane, Erik; Cheret, Cyril; Walcher, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Hoelper, Soraya; Garratt, Alistair N.; Krüger, Markus; Rajewsky, Klaus; Meijer, Dies; Birchmeier, Walter; Lewin, Gary R.; Selbach, Matthias; Birchmeier, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Myelination depends on the synthesis of large amounts of myelin transcripts and proteins and is controlled by Nrg1/ErbB/Shp2 signaling. We developed a novel pulse labeling strategy based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to measure the dynamics of myelin protein production in mice. We found that protein synthesis is dampened in the maturing postnatal peripheral nervous system, and myelination then slows down. Remarkably, sustained activation of MAPK signaling by expression of the Mek1DD allele in mice overcomes the signals that end myelination, resulting in continuous myelin growth. MAPK activation leads to minor changes in transcript levels but massively up-regulates protein production. Pharmacological interference in vivo demonstrates that the effects of activated MAPK signaling on translation are mediated by mTOR-independent mechanisms but in part also by mTOR-dependent mechanisms. Previous work demonstrated that loss of ErbB3/Shp2 signaling impairs Schwann cell development and disrupts the myelination program. We found that activated MAPK signaling strikingly compensates for the absence of ErbB3 or Shp2 during Schwann cell development and myelination. PMID:24493648

  3. Identification of Dysregulated microRNA Networks in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures Exposed to Immune Challenge: Potential Crosstalk with the Protective VIP/PACAP Neuropeptide System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Leggio, Gian Marco; Marzagalli, Rubina; Al-Badri, Ghaith; Drago, Filippo; Castorina, Alessandro

    2018-03-25

    Following peripheral nerve injury, dysregulations of certain non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) occur in Schwann cells. Whether these alterations are the result of local inflammation and/or correlate with perturbations in the expression profile of the protective vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) system is currently unknown. To address these issues, we aimed at profiling the expression of selected miRNAs in the rat RT4 Schwann cell line. Cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to mimic the local inflammatory milieu, were appraised by real-time qPCR, Western blot and ELISAs. We found that upon LPS treatment, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, -6, -18, -17A, MCP-1 and TNFα) increased in a time-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, the expression levels of VIP and PACAP were also increased. Conversely, levels of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors were reduced. Downregulated miRNAs included miR-181b , -145 , -27a , -340 and -132 whereas upregulated ones were miR-21 , -206 , -146a , -34a , -155 , -204 and -29a , respectively. Regression analyses revealed that a subset of the identified miRNAs inversely correlated with the expression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors. In conclusion, these findings identified a novel subset of miRNAs that are dysregulated by immune challenge whose activities might elicit a regulatory function on the VIP/PACAP system.

  4. Identification of Dysregulated microRNA Networks in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures Exposed to Immune Challenge: Potential Crosstalk with the Protective VIP/PACAP Neuropeptide System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Musumeci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Following peripheral nerve injury, dysregulations of certain non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs occur in Schwann cells. Whether these alterations are the result of local inflammation and/or correlate with perturbations in the expression profile of the protective vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP system is currently unknown. To address these issues, we aimed at profiling the expression of selected miRNAs in the rat RT4 Schwann cell line. Cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, to mimic the local inflammatory milieu, were appraised by real-time qPCR, Western blot and ELISAs. We found that upon LPS treatment, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, -6, -18, -17A, MCP-1 and TNFα increased in a time-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, the expression levels of VIP and PACAP were also increased. Conversely, levels of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors were reduced. Downregulated miRNAs included miR-181b, -145, -27a, -340 and -132 whereas upregulated ones were miR-21, -206, -146a, -34a, -155, -204 and -29a, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that a subset of the identified miRNAs inversely correlated with the expression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors. In conclusion, these findings identified a novel subset of miRNAs that are dysregulated by immune challenge whose activities might elicit a regulatory function on the VIP/PACAP system.

  5. Fourth Ventricular Schwannoma: Identical Clinicopathologic Features as Schwann Cell-Derived Schwannoma with Unique Etiopathologic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany R. Hodges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the literature of fourth ventricular schwannoma. The etiology and natural history of intraventricular schwannomas is not well understood. A thorough review of potential etiopathogenic mechanisms is provided in this case report. Case Description. A 69-year-old man presented with an incidentally found fourth ventricular tumor during an evaluation for generalized weakness, gait instability, and memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the fourth ventricle. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed to resect the lesion. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma (WHO grade I. Conclusions. Schwannomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular tumors. Although the embryologic origins may be different from nerve sheath-derived schwannomas, the histologic, clinical, and natural history appear identical and thus should be managed similarly.

  6. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic andstochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a bifurcation phenomenon, well-knownin dynamical systems theory. The bifurcation point has the character of a critical point with the system dynamics exhibitingspecific features in its ...

  7. Combination Therapy with c-Met and Src Inhibitors Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis of Merlin-Deficient Schwann Cells and Suppresses Growth of Schwannoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Marisa A; Plati, Stephani Klingeman; Burns, Sarah S; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena; Yan, Denise; Mittal, Rahul; Shen, Rulong; Soulakova, Julia N; Copik, Alicja J; Liu, Xue Zhong; Telischi, Fred F; Chang, Long-Sheng; Franco, Maria Clara; Fernandez-Valle, Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a nervous system tumor disorder caused by inactivation of the merlin tumor suppressor encoded by the NF2 gene. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are a diagnostic hallmark of NF2. Mainstream treatment options for NF2-associated tumors have been limited to surgery and radiotherapy; however, off-label uses of targeted molecular therapies are becoming increasingly common. Here, we investigated drugs targeting two kinases activated in NF2-associated schwannomas, c-Met and Src. We demonstrated that merlin-deficient mouse Schwann cells (MD-MSC) treated with the c-Met inhibitor, cabozantinib, or the Src kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib, underwent a G 1 cell-cycle arrest. However, when MD-MSCs were treated with a combination of cabozantinib and saracatinib, they exhibited caspase-dependent apoptosis. The combination therapy also significantly reduced growth of MD-MSCs in an orthotopic allograft mouse model by greater than 80% of vehicle. Moreover, human vestibular schwannoma cells with NF2 mutations had a 40% decrease in cell viability when treated with cabozantinib and saracatinib together compared with the vehicle control. This study demonstrates that simultaneous inhibition of c-Met and Src signaling in MD-MSCs triggers apoptosis and reveals vulnerable pathways that could be exploited to develop NF2 therapies. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2387-98. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. A Novel Growth-Promoting Pathway Formed by GDNF-Overexpressing Schwann Cells Promotes Propriospinal Axonal Regeneration, Synapse formation, and Partial Recovery of Function after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingxiao; Deng, Ping; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Zao Cheng; Liu, Naikui; Wen, Xuejun; Smith, George M.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function. PMID:23536080

  9. Co- transplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells with Schwann Cells Evokes Mechanical Allodynia in the Contusion Model of Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourheydar, Bagher; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Yekta, Zahra; Najafzadeh, Norooz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that, although transplantation of neural stem cells into the contusion model of spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes locomotor function and improves functional recovery, it induces a painful response, Allodynia. Different studies indicate that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) can improve locomotor recovery when transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord. Since these cells are commonly used in cell therapy, we investigated whether co-transplantation of these cells leads to the development of Allodynia. Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, the contusion model of SCI was induced by laminectomy at the T8-T9 level of the spinal cord in adult female wistar rats (n=40) weighting (250-300g) using the New York University Device. BMSCs and SCs were cultured and prelabeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) respectively. The rats were divided into five groups of 8 including: a control group (laminectomy only), three experimental groups (BMSC, SC and Co-transplant) and a sham group. The experimental groups received BMSCs, SCs, and BMSCs and SCs respectively by intraspinal injection 7 days after injury and the sham group received serum only. Locomotion was assessed using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and Allodynia by the withdrawal threshold test using Von Frey Filaments at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days after SCI. The statistical comparisons between groups were carried out by using repeated measures analysis of variances (ANOVA). Results: Significant differences were observed in BBB scores in the Co- transplant group compared to the BMSC and SC groups (pspinal cord can improve functional recovery, it leads to the development of mechanical Allodynia. This finding indicates that strategies to reduce Allodynia in cell transplantation studies are required. PMID:23508042

  10. Tyrosine phosphatases epsilon and alpha perform specific and overlapping functions in regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels in Schwann cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiran, Zohar; Peretz, Asher; Sines, Tal

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) epsilon and alpha are closely related and share several molecular functions, such as regulation of Src family kinases and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. Functional interrelationships between PTPepsilon and PTPalpha and the mechanisms by which they regulate K......+ channels and Src were analyzed in vivo in mice lacking either or both PTPs. Lack of either PTP increases Kv channel activity and phosphorylation in Schwann cells, indicating these PTPs inhibit Kv current amplitude in vivo. Open probability and unitary conductance of Kv channels are unchanged, suggesting...... an effect on channel number or organization. PTPalpha inhibits Kv channels more strongly than PTPepsilon; this correlates with constitutive association of PTPalpha with Kv2.1, driven by membranal localization of PTPalpha. PTPalpha, but not PTPepsilon, activates Src in sciatic nerve extracts, suggesting Src...

  11. Tang-Luo-Ning, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Schwann Cells under High Glucose Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tang-Luo-Ning (TLN has a definite effect in the clinical treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Schwann cells (SCs apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress is one of the main pathogeneses of DPN. This study investigates whether TLN can inhibit SCs apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. Our previous researches have demonstrated that TLN could increase the expression of ER stress marker protein GRP78 and inhibited the expression of apoptosis marker protein CHOP in ER stress. In this study, the results showed that TLN attenuated apoptosis by decreasing Ca2+ level in SCs and maintaining ER morphology. TLN could decrease downstream proteins of CHOP including GADD34 and Ero1α, while it increased P-eIF2α and decreased the upstream proteins of CHOP including P-IRE1α/IRE1α and XBP-1, thereby reducing ER stress-induced apoptosis.

  12. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrani Bose

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... diverse as ecosystems, financial markets, population biology and complex diseases (Scheffer et al. 2009, 2012). Similar studies on the signatures of regime .... and in the maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues. (Semrau and van Oudenaarden 2015). Cell differentiation occurs when the undifferentiated ...

  13. Differentiation of Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells into Cells of Neural Lineage: Potential for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are able to differentiate into extramesodermal lineages, including neurons. Positive outcomes were obtained after transplantation of neurally induced MSCs in laboratory animals after nerve injury, but this is unknown in horses. Our objectives were to test the ability of equine MSCs to differentiate into cells of neural lineage in vitro, to assess differences in morphology and lineage-specific protein expression, and to investigate if horse age and cell passage number affected the ability to achieve differentiation. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were obtained from young and adult horses. Following demonstration of stemness, MSCs were neurally induced and microscopically assessed at different time points. Results showed that commercially available nitrogen-coated tissue culture plates supported proliferation and differentiation. Morphological changes were immediate and all the cells displayed a neural crest-like cell phenotype. Expression of neural progenitor proteins, was assessed via western blot or immunofluorescence. In our study, MSCs generated from young and middle-aged horses did not show differences in their ability to undergo differentiation. The effect of cell passage number, however, is inconsistent and further experiments are needed. Ongoing work is aimed at transdifferentiating these cells into Schwann cells for transplantation into a peripheral nerve injury model in horses.

  14. Schwann cell expression of an oligodendrocyte-like remyelinating pattern after ethidium bromide injection in the rat spinal cord Expressão pelas células de Schwann de um padrão de remielinização semelhante ao oligodendroglial após injeção de brometo de etídio na medula espinhal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandes Bondan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells are recognized by their capacity of producing single internodes of myelin around axons of the peripheral nervous system. In the ethidium bromide (EB model of primary demyelination in the brainstem, it is observed the entry of Schwann cells into the central nervous system in order to contribute to the myelin repair performed by the oligodendrocytes that survived to the EB gliotoxic action, being able to even remyelinate more than one axon at the same time, in a pattern of repair similar to the oligodendroglial one. The present study was developed in the spinal cord to observe if Schwann cells maintained this competence of attending simultaneously different internodes. It was noted that, on the contrary of the brainstem, Schwann cells were the most important myelinogenic cells in the demyelinated site and, although rare, also presented the capacity of producing more than one internode of myelin in distinct axons.As células de Schwann são reconhecidas por sua capacidade de produzir internodos de mielina únicos ao redor de axônios do sistema nervoso periférico. No modelo de desmielinização primária do brometo de etídio (BE no tronco encefálico, tem sido observada a entrada destas células no sistema nervoso central. Isso pode contribuir para o reparo mielínico desempenhado pelos oligodendrócitos que sobreviveram à ação glitóxica do BE, chegando a remielinizar mais de um axônio ao mesmo tempo, em um padrão de reparo semelhante ao oligodendroglial. O presente estudo foi realizado na medula espinhal para observar se as células de Schwann mantinham esta competência de atender simultaneamente diferentes internodos. Foi observado que, ao contrário do tronco encefálico, as células de Schwann foram as células mielinogênicas mais importantes no sítio de desmielinização induzida pelo BE e, embora raro, também apresentaram a capacidade de produzir mais de um internodo de mielina em axônios distintos.

  15. Activity-induced Ca2+ signaling in perisynaptic Schwann cells of the early postnatal mouse is mediated by P2Y1 receptors and regulates muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Dante J; Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Hennig, Grant W; Renden, Robert B

    2018-01-01

    Perisynaptic glial cells respond to neural activity by increasing cytosolic calcium, but the significance of this pathway is unclear. Terminal/perisynaptic Schwann cells (TPSCs) are a perisynaptic glial cell at the neuromuscular junction that respond to nerve-derived substances such as acetylcholine and purines. Here, we provide genetic evidence that activity-induced calcium accumulation in neonatal TPSCs is mediated exclusively by one subtype of metabotropic purinergic receptor. In P2ry1 mutant mice lacking these responses, postsynaptic, rather than presynaptic, function was altered in response to nerve stimulation. This impairment was correlated with a greater susceptibility to activity-induced muscle fatigue. Interestingly, fatigue in P2ry1 mutants was more greatly exacerbated by exposure to high potassium than in control mice. High potassium itself increased cytosolic levels of calcium in TPSCs, a response which was also reduced P2ry1 mutants. These results suggest that activity-induced calcium responses in TPSCs regulate postsynaptic function and muscle fatigue by regulating perisynaptic potassium. PMID:29384476

  16. Fabrication and characterization of vitamin B5 loaded poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone)/silk fiber aligned electrospun nanofibers for schwann cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutto, M Aqeel; Wu, Tong; Sun, Binbin; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration have been focusing on the development of alternative treatments for nerve repair. In present study we have blended the Vitamin B5 (50mg) with 8% P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL)/SF solutions and produced aligned electrospun nanofiber mashes and characterized the material for its physiochemical and mechanical characteristics. The vitamin loaded composites nanofibers showed tensile strength of 8.73±1.38 and 8.4±1.37 in P(LLA-CL)/Vt and P(LLA-CL)/SF/Vt nanofibers mashes, respectively. By the addition of vitamin B5 the P(LLA-CL) nanofibers become hydrophilic and the contact angle decreased from 96° to 0° in 6min of duration. The effect of vitamin B5 on Schwann cells proliferation and viability were analyzed by using MTT assay and the number of cells cultured on vitamin loaded nanofiber mashes was significantly higher than the without vitamin loaded nanofiber samples after 5th day (pvitamin release behavior was observed in PBS solution and released vitamin was calculated by revers phase HPLC method. The sustain release behavior of vitamin B5 were noted higher in P(LLA-CL)/Vt (80%) nanofibers as compared to P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt (62%) nanofibers after 24h. The present work provided a basis for further studies of this novel aligned nanofibrous material in nerve tissue repair or regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  18. Glial differentiation of human inferior turbinate-derived stem cells: a new source of cells for nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sheng, Ying; Liang, JianMin; Ren, XiaoYong; Cheng, Yan

    2017-03-22

    Schwann cell (SC) transplantation as a cell-based therapy can enhance peripheral and central nerve repair experimentally, but it is limited by donor site morbidity for clinical application. We investigated whether human turbinate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hTMSCs) isolated from discarded inferior turbinate during surgery can differentiate into functional SC-like cells. hTMSCs expressed mesenchymal cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105 and did not express neural crest markers P75 and Nestin. After monolayer culture in predifferentiation medium and transdifferentiation medium with a mixture of glial growth factors and chemical regents for 14 days, the differentiated hTMSCs exhibited a spindle-like morphology similar to that of SCs. RT-PCR, immunocytochemical staining, and western blotting analysis indicated that SC-like cells expressed the glial markers S100β, P75, and glial fibrillary acidic protein at the gene and protein level. Compared with hTMSCs, differentiated hTMSCs secreted more neurotrophins, and significantly enhanced the neurite length when cocultured with dorsal root ganglia neuronal cells. Our data indicated that hTMSCs can differentiate into functional SC-like cells and have the ability to facilitate the neurite growth of dorsal root ganglia neuronal cells in vitro, representing a promising source of cells for nerve repair.

  19. Schwann Cells Transduced with a Lentiviral Vector Encoding Fgf-2 Promote Motor Neuron Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, I.; Mecollari, V.; Gonzalez-Perez, F.; Eggers, R.; Hoyng, S.; Verhaagen, J.; Navarro, X.; Udina, E.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential

  20. Schwann cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding Fgf-2 promote motor neuron regeneration following sciatic nerve injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, Ilary; Mecollari, Vasil; González-Pérez, Francisco; Eggers, R.; Hoyng, S.; Verhaagen, J.; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential

  1. First human experience with autologous Schwann cells to supplement sciatic nerve repair: report of 2 cases with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersey, Zachary C; Burks, S Shelby; Anderson, Kim D; Dididze, Marine; Khan, Aisha; Dietrich, W Dalton; Levi, Allan D

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-segment injuries to large peripheral nerves present a challenge to surgeons because insufficient donor tissue limits repair. Multiple supplemental approaches have been investigated, including the use of Schwann cells (SCs). The authors present the first 2 cases using autologous SCs to supplement a peripheral nerve graft repair in humans with long-term follow-up data. METHODS Two patients were enrolled in an FDA-approved trial to assess the safety of using expanded populations of autologous SCs to supplement the repair of long-segment injuries to the sciatic nerve. The mechanism of injury included a boat propeller and a gunshot wound. The SCs were obtained from both the sural nerve and damaged sciatic nerve stump. The SCs were expanded and purified in culture by using heregulin β1 and forskolin. Repair was performed with sural nerve grafts, SCs in suspension, and a Duragen graft to house the construct. Follow-up was 36 and 12 months for the patients in Cases 1 and 2, respectively. RESULTS The patient in Case 1 had a boat propeller injury with complete transection of both sciatic divisions at midthigh. The graft length was approximately 7.5 cm. In the postoperative period the patient regained motor function (Medical Research Council [MRC] Grade 5/5) in the tibial distribution, with partial function in peroneal distribution (MRC Grade 2/5 on dorsiflexion). Partial return of sensory function was also achieved, and neuropathic pain was completely resolved. The patient in Case 2 sustained a gunshot wound to the leg, with partial disruption of the tibial division of the sciatic nerve at the midthigh. The graft length was 5 cm. Postoperatively the patient regained complete motor function of the tibial nerve, with partial return of sensation. Long-term follow-up with both MRI and ultrasound demonstrated nerve graft continuity and the absence of tumor formation at the repair site. CONCLUSIONS Presented here are the first 2 cases in which autologous SCs were

  2. Differentiation of Drosophila glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Sofia; Neuert, Helen; Klämbt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Glial cells are important constituents of the nervous system and a hallmark of these cells are their pronounced migratory abilities. In Drosophila, glial lineages have been well described and some of the molecular mechanisms necessary to guide migrating glial cells to their final target sites have been identified. With the onset of migration, glial cells are already specified into one of five main glial cell types. The perineurial and subperineurial glial cells are eventually located at the outer surface of the Drosophila nervous system and constitute the blood-brain barrier. The cortex glial cells ensheath all neuroblasts and their progeny and reside within the central nervous system. Astrocyte-like cells invade the neuropil to control synaptic function and ensheathing glial cells encase the entire neuropil. Within the peripheral nervous system, wrapping glial cells ensheath individual axons or axon fascicles. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on how differentiation of glial cells into the specific subtypes is orchestrated. Furthermore, we discuss sequencing data that will facilitate further analyses of glial differentiation in the fly nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mitochondria in aging cell differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2016), s. 1287-1288 ISSN 1945-4589 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : mitochondria * cell differentiation * retrograde signaling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016

  4. Regulators of Tfh cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Motiram Jogdand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The follicular helper T (Tfh cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching and germinal center formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXCR5, ICOS, PD-1, Bcl-6, and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A, migration and positioning in the germinal center by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, SAP/SLAM as well as transcription factor (Bcl-6, c-Maf, STAT3 signaling and repressor miR155. On the other hand Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7, surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4, transcription factors Blimp-1, STAT5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling and repressor miR 146a. Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. To manipulate Tfh cells for therapeutic implication and or for effective vaccination strategies, it is important to know positive and negative regulators of Tfh generation. Hence, in this review we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation.

  5. A new sodium channel {alpha}-subunit gene (Scn9a) from Schwann cells maps to the Scn1a, Scn2a, Scn3a cluster of mouse chromosome 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, M.C.; Ernst, E.; Gros, P. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-15

    We have used a total of 27 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains to determine the chromosomal location of a newly identified gene encoding an {alpha}-subunit isoform of the sodium channel from Schwann cells, Scn9a. Linkage analysis established that Scn9a mapped to the proximal segment of mouse chromosome 2. The segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 145 progeny from a Mus spretus x C57BL/6J backcross indicates that Scn9a is very tightly linked to Scn1a (gene encoding the type I sodium channel {alpha}-subunit of the brain) and forms part of a cluster of four Scna genes located on mouse chromosome 2. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Co-transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells through cerebral spinal fluid for the treatment of patients with chronic spinal cord injury: safety and possible outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraee-Yazdani, S; Hafizi, M; Atashi, A; Ashrafi, F; Seddighi, A-S; Hashemi, S M; Seddighi, A; Soleimani, M; Zali, A

    2016-02-01

    This is a clinical trial (phase 1). The objective of this study was to asses the safety and feasibility of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and Schwann cell (SC) co-injection through cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) for the treatment of patients with chronic spinal cord injury. Six subjects with complete spinal cord injury due to trauma according to International Standard of Neurological Classification for Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) developed by the American Spinal Injury Association were enrolled. They received autologous co-transplantation of MSC and SC through lumbar puncture. Neurological status of the patients was determined by ISNCSCI, as well as by assessment of functional status by Spinal Cord Independent Measure. Before and after cell transplantation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for all the patients. Before the procedure, all the patients underwent electromyography, urodynamic study (UDS) and MRI tractograghy. After transplantation, these assessments were performed in special cases when the patients reported any changes in motor function or any changes in urinary sensation. Over the mean 30 months of follow-up, the radiological findings were unchanged without any evidence of neoplastic tissue overgrowth. American Spinal Injury Association class in one patient was changed from A to B, in addition to the improvement in indexes of UDS, especially bladder compliance, which was congruous with axonal regeneration detected in MRI tractography. No motor score improvement was observed among the patients. No adverse findings were detected at a mean of 30 months after autologous transplantation of the combination of MSCs and SCs through CSF. It may suggest the safety of this combination of cells for spinal cord regeneration.

  7. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  8. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...

  9. Human primordial germ cells migrate along nerve fibers and Schwann cells from the dorsal hind gut mesentery to the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgård, Kjeld; Jespersen, Åse; Lutterodt, Melissa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal development of autonomic nerve fibers and primordial germ cells (PGCs) along their migratory route from the dorsal mesentery to the gonadal ridges in human embryos using immunohistochemical markers and electron microscopy. Autonomic nerve...... arrive at the gonadal ridge between 29 and 33 days pc. In conclusion, our data suggest that PGCs in human embryos preferentially migrate along autonomic nerve fibers from the dorsal mesentery to the developing gonad where they are delivered via a fine nerve plexus....

  10. Ketogenesis contributes to intestinal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingding; Zhou, Yuning; Rychahou, Piotr; Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark

    2017-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21 Waf1 ). Conversely, knockdown of the ketogenic mitochondrial enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) attenuated spontaneous differentiation in the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Overexpression of HMGCS2, which we found is localized specifically in the more differentiated portions of the intestinal mucosa, increased the expression of CDX2, thus further suggesting the contributory role of HMGCS2 in intestinal differentiation. In addition, mice fed a ketogenic diet demonstrated increased differentiation of intestinal cells as noted by an increase in the enterocyte, goblet and Paneth cell lineages. Moreover, we showed that either knockdown of mTOR or inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin increases the expression of HMGCS2 in intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a possible cross-talk between mTOR and HMGCS2/βHB signaling in intestinal cells. In contrast, treatment of intestinal cells with βHB or feeding mice with a ketogenic diet inhibits mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Together, we provide evidence showing that HMGCS2/βHB contributes to intestinal cell differentiation. Our results suggest that mTOR acts cooperatively with HMGCS2/βHB to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

  11. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  12. Activation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pravin J; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells and exhibit two main characteristics that define stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. MSCs can migrate to sites of injury, inflammation, and tumor. Moreover, MSCs undergo myofibroblast like differentiation, including increased production of α-SMA in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a growth factor commonly secreted by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Based on our previous finding hMSCs become activated and resemble carcinoma-associated myofibroblasts upon prolonged exposure to conditioned medium from MDAMB231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that keratinocyte conditioned medium (KCM) induces differentiation of MSCs to resemble dermal myofibroblast like cells using immunofluorescence techniques demonstrating punctate vinculin staining, and F-actin filaments.

  13. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  14. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated and direct (force-mediated mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors.

  15. Notch 1 impairs osteoblastic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaudone, Maria; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Priest, Leah; Delany, Anne M; Canalis, Ernesto

    2003-12-01

    Notch receptors are single pass transmembrane receptors activated by membrane-bound ligands with a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. As Notch 1 and 2 mRNAs are expressed by osteoblasts and induced by cortisol, we postulated that Notch could regulate osteoblastogenesis. We investigated the effects of retroviral vectors directing the constitutive expression of the Notch 1 intracellular domain (NotchIC) in murine ST-2 stromal and in MC3T3 cells. NotchIC overexpression was documented by increased Notch 1 transcripts and activity of the Notch-dependent Hairy Enhancer of Split promoter. In the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), ST-2 cells differentiated toward osteoblasts forming mineralized nodules, and Notch 1 opposed this effect and decreased the expression of osteocalcin, type I collagen, and alkaline phosphatase transcripts and Delta2Delta FosB protein. Further, NotchIC decreased Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. As cells differentiated in the presence of BMP-2, they underwent apoptosis, and Notch opposed this event. In the presence of cortisol, NotchIC induced the formation of mature adipocytes and enhanced the effect of cortisol on adipsin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha and delta mRNA levels. NotchIC also opposed MC3T3 cell differentiation and the expression of a mature osteoblastic phenotype. In conclusion, NotchIC impairs osteoblast differentiation and enhances adipogenesis in stromal cell cultures.

  16. Imaging stem cell differentiation for cell-based tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhenghong; Dennis, James; Alsberg, Eben; Krebs, Melissa D; Welter, Jean; Caplan, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into a number of tissue lineages and possess great potential in tissue regeneration and cell-based therapy. For bone fracture or cartilage wear and tear, stem cells need to be delivered to the injury site for repair. Assessing engraftment of the delivered cells and their differentiation status is crucial for the optimization of novel cell-based therapy. A longitudinal and quantitative method is needed to track stem cells transplanted/implanted to advance our understanding of their therapeutic effects and facilitate improvements in cell-based therapy. Currently, there are very few effective noninvasive ways to track the differentiation of infused stem cells. A brief review of a few existing approaches, mostly using transgenic animals, is given first, followed by newly developed in vivo imaging strategies that are intended to track implanted MSCs using a reporter gene system. Specifically, marker genes are selected to track whether MSCs differentiate along the osteogenic lineage for bone regeneration or the chondrogenic lineage for cartilage repair. The general strategy is to use the promoter of a differentiation-specific marker gene to drive the expression of an established reporter gene for noninvasive and repeated imaging of stem cell differentiation. The reporter gene system is introduced into MSCs by way of a lenti-viral vector, which allows the use of human cells and thus offers more flexibility than the transgenic animal approach. Imaging osteogenic differentiation of implanted MSCs is used as a demonstration of the proof-of-principle of this differentiation-specific reporter gene approach. This framework can be easily extended to other cell types and for differentiation into any other cell lineage for which a specific marker gene (promoter) can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction of differentiation in neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R I

    1985-01-01

    There is now clear evidence that cells cultured from human and animal tumours can be induced to differentiate in vitro by recognised hormones, regulatory peptides, polar solvents and cytotoxic drugs. Examples can be found from several different types of tumour with the bulk of the data deriving from neuroblastoma and myeloid leukaemia. There is no clear correlation of inducer with cell type, other than some specific peptides like MSH, and agents such as dimethyl sulphoxide and dexamethasone have wide ranging activity. Steroid hormone action may require interaction between different cell types, and the inability of tumours to differentiate in situ may implicate reduced cell-cell interaction, possibly due to degradation of extracellular matrix, or to alteration of the stromal phenotype by tumour-derived factors such as peptides or prostaglandins. When differentiation has been demonstrated, it has been possible, in some cases, to correlate increased differentiation with reduced malignancy by in vitro characterisation or tumorigenicity. Conditions which induce differentiation in rat mammary carcinoma and mouse myeloma also reduce tumour growth in vivo. Clinical trials have not provided any conclusive evidence for a therapeutic benefit so far, but relatively few trials have been carried out. There is clearly a need for further investigation both in vitro and in vivo to select optimal conditions and combinations of agents for clinical evaluation.

  18. The Antigen Presenting Cells Instruct Plasma Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eXu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs, including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but nonspecific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells, which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only signal 1 (the antigen, but also signal 2 to directly instruct the differentiation process of plasma cells in a T cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  19. Bioprinting and Differentiation of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Irvine

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 3D bioprinting of stem cells directly into scaffolds offers great potential for the development of regenerative therapies; in particular for the fabrication of organ and tissue substitutes. For this to be achieved; the lineage fate of bioprinted stem cell must be controllable. Bioprinting can be neutral; allowing culture conditions to trigger differentiation or alternatively; the technique can be designed to be stimulatory. Such factors as the particular bioprinting technique; bioink polymers; polymer cross-linking mechanism; bioink additives; and mechanical properties are considered. In addition; it is discussed that the stimulation of stem cell differentiation by bioprinting may lead to the remodeling and modification of the scaffold over time matching the concept of 4D bioprinting. The ability to tune bioprinting properties as an approach to fabricate stem cell bearing scaffolds and to also harness the benefits of the cells multipotency is of considerable relevance to the field of biomaterials and bioengineering.

  20. The antigen presenting cells instruct plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Banchereau, Jacques

    2014-01-06

    The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but non-specific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs), which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only "signal 1" (the antigen), but also "signal 2" to directly instruct the differentiation process of PCs in a T-cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching, and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  1. Activation of MAPK overrides the termination of myelin growth and replaces Nrg1/ErbB3 signals during Schwann cell development and myelination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Sheean (Maria); E. McShane (Erik); C. Cheret (Cyril); J. Walcher (Jan); T. Müller (Thomas); A. Wulf-Goldenberg (Annika); S. Hoelper (Soraya); A.N. Garratt (Alistair); M. Krüger (Markus); K. Rajewsky (Klaus); D.N. Meijer (Dies); W. Birchmeier (Walter); G.R. Lewin (Gary); M. Selbach (Matthias); C. Birchmeier (Carmen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMyelination depends on the synthesis of large amounts of myelin transcripts and proteins and is controlled by Nrg1/ErbB/Shp2 signaling. We developed a novel pulse labeling strategy based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to measure the dynamics of myelin

  2. Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zamecnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. We report a case of ovarian basaloid carcinoma with SCD. The tumor presented as a 14 cm ovarian mass in a 45-year-old woman, and therefore the adnexectomy and hysterectomy were performed. The tumor was of high stage. Multiple metastases were found in the liver, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lung. Histologically, the tumor showed a pattern of high-grade basaloid carcinoma with numerous shadow cells. Extensive histologic examination did not reveal any glandular or preexisting teratoma component. Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. Cytokeratin 7 and CA125 were positive in scattered cells of the lesion. Estrogen and progesterone receptor, vimentin, and p53 were negative. Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. To our knowledge, SCD in basaloid carcinoma of the ovary was not described before. In addition to the description of the case, we review the literature on SCD in visceral carcinomas.

  3. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  4. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be successfully differentiated into liver cells, which offer the potential unlimited cell source for a variety of end-stage liver disease. In our study, in order to induce mouse ES cells to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under chemically defined conditions, ES cells ...

  5. La célula de Schwann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana del Pilar López Lombana

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available La célula de Schwann que constituye la glía del SNP, además de ser el soporte estructural para los axones en dicho sistema, tiene la función de producir la mielina, una organela de gran importancia en los procesos de neuroconducción. De la integridad de esta célula dependen el desarrollo estructural y metabólico del axón, así mismo se ha reconocido desde hace varios anos el papel primordial que juega ella, en los procesos de regeneración del SPN posterior a una injuria, en cuyo caso reinician la proliferación para producir una guía de regeneración del nervio periférico. En esta revisión se contemplarán algunos de los puntos relacionados con su origen, desarrollo, estructura, relación con el axon y el tipo de patologías que pueden alterarla; igualmente se resalta la utilidad de los cultivos de celulas de Schwann para el estudio de los procesos de mielinización, desmielinización, regeneración post-traumatica y respuesta a agentes infecciosos.

  6. The epigenomics of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Daniel C; Zhao, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess an open and highly dynamic chromatin landscape, which underlies their plasticity and ultimately maintains ESC pluripotency. The ESC epigenome must not only maintain the transcription of pluripotency-associated genes but must also, through gene priming, facilitate rapid and cell type-specific activation of developmental genes upon lineage commitment. Trans-generational inheritance ensures that the ESC chromatin state is stably transmitted from one generation to the next; yet at the same time, epigenetic marks are highly dynamic, reversible and responsive to extracellular cues. Once committed to differentiation, the ESC epigenome is remodeled and resolves into a more compact chromatin state. A thorough understanding of the role of chromatin modifiers in ESC fate and differentiation will be important if they are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Recent technical advances, particularly in next-generation sequencing technologies, have provided a genome-scale view of epigenetic marks and chromatin modifiers. More affordable and faster sequencing platforms have led to a comprehensive characterization of the ESC epigenome and epigenomes of differentiated cell types. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress that has highlighted the central role of histone modifications, histone variants, DNA methylation and chromatin modifiers in ESC pluripotency and ESC fate. We provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of genome-wide studies that are pertinent to our understanding of mammalian development.

  7. Myelination competent conditionally immortalized mouse Schwann cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saavedra, José T.; Wolterman, Ruud A.; Baas, Frank; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous mouse myelin mutants are available to analyze the biology of the peripheral nervous system related to health and disease in vivo. However, robust in vitro biochemical characterizations of players in peripheral nerve processes are still not possible due to the limited growth capacities of

  8. Proteomic cornerstones of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimmeck, Daniel; Hansson, Jenny; Raffel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative tissues such as the skin epidermis, the intestinal mucosa or the hematopoietic system are organized in a hierarchical manner with stem cells building the top of this hierarchy. Somatic stem cells harbor the highest self-renewal activity and generate a series of multipotent progenitors...... which differentiate into lineage committed progenitors and subsequently mature cells. In this report, we applied an in-depth quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare the full proteomes of ex vivo isolated and FACS-sorted populations highly enriched for either multipotent hematopoietic stem....../progenitor cells (HSPCs, Lin(neg)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)) or myeloid committed precursors (Lin(neg)Sca-1(-)c-Kit(+)). By employing stable isotope dimethyl labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry, more than 5,000 proteins were quantified. From biological triplicate experiments subjected to rigorous statistical...

  9. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  10. Regulatory T Cells in Skin Facilitate Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Zirak, Bahar; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Pauli, Mariela L; Truong, Hong-An; Lai, Kevin; Ahn, Richard; Corbin, Kaitlin; Lowe, Margaret M; Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Taravati, Keyon; Tan, Madeleine R; Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto R; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bertolini, Marta; Liao, Wilson; Nestle, Frank O; Paus, Ralf; Cotsarelis, George; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of T regs and HFSCs revealed that skin-resident Tregs preferentially express high levels of the Notch ligand family member, Jagged 1 (Jag1). Expression of Jag1 on Tregs facilitated HFSC function and efficient HF regeneration. Taken together, our work demonstrates that Tregs in skin play a major role in HF biology by promoting the function of HFSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell surface control of differentiation in Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Villemez, C

    1994-12-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii (Neff) is a free-living soil amoeba with close relatives that are opportunistic pathogens. Trophozoites differentiate into cysts when deprived of nutrients; cysts convert into trophozoites, leaving the wall behind, in the presence of nutrients. The data presented here, which includes immunoaffinity purification of the receptor, indicate that cell surface molecular signals also control Acanthamoeba differentiation in both directions. Monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to a 40 kD trophozoite protein initiate the encystment of trophozoites. When bound to cysts the same monoclonal antibodies prevent excystment. Washing away the antibody allows both trophozoites and cysts to resume normal activity. One of these monoclonal antibodies inhibits pinocytosis, while another has no effect on pinocytosis.

  12. Neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Pernicová, Zuzana; Lincová, Eva; Staršíchová, Andrea; Kozubík, Alois

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2008), s. 393 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků. Konference Sigma-Aldrich /8./. 10.06.2008-13.06.2008, Devět skal - Žďárské vrchy] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834; GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : neuroendocrine differentiation * prostate cancer * neuroendocrine-like cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  13. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaobin [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shi, Xuetao, E-mail: mrshixuetao@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ostrovidov, Serge [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Wu, Hongkai, E-mail: chhkwu@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry & Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nakajima, Ken [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  14. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  15. Stochasticity and Spatial Interaction Govern Stem Cell Differentiation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Quinton; Stukalin, Evgeny; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell differentiation underlies many fundamental processes such as development, tissue growth and regeneration, as well as disease progression. Understanding how stem cell differentiation is controlled in mixed cell populations is an important step in developing quantitative models of cell population dynamics. Here we focus on quantifying the role of cell-cell interactions in determining stem cell fate. Toward this, we monitor stem cell differentiation in adherent cultures on micropatterns and collect statistical cell fate data. Results show high cell fate variability and a bimodal probability distribution of stem cell fraction on small (80-140 μm diameter) micropatterns. On larger (225-500 μm diameter) micropatterns, the variability is also high but the distribution of the stem cell fraction becomes unimodal. Using a stochastic model, we analyze the differentiation dynamics and quantitatively determine the differentiation probability as a function of stem cell fraction. Results indicate that stem cells can interact and sense cellular composition in their immediate neighborhood and adjust their differentiation probability accordingly. Blocking epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can diminish this cell-cell contact mediated sensing. For larger micropatterns, cell motility adds a spatial dimension to the picture. Taken together, we find stochasticity and cell-cell interactions are important factors in determining cell fate in mixed cell populations.

  16. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal

  17. Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2017-10-25

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Over the recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that nanomaterials can facilitate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and great effort is undertaken to explore their possible modulating manners and mechanisms on stem cell differentiation. In present review, we summarize recent progress in the regulating potential of various nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation and discuss the possible cell uptake, biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

  18. Oligodendrocyte differentiation and implantation : new insights for remyelinating cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sher, Falak; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent research on oligodendrocyte development has yielded new insights on the involvement of morphogens and differentiation factors in oligodendrogenesis. This knowledge has improved strategies to control neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte differentiation and functional

  19. Human invariant NKT cell subsets differentially promote differentiation, antibody production, and T cell stimulation by B cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    O'REILLY, VINCENT

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells can provide help for B cell activation and Ab production. Because B cells are also capable of cytokine production, Ag presentation, and T cell activation, we hypothesized that iNKT cells will also influence these activities. Furthermore, subsets of iNKT cells based on CD4 and CD8 expression that have distinct functional activities may differentially affect B cell functions. We investigated the effects of coculturing expanded human CD4(+), CD8α(+), and ...

  20. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  1. Primordial germ cell-like cells differentiated in vitro from skin-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Linher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that stem cells isolated from fetal porcine skin have the potential to form oocyte-like cells (OLCs in vitro. However, primordial germ cells (PGCs, which must also be specified during the stem cell differentiation to give rise to these putative oocytes at more advanced stages of culture, were not systematically characterized. The current study tested the hypothesis that a morphologically distinct population of cells derived from skin stem cells prior to OLC formation corresponds to putative PGCs, which differentiate further into more mature gametes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When induced to differentiate in an appropriate microenvironment, a subpopulation of morphologically distinct cells, some of which are alkaline phosphatase (AP-positive, also express Oct4, Fragilis, Stella, Dazl, and Vasa, which are markers indicative of germ cell formation. A known differentially methylated region (DMR within the H19 gene locus, which is demethylated in oocytes after establishment of the maternal imprint, is hypomethylated in PGC-like cells compared to undifferentiated skin-derived stem cells, suggesting that the putative germ cell population undergoes imprint erasure. Additional evidence supporting the germ cell identity of in vitro-generated PGC-like cells is that, when labeled with a Dazl-GFP reporter, these cells further differentiate into GFP-positive OLCs. SIGNIFICANCE: The ability to generate germ cell precursors from somatic stem cells may provide an in vitro model to study some of the unanswered questions surrounding early germ cell formation.

  2. Immunmodulation of the Th cell differentiation using DNA immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzulini, Till

    2010-01-01

    Th cells regulate the immune response in part by the secretion of cytokines. Upon stimulation with antigen naive Th cells differentiate. During this differentiation they receive an imprinting for a certain cytokine profile. It depends on this imprint whether the immune response is adequate or pathologic i.e. autoimmune. Therefore the manipulation of this differentiation is a possibility to treat autoimmunity. This manipulation can be achieved through DNA immunisation. In DNA immunisation simp...

  3. Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yung Hae; Larsen, Hjalte List; Rué, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine...... differentiation process is consistent with a simple model of cell cycle-dependent stochastic priming of progenitors to endocrine fate. The findings provide insights to define control parameters to optimize the generation of β-cells in vitro....

  4. Demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, reverses differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji-Takayama, Kazue; Inoue, Toshiya; Ijiri, Yoshihiro; Otani, Takeshi; Motoda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shuji; Orita, Kunzo

    2004-01-01

    The de novo methylation activity is essential for embryonic development as well as embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, where the intensive and extensive DNA methylation was detected. In this study, we investigated the effects of a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), on differentiated ES cells in order to study the possibility of reversing the differentiation process. We first induced differentiation of ES cells by forming embryoid bodies, and then the cells were treated with 5-AzaC. The cells showed some undifferentiated features such as stem cell-like morphology with unclear cell-to-cell boundary and proliferative responsiveness to LIF. Moreover, 5-AzaC increased the expressions of ES specific markers, SSEA-1, and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as ES specific genes, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We also found that 5-AzaC demethylated the promoter region of H19 gene, a typical methylated gene during embryonic differentiation. These results indicate that 5-AzaC reverses differentiation state of ES cells through its DNA demethylating activity to differentiation related genes

  5. Two pore channel 2 differentially modulates neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP is an endogenous Ca(2+ mobilizing nucleotide presented in various species. NAADP mobilizes Ca(2+ from acidic organelles through two pore channel 2 (TPC2 in many cell types and it has been previously shown that NAADP can potently induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Here we examined the role of TPC2 signaling in the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells. We found that the expression of TPC2 was markedly decreased during the initial ES cell entry into neural progenitors, and the levels of TPC2 gradually rebounded during the late stages of neurogenesis. Correspondingly, TPC2 knockdown accelerated mouse ES cell differentiation into neural progenitors but inhibited these neural progenitors from committing to neurons. Overexpression of TPC2, on the other hand, inhibited mouse ES cell from entering the early neural lineage. Interestingly, TPC2 knockdown had no effect on the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of mouse ES cells. Taken together, our data indicate that TPC2 signaling plays a temporal and differential role in modulating the neural lineage entry of mouse ES cells, in that TPC2 signaling inhibits ES cell entry to early neural progenitors, but is required for late neuronal differentiation.

  6. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Maritha; Li, Yan; Stålman, Anders; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-09-02

    Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The murine fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cell line was induced to tenocytic differentiation by growth differentiation factor-7. Cell proliferation and differentiation with the exposure of different concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac were measured by WST-1 assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Cell proliferation was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when exposed to triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac. In addition to tenocytic differentiation, adipocyte formation was observed, both at gene expression and microscopic level, when the cells were exposed to triamcinolone acetonide or high concentrations of diclofenac. Our results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac might alter mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in a nonfavorable way regarding tendon regeneration; therefore, these medications should be used with more caution clinically.

  7. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Özcan

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-4...... in water instead of phosphate-buffered saline. Passively adsorbed IL-4 was observed to induce differentiation to dendritic cells, but analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed that leakage of IL-4 into solution could account for the differentiation observed. Covalent attachment resulted in bound IL-4...

  8. UV-induced DNA repair in leukemic cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamaki, Tsuyoshi; Sakashita, Akiko; Tomoyasu, Shigeru; Tsuruoka, Nobuyoshi; Ajiri, Teizo.

    1989-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV)-induced DNA repair during myeloid leukemic cell differentiation was examined. Human myeloid leukemic cells could be induced to differentiate in vitro into mature cells by various chemical inducers that lost their proliferating potencies. In spite of decrease of proliferation capacity, almost all these terminally differentiated myeloid leukemic cells invariably showed UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) at low energy of UV irradiation (3-5 J/m 2 ). This indicated that the terminally differentiated myeloid leukemic cells are functionally quite different from mature granulocytes in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or in normal peripheral blood. In HL-60 cells, UV-survival was enhanced in the process of differentiation induced by 1.25% DMSO or 0.6 mM sodium n-butyrate. The degree of enhancement of UV-survival was correlated with the increased amount of UDS. The process of myeloid leukemic cell differentiation which is completed without loss of capacity performing repair DNA synthesis was one of the characteristics of the terminally differentiated myeloid leukemic cells induced by chemical inducers in vitro and this function may support the hypothesis that DNA breaking and rejoining are involved in a mechanism of cytodifferentiation. (author)

  9. Early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sujuan; Sun, Yunlong; Lu, Anming; Wang, Guangyuan

    1987-09-01

    The early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng was studied. Protoplasts or single cells were isolated from the blades using enzyme mixture comprising 2% sea snail gut enzyme and 1% cellulase. The isolated protoplasts or single cells were incubated in the MES medium. The cell differentiations were examined under the microscope at intervals after incubation. Four types of cell differentiation, namely, normal, abnormal, carposporangial and spermatorangial, and rhizoidal types, were observed. Since normal cell differentiations occur mostly in small thalli 50 mm in length and middle portions of big thalli 200 mm in length, it is essential to select tissues from these two kinds of thalli essential for commercial production.

  10. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a model for in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards the germ cell lineage could be used to identify molecular mechanisms behind germ cell differentiation that may help in understanding human infertility. Here, we evaluate whether a lack of exogenous...... fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...... impression on effects of removal of FGF2 and stimulation with ATRA, we combined the results of three cell lines for each experimental setting. When combining gene expression profiles of three cell lines for 96 genes, only 6 genes showed a significant up-regulation in all cell lines, when no FGF2 was added...

  11. Id2 reinforces TH1 cell differentiation and inhibits E2A to repress TFH cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Bélanger, Simon; Omilusik, Kyla D.; Cho, Sunglim; Scott-Browne, James P.; Nance, J. Philip; Goulding, John; Lasorella, Anna; Lu, Li-Fan; Crotty, Shane; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of T helper (TH) effector subsets is critical for host protection. E protein transcription factors and Id proteins are important arbiters of T cell development, but their role in differentiation of TH1 and TFH cells is not well understood. TH1 cells showed robust Id2 expression compared to TFH cells, and RNAi depletion of Id2 increased TFH cell frequencies. Further, TH1 cell differentiation was blocked by Id2 deficiency, leading to E protein-dependent accumulation of effector cells with mixed characteristics during viral infection and severely impaired generation of TH1 cells following Toxoplasma gondii infection. The TFH-defining transcriptional repressor Bcl6 bound the Id2 locus, providing a mechanism for the bimodal Id2 expression and reciprocal development of TH1 and TFH cell fates. PMID:27213691

  12. Hypercholesterolemia Induces Differentiation of Regulatory T Cells in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailer, Reiner K W; Gisterå, Anton; Polyzos, Konstantinos A; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Hansson, Göran K

    2017-05-26

    The liver is the central organ that responds to dietary cholesterol intake and facilitates the release and clearance of lipoprotein particles. Persistent hypercholesterolemia leads to immune responses against lipoprotein particles that drive atherosclerosis. However, the effect of hypercholesterolemia on hepatic T-cell differentiation remains unknown. To investigate hepatic T-cell subsets upon hypercholesterolemia. We observed that hypercholesterolemia elevated the intrahepatic regulatory T (Treg) cell population and increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in the liver. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that intrahepatically differentiated Treg cells relocated to the inflamed aorta in atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia induced the differentiation of intrahepatic, but not intrasplenic, Th17 cells in wild-type mice, whereas the disrupted liver homeostasis in hypercholesterolemic Ldlr -/- mice led to intrahepatic Th1 cell differentiation and CD11b + CD11c + leukocyte accumulation. Our results elucidate a new mechanism that controls intrahepatic T-cell differentiation during atherosclerosis development and indicates that intrahepatically differentiated T cells contribute to the CD4 + T-cell pool in the atherosclerotic aorta. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Cyclosporin A induces cardiac differentiation but inhibits hemato-endothelial differentiation of P19 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Cheol Choi

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effects of Cyclosporin A (CsA on the fate of stem cells, including cardiomyogenic differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects and the molecular mechanisms behind the actions of CsA on cell lineage determination of P19 cells. CsA induced cardiomyocyte-specific differentiation of P19 cells, with the highest efficiency at a concentration of 0.32 μM during embryoid body (EB formation via activation of the Wnt signaling pathway molecules, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, and Wnt8a, and the cardiac mesoderm markers, Mixl1, Mesp1, and Mesp2. Interestingly, cotreatment of P19 cells with CsA plus dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO during EB formation significantly increases cardiac differentiation. In contrast, mRNA expression levels of hematopoietic and endothelial lineage markers, including Flk1 and Er71, were severely reduced in CsA-treated P19 cells. Furthermore, expression of Flk1 protein and the percentage of Flk1+ cells were severely reduced in 0.32 μM CsA-treated P19 cells compared to control cells. CsA significantly modulated mRNA expression levels of the cell cycle molecules, p53 and Cyclins D1, D2, and E2 in P19 cells during EB formation. Moreover, CsA significantly increased cell death and reduced cell number in P19 cells during EB formation. These results demonstrate that CsA induces cardiac differentiation but inhibits hemato-endothelial differentiation via activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, followed by modulation of cell lineage-determining genes in P19 cells during EB formation.

  14. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to toxic chemicals (such as lye or insecticides) can increase the risk of an abnormal differential. ... before they are fully mature. This is a natural immune response to infection and inflammation. My complete ...

  15. Tracing T cell differentiation by genetic barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, Jeroen Waltherus Johannes van

    2010-01-01

    Following antigen encounter, activated T cells can give rise to functionally distinct T cell subsets. Understanding how different T cell subsets arise requires technologies that can monitor the developmental potential of single precursor cells (chapter 2). This thesis describes the development and

  16. Differentiation of hamster liver oval cell following Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, B I; Jung, S Y; Hur, K; Lee, J H; Joo, K H; Lee, Y S; Kim, D Y

    2000-12-01

    Oval cells which appear in the liver after hepatic injuries are suspected to be progenitor cells for both hepatocytes and bile duct cells. Oval cell isolated from the livers of the hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene and infected with Clonorchis sinensis (CS). cultured for 2 weeks and evaluated for differentiation and plasticity by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In the CS-uninfected group, glycogen granules and peroxisomes were noted in the cells that were cultured for 2 weeks. Starting at 1 week postculture, immunoreactivity of the cells to cytokeratin 19 markedly decreased but that to albumin and alpha-fetoprotein gradually increased. This means that oval cells isolated from hamsters that were not infected with CS differentiated toward hepatocyte lineage. However, in the CS-infected group, cultured cells contained numerous rough endoplasmic reticulum and showed immunoreactivity that was generally in reverse to that of CS-uninfected group, meaning that cells isolated following CS infection were primed by CS and differentiated toward bile duct cell lineage. The results of this study suggested that oval cells are indeed bipolar progenitor cells for hepatocytes and bile duct cells and can differentiate toward either lineage depending upon the priming factor.

  17. Differentiation of mucilage secretory cells of the Arabidopsis seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, T L; Skinner, D J; Haughn, G W

    2000-02-01

    In some plant species, including Arabidopsis, fertilization induces the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument to differentiate into a specialized seed coat cell type with a unique morphology and containing large quantities of polysaccharide mucilage (pectin). Such seed coat mucilage cells are necessary for neither viability nor germination under normal laboratory conditions. Thus, the Arabidopsis seed coat offers a unique system with which to use genetics to identify genes controlling cell morphogenesis and complex polysaccharide biosynthesis and secretion. As a first step in the application of this system, we have used microscopy to investigate the structure and differentiation of Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage cells, including cell morphogenesis and the synthesis, secretion, and extrusion of mucilage. During seed coat development in Arabidopsis, the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument grow and differentiate into cells that produce large quantities of mucilage between the primary cell wall and plasma membrane. Concurrent with mucilage production, the cytoplasm is shaped into a column in the center of the cell. Following mucilage secretion the cytoplasmic column is surrounded by a secondary cell wall to form a structure known as the columella. Thus, differentiation of the seed coat mucilage cells involves a highly regulated series of events including growth, morphogenesis, mucilage biosynthesis and secretion, and secondary cell wall synthesis.

  18. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. ► Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. ► This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and according to our data doxazosin might be useful for application in the field of bone

  19. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jue Yeon [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jin [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chong-Pyoung [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Jeong, E-mail: parkyj@snu.ac.kr [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and

  20. Lactobacilli Differentially Activate Natural Killer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    bacteria on regulatory functions of NK-cells. Here, we have investigated how human gut flora-derived non-pathogenic lactobacilli affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human peripheral blood NK cells upon bacterial stimulation. CD3-CD56+ NK cells were isolated from...... having engulfed bacteria, stimulated the growth of the NK cells. In contrast, a Lactobacillus paracasei strain caused the NK cells to proliferate only in the presence of monocytes. These results demonstrate that various lactobacilli have the capacity to activate NK cells in vitro, in a monocyte dependent...

  1. Conceptual Challenges of the Systemic Approach in Understanding Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldi, Andras

    2018-01-01

    The cells of a multicellular organism are derived from a single zygote and genetically identical. Yet, they are phenotypically very different. This difference is the result of a process commonly called cell differentiation. How the phenotypic diversity emerges during ontogenesis or regeneration is a central and intensely studied but still unresolved issue in biology. Cell biology is facing conceptual challenges that are frequently confused with methodological difficulties. How to define a cell type? What stability or change means in the context of cell differentiation and how to deal with the ubiquitous molecular variations seen in the living cells? What are the driving forces of the change? We propose to reframe the problem of cell differentiation in a systemic way by incorporating different theoretical approaches. The new conceptual framework is able to capture the insights made at different levels of cellular organization and considered previously as contradictory. It also provides a formal strategy for further experimental studies.

  2. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined...... differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4). In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte...... differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating h...

  3. Solitary neurofibroma of the gingiva with prominent differentiation of Meissner bodies : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura Kazuhiko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral neurofibromas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors, similar to schwannomas. Histological variations in oral neurofibromas are relatively uncommon. Case presentation Here, we present a case of unique variation in the observed characteristics of a neurofibroma, with no relation to neurofibromatosis type-1 or von Recklinghausen disease of the skin. The neurofibroma was observed in the right mandibular gingiva of a 32-year-old Japanese woman. Histologically, it differed from conventional neurofibromas in that the tumor was composed of a mixture of fine fibrillary collagen in sheets and/or cords of neoplastic Schwann cells containing numerous clusters of Meissner bodies. Histologically, these bodies were in contact with neoplastic Schwann cells. The Meissner bodies were immunopositive for S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and vimentin, but were negative for calretinin. CD34-positive spindle cells were observed around the Meissner bodies. No recurrence or signs of other tumors have been observed in the patient for 5 years after tumor resection. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, no formal descriptions of sporadic, solitary neurofibromas containing numerous Meissner bodies occurring in the oral cavity are available in literature. We believe that an uncommon proliferation of Meissner bodies, as seen in the present case, may result from aberrant differentiation of neoplastic Schwann cells.

  4. Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells in Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue contains dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs. Dental pulp cells (also known as dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into multilineage cells including neuron-like cells. The aim of this study was to examine the capability of DPSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells without using any reagents or growth factors. DPSCs were isolated from teeth extracted from 6- to 8-week-old mice and maintained in complete medium. The cells from the fourth passage were induced to differentiate by culturing in medium without serum or growth factors. RT-PCR molecular analysis showed characteristics of Cd146+, Cd166+, and Cd31− in DPSCs, indicating that these cells are mesenchymal stem cells rather than hematopoietic stem cells. After 5 days of neuronal differentiation, the cells showed neuron-like morphological changes and expressed MAP2 protein. The activation of Nestin was observed at low level prior to differentiation and increased after 5 days of culture in differentiation medium, whereas Tub3 was activated only after 5 days of neuronal differentiation. The proliferation of the differentiated cells decreased in comparison to that of the control cells. Dental pulp stem cells are induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when cultured in serum- and growth factor-free medium.

  5. Mirna biogenesis pathway is differentially regulated during adipose derived stromal/stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E C; Qureshi, A T; Llamas, C B; Burow, M E; King, A G; Lee, O C; Dasa, V; Freitas, M A; Forsberg, J A; Elster, E A; Davis, T A; Gimble, J M

    2018-02-07

    Stromal/stem cell differentiation is controlled by a vast array of regulatory mechanisms. Included within these are methods of mRNA gene regulation that occur at the level of epigenetic, transcriptional, and/or posttranscriptional modifications. Current studies that evaluate the posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA demonstrate microRNAs (miRNAs) as key mediators of stem cell differentiation through the inhibition of mRNA translation. miRNA expression is enhanced during both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation; however, the mechanism by which miRNA expression is altered during stem cell differentiation is less understood. Here we demonstrate for the first time that adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) induced to an adipogenic or osteogenic lineage have differences in strand preference (-3p and -5p) for miRNAs originating from the same primary transcript. Furthermore, evaluation of miRNA expression in ASCs demonstrates alterations in both miRNA strand preference and 5'seed site heterogeneity. Additionally, we show that during stem cell differentiation there are alterations in expression of genes associated with the miRNA biogenesis pathway. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated changes in the Argonautes (AGO1-4), Drosha, and Dicer at intervals of ASC adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation compared to untreated ASCs. Specifically, we demonstrated altered expression of the AGOs occurring during both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, with osteogenesis increasing AGO1-4 expression and adipogenesis decreasing AGO1 gene and protein expression. These data demonstrate changes to components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway during stromal/stem cell differentiation. Identifying regulatory mechanisms for miRNA processing during ASC differentiation may lead to novel mechanisms for the manipulation of lineage differentiation of the ASC through the global regulation of miRNA as opposed to singular regulatory mechanisms.

  6. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  7. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  8. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew

  9. Chemical strategies for pancreatic β cell differentiation, reprogramming, and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojie; Zhu, Saiyong

    2017-04-01

    Generation of unlimited functional pancreatic β cells is critical for the study of pancreatic biology and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recent advances have suggested several promising directions, including directed differentiation of pancreatic β cells from pluripotent stem cells, reprogramming of pancreatic β cells from other types of somatic cells, and stimulated proliferation and enhanced functions of existing pancreatic β cells. Small molecules are useful in generating unlimited numbers of functional pancreatic cells in vitro and could be further developed as drugs to stimulate endogenous pancreatic regeneration. Here, we provide an updated summary of recent major achievements in pancreatic β cell differentiation, reprogramming, proliferation, and function. These studies will eventually lead to significant advances in the field of pancreatic biology and regeneration. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. COMPUTATION MODELING OF TCDD DISRUPTION OF B CELL TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we established a computational model describing the molecular circuit underlying B cell terminal differentiation and how TCDD may affect this process by impinging upon various molecular targets.

  11. Differentiation of prostate cancer cells using flexible fluorescent polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K; Guo, Bin; Friesner, Daniel L; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-01-03

    Using water-soluble, fluorescent, flexible polymers, we have devised a novel methodology for identification and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis, we demonstrate that the differential modulations of the polymer emission intensities in the presence of conditioned cell culture media can be used to distinguish between prostate cancer subtypes and between cancerous and noncancer cells. The differences in the compositions of the conditioned cell culture media are likely contributing to different fluorescence spectral patterns of the polymers. This in vitro approach may provide a novel platform for the development of an alternative prostate cancer diagnostic and subtyping technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. [Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyutin, R V; Zapohlska, K M; Palyanytsya, S S; Sirman, V M; Sokolov, M F

    2015-03-01

    Experimental investigation were conducted with the objective to determine a stem cells, capacity to differentiate in adipogenic direction, if they were obtained from adipose tissue. The investigation results have witnessed, that the cells, obtained from adipose tissue, are capable for a tissue-speciphic differentiation in osteogenic, chondrogenic, and, principally--in adipogenic direction, what confirms a multypotent nature of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue constitutes an alternative to the bone marrow, as a source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, which may be applied in further investigations, concerning determination of their defense possibility for the transplanted autologous adipose tissue from the tissue resorption, made in a lipophiling way.

  13. Engineering kidney cells: reprogramming and directed differentiation to renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael M; Tosic, Jelena; Pichler, Roman; Arnold, Sebastian J; Lienkamp, Soeren S

    2017-07-01

    Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons. In addition, culture conditions are also defined that allow the expansion of renal progenitor cells in vitro. Another route towards the generation of kidney cells is direct reprogramming. Key transcription factors are used to directly impose renal cell identity on somatic cells, thus circumventing the pluripotent stage. This complementary approach to stem-cell-based differentiation has been demonstrated to generate renal tubule cells and nephron progenitors. In-vitro-generated renal cells offer new opportunities for modelling inherited and acquired renal diseases on a patient-specific genetic background. These cells represent a potential source for developing novel models for kidney diseases, drug screening and nephrotoxicity testing and might represent the first steps towards kidney cell replacement therapies. In this review, we summarize current approaches for the generation of renal cells in vitro and discuss the advantages of each approach and their potential applications.

  14. Insulin redirects differentiation from cardiogenic mesoderm and endoderm to neuroectoderm in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, C.M.A.H.; Ward-van Oostwaard, D.; Monshouwer-Kloots, J.; van den Brink, S.; van Rooijen, M.A.; Xu, X.; Zweigerdt, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Passier, R.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can proliferate indefinitely while retaining the capacity to form derivatives of all three germ layers. We have reported previously that hESC differentiate into cardiomyocytes when cocultured with a visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2). Insulin/insulin-like

  15. Influence of Porcine Intervertebral Disc Matrix on Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Lothar Fuchsbauer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For back disorders, cell therapy is one approach for a real regeneration of a degenerated nucleus pulposus. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC could be differentiated into nucleus pulposus (NP-like cells and used for cell therapy. Therefore it is necessary to find a suitable biocompatible matrix, which supports differentiation. It could be shown that a differentiation of hMSC in a microbial transglutaminase cross-linked gelatin matrix is possible, but resulted in a more chondrocyte-like cell type. The addition of porcine NP extract to the gelatin matrix caused a differentiation closer to the desired NP cell phenotype. This concludes that a hydrogel containing NP extract without any other supplements could be suitable for differentiation of hMSCs into NP cells. The NP extract itself can be cross-linked by transglutaminase to build a hydrogel free of NP atypical substrates. As shown by side-specific biotinylation, the NP extract contains molecules with free glutamine and lysine residues available for the transglutaminase.

  16. The effects of chemotherapeutic agents on differentiated chordoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Omer Faruk; Aydemir, Esra; Gulluoglu, Sukru; Sahin, Fikrettin; Sevli, Serhat; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Acar, Hasan; Ozen, Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    Chordoma is a rare type of malignant bone tumor and is known to arise from the remnants of the notochord. Resistance to chemotherapy makes the treatment of chordoma difficult; therefore, new approaches need to be developed to cure this disease. Differentiation therapy, using various differentiating agents, is attracting oncologists as a common therapeutic method to treat other tumors. Based on forcing cells to mature into other lineages, differentiation therapy might be an available method to treat chordomas in addition to conventional therapies. In this study a chordoma cell line, U-CH1, was exposed to several chemotherapeutic agents including vincristine, doxorubicin, cisplatin, etoposide, fludarabine, methotrexate, nilotinib, and imatinib mesylate under appropriate conditions. The first group of U-CH1 cells was exposed to drugs only and the second group of cells was exposed to the simultaneous treatment of 1 μM all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapeutic agents in differentiation therapy. The efficacy of the differentiation method was assessed by measuring the viability of U-CH1 cells. Vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, cisplatin, and fludarabine, each at a concentration of 10 μM, decreased the number of chordoma cells when given alone down to 11%, 0%, 30%, 67%, and 3%, respectively. Etoposide and cisplatin, each at a concentration of 10 μM, reduced the percentage of viable chordoma cells in a more effective way when given with 1 μM ATRA simultaneously, reducing the number of viable cells to 14% and 9%, respectively. On the other hand, imatinib and nilotinib, each at a concentration of 3 μM, as well as 10 μM methotrexate, showed no decrease in the number of cancer cells. The results suggest that chordoma cells may be treated using the differentiation method in a more effective way than when they are treated with chemotherapeutic agents alone. This new approach may be an alternative method to conventional therapies in the treatment of chordoma.

  17. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to definitive endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Agulnick, Alan D; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Kroon, Evert; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2005-12-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells to differentiate into cell types of a variety of organs has generated much excitement over the possible use of hES cells in therapeutic applications. Of great interest are organs derived from definitive endoderm, such as the pancreas. We have focused on directing hES cells to the definitive endoderm lineage as this step is a prerequisite for efficient differentiation to mature endoderm derivatives. Differentiation of hES cells in the presence of activin A and low serum produced cultures consisting of up to 80% definitive endoderm cells. This population was further enriched to near homogeneity using the cell-surface receptor CXCR4. The process of definitive endoderm formation in differentiating hES cell cultures includes an apparent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a dynamic gene expression profile that are reminiscent of vertebrate gastrulation. These findings may facilitate the use of hES cells for therapeutic purposes and as in vitro models of development.

  18. Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kong, Yan; Zhang, Mingliang; Xie, Fei; Liu, Peng; Xu, Shaohua

    2016-02-26

    A long-standing goal in regenerative medicine is to obtain scalable functional cells on demand to replenish cells lost in various conditions, including relevant diseases, injuries, and aging. As an unlimited cell source, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are invaluable for regenerative medicine, because they have the potential to give rise to any cell type in an organism. For therapeutic purposes, it is important to develop specific approach to directing PSC differentiation towards desired cell types efficiently. Through directed differentiation, PSCs could give rise to scalable, clinically relevant cells for in vivo transplantation, as well as for studying diseases in vitro and discovering drugs to treat them. Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in directing differentiation of PSCs into a variety of cell types. In this review, we discuss recent progress in directed differentiation of PSCs, clinical translation of PSC-based cell replacement therapies, and remaining challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3, which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment.

  20. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  1. Cloning mice and ES cells by nuclear transfer from somatic stem cells and fully differentiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2011-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer (NT) has been successful in several mammalian species. In addition to cloning live animals (reproductive cloning), this technique has also been used in several species to establish cloned embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from somatic cells. It is the latter application of this technique that has been heralded as being the potential means to produce isogenic embryonic stem cells from patients for cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). These two types of cloning differ only in the steps after cloned embryos are produced: for reproductive cloning the cloned embryos are transferred to surrogate mothers to allow them to develop to full term and for therapeutic cloning the cloned embryos are used to derive ntES cells. In this chapter, a detailed NT protocol in mouse by using somatic stem cells (neuron and skin stem cells) and fully differentiated somatic cells (cumulus cells and fibroblast cells) as nuclear donors is described.

  2. Differentiation of blood T cells: Reprogramming human induced pluripotent stem cells into neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Hsing; Chang, Yun-Ching; Lee, Yi-Yen; Ko, Yu-Ling; Yang, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Yu, Wen-Chung; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Teh

    2015-06-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) morphologically and functionally resemble human embryonic stem cells, which presents the opportunity to use patient-specific somatic cells for disease modeling and drug screening. In order to take one step closer to clinical applications, it is important to generate iPSCs through a less invasive approach and from any accessible tissue, including peripheral blood. Meanwhile, how to differentiate blood cell-derived iPSCs into neuron-like cells is still unclear. We utilized Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1-based episomal vectors, a nonviral system that can reprogram somatic cells into iPSCs in both feeder-dependent and feeder-free conditions, to generate iPSCs from T cells via electroporation and then induce them into neuronal cells. We successfully isolated sufficient T cells from 20 mL peripheral blood of the donors and reprogrammed these T cells into iPSCs within 4 weeks. These iPSCs could be stably passaged to at least 50 passages, and exhibited the abilities of pluripotency and multiple-lineage differentiation. Notably, under the medium induction for 21 days, these T-cell-derived iPSCs could be differentiated into Nestin (neural progenitor marker)-, GFAP (glial cell marker)-, and MAP2 (neuron cell marker)-positive cells detected by immunofluorescence methods. We have developed a safer method to generate integration-free and nonviral human iPSCs from adult somatic cells. This induction method will be useful for the derivation of human integration-free iPSCs and will also be applicable to the generation of iPSCs-derived neuronal cells for drug screening or therapeutics in the near future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. Differentiation of breast cancer stem cells by knockdown of CD44: promising differentiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phuc V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs are the source of breast tumors. Compared with other cancer cells, cancer stem cells show high resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeting of BCSCs is thus a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment. Differentiation therapy represents one type of cancer stem-cell-targeting therapy, aimed at attacking the stemness of cancer stem cells, thus reducing their chemo- and radioresistance. In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin. This study aimed to determine if CD44 knockdown caused BCSCs to differentiate into breast cancer non-stem cells (non-BCSCs. Methods We isolated a breast cancer cell population (CD44+CD24- cells from primary cultures of malignant breast tumors. These cells were sorted into four sub-populations based on their expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers. CD44 knockdown in the BCSC population was achieved using small hairpin RNA lentivirus particles. The differentiated status of CD44 knock-down BCSCs was evaluated on the basis of changes in CD44+CD24- phenotype, tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice, and gene expression in relation to renewal status, metastasis, and cell cycle in comparison with BCSCs and non-BCSCs. Results Knockdown of CD44 caused BCSCs to differentiate into non-BCSCs with lower tumorigenic potential, and altered the cell cycle and expression profiles of some stem cell-related genes, making them more similar to those seen in non-BCSCs. Conclusions Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of BCSCs, resulting in a loss of stemness and an increase in susceptibility to chemotherapy or radiation. The results of this study highlight a potential new strategy for breast cancer treatment through the targeting of BCSCs.

  4. Lack of galectin-3 modifies differentially Notch ligands in bone marrow and spleen stromal cells interfering with B cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Dos Santos, Sofia Nascimento; Ricon, Lauremilia; da Costa, Thayse Pinheiro; Pereira, Jonathas Xavier; Brand, Camila; Fermino, Marise Lopes; Chammas, Roger; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; El-Cheikh, Márcia Cury

    2018-02-22

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside binding protein that controls cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In lymphoid organs, gal-3 inhibits B cell differentiation by mechanisms poorly understood. The B cell development is dependent on tissue organization and stromal cell signaling, including IL-7 and Notch pathways. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms that gal-3 interferes during B lymphocyte differentiation in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen. The BM of gal-3-deficient mice (Lgals3 -/- mice) was evidenced by elevated numbers of B220 + CD19 + c-Kit + IL-7R + progenitor B cells. In parallel, CD45 - bone marrow stromal cells expressed high levels of mRNA IL-7, Notch ligands (Jagged-1 and Delta-like 4), and transcription factors (Hes-1, Hey-1, Hey-2 and Hey-L). The spleen of Lgals3 -/- mice was hallmarked by marginal zone disorganization, high number of IgM + IgD + B cells and CD138 + plasma cells, overexpression of Notch ligands (Jagged-1, Delta-like 1 and Delta-like 4) by stromal cells and Hey-1. Morever, IgM + IgD + B cells and B220 + CD138 + CXCR4 + plasmablasts were significantly increased in the BM and blood of Lgals3 -/- mice. For the first time, we demonstrated that gal-3 inhibits Notch signaling activation in lymphoid organs regulating earlier and terminal events of B cell differentiation.

  5. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito

    2005-01-01

    that compare cells grown in suspension to similar cells grown attached to one another as aggregates have suggested that it is adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the basal membrane that confers resistance to apoptosis and, hence, resistance to cytotoxins. The genes whose expression correlates with poor...... survival might, therefore, act through such a matrix-to-cell suppression of apoptosis. Indeed, correlative mining of gene expression and patient survival databases suggests that poor survival in patients with metastatic cancer correlates highly with tumor expression of a common theme: the genes involved...

  6. Differential retention of tumor- and differentiation-suppressor functions in cells derived from a human squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, D R; Montero-Puerner, Y; Beckett, M A; Cowan, J M; Weichselbaum, R R; Diamond, A M

    1992-01-01

    Three morphologically distinct cell lines--F.2a, V, and B.2--were isolated from a single human squamous cell carcinoma. Although all three cell lines can grow indefinitely in culture, they differ in a number of important transformation-related phenotypes. Only B.2 is strongly tumorigenic when injected into the flanks of nude mice, and only V can efficiently grow in semisolid media. The dominance of these traits was investigated by generating somatic cell hybrids among the three cell lines. F.2a was able to suppress the tumorigenicity of B.2 cells, whereas B.2 inhibited the capacity for anchorage-independent growth of V, the latter trait being a function of the ability of these epithelial cells to differentiate when deprived of support. The influence of exogenously added growth factors was also evaluated. This study indicates that the particular tumor we examined consisted of a heterogeneous population of cells with distinct growth and differentiation capacities.

  7. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  8. The role of purinergic receptors in stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Kaebisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge modern society has to face is the increasing need for tissue regeneration due to degenerative diseases or tumors, but also accidents or warlike conflicts. There is great hope that stem cell-based therapies might improve current treatments of cardiovascular diseases, osteochondral defects or nerve injury due to the unique properties of stem cells such as their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Since embryonic stem cells raise severe ethical concerns and are prone to teratoma formation, adult stem cells are still in the focus of research. Emphasis is placed on cellular signaling within these cells and in between them for a better understanding of the complex processes regulating stem cell fate. One of the oldest signaling systems is based on nucleotides as ligands for purinergic receptors playing an important role in a huge variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and differentiation. Besides their natural ligands, several artificial agonists and antagonists have been identified for P1 and P2 receptors and are already used as drugs. This review outlines purinergic receptor expression and signaling in stem cells metabolism. We will briefly describe current findings in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells as well as in cancer-, hematopoietic-, and neural crest-derived stem cells. The major focus will be placed on recent findings of purinergic signaling in mesenchymal stem cells addressed in in vitro and in vivo studies, since stem cell fate might be manipulated by this system guiding differentiation towards the desired lineage in the future.

  9. Disorders of cell kinetics and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Yalçin; Dolar, Neslihan; Keskin, Sadiye; Wolf, Ronni

    2007-10-01

    The kinetics of cells, keratin, and lipids in the skin could provide useful information about skin biology in health and disease. The kinetics of skin cell turnover are of interest for a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. There are also uncertainties regarding the extent of keratinocyte turnover in various skin diseases. Hyperproliferation may represent a risk factor for skin cancer and occurs in physiologic conditions such as wound healing.

  10. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins.

  11. Substrate Induced Osteoblast-Like Differentiation of Stromal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizar, Jacqueline; Glaser, Reena; Hung, Matthew; Simon, Marcia; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam; Shih, Alice

    2009-03-01

    We have demonstrated that Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be induced to biomineralize on a polybutadiene (PB) coated Si substrate. The cells began to generate calcium phosphate deposits after a five-day incubation period in the absence of dexamethasone. Control cells plated on tissue culture PS culture dish (TCP) did not biomineralize. In addition, the biomineralizing culture retained proliferative cells In order to determine whether the induction was transient, we transferred the cells exposed to polybutadiene after 14 and 28-day incubation periods to TCP dishes. These cells continued to biominerlize. Genetic testing is underway which will determine whether differentiation is maintained after transfer.

  12. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (Keystone Sym)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to establish an in vitro model system to evaluate chemical effects using a single stem cell culture technique that would improve throughput and provide quantitative markers of differentiation and cell number. To this end, we have used an adherent cell differentiation ...

  13. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  14. Dexamethasone Suppresses Oxysterol-Induced Differentiation of Monocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghae Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterol like 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol has been reported to induce differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype. We examined whether dexamethasone (Dx affects 27OHChol-induced differentiation using THP-1 cells. Treatment of monocytic cells with Dx resulted in almost complete inhibition of transcription and surface expression of CD80, CD83, and CD88 induced by 27OHChol. Elevated surface levels of MHC class I and II molecules induced by 27OHChol were reduced to basal levels by treatment with Dx. A decreased endocytosis ability caused by 27OHChol was recovered by Dx. We also examined effects of Dx on expression of CD molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Increased levels of surface protein and transcription of CD105, CD137, and CD166 by treatment with 27OHChol were significantly inhibited by cotreatment with Dx. These results indicate that Dx inhibits 27OHChol-induced differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype and expression of CD molecules whose levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, we examined phosphorylation of AKT induced by 27OHChol and effect of Dx, where cotreatment with Dx inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT. The current study reports that Dx regulates oxysterol-mediated dendritic cell differentiation of monocytic cells.

  15. Stem Cell Differentiation as a Non-Markov Stochastic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Patrick S; Smith, Rosanna C G; Lenz, Michael; Schuppert, Andreas; Müller, Franz-Josef; Babtie, Ann; Chan, Thalia E; Stumpf, Michael P H; Please, Colin P; Howison, Sam D; Arai, Fumio; MacArthur, Ben D

    2017-09-27

    Pluripotent stem cells can self-renew in culture and differentiate along all somatic lineages in vivo. While much is known about the molecular basis of pluripotency, the mechanisms of differentiation remain unclear. Here, we profile individual mouse embryonic stem cells as they progress along the neuronal lineage. We observe that cells pass from the pluripotent state to the neuronal state via an intermediate epiblast-like state. However, analysis of the rate at which cells enter and exit these observed cell states using a hidden Markov model indicates the presence of a chain of unobserved molecular states that each cell transits through stochastically in sequence. This chain of hidden states allows individual cells to record their position on the differentiation trajectory, thereby encoding a simple form of cellular memory. We suggest a statistical mechanics interpretation of these results that distinguishes between functionally distinct cellular "macrostates" and functionally similar molecular "microstates" and propose a model of stem cell differentiation as a non-Markov stochastic process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditions for the differentiation of melanocyte- precursor cells from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... The loss of skin pigmentation can induce compromised cutaneous immunity, which can result in conditions such as vitiligo. In this study, we evaluated various agents that are able to induce the differentiation of stem cells into melanocytes. We found that a mixture of forskolin (FK), stem cell factor. (SCF) and ...

  17. Conditions for the differentiation of melanocyte-precursor cells from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, significant expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M and tyrosinase-related protein-1 genes was observed. These results suggest that a mixture of FK, SCF and EDN-3 induces the differentiation of melanocyte-precursor cells (MPCs) from CB-MSCs. Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, ...

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell ingrowth and differentiation on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Stiehler, Maik; Baatrup, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Culture of osteogenic cells on a porous scaffold could offer a new solution to bone grafting using autologous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from the patient. We compared coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with pore sizes of 200 and 500 microm for expansion and differentiation of hMSCs. We...

  19. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-...

  20. Canthin-6-one induces cell death, cell cycle arrest and differentiation in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Torquato, Heron F; Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio C; Buri, Marcus V; Araújo Júnior, Roberto T; Pimenta, Renata; de Oliveira, José Salvador R; Filho, Valdir C; Macho, Antonio; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos T

    2017-04-01

    Canthin-6-one is a natural product isolated from various plant genera and from fungi with potential antitumor activity. In the present study, we evaluate the antitumor effects of canthin-6-one in human myeloid leukemia lineages. Kasumi-1 lineage was used as a model for acute myeloid leukemia. Cells were treated with canthin-6-one and cell death, cell cycle and differentiation were evaluated in both total cells (Lin + ) and leukemia stem cell population (CD34 + CD38 - Lin -/low ). Among the human lineages tested, Kasumi-1 was the most sensitive to canthin-6-one. Canthin-6-one induced cell death with apoptotic (caspase activation, decrease of mitochondrial potential) and necrotic (lysosomal permeabilization, double labeling of annexin V/propidium iodide) characteristics. Moreover, canthin-6-one induced cell cycle arrest at G 0 /G 1 (7μM) and G 2 (45μM) evidenced by DNA content, BrdU incorporation and cyclin B1/histone 3 quantification. Canthin-6-one also promoted differentiation of Kasumi-1, evidenced by an increase in the expression of myeloid markers (CD11b and CD15) and the transcription factor PU.1. Furthermore, a reduction of the leukemic stem cell population and clonogenic capability of stem cells were observed. These results show that canthin-6-one can affect Kasumi-1 cells by promoting cell death, cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation depending on concentration used. Canthin-6-one presents an interesting cytotoxic activity against leukemic cells and represents a promising scaffold for the development of molecules for anti-leukemic applications, especially by its anti-leukemic stem cell activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Somatic mutation and cell differentiation in neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Collart, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    In brief, the authors suggest that tumor formation may result from continuous expression of growth facilitating genes that, as a result of irreversible changes during the initiation step, are placed under the control of genes expressed during normal differentiation. Thus, to understand carcinogenesis, we must decipher the processes that lead to the acquisition of a mature phenotype in both normal and tumor cells and characterize the growth dependency of tumor cells to inducers of cell differentiation. Furthermore, the growth of a variety of tumors may be controlled through the use of inducers of maturation that activate genes located beyond the gene that is altered during tumor initiation. 22 refs., 3 figs

  2. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi, E-mail: hocc@email.uc.edu

    2011-06-10

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  3. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  4. Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Hirose, Motohiro; Kotobuki, Noriko; Shimaoka, Hideki; Tadokoro, Mika; Maeda, Masahiko; Hayashi, Yoshiko; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    We isolated dental papilla from impacted human molar and proliferated adherent fibroblastic cells after collagenase treatment of the papilla. The cells were negative for hematopoietic markers but positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166. When the cells were further cultured in the presence of β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone for 14 days, mineralized areas together with osteogenic differentiation evidenced by high alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin contents were observed. The differentiation was confirmed at both protein and gene expression levels. The cells can also be cryopreserved and, after thawing, could show in vivo bone-forming capability. These results indicate that mesenchymal type cells localize in dental papilla and that the cells can be culture expanded/utilized for bone tissue engineering

  5. Transplantation Dose Alters the Differentiation Program of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Casey; Chu, Elizabeth; Chin, Mike; Lu, Rong

    2016-05-24

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the most prevalent stem cell therapy, but it remains a risky procedure. To improve this treatment, it is important to understand how transplanted stem cells rebuild the blood and immune systems and how this process is impacted by transplantation variables such as the HSC dose. Here, we find that, in the long term following transplantation, 70%-80% of donor-HSC-derived clones do not produce all measured blood cell types. High HSC doses lead to more clones that exhibit balanced lymphocyte production, whereas low doses produce more T-cell-specialized clones. High HSC doses also produce significantly higher proportions of early-differentiating clones compared to low doses. These complex differentiation behaviors uncover the clonal-level regeneration dynamics of hematopoietic regeneration and suggest that transplantation dose can be exploited to improve stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen Lillelund

    2002-01-01

    by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  7. Molecular Control of Interdigital Cell Death and Cell Differentiation by Retinoic Acid during Digit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Díaz-Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The precise coordination of cell death and cell differentiation during the formation of developing digits is essential for generating properly shaped limbs. Retinoic acid (RA has a fundamental role in digit development; it promotes or inhibits the molecular expression of several critical genes. This control of gene expression establishes molecular cascades that enable both the commencement of cell death and the inhibition of cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on the antagonistic functions between RA and fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling in the control of cell death and between RA and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling in the control of cell differentiation.

  8. Identifying microRNAs that Regulate Neuroblastoma Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    System (Promega). Firefly lucifer - ase activity was normalized to Renilla luciferase activity to evalu- ate the effect of the miRNAs. Biotinylated-miR...objective of Aim 1. We further validated the effect of miR-449a on the expression of molecular differentiation markers, on cell cycle distribution, and on...inducing effect in neuroblastoma cell lines regardless of the genetic backgrounds of the cell lines. We have completed the screen in the MYCN-amplified

  9. Glutathione, cell proliferation and differentiation | Ashtiani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All organisms require an equivalent source for living. Reduced glutathione is the most abundant thiol containing protein in mammalian cells and organs. Glutathione was discovered by Hopkins in 1924 who published his findings in JBC. It is a three peptide containing glutamic acid, cystein and glycin and is found in reduced ...

  10. Surface topography during neural stem cell differentiation regulates cell migration and cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Catherine; Short, Aaron; Nelson, Tyler; Gygli, Patrick; Ortiz, Cristina; Catacutan, Fay Patsy; Stocker, Ben; Cronin, James; Lannutti, John; Winter, Jessica; Otero, José Javier

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine the contribution of scaffold topography to the migration and morphology of neural stem cells by mimicking anatomical features of scaffolds found in vivo. We mimicked two types of central nervous system scaffolds encountered by neural stem cells during development in vitro by constructing different diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats, a substrate that we have shown to be topographically similar to brain scaffolds. We compared the effects of large fibers (made to mimic blood vessel topography) with those of small-diameter fibers (made to mimic radial glial process topography) on the migration and differentiation of neural stem cells. Neural stem cells showed differential migratory and morphological reactions with laminin in different topographical contexts. We demonstrate, for the first time, that neural stem cell biological responses to laminin are dependent on topographical context. Large-fiber topography without laminin prevented cell migration, which was partially reversed by treatment with rock inhibitor. Cell morphology complexity assayed by fractal dimension was inhibited in nocodazole- and cytochalasin-D-treated neural precursor cells in large-fiber topography, but was not changed in small-fiber topography with these inhibitors. These data indicate that cell morphology has different requirements on cytoskeletal proteins dependent on the topographical environment encountered by the cell. We propose that the physical structure of distinct scaffolds induces unique signaling cascades that regulate migration and morphology in embryonic neural precursor cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3485-3502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  12. Prostate cancer cells induce osteoblastic differentiation via semaphorin 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuzhou; Shen, Weiwei; Qiu, Hao; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer metastasis to bone is the second most commonly diagnosed malignant disease among men worldwide. Such metastatic disease is characterized by the presence of osteoblastic bone lesions, and is associated with high rates of mortality. However, the various mechanisms involved in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation have not been fully explored. Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A) is a newly identified regulator of bone metabolism which stimulates differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells under physiological conditions. We investigated in this study whether prostate cancer cells can mediate osteoblastic activity through Sema 3A. We cultured osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells in prostate cancer-conditioned medium, and analyzed levels of Sema 3A protein in diverse prostate cancer cell lines to identify cell lines in which Sema 3A production showed a positive correlation with osteo-stimulation. C4-2 cells were stably transfected with Sema 3A short hairpin RNA to further determine whether Sema 3A contributes to the ability of C4-2 cells to induce osteoblastic differentiation. Down-regulation of Sema 3A expression decreased indicators of C4-2 CM-induced osteoblastic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase production and mineralization. Additionally, silencing or neutralizing Sema 3A in C4-2 cells resulted in diminished β-catenin expression in osteogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results suggest that prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation is at least partially mediated by Sema 3A, and may be regulated by the β-catenin signalling pathway. Sema 3A may represent a novel target for treatment of prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Differentiation of Umbilical Cord Lining Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Endothelial-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Doan, Chinh; Long Le, Thanh; Son Hoang, Nghia; Trung Doan, Ngoc; Dong Le, Van; Si Do, Minh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stem cell therapy for the treatment of vascular-related diseases through functional revascularization is one of the most important research areas in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro differentiation of umbilical CL-MSC into endothelial lineage cells. Methods: In this study, isolated cells were characterized for expression of MSC-specific markers and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. They were induced to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and then examined for expression of the endothelial-specific markers, karyotype, and functional behavior of cells. Results: Isolated cells expressed MSC-specific markers and differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. After endothelial differentiation, they expressed CD31, vWF, VE-cadherin, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 at both mRNA and protein level, but their morphological changes were not apparent when compared with those of undifferentiated cells. There were no significant changes in karyotype of differentiated cells. Furthermore, angiogenesis assay and LDL uptake assay showed that differentiated cells were able to form the capillary-like structures and uptake LDL, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that umbilical CL-MSC could differentiate into functional endothelial-like cells. Also, they are suitable for basic and clinical studies to cure several vascular-related diseases. PMID:24518546

  14. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    result of defective Schwann cells and not the axons. A mutant mouse called Trembler has an inherited disorder which leads to gross abnormality in myelin formation. .... depletion of vesicles carrying the neurotransmitters in the presynaptic neurons. Recently, Schwann cells have been implicated in the synaptic depression.

  15. The Role of Lymphatic Niches in T Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Tara; Kim, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term immunity to many viral and bacterial pathogens requires CD8+ memory T cell development, and the induction of long-lasting CD8+ memory T cells from a naïve, undifferentiated state is a major goal of vaccine design. Formation of the memory CD8+ T cell compartment is highly dependent on the early activation cues received by naïve CD8+ T cells during primary infection. This review aims to highlight the cellularity of various niches within the lymph node and emphasize recent evidence suggesting that distinct types of T cell activation and differentiation occur within different immune contexts in lymphoid organs. PMID:27306645

  16. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortini, P. [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Dogliotti, E., E-mail: eugenia.dogliotti@iss.it [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  17. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, P.; Dogliotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  18. Induction of differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma cells by ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can be induced to differentiate by ouabain at concentrations which inhibit Na + , K + -ATPase activity as measured by inhibition of 86 Rb + uptake. Since the pharmacologic action of ouabain is thought to be specific, the authors investigated the role of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition and specific metabolic consequences of this inhibition in the induction of EC differentiation, and explored whether this might be a common mode of action for a variety of structurally diverse inducers. The Na + , K + -ATPase maintains ionic gradients in cells. However, results of studies utilizing specific ionophores, channel blockers, and media deficient in specific components failed to demonstrate a consistent role for ion flux or concentration in the differentiation process. The Na + , K + -ATPase is a major consumer of ATP. They therefore examined the effect of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition on the adenylate energy charge as measured by high performance liquid chromatography of adenylate nucleotides. Ouabain was found to significantly decrease the energy charge in sensitive cells suggesting a role for suppression of ATP turnover is triggering differentiation. However, direct inhibition of glycolysis also induced differentiation without decreasing the energy charge, suggesting that reduction of the energy charge is not a common mechanism for induction of differentiation of EC

  19. Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by EZH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEODOROS KARANTANOS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2, one of the polycomb group (PcG proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12 and RpAp46/48 induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic (Hox gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency and cancer biology. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft versus host disease (GvHD. In this review we will briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation, effector function and homing in the tumor microenvironment and we will discuss possible therapeutic targeting of EZH2 in order to alter T cell immune functions.

  20. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  1. Expression of assayable residual stem cell damage in erythroid differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.E.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    In rodents, residual damage is inducible in hematopoietic stem cells by exposure to ionizing radiation or alkylating agents. This damage can b e assayed in mice by transferring bone marrow into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients and subsequently measuring the incremental increase of-( 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in spleens. In this study, bone marrow from mice treated 3 weeks previously with Methylnitrosourea (50 mg/kg) or 450 rad was injected into recipients in order to determine possible residual effects of treatment of erythroid cell differentiation following stem cell seeding. Such effects were detected by a reduced amount of 59 Fe incorporation into spleens, thus indicatin g transfer of residual stem cell damage to differentiating cells. (orig.)

  2. Expression of Tight Junction Components in Hepatocyte-Like Cells Differentiated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi-Belle, Boglárka; Török, György; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Kiss, András; Homolya, László

    2015-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated in vitro into a wide variety of progeny cells by addition of different morphogens and growth factors. Our aim was to monitor the expression pattern of tight junction (TJ) components and various cellular markers during differentiation of stem cell lines toward the hepatic lineage. Human embryonic stem cell lines (HUES1, HUES9) were differentiated into endoderm-like cells, and further differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells. Gene expressions of Oct3/4, Nanog, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, cytokeratins (CK-7, CK-8, CK-18, CK-19), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCC2, ABCC7, ABCG2), and various TJ components, including claudin-1, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and tricellulin, as well as an extracellular matrix component, agrin were monitored during hepatic differentiation by real-time quantitative PCR. The differentiated cells exhibit epithelial morphology and functional assessments similar to that of hepatocytes. The expression level of stem cell marker genes (Oct3/4 and Nanog) significantly and gradually decreased, while liver-associated genes (alpha-fetoprotein, albumin) reached their highest expression at the end of the differentiation. The endoderm-like cells expressed claudin-1, which declined eventually. The expression levels of cholangiocyte markers including claudin-4, CK-7, CK-19, and agrin gradually increased and reached their highest level at the final stage of differentiation. In contrast, these cells did not express notable level of claudin-7, CK-8 and tricellulin. The marker set used for monitoring differentiation revealed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte characteristics of the differentiated cells at the final stage. This is the first report describing the expression level changes of various TJ components, and underlining their importance in hepatic differentiation.

  3. Lineage-specific interface proteins match up the cell cycle and differentiation in embryo stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Angela; Workman, Christopher; Waldron, Levi

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of molecular information on cell cycle changes along embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation prompts an in silico approach, which may provide a novel way to identify candidate genes or mechanisms acting in coordinating the two programs. We analyzed germ layer specific gene expression...... changes during the cell cycle and ESC differentiation by combining four human cell cycle transcriptome profiles with thirteen in vitro human ESC differentiation studies. To detect cross-talk mechanisms we then integrated the transcriptome data that displayed differential regulation with protein...... interaction data. A new class of non-transcriptionally regulated genes was identified, encoding proteins which interact systematically with proteins corresponding to genes regulated during the cell cycle or cell differentiation, and which therefore can be seen as interface proteins coordinating the two...

  4. An engineered cell-imprinted substrate directs osteogenic differentiation in stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamguyan, Khorshid; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    A cell-imprinted poly(dimethylsiloxane)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrate was fabricated to engage topographical, mechanical, and chemical signals to stimulate and boost stem cell osteogenic differentiation. The physicochemical properties of the fabricated substrates, with nanoscale resoluti...

  5. Nanoparticles for monitoring differentiated stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Jendelová, Pavla; Babič, Michal; Vaněček, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, Suppl. 2 (2012), s. 52 ISSN 0233-7657. [Bridges in Life Sciences Annual Conference /7./, Science and Art for the Advancement in Medicine. 30.03.2012-01.04.2012, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1370 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : magnetic * stem cells * labeling Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  6. B cells regulate thymic CD8+T cell differentiation in lupus-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chen; Zhu, Gaizhi; Xiao, He; Fang, Ying; Liu, Xiaoling; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Ma, Ning; Wang, Renxi

    2017-10-27

    Previous studies have shown that under normal physiological conditions thymic B cells play a critical function in T cell negative selection. We tested the effect of thymic B cells on thymic T-cell differentiation in autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We found that thymic B cells and CD8 - CD4 + and CD4 - CD8 + T cells increased, whereas CD4 + CD8 + T cells decreased in lupus-prone mice. Once B cells were reduced, the change was reversed. Furthermore, we found that B cells blocked thymic immature single positive (ISP) CD4 - CD8 + CD3 lo/- RORγt - T cells progression into CD4 + CD8 + T cells. Interestingly, we found a novel population of thymic immature T cells (CD4 - CD8 + CD3 lo RORγt + ) that were induced into mature CD4 - CD8 + CD3 + RORγt + T cells by B cells in lupus-prone mice. Importantly, we found that IgG, produced by thymic B cells, played a critical role in the differentiation of thymic CD8 + ISP and mature RORγt + CD8 + T cells in lupus-prone mice. In conclusion, B cells blocked the differentiation from thymic CD8 + ISP and induced the differentiation of a novel immature CD4 - CD8 + CD3 lo RORγt + T cells into mature RORγt + CD8 + T cells by secreting IgG antibody in lupus-prone mice.

  7. Differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells into immunoglobulin secreting cells decreases LEF-1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Lymphocyte enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1 plays a crucial role in B lineage development and is only expressed in B cell precursors as B cell differentiation into mature B and plasma cells silences its expression. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells aberrantly express LEF-1 and its expression is required for cellular survival. We hypothesized that modification of the differentiation status of CLL cells would result in loss of LEF-1 expression and eliminate the survival advantage provided by its aberrant expression. In this study, we first established a methodology that induces CLL cells to differentiate into immunoglobulin (Ig secreting cells (ISC using the TLR9 agonist, CpG, together with cytokines (CpG/c. CpG/c stimulation resulted in dramatic CLL cell phenotypic and morphologic changes, expression of cytoplasmic Ig, and secretion of light chain restricted Ig. CpG/c stimulation also resulted in decreased CLL cell LEF-1 expression and increased Blimp-1 expression, which is crucial for plasma cell differentiation. Further, Wnt pathway activation and cellular survival were impaired in differentiated CLL cells compared to undifferentiated CLL cells. These data support the notion that CLL can differentiate into ISC and that this triggers decreased leukemic cell survival secondary to the down regulation of LEF-1 and decreased Wnt pathway activation.

  8. Redox environment in stem and differentiated cells: A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Lyublinskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are believed to maintain a specific intracellular redox status through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of ROS. In the present study, we challenge this assumption by developing a quantitative approach for the analysis of the pro- and antioxidant ability of human embryonic stem cells in comparison with their differentiated descendants, as well as adult stem and non-stem cells. Our measurements showed that embryonic stem cells are characterized by low ROS level, low rate of extracellular hydrogen peroxide removal and low threshold for peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. However, biochemical normalization of these parameters to cell volume/protein leads to matching of normalized values in stem and differentiated cells and shows that tested in the present study cells (human embryonic stem cells and their fibroblast-like progenies, adult mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, HeLa maintain similar intracellular redox status. Based on these observations, we propose to use ROS concentration averaged over the cell volume instead of ROS level as a measure of intracellular redox balance. We show that attempts to use ROS level for comparative analysis of redox status of morphologically different cells could lead to false conclusions. Methods for the assessment of ROS concentration based on flow cytometry analysis with the use of H2DCFDA dye and HyPer, genetically encoded probe for hydrogen peroxide, are discussed.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... failure was induced in vitro into hepatocytes-like cells by three cell culture media (serum-free medium (group 1), auto serum-containing medium (group 2) and medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) (group 3)). Cell morphology, cell growth curve, amount of urea and glycogen and mRNA expressions of ALB, ...

  10. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  11. Epigenetic heterochromatin markers distinguish terminally differentiated leukocytes from incompletely differentiated leukemia cells in human blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popova, Evgenya Y.; Claxton, David F.; Lukášová, Emilie; Bird, Philip I.; Grigoryev, Sergei A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2006), s. 453-462 ISSN 0301-472X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : terminal cell differentiation * chromatin structure * chronic myeloid leukemia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2006

  12. Human dental pulp stem cells expressing STRO-1, c-kit and CD34 markers in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Gianluca; Pisciotta, Alessandra; Riccio, Massimo; Bertoni, Laura; De Biasi, Sara; Gibellini, Lara; Zordani, Alessio; Cavallini, Gian Maria; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Adriano; Cossarizza, Andrea; de Pol, Anto

    2018-02-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are a commonly encountered clinical problem and often result in long-term functional defects. The application of stem cells able to differentiate in Schwann cell-like cells in vitro and in vivo, could represent an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of nerve injuries. Further, stem cells sources sharing the same embryological origin as Schwann cells might be considered a suitable tool. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a neuroectodermal subpopulation of human STRO-1 + /c-Kit + /CD34 + DPSCs, expressing P75 NTR , nestin and SOX-10, to differentiate into Schwann cell-like cells in vitro and to promote axonal regeneration in vivo, which led to functional recovery as measured by sustained gait improvement, in animal rat model of peripheral nerve injury. Transplanted human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) engrafted into sciatic nerve defect, as revealed by the positive staining against human nuclei, showed the expression of typical Schwann cells markers, S100b and, noteworthy, a significant number of myelinated axons was detected. Moreover, hDPSCs promoted axonal regeneration from proximal to distal stumps 1 month after transplantation. This study demonstrates that STRO-1 + /c-Kit + /CD34 + hDPSCs, associated with neural crest derivation, represent a promising source of stem cells for the treatment of demyelinating disorders and might provide a valid alternative tool for future clinical applications to achieve functional recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies besides minimizing ethical issues. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffley, Lara A., E-mail: muffley@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Pan, Shin-Chen, E-mail: pansc@mail.ncku.edu.tw [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Smith, Andria N., E-mail: gnaunderwater@gmail.com [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Ga, Maricar, E-mail: marga16@uw.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Hocking, Anne M., E-mail: ahocking@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Gibran, Nicole S., E-mail: nicoleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate

  14. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously

  15. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously.

  16. Correlation between membrane fluidity cellular development and stem cell differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Noutsi, Pakiza

    2016-12-01

    Cell membranes are made up of a complex structure of lipids and proteins that diffuse laterally giving rise to what we call membrane fluidity. During cellular development, such as neuronal differentiation, cell membranes undergo dramatic structural changes induced by proteins such as ARC and Cofilin among others in the case of synaptic modification. In this study we used the generalized polarization (GP) property of fluorescent probe Laurdan using two-photon microscopy to determine membrane fluidity as a function of time and for various cell lines. A low GP value corresponds to a higher fluidity and a higher GP value is associated with a more rigid membrane. Four different cell lines were monitored such as hN2, NIH3T3, HEK293 and L6 cells. As expected, NIH3T3 cells have more rigid membrane at earlier stages of their development. On the other hand neurons tend to have the highest membrane fluidity early in their development emphasizing its correlation with plasticity and the need for this malleability during differentiation. This study sheds light on the involvement of membrane fluidity during neuronal differentiation and development of other cell lines.

  17. Differentiation of a bipotential glial progenitor cell in a single cell microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, S; Raff, M C

    Although it is known that most cells of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) are derived from the neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube, the factors determining whether an individual neuroepithelial cell develops into a particular type of neurone or glial cell remain unknown. A promising model for studying this problem is the bipotential glial progenitor cell in the developing rat optic nerve; this cell differentiates into a particular type of astrocyte (a type-2 astrocyte) if cultured in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and into an oligodendrocyte if cultured in serum-free medium. As the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (0-2A) progenitor cell can differentiate along either glial pathway in neurone-free cultures, living axons clearly are not required for its differentiation, at least in vitro. However, the studies on 0-2A progenitor cells were carried out in bulk cultures of optic nerve, and so it was possible that other cell-cell interactions were required for differentiation in culture. We show here that 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate into type-2 astrocytes or oligodendrocytes when grown as isolated cells in microculture, indicating that differentiation along either glial pathway in vitro does not require signals from other CNS cells, apart from the signals provided by components of the culture medium. We also show that single 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate along either pathway without dividing, supporting our previous studies using 3H-thymidine and suggesting that DNA replication is not required for these cells to choose between the two differentiation programmes.

  18. Delivery of differentiation factors by mesoporous silica particles assists advanced differentiation of transplanted murine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; Kozhevnikova, Mariya; König, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation.......Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors...

  19. In vitro differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells into endothelial- and epithelial-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical techniques in dental practice include stem cell and tissue engineering applications. Dental stem cells are promising primary cell source for mainly tooth tissue engineering. Interaction of mesenchymal stem cell with epithelial and endothelial cells is strictly required for an intact tooth morphogenesis. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) derived from wisdom tooth are suitable for endothelial and epithelial cell transformation in dental tissue regeneration approaches. Differentiation into endothelial and epithelial cell lineages were mimicked under defined conditions, confirmed by real time PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis by qualitative and quantitative methods. HUVECs and HaCaT cells were used as positive controls for the endothelial and epithelial differentiation assays, respectively. Immunocytochemical and western blotting analysis revealed that terminally differentiated cells expressed cell-lineage markers including CD31, VEGFR2, VE-Cadherin, vWF (endothelial cell markers), and cytokeratin (CK)-17, CK-19, EpCaM, vimentin (epithelial cell markers) in significant levels with respect to undifferentiated control cells. Moreover, high expression levels of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGF, CK-18, and CK-19 genes were detected in differentiated endothelial and epithelial-like cells. Endothelial-like cells derived from hTGSCs were cultured on Matrigel, tube-like structure formations were followed as an indication for functional endothelial differentiation. hTGSCs successfully differentiate into various cell types with a broad range of functional abilities using an in vitro approach. These findings suggest that hTGSCs may serve a potential stem cell source for tissue engineering and cell therapy of epithelial and endothelial tissue. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  20. Decreased Intracellular pH Induced by Cariporide Differentially Contributes to Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1 is an important regulator of intracellular pH (pHi. High pHi is required for cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous study has proven that the pHi of mesenchymal stem cells is higher than that of normal differentiated cells and similar to tumor cells. NHE1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells. Targeted inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of K562 leukemia cells. In the present paper we explored whether inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord and both the surface phenotype and functional characteristics were analyzed. Selective NHE1 inhibitor cariporide was used to treat human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs. The pHi and the differentiation of hUC-MSCs were compared upon cariporide treatment. The putative signaling pathway involved was also explored. Results: The pHi of hUC-MSCs was decreased upon cariporide treatment. Cariporide up-regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs while the adipogenic differentiation was not affected. For osteogenic differentiation, β-catenin expression was up-regulated upon cariporide treatment. Conclusion: Decreased pHi induced by cariporide differentially contributes to hUC-MSCs differentiation.

  1. Directed differentiation of rhesus monkey ES cells into pancreatic cell phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauert Brian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ES can self-replicate and differentiate into all cell types including insulin-producing, beta-like cells and could, therefore, be used to treat diabetes mellitus. To date, results of stem cell differentiation into beta cells have been debated, largely due to difficulties in defining the identity of a beta cell. We have recently differentiated non-human primate (rhesus embryonic stem (rES cell lines into insulin producing, beta-like cells with the beta cell growth factor, Exendin-4 and using C-peptide as a phenotype marker. Cell development was characterized at each stage by gene and protein expression. Insulin, NKX6.1 and glucagon mRNA were expressed in stage 4 cells but not in early undifferentiated cells. We concluded that rES cells could be differentiated ex vivo to insulin producing cells. These differentiated rES cells could be used to develop a non-human primate model for evaluating cell therapy to treat diabetes. To facilitate the identification of beta-like cells and to track the cells post-transplantation, we have developed a marker gene construct: fusing the human insulin promoter (HIP to the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene. This construct was transfected into stage 3 rES derived cells and subsequent GFP expression was identified in C-peptide positive cells, thereby substantiating endogenous insulin production by rES derived cells. Using this GFP detection system, we will enrich our population of insulin producing rES derived cells and track these cells post-transplantation in the non-human primate model.

  2. Arsenic inhibits hedgehog signaling during P19 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jui Tung [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Bain, Lisa J., E-mail: lbain@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Arsenic is a toxicant found in ground water around the world, and human exposure mainly comes from drinking water or from crops grown in areas containing arsenic in soils or water. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure during development decreased intellectual function, reduced birth weight, and altered locomotor activity, while in vitro studies have shown that arsenite decreased muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays an important role during the differentiation of both neurons and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether arsenic can disrupt Shh signaling in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells, leading to changes muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. P19 embryonic stem cells were exposed to 0, 0.25, or 0.5 μM of sodium arsenite for up to 9 days during cell differentiation. We found that arsenite exposure significantly reduced transcript levels of genes in the Shh pathway in both a time and dose-dependent manner. This included the Shh ligand, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, the Gli2 transcription factor, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, and its downstream target gene Ascl1, which was decreased 5-fold. GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity were also reduced. However, arsenic did not alter GLI2 primary cilium accumulation or nuclear translocation. Moreover, additional extracellular SHH rescued the inhibitory effects of arsenic on cellular differentiation due to an increase in GLI binding activity. Taken together, we conclude that arsenic exposure affected Shh signaling, ultimately decreasing the expression of the Gli2 transcription factor. These results suggest a mechanism by which arsenic disrupts cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure decreases sonic hedgehog pathway-related gene expression. • Arsenic decreases GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity in P19 cells. • Arsenic exposure does not alter the levels of SHH

  3. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-01-01

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells

  4. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  5. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  6. Neurodegenerative effects of azithromycin in differentiated PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waetzig, Vicki; Riffert, Jeanette; Cordt, Justus; Reinecke, Kirstin; Haeusgen, Wiebke; Boehm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf; Herdegen, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide antibiotic with sustained and high tissue penetration and intracellular accumulation. While short-term exposure to low-dose azithromycin is usually well tolerated, prolonged treatment can lead to unwanted neurological effects like paresthesia and hearing loss. However, the mechanism causing neurodegeneration is still unknown. Here, we show that even low therapeutically relevant azithromycin concentrations like 1µg/ml decreased cell viability by 15% and induced neurite loss of 47% after 96h in differentiated PC12 cells, which are a well-established model system for neuronal cells. When higher concentrations were used, the drug-induced effects occurred earlier and were more pronounced. Thereby, azithromycin altered tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) signaling and attenuated protein kinase B (Akt) activity, which subsequently induced autophagy. Simultaneously, the antibiotic impaired lysosomal functions by blocking the autophagic flux, and this concurrence reduced cell viability. In good agreement with reversible effects observed in patients, PC12 cells could completely recover if azithromycin was removed after 24h. In addition, the detrimental effects of azithromycin were limited to differentiated cells, as confirmed in the human neuronal model cell line SH-SY5Y. Thus, azithromycin alters cell surface receptor signaling and autophagy in neuronal cells, but does not automatically induce irreversible damage when used in low concentrations and for a short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Vast Universe of T Cell Diversity: Subsets of Memory Cells and Their Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandus, Camilla; Usatorre, Amaia Martínez; Viganò, Selena; Zhang, Lianjun; Romero, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The T cell receptor confers specificity for antigen recognition to T cells. By the first encounter with the cognate antigen, reactive T cells initiate a program of expansion and differentiation that will define not only the ultimate quantity of specific cells that will be generated, but more importantly their quality and functional heterogeneity. Recent achievements using mouse model infection systems have helped to shed light into the complex network of factors that dictate and sustain memory T cell differentiation, ranging from antigen load, TCR signal strength, metabolic fitness, transcriptional programs, and proliferative potential. The different models of memory T cell differentiation are discussed in this chapter, and key phenotypic and functional attributes of memory T cell subsets are presented, both for mouse and human cells. Therapeutic manipulation of memory T cell generation is expected to provide novel unique ways to optimize current immunotherapies, both in infection and cancer.

  8. miRNA-720 controls stem cell phenotype, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

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    Emilio Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Dental pulp cells (DPCs are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor cells but not well characterized yet. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have been identified to control protein translation, mRNA stability and transcription, and have been reported to play important roles in stem cell biology, related to cell reprogramming, maintenance of stemness and regulation of cell differentiation. In order to characterize dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and its mechanism of differentiation, we herein sorted stem-cell-enriched side population (SP cells from human DPCs and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, and performed a locked nucleic acid (LNA-based miRNA array. As a result, miR-720 was highly expressed in the differentiated main population (MP cells compared to that in SP cells. In silico analysis and a reporter assay showed that miR-720 targets the stem cell marker NANOG, indicating that miR-720 could promote differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells by repressing NANOG. Indeed, gain-and loss-of-function analyses showed that miR-720 controls NANOG transcript and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of miR-720 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for the early stem cell marker SSEA-4. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, which are known to play crucial factors during stem cell differentiation, were also increased by miR-720 through unknown mechanism. Finally, miR-720 decreased DPC proliferation as determined by immunocytochemical analysis against ki-67, and promoted odontogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alizarin red staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels. Our findings identify miR-720 as a novel miRNA regulating the differentiation of DPCs.

  9. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

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    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  10. Protein signaling pathways in differentiation of neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalníková, Helena; Vodička, Petr; Pelech, S.; Motlík, Jan; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2008), s. 4547-4559 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : antibody microarray * differentiation * neural stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.586, year: 2008

  11. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been used to evaluate the effects of xenobiotics using three endpoints, stem cell differentiation, stem cell viability and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal is to establish amodel system that would evaluate chemical effects using a singl...

  12. Epigenetic dysregulation in mesenchymal stem cell aging and spontaneous differentiation.

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    Zhilong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs hold great promise for the treatment of difficult diseases. As MSCs represent a rare cell population, ex vivo expansion of MSCs is indispensable to obtain sufficient amounts of cells for therapies and tissue engineering. However, spontaneous differentiation and aging of MSCs occur during expansion and the molecular mechanisms involved have been poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human MSCs in early and late passages were examined for their expression of genes involved in osteogenesis to determine their spontaneous differentiation towards osteoblasts in vitro, and of genes involved in self-renewal and proliferation for multipotent differentiation potential. In parallel, promoter DNA methylation and hostone H3 acetylation levels were determined. We found that MSCs underwent aging and spontaneous osteogenic differentiation upon regular culture expansion, with progressive downregulation of TERT and upregulation of osteogenic genes such as Runx2 and ALP. Meanwhile, the expression of genes associated with stem cell self-renewal such as Oct4 and Sox2 declined markedly. Notably, the altered expression of these genes were closely associated with epigenetic dysregulation of histone H3 acetylation in K9 and K14, but not with methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of most of these genes. bFGF promoted MSC proliferation and suppressed its spontaneous osteogenic differentiation, with corresponding changes in histone H3 acetylation in TERT, Oct4, Sox2, Runx2 and ALP genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that histone H3 acetylation, which can be modulated by extrinsic signals, plays a key role in regulating MSC aging and differentiation.

  13. Timing-dependent actions of NGF required for cell differentiation.

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    Jaehoon Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the timing-dependency of the NGF action, we performed a discontinuous stimulation assay consisting of a first transient stimulation followed by an interval and then a second sustained stimulation and quantified the neurite extension level. Consequently, we observed a timing-dependent action of NGF on cell differentiation, and discontinuous NGF stimulation similarly induced differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is likely required as a prerequisite condition. These observations indicate that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: an initial stimulation-driven latent process and a second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require the activities of ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, whereas the extension-process requires the activities of ERK and PI3K, but not transcription. We also found that during the first stimulation, the activity of NGF can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin; during the second stimulation, however, the activity of NGF cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes, using a microarray. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that NGF induces the differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: an ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process, and an ERK- and PI3K-driven and transcription-independent extension process.

  14. Cell fusion-independent differentiation of neural stem cells to the endothelial lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmser, Andrew E; Nakashima, Kinichi; Summers, Robert G; Toni, Nicolas; D'Amour, Kevin A; Lie, Dieter C; Gage, Fred H

    2004-07-15

    Somatic stem cells have been claimed to possess an unexpectedly broad differentiation potential (referred to here as plasticity) that could be induced by exposing stem cells to the extracellular developmental signals of other lineages in mixed-cell cultures. Recently, this and other experimental evidence supporting the existence of stem-cell plasticity have been refuted because stem cells have been shown to adopt the functional features of other lineages by means of cell-fusion-mediated acquisition of lineage-specific determinants (chromosomal DNA) rather than by signal-mediated differentiation. In this study we co-cultured mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), which are committed to become neurons and glial cells, with human endothelial cells, which form the lining of blood vessels. We show that in the presence of endothelial cells six per cent of the NSC population converted to cells that did not express neuronal or glial markers, but instead showed the stable expression of multiple endothelial markers and the capacity to form capillary networks. This was surprising because NSCs and endothelial cells are believed to develop from the ectoderm and mesoderm, respectively. Experiments in which endothelial cells were killed by fixation before co-culture with live NSCs (to prevent cell fusion) and karyotyping analyses, revealed that NSCs had differentiated into endothelial-like cells independently of cell fusion. We conclude that stem-cell plasticity is a true characteristic of NSCs and that the conversion of NSCs to unanticipated cell types can be accomplished without cell fusion.

  15. The ability of mouse nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells

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    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs show stem cell characteristics such as pluripotency but cause no immunological disorders. Although ntESCs are able to differentiate into somatic cells, the ability of ntESCs to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs has not been examined. In this work, we examined the capacity of mouse ntESCs to differentiate into PGCs in vitro. ntESCs aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EB in EB culture medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein 4(BMP4 as the differentiation factor. The expression level of specific PGC genes was compared at days 4 and 8 using real time PCR. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect Mvh as a specific PGC marker. ntESCs expressed particular genes related to different stages of PGC development. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining confirmed the presence of Mvh protein in a small number of cells. There were significant differences between cells that differentiated into PGCs in the group treated with Bmp4 compared to non-treated cells. These findings indicate that ntESCs can differentiate into putative PGCs. Improvement of ntESC differentiation into PGCs may be a reliable means of producing mature germ cells.

  16. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering

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    Bing Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines, thus providing an alternative source of cell for tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cell (SMC regeneration is a crucial step in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder. It is known that DPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a smooth muscle phenotype in vitro with differentiation agents. However, most of these studies are focused on the vascular SMCs. The optimal approaches to induce human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs are still under investigation. We demonstrate in this study the ability of human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs in a growth environment containing bladder SMCs-conditioned medium with the addition of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1. After 14 days of exposure to this medium, the gene and protein expression of SMC-specific marker (α-SMA, desmin, and calponin increased over time. In particular, myosin was present in differentiated cells after 11 days of induction, which indicated that the cells differentiated into the mature SMCs. These data suggested that human DPSCs could be used as an alternative and less invasive source of stem cells for smooth muscle regeneration, a technology that has applications for bladder tissue engineering.

  17. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Jiang, Wenkai; Alraies, Amr; Liu, Qian; Gudla, Vijay; Oni, Julia; Wei, Xiaoqing; Sloan, Alastair; Ni, Longxing; Agarwal, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines, thus providing an alternative source of cell for tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) regeneration is a crucial step in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder. It is known that DPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a smooth muscle phenotype in vitro with differentiation agents. However, most of these studies are focused on the vascular SMCs. The optimal approaches to induce human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs are still under investigation. We demonstrate in this study the ability of human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs in a growth environment containing bladder SMCs-conditioned medium with the addition of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). After 14 days of exposure to this medium, the gene and protein expression of SMC-specific marker (α-SMA, desmin, and calponin) increased over time. In particular, myosin was present in differentiated cells after 11 days of induction, which indicated that the cells differentiated into the mature SMCs. These data suggested that human DPSCs could be used as an alternative and less invasive source of stem cells for smooth muscle regeneration, a technology that has applications for bladder tissue engineering.

  18. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Terminal Differentiation of Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew J; Beaver, Charlotte M; Goodier, Martin R; Bottomley, Christian; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia F M; Boldrin, Luisa; Whitmore, Charlotte; Morgan, Jennifer; Pearce, Daniel J; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Immune senescence is a natural consequence of aging and may contribute to frailty and loss of homeostasis in later life. Calorie restriction increases healthy life-span in C57BL/6J (but not DBA/2J) mice, but whether this is related to preservation of immune function, and how it interacts with aging, is unclear. We compared phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, across the lifespan, of calorie-restricted (CR) and control C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Calorie restriction preserves a naïve T cell phenotype and an immature NK cell phenotype as mice age. The splenic T cell populations of CR mice had higher proportions of CD11a - CD44 lo cells, lower expression of TRAIL, KLRG1, and CXCR3, and higher expression of CD127, compared to control mice. Similarly, splenic NK cells from CR mice had higher proportions of less differentiated CD11b - CD27 + cells and correspondingly lower proportions of highly differentiated CD11b + CD27 - NK cells. Within each of these subsets, cells from CR mice had higher expression of CD127, CD25, TRAIL, NKG2A/C/E, and CXCR3 and lower expression of KLRG1 and Ly49 receptors compared to controls. The effects of calorie restriction on lymphoid cell populations in lung, liver, and lymph nodes were identical to those seen in the spleen, indicating that this is a system-wide effect. The impact of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell maturation is much more profound than the effect of aging and, indeed, calorie restriction attenuates these age-associated changes. Importantly, the effects of calorie restriction on lymphocyte maturation were more marked in C57BL/6 than in DBA/2J mice indicating that delayed lymphocyte maturation correlates with extended lifespan. These findings have implications for understanding the interaction between nutritional status, immunity, and healthy lifespan in aging populations.

  19. Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

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    Christina Sengstock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan.Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (≥20 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≥1.5 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions but not with low-concentration treatments (≤10 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≤1.0 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions. Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of

  20. Chemo-mechanical control of neural stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishecker, Emily R.

    Cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled in part by cell interactions with the microenvironment. Cells can sense and respond to a variety of stimuli, including soluble and insoluble factors (such as proteins and small molecules) and externally applied mechanical stresses. Mechanical properties of the environment, such as substrate stiffness, have also been suggested to play an important role in cell processes. The roles of both biochemical and mechanical signaling in fate modification of stem cells have been explored independently. However, very few studies have been performed to study well-controlled chemo-mechanotransduction. The objective of this work is to design, synthesize, and characterize a chemo-mechanical substrate to encourage neuronal differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells. In Chapter 2, Polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffnesses are functionalized with differing amounts of whole collagen to investigate the role of protein concentration in combination with substrate stiffness. As expected, neurons on the softest substrate were more in number and neuronal morphology than those on stiffer substrates. Neurons appeared locally aligned with an expansive network of neurites. Additional experiments would allow for statistical analysis to determine if and how collagen density impacts C17.2 differentiation in combination with substrate stiffness. Due to difficulties associated with whole protein approaches, a similar platform was developed using mixed adhesive peptides, derived from fibronectin and laminin, and is presented in Chapter 3. The matrix elasticity and peptide concentration can be individually modulated to systematically probe the effects of chemo-mechanical signaling on differentiation of C17.2 cells. Polyacrylamide gel stiffness was confirmed using rheological techniques and found to support values published by Yeung et al. [1]. Cellular growth and differentiation were assessed by cell counts

  1. STELLA facilitates differentiation of germ cell and endodermal lineages of human embryonic stem cells.

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    Patompon Wongtrakoongate

    Full Text Available Stella is a developmentally regulated gene highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells and in primordial germ cells (PGCs. In human, the gene encoding the STELLA homologue lies on chromosome 12p, which is frequently amplified in long-term cultured human ES cells. However, the role played by STELLA in human ES cells has not been reported. In the present study, we show that during retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation of human ES cells, expression of STELLA follows that of VASA, a marker of germline differentiation. By contrast, human embryonal carcinoma cells express STELLA at a higher level compared with both karyotypically normal and abnormal human ES cell lines. We found that over-expression of STELLA does not interfere with maintenance of the stem cell state of human ES cells, but following retinoic acid induction it leads to up-regulation of germline- and endodermal-associated genes, whereas neural markers PAX6 and NEUROD1 are down-regulated. Further, STELLA over-expression facilitates the differentiation of human ES cells into BE12-positive cells, in which the expression of germline- and endodermal-associated genes is enriched, and suppresses differentiation of the neural lineage. Taken together, this finding suggests a role for STELLA in facilitating germline and endodermal differentiation of human ES cells.

  2. STELLA facilitates differentiation of germ cell and endodermal lineages of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtrakoongate, Patompon; Jones, Mark; Gokhale, Paul J; Andrews, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Stella is a developmentally regulated gene highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and in primordial germ cells (PGCs). In human, the gene encoding the STELLA homologue lies on chromosome 12p, which is frequently amplified in long-term cultured human ES cells. However, the role played by STELLA in human ES cells has not been reported. In the present study, we show that during retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of human ES cells, expression of STELLA follows that of VASA, a marker of germline differentiation. By contrast, human embryonal carcinoma cells express STELLA at a higher level compared with both karyotypically normal and abnormal human ES cell lines. We found that over-expression of STELLA does not interfere with maintenance of the stem cell state of human ES cells, but following retinoic acid induction it leads to up-regulation of germline- and endodermal-associated genes, whereas neural markers PAX6 and NEUROD1 are down-regulated. Further, STELLA over-expression facilitates the differentiation of human ES cells into BE12-positive cells, in which the expression of germline- and endodermal-associated genes is enriched, and suppresses differentiation of the neural lineage. Taken together, this finding suggests a role for STELLA in facilitating germline and endodermal differentiation of human ES cells.

  3. Roquin Paralogs Differentially Regulate Functional NKT Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Christoph; Vahl, J Christoph; Bortoluzzi, Sabrina; Heger, Klaus D; Fischer, Julius C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2017-04-01

    NKT cells represent a small subset of glycolipid-recognizing T cells that are heavily implicated in human allergic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. In the thymus, precursor cells recognize self-glycolipids by virtue of their semi-invariant TCR, which triggers NKT cell lineage commitment and maturation. During their development, NKT cells are polarized into the NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 subsets, defined through their cytokine-secretion patterns and the expression of key transcription factors. However, we have largely ignored how the differentiation into the NKT cell subsets is regulated. In this article, we describe the mRNA-binding Roquin-1 and -2 proteins as central regulators of murine NKT cell fate decisions. In the thymus, T cell-specific ablation of the Roquin paralogs leads to a dramatic expansion of NKT17 cells, whereas peripheral mature NKT cells are essentially absent. Roquin-1/2-deficient NKT17 cells show exaggerated lineage-specific expression of nearly all NKT17-defining proteins tested. We show through mixed bone marrow chimera experiments that NKT17 polarization is mediated through cell-intrinsic mechanisms early during NKT cell development. In contrast, the loss of peripheral NKT cells is due to cell-extrinsic factors. Surprisingly, Roquin paralog-deficient NKT cells are, in striking contrast to conventional T cells, compromised in their ability to secrete cytokines. Altogether, we show that Roquin paralogs regulate the development and function of NKT cell subsets in the thymus and periphery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell differentiation in 3D too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Allison; Rehfeldt, Florian; Discher, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tissues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown here to specify lineage andcommit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During the initial week in culture, reprogramming of these lineages is possible with addition of soluble induction factors, but after several weeks in culture, the cells commit to the lineage specified by matrix elasticity, consistent with the elasticity-insensitive commitment of differentiated cell types. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks all elasticitydirected lineage specification--without strongly perturbing many other aspects of cell function and shape. The results have significant implications for understanding physical effects of the in vivo microenvironment and also for therapeutic uses of stem cells.

  5. The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Thomas M Randau

    Full Text Available The newly evolved field of regenerative medicine is offering solutions in the treatment of bone or cartilage loss and deficiency. Mesenchymal stem cells, as well as articular chondrocytes, are potential cells for the generation of bone or cartilage. The natural mechanism of bone formation is that of endochondral ossification, regulated, among other factors, through the hormones dexamethasone and triiodothyronine. We investigated the effects of these hormones on articular chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, hypothesizing that these hormones would induce terminal differentiation, with chondrocytes and differentiated stem cells being similar in their response. Using a 3D-alginate cell culture model, bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated stem cells were cultured in presence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production were investigated. Collagen mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Col X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase were monitored as markers of terminal differentiation, a prerequisite of endochondral ossification. The alginate culture system worked well, both for the culture of chondrocytes and for the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dexamethasone led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan production. Triiodothyronine increased the total collagen production only in chondrocytes, where it also induced signs of terminal differentiation, increasing both collagen X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase activity. Dexamethasone induced terminal differentiation in the differentiated stem cells. The immature articular chondrocytes used in this study seem to be able to undergo terminal differentiation, pointing to their possible role in the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis, as well as their potential for a cell source in bone tissue engineering. When chondrocyte-like cells, after their differentiation, can indeed be moved on

  6. Cdon, a cell surface protein, mediates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Almazan, Guillermina

    2016-06-01

    During central nervous system development, oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) establish multiple branched processes and axonal contacts to initiate myelination. A complete understanding of the molecular signals implicated in cell surface interaction to initiate myelination/remyelination is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to assess whether Cdon, a cell surface protein that was shown to participate in muscle and neuron cell development, is involved in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and myelination. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Cdon protein is expressed in OLPs, increasing in the early differentiation stages and decreasing in mature OLGs. Immunocytochemistry of endogenous Cdon showed localization on both OLG cell membranes and cellular processes exhibiting puncta- or varicosity-like structures. Cdon knockdown with siRNA decreased protein levels by 62% as well as two myelin-specific proteins, MBP and MAG. Conversely, overexpression of full-length rat Cdon increased myelin proteins in OLGs. The complexity of OLGs branching and contact point numbers with axons were also increased in Cdon overexpressing cells growing alone or in coculture with dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Furthermore, myelination of DRGNs was decreased when OLPs were transfected with Cdon siRNA. Altogether, our results suggest that Cdon participates in OLG differentiation and myelination, most likely in the initial stages of development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Differences in cell division rates drive the evolution of terminal differentiation in microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F Matias Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Multicellular differentiated organisms are composed of cells that begin by developing from a single pluripotent germ cell. In many organisms, a proportion of cells differentiate into specialized somatic cells. Whether these cells lose their pluripotency or are able to reverse their differentiated state has important consequences. Reversibly differentiated cells can potentially regenerate parts of an organism and allow reproduction through fragmentation. In many organisms, however, somatic differentiation is terminal, thereby restricting the developmental paths to reproduction. The reason why terminal differentiation is a common developmental strategy remains unexplored. To understand the conditions that affect the evolution of terminal versus reversible differentiation, we developed a computational model inspired by differentiating cyanobacteria. We simulated the evolution of a population of two cell types -nitrogen fixing or photosynthetic- that exchange resources. The traits that control differentiation rates between cell types are allowed to evolve in the model. Although the topology of cell interactions and differentiation costs play a role in the evolution of terminal and reversible differentiation, the most important factor is the difference in division rates between cell types. Faster dividing cells always evolve to become the germ line. Our results explain why most multicellular differentiated cyanobacteria have terminally differentiated cells, while some have reversibly differentiated cells. We further observed that symbioses involving two cooperating lineages can evolve under conditions where aggregate size, connectivity, and differentiation costs are high. This may explain why plants engage in symbiotic interactions with diazotrophic bacteria.

  8. Bee venom enhances the differentiation of human regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramalho, I; Melo, A; Pedro, E; Barbosa, M M P; Victorino, R M M; Pereira Santos, M C; Sousa, A E

    2015-10-01

    Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is well recognized by its efficacy, and compelling evidence implicates regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the underlying tolerogenic mechanisms. Additionally, hymenoptera venom has for a long time been claimed to modulate immunity. Here, we investigated the putative role of bee venom (Bv) in human FOXP3-expressing Treg homeostasis and differentiation, irrespective of the donors' allergic status. We found that Bv significantly enhanced the differentiation of FOXP3-expressing cells both from conventional naïve CD4 T cells and mature CD4 thymocytes, a property that may contribute to the VIT's capacity to expand circulating Tregs in allergic individuals. We expect that our data enlightening the Treg-mediated immunomodulatory properties of Bv regardless of TCR specificity, to have application in other allergies, as well as in other clinical settings, such as autoimmunity and transplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Nemcova, Jana; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was an 85-year-old man, who had a 2.5x2.5-cm, brown-colored ulcerated nodule, with a fragile, flesh-colored bleeding surface located beyond the metacarpophalangeal joint of the second finger of his left hand. Histopathologically, there were areas of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, alternating with the typical area of ESFA characterized by anastomosing cords, strands, and columns of epithelial cells extending from the crusted epidermis into a thickened, edematous, myxoid vascular-rich dermis. Immunohistochemically, the areas with dysplastic epithelium were positive for p16, whereas the benign ESFA parts tested negative. Human papillomavirus was detected in the lesional tissue by polymerase chain reaction, and the subsequent sequencing analysis demonstrated that the virus was close to human papillomavirus type 107.

  10. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human liver stem cells (HLSCs are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs, and dendritic cells (DCs in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  11. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  12. Derivation of keratinocytes from chicken embryonic stem cells: Establishment and characterization of differentiated proliferative cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Couteaudier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge in avian cell biology is the generation of differentiated cell-lines, especially in the keratinocyte lineage. Only a few avian cell-lines are available and very few of them show an interesting differentiation profile. During the last decade, mammalian embryonic stem cell-lines were shown to differentiate into almost all lineages, including keratinocytes. Although chicken embryonic stem cells had been obtained in the 1990s, few differentiation studies toward the ectodermal lineage were reported. Consequently, we explored the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells toward the keratinocyte lineage by using a combination of stromal induction, ascorbic acid, BMP4 and chicken serum. During the induction period, we observed a downregulation of pluripotency markers and an upregulation of epidermal markers. Three homogenous cell populations were derived, which were morphologically similar to chicken primary keratinocytes, displaying intracellular lipid droplets in almost every pavimentous cell. These cells could be serially passaged without alteration of their morphology and showed gene and protein expression profiles of epidermal markers similar to chicken primary keratinocytes. These cells represent an alternative to the isolation of chicken primary keratinocytes, being less cumbersome to handle and reducing the number of experimental animals used for the preparation of primary cells.

  13. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theodor Schwann, the German physiologist who first pro- pounded the cell theory with M Schleiden, had diverse interests. He was not only the first to isolate the enzyme pepsin, but also investigated muscle contraction and nerve structure. In the mid nineteenth century Schwann discovered that a sheath made up of myelin ...

  14. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Rie [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nakano, Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1824 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Seimiya, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hseimiya@jfcr.or.jp [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  15. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Rie; Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  16. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of [3H]TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation

  17. Interleukin 4: signalling mechanisms and control of T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, W E

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic type I cytokine that controls both growth and differentiation among haemopoietic and non-haemopoietic cells. Its receptor is a heterodimer. One chain, the IL-4R alpha chain, binds IL-4 with high affinity and determines the nature of the biochemical signals that are induced. The second chain, gamma c, is required for the induction of such signals. IL-4-mediated growth depends upon activation events that involve phosphorylation of Y497 of IL-4R alpha, leading to the binding and phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 in haemopoietic cells and of IRS-1 in non-haemopoietic cells. By contrast, IL-4-mediated differentiation events depend upon more distal regions of the IL-4R alpha chain that include a series of STAT-6 binding sites. The distinctive roles of these receptor domains was verified by receptor-reconstruction experiments. The 'growth' and 'differentiation' domains of the IL-4R alpha chain, independently expressed as chimeric structures with a truncated version of the IL-2R beta chain, were shown to convey their functions to the hybrid receptor. The critical role of STAT-6 in IL-4-mediated gene activation and differentiation was made clear by the finding that lymphocytes from STAT-6 knockout mice are strikingly deficient in these functions but have retained the capacity to grow, at least partially, in response to IL-4. IL-4 plays a central role in determining the phenotype of naive CD4+ T cells. In the presence of IL-4, newly primed naive T cells develop into IL-4 producers while in its absence they preferentially become gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) producers. Recently, a specialized subpopulation of T cells, CD4+/NK1.1+ cells, has been shown to produce large amounts of IL-4 upon stimulation. Two examples of mice with deficiencies in these cells are described--beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice and SJL mice. Both show defects in the development of IL-4-producing cells and in the increase in serum IgE in response to stimulation with the

  18. Differential cytokine contributions of perivascular haematopoietic stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Noboru; Kunisaki, Yuya; Pierce, Halley; Wang, Zichen; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Birbrair, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi; Frenette, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    Arterioles and sinusoids of the bone marrow (BM) are accompanied by stromal cells that express nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) and leptin receptor (LepR), and constitute specialized niches that regulate quiescence and proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, how niche cells differentially regulate HSC functions remains unknown. Here, we show that the effects of cytokines regulating HSC functions are dependent on the producing cell sources. Deletion of chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12) or stem cell factor (Scf) from all perivascular cells marked by nestin-GFP dramatically depleted BM HSCs. Selective Cxcl12 deletion from arteriolar NG2 + cells, but not from sinusoidal LepR + cells, caused HSC reductions and altered HSC localization in BM. By contrast, deletion of Scf in LepR + cells, but not NG2 + cells, led to reductions in BM HSC numbers. These results uncover distinct contributions of cytokines derived from perivascular cells in separate vascular niches to HSC maintenance.

  19. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Maritha; Li, Yan; St?lman, Anders; Haldos?n, Lars-Arne; Fell?nder-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiat...

  20. Autocrine VEGF isoforms differentially regulate endothelial cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF is involved in all the essential biology of endothelial cells, from proliferation to vessel function, by mediating intercellular interactions and monolayer integrity. It is expressed as three major alternative spliced variants. In mice, these are VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188, each with different affinities for extracellular matrices and cell surfaces, depending on the inclusion of heparin-binding sites, encoded by exons 6 and 7. To determine the role of each VEGF isoform in endothelial homeostasis, we compared phenotypes of primary endothelial cells isolated from lungs of mice expressing single VEGF isoforms in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The differential expression and distribution of VEGF isoforms affect endothelial cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, migration and integrity, which are dependent on the stability of and affinity to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2. We found a correlation between autocrine VEGF164 and VEGFR2 stability, which is also associated with increased expression of proteins involved in cell adhesion. Endothelial cells expressing only VEGF188, which localizes to extracellular matrices or cell surfaces, presented a mesenchymal morphology and weakened monolayer integrity. Cells expressing only VEGF120 lacked stable VEGFR2 and dysfunctional downstream processes, rendering the cells unviable. Endothelial cells expressing these different isoforms in isolation also had differing rates of apoptosis, proliferation, and signaling via nitric oxide (NO synthesis. These data indicate that autocrine signaling of each VEGF isoform has unique functions on endothelial homeostasis and response to hypoxia, due to both distinct VEGF distribution and VEGFR2 stability, which appears to be, at least partly, affected by differential NO production. This study demonstrates that each autocrine VEGF isoform has a distinct effect on downstream functions, namely VEGFR2-regulated endothelial cell

  1. Cell population structure prior to bifurcation predicts efficiency of directed differentiation in human induced pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargaje, Rhishikesh; Trachana, Kalliopi; Shelton, Martin N; McGinnis, Christopher S; Zhou, Joseph X; Chadick, Cora; Cook, Savannah; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Huang, Sui; Hood, Leroy

    2017-02-28

    Steering the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) toward specific cell types is crucial for patient-specific disease modeling and drug testing. This effort requires the capacity to predict and control when and how multipotent progenitor cells commit to the desired cell fate. Cell fate commitment represents a critical state transition or "tipping point" at which complex systems undergo a sudden qualitative shift. To characterize such transitions during iPSC to cardiomyocyte differentiation, we analyzed the gene expression patterns of 96 developmental genes at single-cell resolution. We identified a bifurcation event early in the trajectory when a primitive streak-like cell population segregated into the mesodermal and endodermal lineages. Before this branching point, we could detect the signature of an imminent critical transition: increase in cell heterogeneity and coordination of gene expression. Correlation analysis of gene expression profiles at the tipping point indicates transcription factors that drive the state transition toward each alternative cell fate and their relationships with specific phenotypic readouts. The latter helps us to facilitate small molecule screening for differentiation efficiency. To this end, we set up an analysis of cell population structure at the tipping point after systematic variation of the protocol to bias the differentiation toward mesodermal or endodermal cell lineage. We were able to predict the proportion of cardiomyocytes many days before cells manifest the differentiated phenotype. The analysis of cell populations undergoing a critical state transition thus affords a tool to forecast cell fate outcomes and can be used to optimize differentiation protocols to obtain desired cell populations.

  2. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL. Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. PMID:27194709

  3. Embryonic liver cells and permanent lines as models for hepatocyte and bile duct cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick-Marchand, Hélène; Weiss, Mary C

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of liver cells during development is facilitated by the possibility of complementing in vivo analysis with experiments on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss results from several laboratories concerning bipotential hepatic stem cells from mouse (HBC-3, H-CFU-C, MMH and BMEL), rat (rhe14321) and primate (IPFLS) embryos. Several groups have used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify clonogenic bipotential cells; others have derived bipotential cell lines by plating liver cell suspensions and cloning. The bipotential cells, which probably originate from hepatoblasts, can differentiate as hepatocytes or bile duct cells, and undergo morphogenesis in culture. Disparities in differentiation can be explained by distinct medium compositions, extracellular matrix coated culture surfaces, and gene expression detection methods. Potential applications of these cell lines are discussed.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of TRAIL promotes dendritic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young S; Challa, Sreerupa; Clancy, Lauren; Chan, Francis K-M

    2010-08-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death-inducing cytokine whose physiological function is not well understood. Here, we show that TRAIL has a role in programming human dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. TRAIL expression was strongly induced in DCs upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) stimulation. Blockade of TRAIL with neutralizing antibody partially inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70. In addition, neutralization of TRAIL in LPS-treated DCs inhibited the DC-driven differentiation of T cells into interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) -producing effectors. The effects of TRAIL neutralization in poly(I:C)-treated DCs were similar, except that IL-12 production and the differentiation of effector T cells into IFN-gamma producers were not inhibited. Strikingly, TRAIL stimulation alone was sufficient to induce morphological changes resembling DC maturation, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and enhancement of DC-driven allogeneic T-cell proliferation. However, TRAIL alone did not induce inflammatory cytokine production. We further show that the effects of TRAIL on DC maturation were not the result of the induction of apoptosis, but may involve p38 activation. Hence, our data demonstrate that TRAIL co-operates with other cytokines to facilitate DC functional maturation in response to Toll-like receptor activation.

  5. Ebf1 controls early cell differentiation in the embryonic striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, S; Marín, F; Grosschedl, R; Charnay, P

    1999-12-01

    Ebf1/Olf-1 belongs to a small multigene family encoding closely related helix-loop-helix transcription factors, which have been proposed to play a role in neuronal differentiation. Here we show that Ebf1 controls cell differentiation in the murine embryonic striatum, where it is the only gene of the family to be expressed. Ebf1 targeted disruption affects postmitotic cells that leave the subventricular zone (SVZ) en route to the mantle: they appear to be unable to downregulate genes normally restricted to the SVZ or to activate some mantle-specific genes. These downstream genes encode a variety of regulatory proteins including transcription factors and proteins involved in retinoid signalling as well as adhesion/guidance molecules. These early defects in the SVZ/mantle transition are followed by an increase in cell death, a dramatic reduction in size of the postnatal striatum and defects in navigation and fasciculation of thalamocortical fibres travelling through the striatum. Our data therefore show that Ebf1 plays an essential role in the acquisition of mantle cell molecular identity in the developing striatum and provide information on the genetic hierarchies that govern neuronal differentiation in the ventral telencephalon.

  6. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells have a reduced tendon differentiation capacity compared to embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Patricia Bavin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to generate artificial tendons. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have now been derived from horses but, to date, there are no reports on their ability to differentiate into tendon cells. As iPSCs can be produced from adult cell types, they provide a more accessible source of cells than ESCs, which require the use of horse embryos. The aim of this study was to compare tendon differentiation by ESCs and iPSCs produced through two independent methods. In 2-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs expressed tendon associated genes and proteins, which were enhanced by the presence of transforming growth factor-β3. However, in 3-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs failed to differentiate into functional tendon cells and generate artificial tendons. These results demonstrate the utility of the 3-dimensional in vitro tendon assay for measuring tendon differentiation and the need for more detailed studies to be performed on equine iPSCs to identify and understand their epigenetic differences from pluripotent ESCs prior to their clinical application.

  7. Differentiation potential of menstrual blood- versus bone marrow-stem cells into glial-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azedi, Fereshteh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Behzadi, Gila; Vasei, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Khanjani, Sayeh; Edalatkhah, Haleh; Lakpour, Niknam

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual blood is easily accessible, renewable, and inexpensive source of stem cells that have been interested for cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we showed conversion of menstrual blood stem cells (MenSCs) into clonogenic neurosphere- like cells (NSCs), which can be differentiated into glial-like cells. Moreover, differentiation potential of MenSCs into glial lineage was compared with bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Differentiation potential of individual converted NSCs derived from MenSCs or BMSCs into glial-like cells was investigated using immunofluorescence staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction.The fibroblastic morphology of both MenSCs and BMSCs was turned into NSCs shape during first step of differentiation. NSCs derived from both BMSCs and MenSCs expressed higher levels of Olig-2 and Nestin markers compared to undifferentiated cells. The expression levels of myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA up regulated only in BMSCs-NSCs no in MenSCs-NSCs. However, outgrowth of individual NSCs derived from both MenSCs and BMSCs into glial-like cells led to significant up regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein,Olig-2 and MBP at mRNA and protein level accompanied with down regulation of Nestin protein.This is the first study demonstrating that MenSCs can be converted to NSCs with differentiation ability into glial-like cells. Accumulative data show different expression pattern of glial markers in differentiated MenSCs compared to BMSCs. The comparable differentiation potential, more accessibility and no invasive technique for sample collection of MenSCs in comparison with BMSCs introduce MenSCs as an apt, consistent and safe alternative to BMSCs for cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Transcription pausing regulates mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodi Tastemel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs relies on appropriate responsiveness to developmental cues. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II has been suggested to play a role in keeping genes poised for future activation. To identify the role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC pluripotency, we have generated mouse ESCs carrying a mutation in the pause-inducing factor SPT5. Genomic studies reveal genome-wide reduction of paused Pol II caused by mutant SPT5 and further identify a tight correlation between pausing-mediated transcription effect and local chromatin environment. Functionally, this pausing-deficient SPT5 disrupts ESC differentiation upon removal of self-renewal signals. Thus, our study uncovers an important role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC differentiation and suggests a model that Pol II pausing coordinates with epigenetic modification to influence transcription during mESC differentiation.

  9. Stalk cell differentiation without polyketides in the cellular slime mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie G; Suarez, Teresa; Saito, Tamao

    2016-07-01

    Polyketides induce prestalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. In the double-knockout mutant of the SteelyA and B polyketide synthases, most of the pstA cells-the major part of the prestalk cells-are lost, and we show by whole mount in situ hybridization that expression of prestalk genes is also reduced. Treatment of the double-knockout mutant with the PKS inhibitor cerulenin gave a further reduction, but some pstA cells still remained in the tip region, suggesting the existence of a polyketide-independent subtype of pstA cells. The double-knockout mutant and cerulenin-treated parental Ax2 cells form fruiting bodies with fragile, single-cell layered stalks after cerulenin treatment. Our results indicate that most pstA cells are induced by polyketides, but the pstA cells at the very tip of the slug are induced in some other way. In addition, a fruiting body with a single-cell layered, vacuolated stalk can form without polyketides.

  10. Quantitative single cell analysis of cell population dynamics during submandibular salivary gland development and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deirdre A.; Manhardt, Charles; Kamath, Vidya; Sui, Yunxia; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Can, Ali; Bello, Musodiq; Corwin, Alex; Dinn, Sean R.; Lazare, Michael; Gervais, Elise M.; Sequeira, Sharon J.; Peters, Sarah B.; Ginty, Fiona; Gerdes, Michael J.; Larsen, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Summary Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell types to balance progenitor cell retention and expansion with cell differentiation for evolution of tissue architecture. Underlying submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the regulated proliferation and differentiation of perhaps several progenitor cell populations, which have not been characterized throughout development, and yet are critical for understanding organ development, regeneration, and disease. Here we applied a serial multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry technology to map the progressive refinement of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations throughout development from embryonic day 14 through postnatal day 20. Using computational single cell analysis methods, we simultaneously mapped the evolving temporal and spatial location of epithelial cells expressing subsets of differentiation and progenitor markers throughout salivary gland development. We mapped epithelial cell differentiation markers, including aquaporin 5, PSP, SABPA, and mucin 10 (acinar cells); cytokeratin 7 (ductal cells); and smooth muscle α-actin (myoepithelial cells) and epithelial progenitor cell markers, cytokeratin 5 and c-kit. We used pairwise correlation and visual mapping of the cells in multiplexed images to quantify the number of single- and double-positive cells expressing these differentiation and progenitor markers at each developmental stage. We identified smooth muscle α-actin as a putative early myoepithelial progenitor marker that is expressed in cytokeratin 5-negative cells. Additionally, our results reveal dynamic expansion and redistributions of c-kit- and K5-positive progenitor cell populations throughout development and in postnatal glands. The data suggest that there are temporally and spatially discreet progenitor populations that contribute to salivary gland development and homeostasis. PMID:23789091

  11. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  12. IL-17 inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Masahiro Kondo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineages, such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Here we investigated the effects of IL-17, a key cytokine in chronic inflammation, on chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs were pellet cultured in chondrogenic induction medium containing TGF-β3. Chondrogenic differentiation was detected by cartilage matrix accumulation and chondrogenic marker gene expression. RESULTS: Over-expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic marker genes was noted in chondrogenic cultures, but was inhibited by IL-17 in a dose-dependent manner. Expression and phosphorylation of SOX9, the master transcription factor for chondrogenesis, were induced within 2 days and phosphorylated SOX9 was stably maintained until day 21. IL-17 did not alter total SOX9 expression, but significantly suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. At day 7, IL-17 also suppressed the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA, which is known to phosphorylate SOX9. H89, a selective PKA inhibitor, also suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation, expression of chondrogenic markers and cartilage matrix, and also decreased chondrogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: IL-17 inhibited chondrogenesis of human MSCs through the suppression of PKA activity and SOX9 phosphorylation. These results suggest that chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs can be inhibited by a mechanism triggered by IL-17 under chronic inflammation.

  13. Is Melanoma a stem cell tumor? Identification of neurogenic proteins in trans-differentiated cells

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    Chan Linda S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several genes and proteins have been implicated in the development of melanomas, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of these tumors are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between the cell growth, tumorigenesis and differentiation, we have studied a highly malignant cat melanoma cell line that trans-differentiates into neuronal cells after exposure to a feline endogenous retrovirus RD114. Methods To define the repertoire of proteins responsible for the phenotypic differences between melanoma and its counterpart trans-differentiated neuronal cells we have applied proteomics technology and compared protein profiles of the two cell types and identified differentially expressed proteins by 2D-gel electrophoresis, image analyses and mass spectrometry. Results The melanoma and trans-differentiated neuronal cells could be distinguished by the presence of distinct sets of proteins in each. Although approximately 60–70% of the expressed proteins were shared between the two cell types, twelve proteins were induced de novo after infection of melanoma cells with RD114 virus in vitro. Expression of these proteins in trans-differentiated cells was significantly associated with concomitant down regulation of growth promoting proteins and up-regulation of neurogenic proteins (p = 95% proteins expressed in trans-differentiated cells could be associated with the development, differentiation and regulation of nervous system cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that the cat melanoma cells have the ability to differentiate into distinct neuronal cell types and they express proteins that are essential for self-renewal. Since melanocytes arise from the neural crest of the embryo, we conclude that this melanoma arose from embryonic precursor stem cells. This model system provides a unique opportunity to identify domains of interactions between the expressed proteins that halt the

  14. Male Differentiation of Germ Cells Induced by Embryonic Age-Specific Sertoli Cells in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kohei; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Lin, Yanling; Hogg, Nathanael; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Behringer, Richard R.; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) is a meiosis-inducing factor. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the developing ovary are exposed to RA, resulting in entry into meiosis. In contrast, PGCs in the developing testis enter mitotic arrest to differentiate into prospermatogonia. Sertoli cells express CYP26B1, an RA-metabolizing enzyme, providing a simple explanation for why XY PGCs do not initiate meios/is. However, regulation of entry into mitotic arrest is likely more complex. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate male germ cell differentiation, we cultured XX and XY germ cells at 11.5 and 12.5 days postcoitus (dpc) with an RA receptor inhibitor. Expression of Stra8, a meiosis initiation gene, was suppressed in all groups. However, expression of Dnmt3l, a male-specific gene, during embryogenesis was elevated but only in 12.5-dpc XY germ cells. This suggests that inhibiting RA signaling is not sufficient for male germ cell differentiation but that the male gonadal environment also contributes to this pathway. To define the influence of Sertoli cells on male germ cell differentiation, Sertoli cells at 12.5, 15.5, and 18.5 dpc were aggregated with 11.5 dpc PGCs, respectively. After culture, PGCs aggregated with 12.5 dpc Sertoli cells increased Nanos2 and Dnmt3l expression. Furthermore, these PGCs established male-specific methylation imprints of the H19 differentially methylated domains. In contrast, PGCs aggregated with Sertoli cells at late embryonic ages did not commit to the male pathway. These findings suggest that male germ cell differentiation is induced both by inhibition of RA signaling and by molecule(s) production by embryonic age-specific Sertoli cells. PMID:22262692

  15. Melanoma cells influence the differentiation pattern of human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodet, Ondřej; Lacina, Lukáš; Krejčí, Eliška; Dvořánková, Barbora; Grim, Miloš; Štork, Jiří; Kodetová, Daniela; Vlček, Čestmír; Šáchová, Jana; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Smetana, Karel

    2015-01-05

    Nodular melanoma is one of the most life threatening tumors with still poor therapeutic outcome. Similarly to other tumors, permissive microenvironment is essential for melanoma progression. Features of this microenvironment are arising from molecular crosstalk between the melanoma cells (MC) and the surrounding cell populations in the context of skin tissue. Here, we study the effect of melanoma cells on human primary keratinocytes (HPK). Presence of MC is as an important modulator of the tumor microenvironment and we compare it to the effect of nonmalignant lowly differentiated cells also originating from neural crest (NCSC). Comparative morphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis of epidermis surrounding nodular melanoma (n = 100) was performed. Data were compared to results of transcriptome profiling of in vitro models, in which HPK were co-cultured with MC, normal human melanocytes, and NCSC, respectively. Differentially expressed candidate genes were verified by RT-qPCR. Biological activity of candidate proteins was assessed on cultured HPK. Epidermis surrounding nodular melanoma exhibits hyperplastic features in 90% of cases. This hyperplastic region exhibits aberrant suprabasal expression of keratin 14 accompanied by loss of keratin 10. We observe that MC and NCSC are able to increase expression of keratins 8, 14, 19, and vimentin in the co-cultured HPK. This in vitro finding partially correlates with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia observed in melanoma biopsies. We provide evidence of FGF-2, CXCL-1, IL-8, and VEGF-A participation in the activity of melanoma cells on keratinocytes. We conclude that the MC are able to influence locally the differentiation pattern of keratinocytes in vivo as well as in vitro. This interaction further highlights the role of intercellular interactions in melanoma. The reciprocal role of activated keratinocytes on biology of melanoma cells shall be verified in the future.

  16. Antigen Availability Shapes T Cell Differentiation and Function during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguche, Albanus O; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Plumlee, Courtney R; Mearns, Helen; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Smit, Erica; Abrahams, Deborah; Rozot, Virginie; Dintwe, One; Hoff, Søren T; Kromann, Ingrid; Ruhwald, Morten; Bang, Peter; Larson, Ryan P; Shafiani, Shahin; Ma, Shuyi; Sherman, David R; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; McKinney, Denise M; Maecker, Holden; Hanekom, Willem A; Hatherill, Mark; Andersen, Peter; Scriba, Thomas J; Urdahl, Kevin B

    2017-06-14

    CD4 T cells are critical for protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB). Yet to date, TB vaccine candidates that boost antigen-specific CD4 T cells have conferred little or no protection. Here we examined CD4 T cell responses to two leading TB vaccine antigens, ESAT-6 and Ag85B, in Mtb-infected mice and in vaccinated humans with and without underlying Mtb infection. In both species, Mtb infection drove ESAT-6-specific T cells to be more differentiated than Ag85B-specific T cells. The ability of each T cell population to control Mtb in the lungs of mice was restricted for opposite reasons: Ag85B-specific T cells were limited by reduced antigen expression during persistent infection, whereas ESAT-6-specific T cells became functionally exhausted due to chronic antigenic stimulation. Our findings suggest that different vaccination strategies will be required to optimize protection mediated by T cells recognizing antigens expressed at distinct stages of Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sp2 is the only glutamine-rich specificity protein with minor impact on development and differentiation in myelinating glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Amélie; Küspert, Melanie; Sock, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Sjaak; Suske, Guntram; Wegner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are the myelinating glia of the vertebrate nervous system and by generation of myelin sheaths allow rapid saltatory conduction. Previous in vitro work had pointed to a role of the zinc finger containing specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 as major regulators of glial differentiation and myelination. Here, we asked whether such a role is also evident in vivo using mice with specific deletions of Sp1 or Sp3 in myelinating glia. We also studied glia-specific conditional Sp2- and constitutive Sp4-deficient mice to include all related glutamine-rich Sp factors into our analysis. Surprisingly, we did not detect developmental Schwann cell abnormalities in any of the mutant mice. Oligodendrocyte development and differentiation was also not fundamentally affected as oligodendrocytes were present in all mouse mutants and retained their ability to differentiate and initiate myelin gene expression. The most severe defect we observed was a 50% reduction in Mbp- and proteolipid protein 1 (Plp1)-positive differentiating oligodendrocytes in Sp2 mutants at birth. Unexpectedly, glial development appeared undisturbed even in the joint absence of Sp1 and Sp3. We conclude that Sp2 has a minor effect on the differentiation of myelinating glia, and that glutamine-rich Sp proteins are not essential regulators of the process. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Potential differentiation of islet-like cells from pregnant cow-derived placental stem cells

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    Shao-Yu Peng

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Altogether, islet-like cells have the potential to be differentiated from CPSCs without gene manipulation, and can be used in diabetic animal models in the future for preclinical and drug testing trial investigations.

  19. Expression of the chitinase family glycoprotein YKL-40 in undifferentiated, differentiated and trans-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hoover

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein YKL-40 (CHI3L1 is a secreted chitinase family protein that induces angiogenesis, cell survival, and cell proliferation, and plays roles in tissue remodeling and immune regulation. It is expressed primarily in cells of mesenchymal origin, is overexpressed in numerous aggressive carcinomas and sarcomas, but is rarely expressed in normal ectodermal tissues. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be induced to differentiate into various mesenchymal tissues and trans-differentiate into some non-mesenchymal cell types. Since YKL-40 has been used as a mesenchymal marker, we followed YKL-40 expression as undifferentiated MSCs were induced to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and neural phenotypes. Undifferentiated MSCs contain significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA but do not synthesize detectable levels of YKL-40 protein. MSCs induced to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteocytes soon began to express and secrete YKL-40 protein, as do ex vivo cultured chondrocytes and primary osteocytes. In contrast, MSCs induced to trans-differentiate into neurons did not synthesize YKL-40 protein, consistent with the general absence of YKL-40 protein in normal CNS parenchyma. However, these trans-differentiated neurons retained significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA, suggesting the mechanisms which prevented YKL-40 translation in undifferentiated MSCs remained in place, and that these trans-differentiated neurons differ in at least this way from neurons derived from neuronal stem cells. Utilization of a differentiation protocol containing β-mercaptoethanol resulted in cells that expressed significant amounts of intracellular YKL-40 protein that was not secreted, which is not seen in normal cells. Thus the synthesis of YKL-40 protein is a marker for MSC differentiation into mature mesenchymal phenotypes, and the presence of untranslated YKL-40 mRNA in non-mesenchymal cells derived from MSCs reflects differences between differentiated and

  20. BMP9 signaling in stem cell differentiation and osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Qin, Jiaqiang; Nan, Guoxin; Wang, Jinhua; Liu, Xing; Yin, Liangjun; Tomal, Justin; Li, Ruidong; Shui, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu; Kim, Stephanie H; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhang, Jiye; Kong, Yuhan; Denduluri, Sahitya; Rogers, Mary Rose; Pratt, Abdullah; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Angeles, Jovito; Shi, Lewis L; He, Tong-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily and play a critical role in skeletal development, bone formation and stem cell differentiation. Disruptions in BMP signaling result in a variety of skeletal and extraskeletal anomalies. BMP9 is a poorly characterized member of the BMP family and is among the most osteogenic BMPs, promoting osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Recent findings from various in vivo and molecular studies strongly suggest that the mechanisms governing BMP9-mediated osteoinduction differ from other osteogenic BMPs. Many signaling pathways with diverse functions have been found to play a role in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. Several of these pathways are also critical in the differentiation of other cell lineages, including adipocytes and chondrocytes. While BMP9 is known to be a potent osteogenic factor, it also influences several other pathways including cancer development, angiogenesis and myogenesis. Although BMP9 has been demonstrated as one of the most osteogenic BMPs, relatively little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for these effects. BMP9 has demonstrated efficacy in promoting spinal fusion and bony non-union repair in animal models, demonstrating great translational promise. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of BMP9-mediated osteogenesis by presenting recently completed work which may help us to further elucidate these pathways. PMID:23671813

  1. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente, Pilar de la; Ludeña, Dolores; López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  2. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente, Pilar de la, E-mail: pilardelapuentegarcia@gmail.com [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain); Ludeña, Dolores [Pathology Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, P/San Vicente 58-182, 37007 Salamanca (Spain); López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  3. Glioblastoma stem cell differentiation into endothelial cells evidenced through live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Rong; Xi, Shao-Yan; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma cell-initiated vascularization is an alternative angiogenesis called vasculogenic mimicry. However, current knowledge on the mechanism of de novo vessel formation from glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) is limited. Sixty-four glioblastoma samples from patients and 10 fluorescent glioma xenograft samples were examined by immunofluorescence staining for endothelial marker (CD34 and CD31) and glial cell marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) expression. GSCs were then isolated from human glioblastoma tissue and CD133+/Sox2+ red fluorescent protein-containing (RFP)-GSC-1 cells were established. The ability of these cells to form vascular structures was examined by live-cell imaging of 3D cultures. CD34-GFAP or CD31-GFAP coexpressing glioblastoma-derived endothelial cells (GDEC) were found in 30 of 64 (46.9%) of clinical glioblastoma samples. In those 30 samples, GDEC were found to form vessel structures in 21 (70%) samples. Among 21 samples with GDEC vessels, the CD34+ GDEC vessels and CD31+ GDEC vessels accounted for about 14.16% and 18.08% of total vessels, respectively. In the xenograft samples, CD34+ GDEC were found in 7 out of 10 mice, and 4 out of 7 mice had CD34+ GDEC vessels. CD31+ GDEC were also found in 7 mice, and 4 mice had CD31+ GDEC vessels (10 mice in total). Through live-cell imaging, we observed gradual CD34 expression when cultured with vascular endothelial growth factor in some glioma cells, and a dynamic increase in endothelial marker expression in RFP-GSC-1 in vitro was recorded. Cells expressed CD34 (9.46%) after 6 hours in culture. The results demonstrated that GSCs may differentiate into endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis in glioblastomas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Epigenetic landscaping during hESC differentiation to neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebiewska, Anna; Atkinson, Stuart P; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle

    2009-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency and lineage specification from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still largely unclear. To address the role of chromatin structure in maintenance of pluripotency in human ESCs (hESCs) and establishment of lineage commitment, we analyzed a panel of histone modifications at promoter sequences of genes involved in maintenance of pluripotency, self-renewal, and in early stages of differentiation. To understand the changes occurring at lineage-specific gene regulatory sequences, we have established an efficient purification system that permits the examination of two distinct populations of lineage committed cells; fluorescence activated cell sorted CD133(+) CD45(-)CD34(-) neural stem cells and beta-III-tubulin(+) putative neurons. Here we report the importance of other permissive marks supporting trimethylation of Lysine 4 H3 at the active stem cell promoters as well as poised bivalent and nonbivalent lineage-specific gene promoters in hESCs. Methylation of lysine 9 H3 was found to play a role in repression of pluripotency-associated and lineage-specific genes on differentiation. Moreover, presence of newly formed bivalent domains was observed at the neural progenitor stage. However, they differ significantly from the bivalent domains observed in hESCs, with a possible role of dimethylation of lysine 9 H3 in repressing the poised genes.

  5. Parameters Identification of Photovoltaic Cells Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm

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    Liao Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the complex nonlinear model of photovoltaic cells, traditional evolution strategy is easy to fall into the local optimal and its identification time is too long when taking parameters identification, then the difference algorithm is proposed in this study, which is to solve the problems of parameter identification in photovoltaic cell model, where it is very difficult to achieve with other identification algorithms. In this method, the random data is selected as the initial generation; the successful evolution to the next generation is done through a certain strategy of difference algorithm, which can achieve the effective identification of control parameters. It is proved that the method has a good global optimization and the fast convergence ability, and the simulation results are shown that the differential evolution has high identification ability and it is an effective method to identify the parameters of photovoltaic cells, where the photovoltaic cells can be widely used in other places with these parameters.

  6. Potential of bursa-immigrated hematopoietic precursor cells to differentiate to functional B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.T.; Alexander, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of hematopoietic precursor cells, recently immigrated into the 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursa, to migrate to the thymus and to differentiate to functional T cells was investigated. Chromosomally marked cell populations obtained from 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursas were transferred i.v. to 780 R γ-irradiated chick embryos of equivalent age. When appropriate chimeras were examined at 4 to 12 weeks after cell transfer, donor cells were found to proliferate primarily in the bursa. Significant donor cell influx into the thymus was not detected. In correlation with these findings, Con A- and PHA-responsive T cells in thymus and spleen cell cultures of recipients remained of host origin whereas the number of anti-CIg responsive B cells of donor type increased gradually in the spleens of recipients. An initial lag period preceded the accumulation of functional donor B cells in the spleens of recipients, despite the predominant presence of dividing donor cells in the bursa. This suggests that the transferred bursal cell population required substantially longer to mature and emigrate from the bursa as functional B cells than the host cell population remaining in the irradiated bursas at time of cell transfer. The failure to detect significant influx of donor cells into the thymus and their failure to differentiate to functional T cells suggest that the recently bursa-immigrated hematopoietic stem cells of 13- and 14-day-old embryos may not be pluripotential cells, but rather cells already committed to the B cell line of differentiation

  7. Glutathione S-transferase expression and isoenzyme composition during cell differentiation of Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharmach, E.; Hessel, S.; Niemann, B.; Lampen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 is frequently used to study human intestinal metabolism and transport of xenobiotica. Previous studies have shown that both Caco-2 cells and human colon cells constitutively express the multigene family of detoxifying enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), particularly GST alpha and GST pi. GSTs may play a fundamental role in the molecular interplay between phase I, II enzymes and ABC-transporters. The gut fermentation product, butyrate, can modulate the potential for detoxification. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal expression of further cytosolic GSTs in Caco-2 cells during cell differentiation. In addition, a comparison was made with expression levels in MCF-7 and HepG2, two other cell types with barrier functions. Finally, the butyrate-mediated modulation of gene and protein expression was determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis. In Caco-2, gene and protein expression levels of GST alpha increased during cell differentiation. High levels of GSTO1 and GSTP1 were constantly expressed. No expression of GSTM5 and GSTT1 was detected. HepG2 expressed GSTO1 and MCF-7 GSTZ1 most intensively. No expression of GSTA5, GSTM5, or GSTP1 was detected in either cell. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with butyrate (5 mM) significantly induced GSTA1 and GSTM2 in proliferating Caco-2 cells. In differentiated cells, butyrate tended to increase GSTO1 and GSTP1. The results of this study show that a differentiation-dependent expression of GSTs in Caco-2 cells may reflect the in vivo situation and indicate the potential of butyrate to modify intestinal metabolism. GSTA1-A4 have been identified as good markers for cell differentiation. The Caco-2 cell line is a useful model for assessing the potential of food-related substances to modulate the GST expression pattern.

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma TCA8113 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Lifeng; Gao, Lina; Guan, Chao; Su, Kexin; Li, Linlin; Luo, Wenping; Chen, Hongying; Ji, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cancer cells with increased levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 'bright' activity (ALDH br ) exhibit stem cell properties compared with cells exhibiting decreased ALDH activity (ALDH low ). To screen possible biomarkers of cancer stem cells in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, ALDH br and ALDH low cells were isolated from the tongue squamous cell carcinoma TCA8113 cell line, and suppression subtractive hybridization was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in the two subpopulations. A total of 240 positive clones were randomly selected for sequencing and were functionally characterized using bioinformatical tools. The results of the present study identified the differential expression of 104 clones, 62 of which corresponded to known genes and 42 of which corresponded to unknown genes. Cluster analysis revealed that the known genes were involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and cell differentiation. In addition, analysis of 10 signaling pathways revealed that genes were markedly altered in the ALDH br cell subpopulation. Additional study is required to identify the function that these genes serve in the biomolecular regulatory mechanisms of cancer stem cells and to assist in explaining the biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Maintenance of Clonogenic KIT+ Human Colon Tumor Cells Requires Secretion of Stem Cell Factor by Differentiated Tumor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatrai, Szabolcs; Van Schelven, Susanne J.; Ubink, Inge; Govaert, Klaas M.; Raats, Danielle; Koster, Jan; Verheem, Andre; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Kranenburg, Onno

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Colon tumors contain a fraction of undifferentiated stem cell-like cancer cells with high tumorigenic potential. Little is known about the signals that maintain these stem-like cells. We investigated whether differentiated tumor cells provide support. Methods We established

  10. Immuno-Magnetic Isolation and Thermogenic Differentiation of White Adipose Tissue Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Rohollah; Bayindir-Buchhalter, Irem; Meln, Irina; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate cell models are necessary for the investigation of thermogenic beige adipocyte differentiation from progenitor cells. Here, we describe a primary cell culture method that is based on defined progenitor cells from murine white adipose tissue and aims at minimizing confounding factors including cell heterogeneity and nonphysiological differentiation inducers. Adipocyte progenitor cells are enriched by immuno-magnetic separation, expanded minimally, and induced for beige adipocyte differentiation with carbaprostacyclin, a stable analogue of the endogenous mediator PGI 2 .

  11. Capacity of Human Dental Follicle Cells to Differentiate into Neural Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Kanao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dental follicle is an ectomesenchymal tissue surrounding the developing tooth germ. Human dental follicle cells (hDFCs have the capacity to commit to differentiation into multiple cell types. Here we investigated the capacity of hDFCs to differentiate into neural cells and the efficiency of a two-step strategy involving floating neurosphere-like bodies for neural differentiation. Undifferentiated hDFCs showed a spindle-like morphology and were positive for neural markers such as nestin, β-III-tubulin, and S100β. The cellular morphology of several cells was neuronal-like including branched dendrite-like processes and neurites. Next, hDFCs were used for neurosphere formation in serum-free medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and B27 supplement. The number of cells with neuronal-like morphology and that were strongly positive for neural markers increased with sphere formation. Gene expression of neural markers also increased in hDFCs with sphere formation. Next, gene expression of neural markers was examined in hDFCs during neuronal differentiation after sphere formation. Expression of Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, MAP2, GFAP, MBP, and SOX10 was upregulated in hDFCs undergoing neuronal differentiation via neurospheres, whereas expression of nestin and β-III-tubulin was downregulated. In conclusion, hDFCs may be another optimal source of neural/glial cells for cell-based therapies to treat neurological diseases.

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  13. Sulfur mustard vapor effects on differentiated human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Weber, Waylon M.; Grotendorst, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Context sulfur mustard (SM) causes skin blistering and long-term pulmonary dysfunction. Its adverse effects have been studied in battlefield-exposed humans, but lack of knowledge regarding confounding factors makes interpretation challenging. Animal studies are critical to understanding mechanisms, but differences between animals and humans must be addressed. Studies of cultured human cells can bridge animal studies and humans. Objective Evaluate effects of SM vapor on airway cells. Materials and methods We examined responses of differentiated human tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells, cultured at an air-liquid interface, to SM vapors. SM effects on metabolic activity (Water Soluble Tetrazolium (WST) assay), cytokine and metalloproteinase secretion, and cellular heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress indicator, were measured after 24 h. Results At noncytotoxic levels of exposure, interleukin 8 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 were significantly increased in these cultures, but HO-1 was not significantly affected. Discussion and conclusion Exposure of differentiated airway epithelial cells to sub-cytotoxic levels of SM vapor induced inflammatory and degradative responses that could contribute to the adverse health effects of inhaled SM. PMID:20569120

  14. Tumor necrosis factor (cachetin) decreases adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J.; Jones, D.D.; Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cachetin has been shown to effect gene product expression in the established adipose cell line 3T3-L1. Expression of messenger RNA for lipoprotein lipase is suppressed in cultured adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cachetin on adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture. Stromalvascular cells obtained from the inguinal fat pad of 4-5 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were grown in culture for two weeks. During the proliferative growth phase all cells were grown on the same medium and labelled with 3 H-thymidine. Cachetin treatment (10 -6 to 10 -10 M) was initiated on day 5, the initial phase of preadipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes and stromal cells were separated using density gradient, and 3 H-thymidine was determined for both cell types. Thymidine incorporation into adipose cells was decreased maximally (∼ 50%) at 10 -10 M. Stromalvascular cells were not influenced at any of the doses tested. Adipose cell lipid content as indicated by oil red-O staining was decreased by Cachetin. Esterase staining by adipose cells treated with Cachetin was increased indicating an increase in intracellular lipase. These studies show that Cachetin has specific effects on primary adipose cell differentiation

  15. Effect of cell density on adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongxu [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Guo, Likun [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wozniak, Michal J. [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kawazoe, Naoki [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tateishi, Tetsuya [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Zhang, Xingdong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Guoping, E-mail: Guoping.CHEN@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2009-04-10

    The effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was investigated by using a patterning technique to induce the formation of a cell density gradient on a micropatterned surface. The adipogenic differentiation of MSCs at a density gradient from 5 x 10{sup 3} to 3 x 10{sup 4} cells/cm{sup 2} was examined. Lipid vacuoles were observed at all cell densities after 1-3 weeks of culture in adipogenic differentiation medium although the lipid vacuoles were scarce at the low cell density and abundant at the high cell density. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that adipogenesis marker genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) were detected in the MSCs cultured at all cell densities. The results suggest that there was no apparent effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

  16. Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Easley, IV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been shown to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs but not into spermatogonia, haploid spermatocytes, or spermatids. Here, we show that hESCs and hiPSCs differentiate directly into advanced male germ cell lineages, including postmeiotic, spermatid-like cells, in vitro without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, our procedure mirrors spermatogenesis in vivo by differentiating PSCs into UTF1-, PLZF-, and CDH1-positive spermatogonia-like cells; HIWI- and HILI-positive spermatocyte-like cells; and haploid cells expressing acrosin, transition protein 1, and protamine 1 (proteins that are uniquely found in spermatids and/or sperm. These spermatids show uniparental genomic imprints similar to those of human sperm on two loci: H19 and IGF2. These results demonstrate that male PSCs have the ability to differentiate directly into advanced germ cell lineages and may represent a novel strategy for studying spermatogenesis in vitro.

  17. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Cristina [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Raimondo, Stefania [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, University of Turin (Italy); Haneef, Maryam S. [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Geuna, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, University of Turin (Italy); Terenghi, Giorgio [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Shawcross, Susan G., E-mail: sue.shawcross@manchester.ac.uk [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Wiberg, Mikael [Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker{sup Registered-Sign} staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  18. Wnt/β-catenin Inhibits Dental Pulp Stem Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, E.L.; Chang, J.; Wang, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a unique precursor population isolated from post-natal human dental pulp and have the ability to regenerate a reparative dentin-like complex. Canonical Wnt signaling plays a critical role in tooth development and stem cell self-renewal through β-catenin. In this study, the regulation of odontoblast-like differentiation of DPSCs by canonical Wnt signaling was examined. DPSCs were stably transduced with canonical Wnt-1 or the active form of β-catenin, with retrovirus-mediated infection. Northern blot analysis found that Wnt-1 strongly induced the expression of matricellular protein osteopontin, and modestly enhanced the expression of type I collagen in DPSCs. Unexpectedly, Wnt-1 inhibited alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the formation of mineralized nodules in DPSCs. Moreover, over-expression of β-catenin was also sufficient to suppress the differentiation and mineralization of DPSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that canonical Wnt signaling negatively regulates the odontoblast-like differentiation of DPSCs. PMID:18218837

  19. Huntingtin Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Division and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Elias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington’s disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties.

  20. Response of Turkey Muscle Satellite Cells to Thermal Challenge. II. Transcriptome Effects in Differentiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development.Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected and RBC2 (randombred control line were used in this study. Cultured cells were induced to differentiate at 38°C (control or thermal challenge temperatures of 33 or 43°C. After 48 h of differentiation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated for RNAseq analysis. Analysis of 39.9 Gb of sequence found 89% mapped to the turkey genome (UMD5.0, annotation 101 with average expression of 18,917 genes per library. In the cultured satellite cells, slow/cardiac muscle isoforms are generally present in greater abundance than fast skeletal isoforms. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines, with a greater number of genes affected in the F-line cells following cold treatment whereas more differentially expressed (DE genes were observed in the RBC2 cells following heat treatment. Many of the most significant pathways involved signaling, consistent with ongoing cellular differentiation. Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis appears to be significantly affected by temperature treatment, particularly cold treatment.Conclusions: Satellite cell differentiation is directly influenced by temperature at the level of gene transcription with greater effects attributed to selection for fast growth. At lower temperature, muscle-associated genes in the

  1. Radotinib Induces Apoptosis of CD11b+ Cells Differentiated from Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Kyoung Heo

    Full Text Available Radotinib, developed as a BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, is approved for the second-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML in South Korea. However, therapeutic effects of radotinib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML are unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that radotinib significantly decreases the viability of AML cells in a dose-dependent manner. Kasumi-1 cells were more sensitive to radotinib than NB4, HL60, or THP-1 cell lines. Furthermore, radotinib induced CD11b expression in NB4, THP-1, and Kasumi-1 cells either in presence or absence of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA. We found that radotinib promoted differentiation and induced CD11b expression in AML cells by downregulating LYN. However, CD11b expression induced by ATRA in HL60 cells was decreased by radotinib through upregulation of LYN. Furthermore, radotinib mainly induced apoptosis of CD11b+ cells in the total population of AML cells. Radotinib also increased apoptosis of CD11b+ HL60 cells when they were differentiated by ATRA/dasatinib treatment. We show that radotinib induced apoptosis via caspase-3 activation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm in CD11b+ cells differentiated from AML cells. Our results suggest that radotinib may be used as a candidate drug in AML or a chemosensitizer for treatment of AML by other therapeutics.

  2. [Neuronal differentiation of human small cell lung cancer cell line PC-6 by Solcoseryl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T

    1997-11-01

    Solcoseryl is composed of extracts from calf blood, and is a drug known to activate tissue respiration. In the present study, I demonstrated the cell biological effects of Solcoseryl on a human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6, by analyzing cell morphology, cell growth, expression of neuronal differentiation markers, and the ras proto-oncogene product(ras p21). Exposure of PC-6 cells to Solcoseryl at the concentration of 200 microliters/ml induced (1) cell morphological changes, including neurodendrite-like projections from the cell surface, and (2) complete inhibition of cell growth, that was shown by the loss of Ki-67 expression. Solcoseryl also induced the expression of neurofilament protein and acetylcholinesterase, both of which are markers of neuronal differentiation. Moreover, it upregulated the expression of the ras proto-oncogene product, ras p21. Taken together, these data suggest that Solcoseryl is composed of component(s) which can induce neuronal differentiation of the human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6.

  3. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Interleukin-21 Drives Proliferation and Differentiation of Porcine Memory B Cells into Antibody Secreting Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Rahe

    Full Text Available Immunological prevention of infectious disease, especially viral, is based on antigen-specific long-lived memory B cells. To test for cellular proliferation and differentiation factors in swine, an outbred model for humans, CD21+ B cells were activated in vitro with CD40L and stimulated with purported stimulatory cytokines to characterize functional responses. IL-21 induced a 3-fold expansion in total cell numbers with roughly 15% of all B cells differentiating to IgM or IgG antibody secreting cells (ASCs. However, even with robust proliferation, cellular viability rapidly deteriorated. Therefore, a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL and B cell activating factor (BAFF were evaluated as survival and maintenance factors. BAFF was effective at enhancing the viability of mature B cells as well as ASCs, while APRIL was only effective for ASCs. Both cytokines increased approximately two-fold the amount of IgM and IgG which was secreted by IL-21 differentiated ASCs. Mature B cells from porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV immune and naïve age-matched pigs were activated and treated with IL-21 and then tested for memory cell differentiation using a PRRSV non-structural protein 7 ELISPOT and ELISA. PRRSV immune pigs were positive on both ELISPOT and ELISA while naïve animals were negative on both assays. These results highlight the IL-21-driven expansion and differentiation of memory B cells in vitro without stimulation of the surface immunoglobulin receptor complex, as well as the establishment of a defined memory B cell culture system for characterization of vaccine responses in outbred animals.

  5. Transient expression of Olig1 initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; Timmer, N; Kust, B; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient strategy to induce the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NSCs were isolated from E14 mice and grown in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Besides supplementing

  6. Differentiation-Dependent Glycosylation of Cells in Squamous Cell Epithelia Detected by a Mammalian Lectin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plzák, J.; Holíková, Z.; Smetana Jr., K.; Dvořánková, B.; Hercogová, J.; Kaltner, H.; Motlík, Jan; Gabius, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 171, - (2002), s. 135-144 ISSN 1422-6405 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : carcinoma * basal cell * cell differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2002

  7. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  8. Wnt signaling-mediated redox regulation maintains the germ line stem cell differentiation niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Gao, Yuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Ma, Xing; Zhu, Xiujuan; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhihao; Ni, Jianquan; Li, Hua; Malanowski, Kathryn E; Anoja, Perera; Park, Jungeun; Haug, Jeff; Xie, Ting

    2015-10-09

    Adult stem cells continuously undergo self-renewal and generate differentiated cells. In the Drosophila ovary, two separate niches control germ line stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation processes. Compared to the self-renewing niche, relatively little is known about the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche. In this study, we show that the cellular redox state regulated by Wnt signaling is critical for the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche to promote GSC progeny differentiation. Defective Wnt signaling causes the loss of the differentiation niche and the upregulated BMP signaling in differentiated GSC progeny, thereby disrupting germ cell differentiation. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls the expression of multiple glutathione-S-transferase family genes and the cellular redox state. Finally, Wnt2 and Wnt4 function redundantly to maintain active Wnt signaling in the differentiation niche. Therefore, this study has revealed a novel strategy for Wnt signaling in regulating the cellular redox state and maintaining the differentiation niche.

  9. Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Dystonin Is Not Critical to Terminal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation or CNS Myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Samantha F; Lynch-Godrei, Anisha; Bonin, Sawyer R; Gibeault, Sabrina; De Repentigny, Yves; Kothary, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as was myelin basic

  10. Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Dystonin Is Not Critical to Terminal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation or CNS Myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha F Kornfeld

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as

  11. Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, L; Fernández, S; López, T

    1976-12-01

    Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos, (membrana celular y uniones celulares en la diferenciación del embrión de ratón antes de la implantación). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 130-134, 1976. The development of cell junctions that seal the peripheral blastomeres could be a decisive step in the differentiation of morulae into blastocysts. The appearance of these junctions is studied by electron microscopy of late morulae and initial blastocysts. Zonulae occludentes as well as impermeability to lanthanum emulsion precedes the appearance of the blastocel and hence might be considered as one of its necessary causes.

  12. Differentiation of Wharton's jelly primitive stromal cells into insulin-producing cells in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Fang; Wang, Ni-Na; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Wei, Xing

    2009-10-01

    Primitive stromal cells can be isolated from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (UC-PSCs). Umbilical cord can be easily obtained without causing pain to donors, and the procedure avoids ethical and technical issues. UC-PSCs are more primitive than mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from some other tissue sources. In this study, UC-PSCs were induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells, and compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) for their pancreatic differentiation potential. UC-PSCs showed significantly higher proliferation than BM-MSCs. During pancreatic induction, UC-PSCs formed larger islet-like cell clusters than BM-MSCs. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that higher expression of the pancreatic-specific transcription factor PDX-1 was detected in differentiated UC-PSCs than in differentiated BM-MSCs. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the percentage of differentiated UC-PSCs expressing pancreatic-specific marker C-peptide was 72% higher than differentiated BM-MSCs. Radioimmunoassay revealed that differentiated UC-PSCs secreted significantly more insulin than differentiated BM-MSCs. These results demonstrated that UC-PSCs had higher pancreatic differentiation potential than BM-MSCs. Therefore, UC-PSCs are more suitable for pancreatic tissue engineering in the treatment of type I diabetes than BM-MSCs.

  13. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation a multitype branching process model

    CERN Document Server

    Macken, Catherine A

    1988-01-01

    The body contains many cellular systems that require the continuous production of new, fully functional, differentiated cells to replace cells lacking or having limited self-renewal capabilities that die or are damaged during the lifetime of an individual. Such systems include the epidermis, the epithelial lining of the gut, and the blood. For example, erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack nuclei and thus are incapable of self-replication. They have a life span in the circulation of about 120 days. Mature granulocytes, which also lack proliferative capacity, have a much shorter life span - typically 12 hours, though this may be reduced to only two or three hours in times of serious tissue infection. Perhaps a more familiar example is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer is composed of fully mature, dead epidermal cells that must be replaced by the descendants of stem cells lodged in lower layers of the epidermis (cf. Alberts et al. , 1983). In total, to supply the normal steady-state demands of cells, an...

  14. A survey of Sertoli cell differentiation in men after gonadotropin suppression and in testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarulli, Gerard A; Stanton, Peter G; Loveland, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that the somatic cell population that is responsible for sperm development and output (Sertoli cells) is terminally differentiated and unmodifiable in adults. It is postulated, with little evidence, that Sertoli cells are not terminally differentiated in some phenotypes of infer......It is widely held that the somatic cell population that is responsible for sperm development and output (Sertoli cells) is terminally differentiated and unmodifiable in adults. It is postulated, with little evidence, that Sertoli cells are not terminally differentiated in some phenotypes...... of proliferation (PCNA and Ki67) and functional differentiation (androgen receptor). As additional markers of differentiation, the organization of Sertoli cell tight junction and associated proteins were assessed in specimens with carcinoma in situ. In normal men, Sertoli cells exhibited a differentiated phenotype...

  15. Functional Thyroid Follicular Cells Differentiation from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Arauchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of regenerated thyroid follicular cells (TFCs is a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with hypothyroidism. Here, we have succeeded in inducing functional TFCs from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in scalable suspension culture. Differentiation of iPSCs with Activin A treatment produced Sox17- and FoxA2-expressing definitive endodermal cells that also expressed thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1. Further treatment with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH induced TFCs expressing various types of thyroid proteins including TSH receptor, sodium–iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase. Interestingly, differentiated cells secreted free thyroxine in vitro. These results indicate successful differentiation of human iPSCs to functional TFCs that may enable us to fabricate thyroid tissues for regenerative medicine and disease models.

  16. Downregulation of LGR5 Expression Inhibits Cardiomyocyte Differentiation and Potentiates Endothelial Differentiation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Jha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding molecules involved in differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells is important in advancing hPSCs for cell therapy and drug testing. Here, we report that LGR5, a leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor, plays a critical role in hPSC differentiation into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. LGR5 expression was transiently upregulated during the early stage of cardiomyocyte differentiation, and knockdown of LGR5 resulted in reduced expression of cardiomyocyte-associated markers and poor cardiac differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of LGR5 promoted differentiation of endothelial-like cells with increased expression of endothelial cell markers and appropriate functional characteristics, including the ability to form tube-like structures and to take up acetylated low-density lipoproteins. Furthermore, knockdown of LGR5 significantly reduced the proliferation of differentiated cells and increased the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and expression of Wnt signaling-related genes. Therefore, regulation of LGR5 may facilitate efficient generation of cardiomyocytes or endothelial cells from hPSCs.

  17. Implant Surface Design Regulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, B D; Cheng, A; Olivares-Navarrete, R; Schwartz, Z

    2016-03-01

    Changes in dental implant materials, structural design, and surface properties can all affect biological response. While bulk properties are important for mechanical stability of the implant, surface design ultimately contributes to osseointegration. This article reviews the surface parameters of dental implant materials that contribute to improved cell response and osseointegration. In particular, we focus on how surface design affects mesenchymal cell response and differentiation into the osteoblast lineage. Surface roughness has been largely studied at the microscale, but recent studies have highlighted the importance of hierarchical micron/submicron/nanosurface roughness, as well as surface roughness in combination with surface wettability. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that recognize changes in the surface and mediate downstream signaling pathways. Specifically, the noncanonical Wnt5a pathway has been implicated in osteoblastic differentiation of cells on titanium implant surfaces. However, much remains to be elucidated. Only recently have studies been conducted on the differences in biological response to implants based on sex, age, and clinical factors; these all point toward differences that advocate for patient-specific implant design. Finally, challenges in implant surface characterization must be addressed to optimize and compare data across studies. An understanding of both the science and the biology of the materials is crucial for developing novel dental implant materials and surface modifications for improved osseointegration. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  18. Cell-Cell Connection Enhances Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Rat Embryonic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell interaction as one of the niche signals plays an important role in the balance of stem cell quiescence and proliferation or differentiation. In order to address the effect and the possible mechanisms of cell-cell connection on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs proliferation and differentiation, upon passaging, NSCs/NPCs were either dissociated into single cell as usual (named Group I or mechanically triturated into a mixture of single cell and small cell clusters containing direct cell-cell connections (named Group II. Then the biological behaviors including proliferation and differentiation of NSCs/NPCs were observed. Moreover, the expression of gap junction channel, neurotrophic factors and the phosphorylation status of MAPK signals were compared to investigate the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that, in comparison to the counterparts in Group I, NSCs/NPCs in Group II survived well with preferable neuronal differentiation. In coincidence with this, the expression of connexin 45 (Cx45, as well as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3 in Group II were significantly higher than those in Group I. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK2 were significantly upregulated in Group II too, while no change was found about p38. Furthermore, the differences of NSCs/NPCs biological behaviors between Group I and II completely disappeared when ERK and JNK phosphorylation were inhibited. These results indicated that cell-cell connection in Group II enhanced NSCs/NPCs survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation through upregulating the expression of gap junction and neurotrophic factors. MAPK signals- ERK and JNK might contribute to the enhancement. Efforts for maintaining the direct cell-cell connection are worth making to provide more favorable niches for NSCs/NPCs survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation.

  19. Differential effect of baicalein on ionizing radiation induced cell death in normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, R.S.; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Santosh Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one), a naturally occurring flavone, present in Indian and Chinese medicinal plants has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. Previous reports from our laboratory have elucidated the radical scavenging and radioprotective potential of this compound in cell free system. To investigate potential of baicalein as a radioprotector, we have studied its effect on normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells (EL-4 cells) in presence of radiation. Baicalein protected murine splenic lymphocytes against radiation (4Gy) induced apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide staining. It inhibited background cell death in lymphocytes whereas, baicalein induced concentration dependent cell death in EL-4 cells and did not protect against radiation induced apoptosis. Interestingly, baicalein scavenged radiation derived ROS (reactive oxygen species) in both the cell types suggesting that, it is not exhibiting differential antioxidant action. Despite scavenging radiation derived ROS, which are principal mediators of radiation induced cell death, baicalein induced cell death in EL-4 cells. To investigate the reason for this differential behavior, we investigated the effect of baicalein on pro-survival molecules viz. ERK and NF-kB. Baicalein induced phosphorylation of ERK in normal lymphocytes in a time dependent manner, but, it did not alter pERK levels in EL-4 cells. Baicalein treatment per se induced degradation of IkBα and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-kB in normal lymphocytes. Whereas, baicalein pre-treatment reduced basal NF-kB levels in EL-4 cells and it also suppressed TNF-α induced nuclear accumulation of NF-kB. This study suggests that, differential regulation of pro-survival transcription factor NF-kB may be playing a role in differential effect of baicalein in normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells. (author)

  20. Current Status of Human Adipose–Derived Stem Cells: Differentiation into Hepatocyte-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Al Battah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of human organ donors and the low cell quality of available liver tissues represent major obstacles for the clinical application of orthotropic liver transplantation and hepatocyte transplantation, respectively. Therefore, worldwide research groups are investigating alternative extrahepatic cell sources. Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from various sources, including human bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord, can be differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells when appropriate conditions are used. In particular, interest exists for human adipose–derived stems cells (hASCs as an attractive cell source for generating hepatocyte-like cells. The hASCs are multipotent MSCs that reside in adipose tissue, with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, these cells can secrete multiple growth factors and cytokines that exert beneficial effects on organ or tissue injury. In this review, we will not only present recent data regarding hASC biology, their isolation, and differentiation capability towards hepatocytes, but also the potential application of hASC-derived hepatocytes to study drug toxicity. Additionally, this review will discuss the therapeutic potential of hASCs as undifferentiated cells in liver regeneration.

  1. Differentiation of Mouse Ovarian Stem Cells Toward Oocyte-Like Structure by Coculture with Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvari, Soraya; Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Rajabi, Zahra; Gerayeli Malek, Valliollah; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence has confirmed existence and function of ovarian stem cells (OSCs). In this study, a novel approach on differentiation of OSCs into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) has been addressed. Recently, different methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of OSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate OSCs. Cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured and formed colonies were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts. For differentiation induction, colonies transferred on inactive granulosa cells. Results showed that cells in colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the pluripotency characteristics of cells. Immunofluorescence revealed a positive signal for OCT4, DAZL, MVH, and SSEA1 in colonies as well. Results of RT-PCR and immunofluorescence confirmed that some OLCs were generated within the germ stem cell (GSCs) colonies. The applicability of morphological selection for isolation of GSCs was verified. This method is easier and more economic than other techniques. Our results demonstrate that granulosa cells were effective in inducing the differentiation of OSCs into OLCs through direct cell-to-cell contacts.

  2. Odontoblast-Like Cells Differentiated from Dental Pulp Stem Cells Retain Their Phenotype after Subcultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Baldión

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontoblasts, the main cell type in teeth pulp tissue, are not cultivable and they are responsible for the first line of response after dental restauration. Studies on dental materials cytotoxicity and o