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Sample records for schroedinger picture

  1. The Schroedinger eigenvalue march

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannous, C; Langlois, J, E-mail: tannous@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, BP: 809 Brest CEDEX 29285 (France)

    2011-11-15

    A simple numerical method for the determination of Schroedinger equation eigenvalues is introduced. It is based on a marching process that starts from an arbitrary point, proceeds in two opposite directions simultaneously and stops after a tolerance criterion is met. The method is applied to solving several 1D potential problems including symmetric double-well (ammonia inversion problem) and Johnson asymmetric potentials, 3D hydrogen atom and Morse potential. Band structure calculation can equally be tackled by extending marching to the complex plane as illustrated with the Kronig-Penney problem.

  2. Effective Schroedinger equations on submanifolds

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    Wachsmuth, Jakob

    2010-02-11

    In this thesis the time dependent Schroedinger equation is considered on a Riemannian manifold A with a potential that localizes a certain class of states close to a fixed submanifold C, the constraint manifold. When the potential is scaled in the directions normal to C by a small parameter epsilon, the solutions concentrate in an epsilon-neighborhood of the submanifold. An effective Schroedinger equation on the submanifold C is derived and it is shown that its solutions, suitably lifted to A, approximate the solutions of the original equation on A up to errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3} vertical stroke t vertical stroke at time t. Furthermore, it is proved that, under reasonable conditions, the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonians below a certain energy coincide upto errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3}. These results holds in the situation where tangential and normal energies are of the same order, and where exchange between normal and tangential energies occurs. In earlier results tangential energies were assumed to be small compared to normal energies, and rather restrictive assumptions were needed, to ensure that the separation of energies is maintained during the time evolution. The most important consequence of this thesis is that now constraining potentials that change their shape along the submanifold can be treated, which is the typical situation in applications like molecular dynamics and quantum waveguides.

  3. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  4. Erwin Schroedinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogryzko Vasily V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Schroedinger's book 'What is Life?' is widely credited for having played a crucial role in development of molecular and cellular biology. My essay revisits the issues raised by this book from the modern perspective of epigenetics and systems biology. I contrast two classes of potential mechanisms of epigenetic stability: 'epigenetic templating' and 'systems biology' approaches, and consider them from the point of view expressed by Schroedinger. I also discuss how quantum entanglement, a nonclassical feature of quantum mechanics, can help to address the 'problem of small numbers' that led Schroedinger to promote the idea of a molecular code-script for explaining the stability of biological order.

  5. Erwin Schroedinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogryzko, Vasily V

    2008-04-17

    Schroedinger's book 'What is Life?' is widely credited for having played a crucial role in development of molecular and cellular biology. My essay revisits the issues raised by this book from the modern perspective of epigenetics and systems biology. I contrast two classes of potential mechanisms of epigenetic stability: 'epigenetic templating' and 'systems biology' approaches, and consider them from the point of view expressed by Schroedinger. I also discuss how quantum entanglement, a nonclassical feature of quantum mechanics, can help to address the 'problem of small numbers' that led Schroedinger to promote the idea of a molecular code-script for explaining the stability of biological order.

  6. Schroedinger equation for bosons and fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniadakis, G. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unita del Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-10-09

    We propose a non-linear Schroedinger equation describing the dynamics of bosons or fermions in an effective external force field. This equation is obtained by quantization of a stochastic Markovian process obeying a generalized exclusion principle. (orig.).

  7. Philosophy of Erwin Schroedinger: a diachronic view of Schroedinger's thoughts

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    Melgar, M.F.

    1988-03-01

    There is no agreement within the scientific community about the philosophy of Schroedinger. Some people think that he was a realist, while others defend him as an idealist. In this paper we study a number of Schroedinger's works and we show that the epithets of realist and idealist do not do him justice. Toward the end we conclude that it would be more adequate to place him in the trend known as the philosophy of immanence.

  8. A reliable treatment for nonlinear Schroedinger equations

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    Khani, F. [Department of Mathematics, Ilam University, PO Box 69315516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics, Bakhtar Institute of Higher Education, PO Box 696, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: farzad_khani59@yahoo.com; Hamedi-Nezhad, S. [Department of Mathematics, Bakhtar Institute of Higher Education, PO Box 696, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: s_hamedi2001@yahoo.com; Molabahrami, A. [Department of Mathematics, Ilam University, PO Box 69315516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: a_m_bahrami@yahoo.com

    2007-11-12

    Exp-function method is used to find a unified solution of nonlinear wave equation. Nonlinear Schroedinger equations with cubic and power law nonlinearity are selected to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the method. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equation.

  9. Schroedinger upper bounds to semirelativistic eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Richard L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lucha, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-09-16

    Problems posed by semirelativistic Hamiltonians of the form H = {radical}(m{sup 2} + p{sup 2}) + V(r) are studied. It is shown that energy upper bounds can be constructed in terms of certain related Schroedinger operators; these bounds include free parameters which can be chosen optimally.

  10. A life of Erwin Schroedinger. 2. ed.; Erwin Schroedinger. Eine Biographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Walter J.

    2015-07-01

    Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) was a pioneer of quantum physics, one of the most important scientist of the 20th century at all and a charming Austrian. He was a man with a passionate interest for men and ideas. Mostly known he became by his representation of quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics, for which he obtained the Nobel prize for physics and naturally by the famous thought experiment ''Schroedingers cat''. Walter Moore's biography is quite near to the person of Schroedinger and presents his scientific work in the context of his friendships, his interset for mysticism, and in front of the moving background of the political events in Germany and Austria.

  11. Orbital stability of standing waves for some nonlinear Schroedinger equations

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    Cazenave, T.; Lions, P.L.

    1982-08-01

    We present a general method which enables as to prove the orbital stability of some standing waves in nonlinear Schroedinger equations. For example, we treat the cases of nonlinear Schroedinger equations arising in laser beams, of time-dependent Hartree equations.

  12. The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra. Mathematical structure and dynamical Schroedinger symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterberger, Jeremie [Henri Poincare Univ., Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Inst. Elie Cartan; Roger, Claude [Lyon I Univ., Villeurbanne (France). Dept. de Mathematiques

    2012-07-01

    This monograph provides the first up-to-date and self-contained presentation of a recently discovered mathematical structure the Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra. Just as Poincare invariance or conformal (Virasoro) invariance play a key role in understanding, respectively, elementary particles and two-dimensional equilibrium statistical physics, this algebra of non-relativistic conformal symmetries may be expected to apply itself naturally to the study of some models of non-equilibrium statistical physics, or more specifically in the context of recent developments related to the non-relativistic AdS/CFT correspondence. The study of the structure of this infinite-dimensional Lie algebra touches upon topics as various as statistical physics, vertex algebras, Poisson geometry, integrable systems and supergeometry as well as representation theory, the cohomology of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, and the spectral theory of Schroedinger operators. (orig.)

  13. Schroedinger operators and evolutionary strategies; Schroedinger-Operatoren und Evolutionaere Strategien

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    Asselmeyer, T.

    1997-12-22

    First we introduce a simple model for the description of evolutionary algorithms, which is based on 2nd order partial differential equations for the distribution function of the individuals. Then we turn to the properties of Boltzmann's and Darwin's strategy. the next chapter is dedicated to the mathematical properties of Schroedinger operators. Both statements on the spectral density and their reproducibility during the simulation are summarized. The remaining of this chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the kernel as well as the dependence of the Schroedinger operator on the potential. As conclusion from the results of this chapter we obtain the classification of the strategies in dependence of the fitness. We obtain the classification of the evolutionary strategies, which are described by a 2nd order partial differential equation, in relation to their solution behaviour. Thereafter we are employed with the variation of the mutation distribution.

  14. Cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with vorticity

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    Caliari, M; Morato, L M; Zuccher, S [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita di Verona, Ca' Vignal 2, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Loffredo, M I [Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche ed Informatiche, Universita di Siena, Pian dei Mantellini 44, 53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: marco.caliari@univr.it, E-mail: loffredo@unisi.it, E-mail: laura.morato@univr.it, E-mail: zuccher@sci.univr.it

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of nonlinear Schroedinger equations (NLSEs), with an electromagnetic potential (A,{phi}), both depending on the wavefunction {psi}. The scalar potential {phi} depends on |{psi}|{sup 2}, whereas the vector potential A satisfies the equation of magnetohydrodynamics with coefficient depending on {psi}. In Madelung variables, the velocity field comes to be not irrotational in general and we prove that the vorticity induces dissipation, until the dynamical equilibrium is reached. The expression of the rate of dissipation is common to all NLSEs in the class. We show that they are a particular case of the one-particle dynamics out of dynamical equilibrium for a system of N identical interacting Bose particles, as recently described within stochastic quantization by Lagrangian variational principle. The cubic case is discussed in particular. Results of numerical experiments for rotational excitations of the ground state in a finite two-dimensional trap with harmonic potential are reported.

  15. Diophantine approximation and the solubility of the Schroedinger equation

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    Kristensen, Simon

    2003-07-21

    We characterise the set of periods for which number theoretical obstructions prevent us from finding periodic solutions of the Schroedinger equation on a two-dimensional torus as well as the asymptotic occurrence of possible resonances.

  16. Bell's theorem and quantum realism. Reassessment in light of the Schroedinger paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakur, Asif M. [Salisbury Univ., MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hemmick, Douglas L.

    2012-07-01

    Quantum theory presents a strange picture of the world, offering no real account of physical properties apart from observation. Neils Bohr felt that this reflected a core truth of nature: ''There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract mathematical description.'' Among the most significant developments since Bohr's day has been the theorem of John S. Bell. It is important to consider whether Bell's analysis supports such a denial of microrealism. In this book, we evaluate the situation in terms of an early work of Erwin Schroedinger. Doing so, we see how Bell's theorem is conceptually related to the Conway and Kochen Free Will theorem and also to all the major anti-realism efforts. It is easy to show that none of these analyses imply the impossibility of objective realism. We find that Schroedinger's work leads to the derivation of a new series of theoretical proofs and potential experiments, each involving ''entanglement,'' the link between particles in some quantum systems. (orig.)

  17. Spectral Target Detection using Schroedinger Eigenmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.

    Applications of optical remote sensing processes include environmental monitoring, military monitoring, meteorology, mapping, surveillance, etc. Many of these tasks include the detection of specific objects or materials, usually few or small, which are surrounded by other materials that clutter the scene and hide the relevant information. This target detection process has been boosted lately by the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) since its high spectral dimension provides more detailed spectral information that is desirable in data exploitation. Typical spectral target detectors rely on statistical or geometric models to characterize the spectral variability of the data. However, in many cases these parametric models do not fit well HSI data that impacts the detection performance. On the other hand, non-linear transformation methods, mainly based on manifold learning algorithms, have shown a potential use in HSI transformation, dimensionality reduction and classification. In target detection, non-linear transformation algorithms are used as preprocessing techniques that transform the data to a more suitable lower dimensional space, where the statistical or geometric detectors are applied. One of these non-linear manifold methods is the Schroedinger Eigenmaps (SE) algorithm that has been introduced as a technique for semi-supervised classification. The core tool of the SE algorithm is the Schroedinger operator that includes a potential term that encodes prior information about the materials present in a scene, and enables the embedding to be steered in some convenient directions in order to cluster similar pixels together. A completely novel target detection methodology based on SE algorithm is proposed for the first time in this thesis. The proposed methodology does not just include the transformation of the data to a lower dimensional space but also includes the definition of a detector that capitalizes on the theory behind SE. The fact that target pixels and

  18. Random discrete Schroedinger operators from random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Jonathan [Institute of Mathematics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Forrester, Peter J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010 (Australia); Smilansky, Uzy [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2007-02-02

    We investigate random, discrete Schroedinger operators which arise naturally in the theory of random matrices, and depend parametrically on Dyson's Coulomb gas inverse temperature {beta}. They are similar to the class of 'critical' random Schroedinger operators with random potentials which diminish as vertical bar x vertical bar{sup -1/2}. We show that as a function of {beta} they undergo a transition from a regime of (power-law) localized eigenstates with a pure point spectrum for {beta} < 2 to a regime of extended states with a singular continuous spectrum for {beta} {>=} 2. (fast track communication)

  19. Intertwining operator method and supersymmetry for effective mass Schroedinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzko, A.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); JIPENP, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)], E-mail: suzko@cv.jinr.ru; Schulze-Halberg, A. [Mathematics Department, University of Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima 28045 (Mexico)], E-mail: xbat@ucol.mx

    2008-09-08

    By application of the intertwining operator method to Schroedinger equations with position-dependent (effective) mass, we construct Darboux transformations, establish the supersymmetry factorization technique and show equivalence of both formalisms. Our findings prove equivalence of the intertwining technique and the method of point transformations.

  20. Evaluation of eigenvalues of a smooth potential via Schroedinger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evaluation of eigenvalues of a smooth potential via Schroedinger transmission across multi-step potential. BASUDEB SAHU1,∗, BIDHUBHUSAN SAHU1 and SANTOSH K AGARWALLA2. 1Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada 757 003, India. 2Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, Fakir Mohan ...

  1. Ehrenfest theorem, Galilean invariance and nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaelbermann, G [Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2004-02-25

    We prove that Galilean invariant Schroedinger equations derived from Lagrangian densities necessarily obey the Ehrenfest theorem for velocity-independent potentials. The conclusion holds as well for Lagrangians describing nonlinear self-interactions. An example of Doebner and Goldin motivates the result.

  2. Representations of the Schroedinger group and matrix orthogonal polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinet, Luc [Centre de recherches mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei, E-mail: luc.vinet@umontreal.ca, E-mail: zhedanov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2011-09-02

    The representations of the Schroedinger group in one space dimension are explicitly constructed in the basis of the harmonic oscillator states. These representations are seen to involve matrix orthogonal polynomials in a discrete variable that have Charlier and Meixner polynomials as building blocks. The underlying Lie-theoretic framework allows for a systematic derivation of the structural formulas (recurrence relations, difference equations, Rodrigues' formula, etc) that these matrix orthogonal polynomials satisfy. (paper)

  3. Solution of the Schroedinger equation in two and three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj, F.Y. (National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon))

    1985-01-14

    Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger equation are computed by a finite-difference method that is very simple and fast. In two dimensions, the ground state of helium and that of the hydride ion are computed in the S-limit approximation. In three dimensions, the computations include the ground state of the unapproximated helium atom and that of the lithium atom in the S-limit approximation.

  4. Schroedinger invariant solutions of type IIB with enhanced supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Group; Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences

    2009-07-15

    We construct the Killing spinors for a class of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic Schroedinger algebra. The solutions depend on a five-dimensional Sasaki- Einstein space and it has been shown that they admit two Killing spinors. Here we will show that, for generic Sasaki-Einstein space, there are special subclasses of solutions which admit six Killing spinors and we determine the corresponding superisometry algebra. We also show that for the special case that the Sasaki-Einstein space is the round five-sphere, the number of Killing spinors can be increased to twelve. (orig.)

  5. Numerical stochastic perturbation theory in the Schroedinger functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Michele; Di Renzo, Francesco; Hesse, Dirk [Parma Univ. (Italy); INFN, Parma (Italy); Dalla Brida, Mattia [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-11-15

    The Schroedinger functional (SF) is a powerful and widely used tool for the treatment of a variety of problems in renormalization and related areas. Albeit offering many conceptual advantages, one major downside of the SF scheme is the fact that perturbative calculations quickly become cumbersome with the inclusion of higher orders in the gauge coupling and hence the use of an automated perturbation theory framework is desirable. We present the implementation of the SF in numerical stochastic perturbation theory (NSPT) and compare first results for the running coupling at two loops in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with the literature.

  6. A new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino (Italy)

    2004-03-12

    We present a new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation applicable to problems of a non-perturbative nature. The method works by identifying three different scales in the problem, which then are treated independently: an asymptotic scale, which depends uniquely on the form of the potential at large distances; an intermediate scale, still characterized by an exponential decay of the wavefunction; and, finally, a short distance scale, in which the wavefunction is sizable. The notion of optimized perturbation is then used in the last two regimes. We apply the method to the quantum anharmonic oscillator and find it suitable to treat both energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions, even for strong couplings.

  7. Asymptotics of weakly collapsing solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, Yu N

    2001-01-01

    One studied possible types of asymptotic behavior of weakly collapsing solution of the 3-rd nonlinear Schroedinger equation. It is shown that within left brace A, C sub 1 right brace parameter space there are two neighboring lines along which the amplitude of oscillation terms is exponentially small as to C sub 1 parameter. The same lines locates values of left brace A, C sub 1 right brace parameters at which the energy is equal to zero. With increase of C sub 1 parameter the accuracy of numerical determination of points with zero energy drops abruptly

  8. Rapidly decaying solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, T. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. d' Analyse Numerique); Weissler, F.B. (ENS, 94 - Cachan (France). Centre de Mathematiques Paris-7 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). UFR de Sciences)

    1992-06-01

    We consider global solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation iu{sub t}+{Delta}u={lambda}vertical strokeuvertical stroke{sup {alpha}}u, in R{sup N}, (NLS) where {lambda}{epsilon}R and 0<{alpha}< 4/N-2. In particular, for {alpha}>{alpha}{sub 0}=(2-N+{radical}(N{sup 2}+12N+4))/2N, we show that for every ({phi}{epsilon}H{sup 1}(R{sup N}) such that x{phi}(x){epsilon}L{sup 2}(R{sup N}), the solution of (NLS) with initial value {phi}(x)e{sup i(bvertical} {sup strokexvertical} {sup stroke2/4)} is global and rapidly decaying as t{yields}{infinity} if b is large enough. Furthermore, by applying the pseudo-conformal transformation and studying the resulting nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we obtain both new results and simpler proofs of some known results concerning the scattering theory. In particular, we construct the wave operators for 4/N+2<{alpha}<4/N-2. Also, we establish a low energy scattering theory for the same range of {alpha} and show that, at least for {lambda}<0, the lower bound on {alpha} is optimal. Finally, if {lambda}>0, we prove asymptotic completeness for {alpha}{sub 0}{<=}{alpha}<4/N-2. (orig.).

  9. A numerical study of the Schroedinger-Newton equations

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, R I

    2001-01-01

    and added perturbations oscillate at frequencies determined by the linear perturbation theory. The higher states are shown to be unstable, emitting scatter and leaving a rescaled ground state. The rate at which they decay is controlled by the complex eigenvalues of the linear perturbation. Next we consider adding another dimension in two different ways: by considering the axisymmetric case and the 2-D equations. The stationary solutions are found. We modify the evolution method and find that the higher states are unstable. In 2-D case we consider rigidly rotating solutions and show they exist and are unstable. The Schroedinger-Newton (S-N) equations were proposed by Penrose [18] as a model for gravitational collapse of the wave-function. The potential in the Schroedinger equation is the gravity due to the density of vertical bar psi vertical bar sup 2 , where psi is the wave-function. As with normal Quantum Mechanics the probability, momentum and angular momentum are conserved. We first consider the spherical...

  10. A formal derivation of the Gibbs entropy for classical systems following the Schroedinger quantum mechanical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M [Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Monterrey, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Autopista Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km 10, 66600 Apodaca NL (Mexico); Zeron, E S [Departamento de Matematicas, Cinvestav-IPN, 07000 Mexico DF (Mexico); Rio-Correa, J L del [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: msantillan@cinvestav.mx, E-mail: eszeron@math.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: jlrc@xanum.uam.mx

    2008-05-15

    In the traditional statistical mechanics textbooks, the entropy concept is first introduced for the microcanonical ensemble and then extended to the canonical and grand-canonical cases. However, in the authors' experience, this procedure makes it difficult for the student to see the bigger picture and, although quite ingenuous, the subtleness of the demonstrations to pass from the microcanonical to the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles is hard to grasp. In the present work, we adapt the approach used by Schroedinger to introduce the entropy definition for quantum mechanical systems to derive a classical mechanical entropy definition, which is valid for all ensembles and is in complete agreement with the Gibbs entropy. Afterwards, we show how the specific probability densities for the microcanonical and canonical ensembles can be obtained from the system macrostate, the entropy definition and the second law of thermodynamics. After teaching the approach introduced in this paper for several years, we have found that it allows a better understanding of the statistical mechanics foundations. On the other hand, since it demands previous knowledge of thermodynamics and mathematical analysis, in our experience this approach is more adequate for final-year undergraduate and graduate physics students.

  11. The Schroedinger representation and its relation to the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeckl, Robert [Centro de Ciencias Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, C.P. 58190, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    We establish a precise isomorphism between the Schroedinger representation and the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory. In the linear case, this isomorphism is induced by a one-to-one correspondence between complex structures and Schroedinger vacua. In the affine case we obtain similar results, with the role of the vacuum now taken by a whole family of coherent states. In order to establish these results we exhibit a rigorous construction of the Schroedinger representation and use a suitable generalization of the Segal-Bargmann transform. Our construction is based on geometric quantization and applies to any real polarization and its pairing with any Kaehler polarization.

  12. Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation

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    Zamboni-Rached, Michel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DMO/FEEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Microondas e Optica; Recami, Erasmo, E-mail: recami@mi.infn.i [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria

    2011-07-01

    In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)

  13. From qubits and actions to the Pauli-Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, Salomon S [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: salomon@df.ufscar.br

    2009-07-15

    Here I show that a classical or quantum bit state plus one simple operation, an action, are sufficient ingredients to derive a quantum dynamical equation that rules the sequential changes of the state. Then, by assuming that a freely moving massive particle is the qubit carrier, it is found that both, the particle position in physical space and the qubit state, change in time according to the Pauli-Schroedinger equation. So, this approach suggests the following conjecture: because it carries one qubit of information the particle motion has its description enslaved by the very existence of the internal degree of freedom. It is compelled to be described no more classically but by a wavefunction. I also briefly discuss the Dirac equation in terms of qubits.

  14. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  15. Accurate calculation of the complex eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation with an exponential potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)], E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com; Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2008-04-28

    We show that the Riccati-Pade method is suitable for the calculation of the complex eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation with a repulsive exponential potential. The accuracy of the results is remarkable for realistic potential parameters.

  16. Breathers and solitons of generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equations as degenerations of algebro-geometric solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalla, C, E-mail: Caroline.Kalla@u-bourgogne.fr [Institut de Mathematiques de Bourgogne, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2011-08-19

    We present new solutions in terms of elementary functions of the multi-component nonlinear Schroedinger equations and known solutions of the Davey-Stewartson equations such as multi-soliton, breather, dromion and lump solutions. These solutions are given in a simple determinantal form and are obtained as limiting cases in suitable degenerations of previously derived algebro-geometric solutions. In particular, we present for the first time breather and rational breather solutions of the multi-component nonlinear Schroedinger equations.

  17. Picture Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Ways in which to use "picture talk" (proverbs, similes, idioms, and witcracks) in language arts activities for elementary school students are described, including: writing and illustrating expressions; changing expressions; and interpreting expressions. (CB)

  18. Picture perfect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Picture perfect’ – when perfection becomes the new normal This paper draws on perspectives from three different studies. One study, which focuses on youth life and lack of well-being (Sørensen et al 2011), one study on youth life on the margins of society (Katznelson et al 2015) and one study...

  19. On the chirally rotated Schroedinger functional with Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, Jenifer

    2011-05-25

    There are many phenomena in nature, which are closely linked to the low energy regime of QCD. From a theoretical point of view, these low energy phenomena can be dealt with only by means of non-perturbative methods. It is the central goal of this thesis to provide a framework for such a nonperturbative renormalization. For that purpose, we employ a 4-dimensional lattice as a regulator of QCD. As a renormalization scheme, we propose a finite volume Schroedinger functional scheme and here in particular, the chirally rotated Schroedinger functional ({chi}SF). We first perform analytical studies of the {chi}SF at tree-level of perturbation theory, in the continuum and on the lattice. We study the eigenvalue spectrum of the continuum Dirac operator, equipped with chirally rotated SF boundary conditions, and derive the corresponding quark propagator. We then determine the tree-level quark propagator on the lattice, employing massless Wilson fermions as a regulator of the theory. Beyond tree-level, all studies are performed in the quenched approximation of QCD, as a first, computationally much simpler step to understand the properties of the newly proposed {chi}SF scheme. One of the main targets of the present work, has been to perform the non-perturbative tuning of the two required coefficients of the {chi}SF scheme, such that a well defined continuum limit can be reached. We demonstrate, as the first main result of this thesis, that the tuning is feasible and that, moreover, physical quantities are insensitive to the particular tuning condition. As in any lattice regularization with SF-like boundary conditions, there are also in the {chi}SF a couple of counterterms at the boundaries, whose coefficients need to be tuned in order to remove the O(a) discretization effects originated at the boundaries. However, besides these boundary O(a) effects, the {chi}SF is expected to be compatible with bulk automatic O(a)-improvement. We show here that, indeed, the scaling behavior

  20. Study of nonlinear waves described by the cubic Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstead, A.E.

    1980-03-12

    The cubic Schroedinger equation (CSE) is ubiquitous as a model equation for the long-time evolution of finite-amplitude near-monochromatic dispersive waves. It incorporates the effects of the radiation field pressure on the constitutive properties of the supporting medium in a self-consistent manner. The properties of the uniformly transiating periodic wave solutions of the one-dimensional CSE are studied here. These (so-called cnoidal) waves are characterized by the values of four parameters. Whitham's averaged variational principle is used to derive a system of quasilinear evolution equations (the modulational equations) for the values of these parameters when they are slowly varying in space and time. Explicit expressions for the characteristic velocities of the modulational equations are obtained for the full set of cnoidal waves. Riemann invariants are obtained for several limits for the stable case, and growth rates are obtained for several limits, including the solitary wave chain, for the unstable case. The results for several nontrivial limiting cases agree with those obtained by independent methods by others. The dynamics of the CSE generalized to two spatial dimensions are studied for the unstable case. A large class of similarity solutions with cylindrical symmetry are obtained systematically using infinitesimal transformation group techniques. The methods are adapted to obtain the symmetries of the action functional of the CSE and to deduce nine integral invariants. A numerical study of the self-similar solutions reveals that they are modulationally unstable and that singularities dominate the dynamics of the CSE in two dimensions. The CSE is derived using perturbation theory for a specific problem in plasma physics: the evolution of the envelope of a near-monochromatic electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma. 13 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Solitons on nanotubes and fullerenes as solutions of a modified non-linear Schroedinger equation

    OpenAIRE

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti

    2004-01-01

    Fullerenes and nanotubes consist of a large number of carbon atoms sitting on the sites of a regular lattice. For pratical reasons it is often useful to approximate the equations on this lattice in terms of the continuous equation. At the moment, the best candidate for such an equation is the modified non-linear Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we study the modified non-linear Schroedinger equation, which arises as continuous equation in a system describing an excitation on a hexagonal l...

  2. Analytical solutions to a class of nonlinear Schroedinger equations with PT-like potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musslimani, Ziad H [Department of Mathematics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 32306-4510 FL (United States); Makris, Konstantinos G; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N [College of Optics and Photonics-CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, 32816 FL (United States)

    2008-06-20

    We present closed form solutions to a certain class of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations involving potentials with broken and unbroken PT symmetry. In the one-dimensional case, these solutions are given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, hyperbolic and trigonometric functions. Some of these solutions are possible even when the corresponding PT-symmetric potentials have a zero threshold. In two-dimensions, hyperbolic secant type solutions are obtained for a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a non-separable complex potential.

  3. Blow-up in nonlinear Schroedinger equations. I. A general review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Rypdal, K.

    1986-01-01

    The general properties of a class of nonlinear Schroedinger equations: iut + p:∇∇u + f(|u|2)u = 0 are reviewed. Conditions for existence, uniqueness, and stability of solitary wave solutions are presented, along with conditions for blow-up and global existence for the Cauchy problem.......The general properties of a class of nonlinear Schroedinger equations: iut + p:∇∇u + f(|u|2)u = 0 are reviewed. Conditions for existence, uniqueness, and stability of solitary wave solutions are presented, along with conditions for blow-up and global existence for the Cauchy problem....

  4. Picture and counter-picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    1997-01-01

    The article contains a number of examples of depictions of the French-italian commedia dell'arte fra the 17. century, put into an iconographic and mentality historical context aiming at an interpretation at two levels: On the one hand a reference to the selfrepresentation of the regime and on the...... and on the other hand a derivation from the carnivalesque imagery which all together expand the understanding of the political satire in a grotesque direction implicitly contained in the pictures....

  5. Producing pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Presented are basic instructions for non-artists about copying and adapting pictures for health education materials. In many cases, photocopied drawings from other sources can be used in communication campaigns, as long as permission to reproduce is obtained from the artist or publisher and the source is cited. Such drawings should be kept in a file divided by subject (e.g., young people, condoms). A simple procedure involving tracing paper and grids can be used to reduce or enlarge a drawing. A lack of confidence is often the most significant barrier on the part of non-artists to attempting drawing. This article offers simple guidelines for drawing people and faces.

  6. Fourteen Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesándel Virtusio Arguelles

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 12when traveling to Saint Isidore3behead the enemy without faltering4his offspringeven in his divinity5The witches convenethe over fifty-inch distance across67where only the eyes can be seen8to isolation at Quinta del Sordoand perhaps, with the precious Leocadia9The shadows could not leave him10that created the fourteen picturesWhat the paintbrushes insisted onfrom everyone11from the same book appears not to have time1213The hands were tiedClotho, Lachesis, Atropos14

  7. Asymptotic stability of multi-soliton solutions for nonlinear Schroedinger eqations

    OpenAIRE

    Perelman, G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schroedinger eqiation with initial data close to a sum of N decoupled solitons. Under some suitable assumptions on the spectral structure of the one soliton linearizations we prove that for large time the asymptotics of the solution is given by a sum of solitons with slightly modified parameters and a small dispersive term.

  8. Solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity with Schroedinger(z) symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Group; Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences

    2009-05-15

    We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic Schroedinger(z) algebra for various values of the dynamical exponent z. The new solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, respectively, and include supersymmetric solutions with z=2. (orig.)

  9. A study on the d-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a power-law nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidfar, A. [Department of Mathematics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shidfar@iust.ac.ir; Molabahrami, A. [Department of Mathematics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics, Ilam University, PO Box 69315516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: a_m_bahrami@iust.ac.ir; Babaei, A.; Yazdanian, A. [Department of Mathematics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-30

    In this paper, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied to obtain series pattern solutions of the Cauchy problem for the d-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a power-law nonlinearity. We introduce the recurrent relation to solve the mentioned Cauchy problem. For some cases of given initial condition, we obtain the closed form of the exact solutions.

  10. Magnetic virial identities and applications to blow-up for Schroedinger and wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Andoni, E-mail: andoni.garcia@ehu.es [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-01-13

    We prove blow-up results for the solution of the initial-value problem with negative energy of the focusing mass-critical and supercritical nonlinear Schroedinger and the focusing energy-subcritical nonlinear wave equations with electromagnetic potential. (paper)

  11. The solution of the Schroedinger equation for complex Hamiltonian systems in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Fakir [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119, Haryana (India); Singh, Ram Mehar [Department of Physics, Haryana College of Technology and Management, Kaithal-136 027, Haryana (India); Kumar, Narender [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119, Haryana (India); Mishra, S C [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119, Haryana (India)

    2007-08-17

    We investigate the ground state solutions of the Schroedinger equation for complex (non-Hermitian) Hamiltonian systems in two dimensions within the framework of an extended complex phase-space approach. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of some two-dimensional complex potentials are found.

  12. Obtention of Schroedinger-Cat-Like-States through canonical transformations in the quantum phase space; Obtencion de estados tipo gato de Schroedinger mediante transformaciones canonicas en el espacio fase cuantico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga S, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Employing canonical transformations defined in the coherent-state representation of quantum mechanics, we introduce Schroedinger-Cat- Like-States. The squeezed displaced number states with real squeezing parameter are contained in these states. (Author)

  13. On the effect of random inhomogeneities in Kerr media modelled by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, Javier [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Montero, Miquel, E-mail: javier@usal.e, E-mail: miquel.montero@ub.ed [Departament de FIsica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-14

    We consider the propagation of optical beams under the interplay of dispersion and Kerr nonlinearity in optical fibres with impurities distributed at random uniformly on the fibre. By using a model based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation we clarify how such inhomogeneities affect different aspects such as the number of solitons present and the intensity of the signal. We also obtain the mean distance for the signal to dissipate to a given level.

  14. Baecklund transformations and exact soliton solutions for nonlinear Schroedinger-type equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A. H. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of science, Dept. of Mathematics]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Physics; Callebaut, D. K. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Physics; El-Kalaawy, O. H. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of science, Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-09-01

    Using the Baecklund transformations (BTs) and the Darboux-Bargmann technique, the Authors consider the nonlinear Schroedinger-type (NLS-type) equations solvable by the inverse scattering method of Zakharov-Shabat/Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (ZS/AKNS) system and the ZS/AKNS wave functions corresponding to the soliton solutions of NLS-type equations. Thus, families of new soliton solutions for NLS- type equations are obtained.

  15. General soliton solutions of an n-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A. H.; Seadawy, A. R. [Cairo Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science, Mathematics Dept.; Helal, M. A. [Cairo Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science, Mathematics Dept.

    2000-11-01

    Applying the function transformation method, an n-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger (NDNLS) equation is transformed into a sinh-Gordon equation and other equations, which depend only on one function {zeta} leads to a general soliton solution of the NDNLS equation. It contains some interesting specific solutions such as the N multiple solitons, the propagational breathers and the quadric solitons. Their properties are simply discussed.

  16. Instability of stationary states in nonlinear Schroedinger or Klein-Gordon equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berestycki, H.; Cazenave, T. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1981-11-09

    In this note, we prove the instability of stationary states for the Schroedinger equation and for the Klein-Gordon equation. Here, u(x) is a ground state solution of the nonlinear scalar field equation -..delta..u+..omega..u=g(u) in Rsup(N). Indeed, under certain assumptions on g, we show that there exist initial conditions, arbitrarily close to the stationary states, such that the solutions of these equations blow up in finite time.

  17. Analytic doubly periodic wave patterns for the integrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger (Ablowitz-Ladik) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, K.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: kwchow@hkusua.hku.hk; Conte, Robert [Service de Physique de l' etat Condense (URA 2464), CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: conte@drecam.saclay.cea.fr; Xu, Neil [Department of Mathematics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: naijie@caltech.edu

    2006-01-23

    We derive two new solutions in terms of elliptic functions, one for the dark and one for the bright soliton regime, for the semi-discrete cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation of Ablowitz and Ladik. When considered in the complex plane, these two solutions are identical. In the continuum limit, they reduce to known elliptic function solutions. In the long wave limit, the dark one reduces to the collision of two discrete dark solitons, and the bright one to a discrete breather.

  18. NLO anomalous dimension of multiplicatively renormalizable four-fermion operators in Schroedinger Functional schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palombi, Filippo [' E. Fermi' Research Center, c/o Compendio Viminale - pal. F, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Pena, Carlos [DESY, Theory Group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sint, Stefan [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI and Instituto de Fisica Teorica C-XVI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-03-15

    Renormalization constants for multiplicatively renormalizable parity-odd four-fermion operators are computed in various different Schroedinger Functional (SF) schemes and lattice regularizations with Wilson quarks at one-loop order in perturbation theory. Our results are used in the calculation of their NLO anomalous dimensions, through matching to continuum schemes. They also enable a comparison of the two-loop perturbative RG running to the previously obtained nonperturbative one in the region of small renormalized coupling.

  19. A quenched study of the Schroedinger functional with chirally rotated boundary conditions. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. Gonzalez [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Renner, D.B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Shindler, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2012-08-24

    In a previous paper (J. G. Lopez et al.,2012) we have discussed the non-perturbative tuning of the chirally rotated Schroedinger functional ({chi}SF). This tuning is required to eliminate bulk O(a) cutoff effects in physical correlation functions. Using our tuning results obtained in this paper we perform scaling and universality tests analyzing the residual O(a) cutoff effects of several step-scaling functions and we compute renormalization factors at the matching scale. As an example of possible application of the {chi}SF we compute the renormalized strange quark mass using large volume data obtained from Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. (orig.)

  20. Some Exact Results for the Schroedinger Wave Equation with a Time Dependent Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation with a time dependent delta function potential is solved exactly for many special cases. In all other cases the problem can be reduced to an integral equation of the Volterra type. It is shown that by knowing the wave function at the origin, one may derive the wave function everywhere. Thus, the problem is reduced from a PDE in two variables to an integral equation in one. These results are used to compare adiabatic versus sudden changes in the potential. It is shown that adiabatic changes in the p otential lead to conservation of the normalization of the probability density.

  1. Some exact results for the Schroedinger wave equation with a time-dependent potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Joel [NASA Langley Research Center, MS 488, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)], E-mail: joel.f.campbell@nasa.gov

    2009-09-11

    The time-dependent Schroedinger equation with a time-dependent delta function potential is solved exactly for many special cases. In all other cases the problem can be reduced to an integral equation of the Volterra type. It is shown that by knowing the wavefunction at the origin, one may derive the wavefunction everywhere. Thus, the problem is reduced from a PDE in two variables to an integral equation in one. These results are used to compare adiabatic versus sudden changes in the potential. It is shown that adiabatic changes in the potential lead to the conservation of the normalization of the probability density.

  2. A quenched study of the Schroedinger functional with chirally rotated boundary conditions. Non-preturbative tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. Gonzalez [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Renner, D.B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Shindler, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2012-08-23

    The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to nonperturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit. (orig.)

  3. Strong correlations in model of the scale-invariance (2+1) dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Protogenov, A P

    2001-01-01

    The brief review of events, conditioned by the nonlinear modes strong correlations in the planar systems is presented. The analysis is limited by the Schroedinger nonlinear equation model. The fields stationary distributions are determined. The dependence of the particles number on the parameter characterizing the degree of looking, of the universal oscillation lines, is obtained. It is shown that by small values of this parameter there exists on the two-dimensional lattice the universal gravitation, which may be the dynamic cause of transition to the coherent state. The connection of the chiral nonlinear boundary modes with the violations of the Galilean-invariance of the considered system is discussed

  4. Blow-up in nonlinear Schroedinger equations. II. Similarity structure of the blow-up singularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on similarity solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations is presented. We demonstrate that the self-similar blow-up solutions discovered hitherto are all associated either with a simple stretching invariance, or with a slightly more complicated conformal...... invariance and generalizations of the latter. This generalized "quasi-invariance" reveals the nature of the blow-up singularity and resolves an old controversy. Most of the previous work has been done on the cubic nonlinearity. We generalize the results to an arbitrary power nonlinearity....

  5. Cole-Hopf-like transformation for Schroedinger equations containing complex nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniadakis, G.; Scarfone, A.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unita del Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy)]. E-mails: kaniadakis@polito.it; scarfone@polito.it

    2002-03-01

    We consider systems which conserve the particle number and are described by Schroedinger equations containing complex nonlinearities. In the case of canonical systems, we study their main symmetries and conservation laws. We introduce a Cole-Hopf-like transformation both for canonical and noncanonical systems, which changes the evolution equation into another one containing purely real nonlinearities, and reduces the continuity equation to the standard form of the linear theory. This approach allows us to treat, in a unifying scheme, a wide variety of canonical and noncanonical nonlinear systems, some of them already known in the literature. (author)

  6. Quaternionic factorization of the Schroedinger operator and its applications to some first-order systems of mathematical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Viktor G [Faculdade de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Depto de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI ESIME Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN S/N, Edif. 1 CP 07738, DF (Mexico)

    2003-11-07

    We show that an ample class of physically meaningful partial differential systems of first order such as the Dirac equation with different one-component potentials, static Maxwell's system and the system describing the force-free magnetic fields are equivalent to a single quaternionic equation which in its turn reduces in general to a Schroedinger equation with quaternionic potential, and in some situations this last can be diagonalized. The rich variety of methods developed for different problems corresponding to the Schroedinger equation can be applied to the systems considered in the present work.

  7. Automated lattice perturbation theory in the Schroedinger functional. Implementation and applications in HQET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Dirk

    2012-07-13

    The author developed the pastor software package for automated lattice perturbation theory calculations in the Schroedinger functional scheme. The pastor code consists of two building blocks, dealing with the generation of Feynman rules and Feynman diagrams respectively. Accepting a rather generic class of lattice gauge and fermion actions, passed to the code in a symbolic form as input, a low level part of pastor will generate Feynman rules to an arbitrary order in the bare coupling with a trivial or an Abelian background field. The second, high level part of pastor is a code generator whose output relies on the vertex generator. It writes programs that evaluate Feynman diagrams for a class of Schroedinger functional observables up to one loop order automatically, the relevant O(a) improvement terms are taken into account. We will describe the algorithms used for implementation of both parts of the code in detail, and provide cross checks with perturbative and non-perturbative data to demonstrate the correctness of our code. We demonstrate the usefulness of the pastor package through various applications taken from the matching process of heavy quark effective theory with quantum chromodynamics. We have e.g. completed a one loop analysis for new candidates for matching observables timely and with rather small effort, highlighting two advantages of an automated software setup. The results that were obtained so far will be useful as a guideline for further non-perturbative studies.

  8. Mathematical picture language program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Arthur M; Liu, Zhengwei

    2018-01-02

    We give an overview of our philosophy of pictures in mathematics. We emphasize a bidirectional process between picture language and mathematical concepts: abstraction and simulation. This motivates a program to understand different subjects, using virtual and real mathematical concepts simulated by pictures. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. Picturing Quantum Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coecke, Bob; Kissinger, Aleks

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Guide to reading this textbook; 3. Processes as diagrams; 4. String diagrams; 5. Hilbert space from diagrams; 6. Quantum processes; 7. Quantum measurement; 8. Picturing classical-quantum processes; 9. Picturing phases and complementarity; 10. Quantum theory: the full picture; 11. Quantum foundations; 12. Quantum computation; 13. Quantum resources; 14. Quantomatic; Appendix A. Some notations; References; Index.

  10. Associations From Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…

  11. Time-dependent Schroedinger equations with effective mass in (2 + 1) dimensions: intertwining relations and Darboux operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobian, Hector [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, 28045 Colima, Colima (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: horus.cobian@gmail.com, E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We construct Darboux transformations for time-dependent Schroedinger equations with position-dependent mass in (2 + 1) dimensions. Several examples illustrate our results, which complement and generalize former findings for the constant mass case in two spatial variables (Schulze-Halberg 2010 J. Math. Phys. 51 033521).

  12. The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); M.K. Ryan (Michelle); T.W. Schubert (Thomas); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in

  13. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the

  14. Schroedinger Eigenmaps with nondiagonal potentials for spatial-spectral clustering of hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Nathan D.; Czaja, Wojciech; Messinger, David W.

    2014-06-01

    Schroedinger Eigenmaps (SE) has recently emerged as a powerful graph-based technique for semi-supervised manifold learning and recovery. By extending the Laplacian of a graph constructed from hyperspectral imagery to incorporate barrier or cluster potentials, SE enables machine learning techniques that employ expert/labeled information provided at a subset of pixels. In this paper, we show how different types of nondiagonal potentials can be used within the SE framework in a way that allows for the integration of spatial and spectral information in unsupervised manifold learning and recovery. The nondiagonal potentials encode spatial proximity, which when combined with the spectral proximity information in the original graph, yields a framework that is competitive with state-of-the-art spectral/spatial fusion approaches for clustering and subsequent classification of hyperspectral image data.

  15. Light bullets in the spatiotemporal nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a variable negative diffraction coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Weiping [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Belic, Milivoj [Texas A and M University at Qatar, 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P. O. Box 68, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Assanto, Gaetano [NooEL, Nonlinear Optics and OptoElectronics Lab, University of Rome ' ' Roma Tre,' ' I-00146 Rome (Italy); Malomed, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Huang, Tingwen [Texas A and M University at Qatar, 23874 Doha (Qatar)

    2011-10-15

    We report approximate analytical solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional spatiotemporal nonlinear Schroedinger equation, with the uniform self-focusing nonlinearity and a variable negative radial diffraction coefficient, in the form of three-dimensional solitons. The model may be realized in artificial optical media, such as left-handed materials and photonic crystals, with the anomalous sign of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD). The same setting may be realized through the interplay of the self-defocusing nonlinearity, normal GVD, and positive variable diffraction. The Hartree approximation is utilized to achieve a suitable separation of variables in the model. Then, an inverse procedure is introduced, with the aim to select a suitable profile of the modulated diffraction coefficient supporting desirable soliton solutions (such as dromions, single- and multilayer rings, and multisoliton clusters). The validity of the analytical approximation and stability of the solutions is tested by means of direct simulations.

  16. Pictures and Anaphora

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-29

    sensitive to working memory management. An anaphor is a word or phrase that is interpreted in relation to previous elements of the discourse (the...identified in Table 1); in the Full Picture condition both picture and text remained visible until the key press following the final word in the text Thus...times measured represent the time during which the words in a segment of text were available for reading. Picture availability and distance were again

  17. Space perception in pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, J.; De Ridder, H.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A "picture" is a at object covered with pigments in a certain pattern. Human observers, when looking "into" a picture (photograph, painting, drawing, . . . say) often report to experience a three dimensional "pictorial space." This space is a mental entity, apparently triggered by so called

  18. Can pictures have explicatures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Clark, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether pictures can be understood to give rise to explicit meanings. In relevance-theoretic terms, this means asking whether pictures give rise to ‘explicatures’. The definition of the term ‘explicature’ seems to rule out this possibility except in cases where

  19. A general formula for Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation energy utilizing a power series expansion of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    Perturbation theory has long been utilized by quantum chemists as a method for approximating solutions to the Schroedinger equation. Perturbation treatments represent a system`s energy as a power series in which each additional term further corrects the total energy; it is therefore convenient to have an explicit formula for the nth-order energy correction term. If all perturbations are collected into a single Hamiltonian operator, such a closed-form expression for the nth-order energy correction is well known; however, use of a single perturbed Hamiltonian often leads to divergent energy series, while superior convergence behavior is obtained by expanding the perturbed Hamiltonian in a power series. This report presents a closed-form expression for the nth-order energy correction obtained using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and a power series expansion of the Hamiltonian.

  20. Solution of the Schroedinger equation for time-dependent 1D harmonic oscillators using the orthogonal functions invariant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasti, M Fernandez [Depto de Fisica, CBI, Universidad A Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, DF, Apdo Postal 55-534 (Mexico); Moya-Cessa, H [INAOE, Coordinacion de Optica, Apdo Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2003-02-28

    An extension of the classical orthogonal functions invariant to the quantum domain is presented. This invariant is expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian. Unitary transformations which involve the auxiliary function of this quantum invariant are used to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent parameter. The solution thus obtained is in agreement with the results derived using other methods which invoke the Lewis invariant in their procedures.

  1. Plasmons and Coulomb drag in Dirac/Schroedinger hybrid electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Alessandro; Carrega, Matteo; Asgari, Reza; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2013-03-01

    We show that the plasmon spectrum of an ordinary two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) hosted in a GaAs heterostructure is significantly modified when a graphene sheet is placed on the surface of the semiconductor in close proximity to the 2DEG. Long-range Coulomb interactions between massive electrons and massless Dirac fermions lead to a new set of optical and acoustic intra-subband plasmons. Here we compute the dispersion of these coupled modes within the Random Phase Approximation, providing analytical expressions in the long-wavelength limit that shed light on their dependence on the Dirac velocity and Dirac-fermion density. We also evaluate the resistivity in a Coulomb-drag transport setup. These Dirac/Schroedinger hybrid electron systems are experimentally feasible and open new research opportunities for fundamental studies of electron-electron interaction effects in two spatial dimensions. Work in Pisa was supported by MIUR through the program ``FIRB - Futuro in Ricerca 2010.'' Grant no. RBFR10M5BT (``Plasmons and terahertz devices in graphene'').

  2. An asymptotic solution of the Schroedinger equation for the elliptic wire in the magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejenari, I; Kantser, V [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Industrial Technologies, Academiei str., 3/3, MD2028 Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)], E-mail: bejenari@iieti.asm.md

    2008-10-03

    An asymptotic solution of the Schroedinger equation with non-separable variables is obtained for a particle confined to an infinite elliptic cylinder potential well under an applied uniform longitudinal magnetic field. Using the standard-problem method, dimension-quantized eigenvalues have been calculated when the magnetic length is large enough in comparison with the half of the distance between the boundary ellipse focuses. In semi-classical approximation, the confined electron (hole) states are divided into the boundary states (BS), ring states (RS), hyperbolic caustic states (HCS) and harmonic oscillator states (HOS). For large angular momentum quantum numbers and small radial quantum numbers, the BS and RS are grouped into the 'whispering gallery' mode. They associate with particles moving along the wire cross section boundary. The motion is limited from the wire core by the elliptic caustic. Consisting of the HCS and HOS, the 'jumping ball' modes correspond to the states of particle moving along a wire diameter when the angular momentum quantum number is much less than the radial quantum number. In this case, the motion is restricted by the hyperbolic caustics and two boundary ellipse arcs. For excited hole states in a Bi wire, the energy spectrum and space probability distribution are analyzed.

  3. Charge capture and impact excitation processes in H{sup +} on He{sup +} collisions: a case study by the time-dependent Schroedinger equation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Xiaomin [Cold Trapped Ions Project, ICORP, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Axis 3F, 1-40-2 Fuda Chofu, Tokyo 182-0024 (Japan)]. E-mail: tong@hci.jst.go.jp; Kato, Daiji; Watanabe, Tsutomu [Cold Trapped Ions Project, ICORP, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Axis 3F, 1-40-2 Fuda Chofu, Tokyo 182-0024 (Japan); Ohtani, Shunsuke [Cold Trapped Ions Project, ICORP, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Axis 3F, 1-40-2 Fuda Chofu, Tokyo 182-0024 (Japan); University of Electro-Communication, Chofu, Tokyo 182-0021 (Japan)

    2000-12-28

    We have studied the charge capture and impact excitation processes in H{sup +} on He{sup +} collisions over a wide range of collision energies by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with the classical trajectory approximation for the projectile. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved by the split-operator method with a generalized pseudospectral (non-uniform grid) method in the energy representation. The calculated charge capture cross sections are in good agreement with the available experimental measurements. Our calculated charge capture and impact excitation cross sections are also in reasonable agreement with various close-coupling calculations. Combined with time-dependent density functional theory, our Schroedinger equation method (time propagation) holds significant promise for studying many-electron processes in atom-ion collisions. (author)

  4. The polycentric picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    2008-01-01

    The polycentric picture The presentation introduces a dynamic view on children's drawings inspired by J.J.Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception. Empirical research in children's drawings will be the basis for the documentation of the fact that children's drawings contain several...

  5. SESAME 2017 (360 pictures)

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    The Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan, created under the auspices of UNESCO on 30 May 2002. December 2017, Jordan Picture: Noemi Caraban

  6. Adding Emotions to Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Amati, Giambattista; Crestani, Fabio

    A large number of out-of-copyright children books are available online, but are not very attractive to children due to a lack of illustrations. Automatic text illustration may enhance the reading experience of these books, but inappropriate picture coloring may convey inappropriate emotions. Since

  7. Parametric resonance for solitons in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation model with time-dependent harmonic oscillator potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Tenorio, C. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 7200 Puebla (Mexico) and Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: celso1@hotmail.com; Belyaeva, T.L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Serkin, V.N. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 7200 Puebla (Mexico)

    2007-09-01

    The dynamics of nonlinear solitary waves is studied in the framework of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation model with time-dependent harmonic oscillator potential. The model allows one to analyse on general basis a variety of nonlinear phenomena appearing both in Bose-Einstein condensate, condensed matter physics, nonlinear optics, and biophysics. The soliton parametric resonance is investigated by using two complementary methods: the adiabatic perturbation theory and direct numerical experiments. Conditions for reversible and irreversible denaturation of soliton bound states are also considered.

  8. Dise\\~no de una Arquitectura para la Solucion de la Ecuacion de Schroedinger usando el Metodo de Numerov

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Toro, Victor A; Velasco-Medina, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a first approach in order to design an optimal architecture to implement the Numerov method, which solves the time-independent Schroedinger equation (TISE) for one dimension. The design and simulation have been performed by using 64-bits floating-point megafunctions available in Quartus II (Version 9.0). The verification of these results was done by using Matlab. According to these results, it is possible to extend this design to parallel structures, which would be able to calculate several TISE solutions.

  9. On the reduction of the multidimensional stationary Schroedinger equation to a first-order equation and its relation to the pseudoanalytic function theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Departmento de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI, Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CP 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-01-28

    Given a particular solution of a one-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation this equation of second order can be reduced to a first-order linear ordinary differential equation. This is done with the aid of an auxiliary Riccati differential equation. In the present work we show that the same fact is true in a multidimensional situation also. For simplicity we consider the case of two or three independent variables. One particular solution of the stationary Schroedinger equation allows us to reduce this second-order equation to a linear first-order quaternionic differential equation. As in the one-dimensional case this is done with the aid of an auxiliary quaternionic Riccati equation. The resulting first-order quaternionic equation is equivalent to the static Maxwell system and is closely related to the Dirac equation. In the case of two independent variables it is the well-known Vekua equation from theory of pseudoanalytic (or generalized analytic) functions. Nevertheless, we show that even in this case it is very useful to consider not only complex valued functions, solutions of the Vekua equation, but complete quaternionic functions. In this way the first-order quaternionic equation represents two separate Vekua equations, one of which gives us solutions of the Schroedinger equation and the other one can be considered as an auxiliary equation of a simpler structure. Moreover for the auxiliary equation we always have the corresponding Bers generating pair (F, G), the base of the Bers theory of pseudoanalytic functions, and what is very important, the Bers derivatives of solutions of the auxiliary equation give us solutions of the main Vekua equation and as a consequence of the Schroedinger equation. Based on this fact we obtain an analogue of the Cauchy integral theorem for solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation. Other results from theory of pseudoanalytic functions can be written for solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Moreover, for an ample

  10. Teaching Grammar Using Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way ofteaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and manyothers. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process ofcommunication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Using pictures can make exercises and activities more interesting and more interactive. We canconstantly improve our activities by looking at what went well and what fell flat. These 5 unique ways to practice grammar using pictures are a jumping offpoint, and can be expanded in lots of interesting ways. 

  11. Integration of Pictures and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    sketchpad of working memory . Second, we have documented some comprehension processes that are affected by pictures and some that are not. In...particular, ease of anaphor resolution is independent of the presence or absence of pictures . On the other hand, pictures enhance the reader’s ability to...assists comprehension and memory for the information. In fact, the vast majority of the experimental literature investigating the effects of pictures on

  12. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  13. Communicating with Pictures and Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2009-01-01

    From the earliest civilizations, humans have used drawings and pictures as a form of communication and to convey information--whether it was the seasons or location of good hunting grounds. In this month's column, simple alphabet picture books show students how pictures can be used to communicate information about a topic. In the first activity,…

  14. Space perception in pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Andrea J.; Wagemans, Johan; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J.

    2011-03-01

    A picture" is a at object covered with pigments in a certain pattern. Human observers, when looking "into" a picture (photograph, painting, drawing, . . . say) often report to experience a three-dimensional "pictorial space." This space is a mental entity, apparently triggered by so called pictorial cues. The latter are sub-structures of color patterns that are pre-consciously designated by the observer as "cues," and that are often considered to play a crucial role in the construction of pictorial space. In the case of the visual arts these structures are often introduced by the artist with the intention to trigger certain experiences in prospective viewers, whereas in the case of photographs the intentionality is limited to the viewer. We have explored various methods to operationalize geometrical properties, typically relative to some observer perspective. Here perspective" is to be understood in a very general, not necessarily geometric sense, akin to Gombrich's beholder's share". Examples include pictorial depth, either in a metrical, or a mere ordinal sense. We nd that different observers tend to agree remarkably well on ordinal relations, but show dramatic differences in metrical relations.

  15. Look! Look! Who Stole the Pictures from the Picture Books? The Basalization of Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Suggests picture books are made more difficult for kids to predict, to make sense of, and to learn from by fitting them into the didactic framework of basals. Discusses the picture book genre. Compares the original version of "Ira Sleeps Over" to the basal version. Examines in detail how picture books are made to fit into a basal…

  16. Ultrashort self-similar solutions of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed coefficients in the inhomogeneous fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Chaoqing; Wang Yueyue; Wang Xiaogang, E-mail: dcq424@126.com [School of Sciences, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-04-15

    By means of the similarity transformation, we obtain exact self-similar solutions (similaritons) of the generalized cubic-quintic (CQ) nonlinear Schroedinger equation with spatially inhomogeneous group velocity dispersion, CQ nonlinearity and amplification or attenuation. Exact balance conditions between the dispersion, nonlinearity and the gain/loss have been obtained. As an example, we investigate their propagation dynamics in the dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF). Considering the fluctuation of the fiber parameter in real application, the exact balance conditions do not satisfy, and so we perform direct numerical analysis with initial 10% white noise for the bright similariton in both the DDF and the periodic distributed amplification system. Numerical calculations indicate stable propagation of the bright similariton over tens of dispersion lengths. These ultrashort self-similar optical waves are potentially useful for all-optical data-processing schemes and the design of beam compressors and amplifiers.

  17. The initial value problem, scattering and inverse scattering, for Schroedinger equations with a potential and a non-local nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, MarIa de los Angeles Sandoval; Weder, Ricardo [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-726, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)

    2006-09-15

    We consider nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a potential, and non-local nonlinearities, that are models in mesoscopic physics, for example of a quantum capacitor, and that are also models of molecular structure. We study in detail the initial value problem for these equations, in particular, existence and uniqueness of local and global solutions, continuous dependence on the initial data and regularity. We allow for a large class of unbounded potentials. We have no restriction on the growth at infinity of the positive part of the potential. We also construct the scattering operator in the case of potentials that go to zero at infinity. Furthermore, we give a method for the unique reconstruction of the potential from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator. In the case of the quantum capacitor, our method allows us to uniquely reconstruct all the physical parameters from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator.

  18. Analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-05-15

    The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.

  19. Pictures of the month

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Starting with this issue, we will publish special pictures illustrating the ongoing construction and commissioning efforts. If you wish to have a professionnal photographer immortalize your detector before it disappears in the heart of ATLAS or for a special event, don't hesitate to contact Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira (16-3687) from the CERN photo service. Members of the pixel team preparing to insert the outermost layer (the outer of the three barrel pixel layers) into the Global Support Frame for the Pixel Detector in SR1. Ongoing work on the first Big Wheel on the C side. Exploded view of the side-C Big Wheel and the barrel cryostat. The TRT Barrel services (HV, LV, cooling liquid, active gas, flushing gas) are now completely connected and tested. Hats off to Kirill Egorov, Mike Reilly, Ben Legeyt and Godwin Mayers who managed to fit everything within the small clearance margin!

  20. Using Pictures to Facilitate Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Eve E.

    1977-01-01

    To improve memory in children in early grades or in children at all ages with cognitive problems, it is suggested that the teacher provide verbal interpretations of pictorial information, encourage children to verbalize the pictured material for themselves, and encourage children to create their own mental pictures. (SBH)

  1. Ionization of atoms by strong infrared fields: Solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in momentum space for a model based on separable potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetchou Nganso, Hugues [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); University of Douala (Cameroon); Popov, Yuri [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Piraux, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Madronero, Javier [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Kwato Njock, Moise Godfroy [University of Douala (Cameroon)

    2011-07-01

    We consider the ionization of atomic hydrogen by a strong infrared field. By starting from the corresponding time-dependent Schroedinger equation in momentum space, we develop a model in which the kernel of the non-local Coulomb potential is replaced by a finite sum of separable potentials. Each separable potential supports one bound state of atomic hydrogen. Here, we consider only the 1s, 2s and 2p states. In this way, the full 3-dimensional Schroedinger equation reduces to a system of a few coupled 1-dimensional linear Volterra integral equations. This model is a theoretical tool to understand the actual role of the atomic potential in the intensity regime where tunnel ionization is supposed to take place and where the experimental data for the first ATI peaks are in contradiction with the theoretical predictions based on the strong field approximation model.

  2. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  3. Picture Memory: The Use of Pictures to Teach Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaire, Stephen; Pargman, David

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the use of pictures as a teaching and learning strategy benefits early learners with regard to reference image development and provides helpful information to a student who may be separated from teacher feedback. (KEH)

  4. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.

  5. Pictures, Images and Deep Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the support provided by multimodal children’s literature in the development of literacy. The focus is on reading in a second language and the negotiation of understanding due to information gaps in the narrative, and on reading pleasure due to sensory anchoring through pictures. The development of deep reading is differentiated from the acquisition of functional literacy skills. Further, the differentiation between the medium-embeddedness of pictures and the perceptual-tr...

  6. Personalizing the Collaborative Learning Environment with Pictures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brian Mackie; Charletta F. Gutierrez

    2005-01-01

    .... This research assesses the usefulness of participant pictures in a collaborative exchange. To evaluate the usefulness of such pictures, participants were asked a series of questions regarding the use of pictures in CAMS, a collaborative environment...

  7. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  8. Sex Stereotype Effects in Children's Picture Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Arnie; Newbern, Sara R.

    1984-01-01

    Reports an experiment in which 80 male and female six and eight year olds were presented with pictures consistent or inconsistent with sex stereotypes and pictures of neutral activities. Later, subjects performed a picture-recognition task. Among the variables investigated were subjects' labeling of pictures and sex-stereotype consistency. (CB)

  9. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  10. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  11. Pictures, Images and Deep Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Bland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the support provided by multimodal children’s literature in the development of literacy. The focus is on reading in a second language and the negotiation of understanding due to information gaps in the narrative, and on reading pleasure due to sensory anchoring through pictures. The development of deep reading is differentiated from the acquisition of functional literacy skills. Further, the differentiation between the medium-embeddedness of pictures and the perceptual-transactional and culturally shaped nature of images is highlighted with regard to the affordances of pictures in picturebooks and graphic novels. In some children’s literature, the opportunities for meaningful booktalk are amplified by an apparently simple style of illustration. This process has been termed amplification through simplification, which, in contrast to simplifying by stereotyping, can help lead to intercultural understanding and deep reading. The affordances of pictures in supporting young adult readers to create a mental model of a storyworld is discussed with reference to two panels from Coraline (Gaiman & Russell, 2008, a graphic novel.

  12. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  13. Ability, Disability, and Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    2001-01-01

    Addresses selecting materials for children who have deficits or strengths in their use of certain learning modes based on Howard Gardner's seven types of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and internal and external personal intelligence. Describes one picture book for each category. (Author/LRW)

  14. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location ...

  15. Numerically exact dynamics of the interacting many-body Schroedinger equation for Bose-Einstein condensates. Comparison to Bose-Hubbard and Gross-Pitaevskii theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmann, Kaspar

    2010-07-21

    In this thesis, the physics of trapped, interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is analyzed by solving the many-body Schroedinger equation. Particular emphasis is put on coherence, fragmentation and reduced density matrices. First, the ground state of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and its correlation functions are obtained. Then the dynamics of a bosonic Josephson junction is investigated by solving the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation numerically exactly. These are the first exact results in literature in this context. It is shown that the standard approximations of the field, Gross-Pitaevskii theory and the Bose-Hubbard model fail at weak interaction strength and within their range of expected validity. For stronger interactions the dynamics becomes strongly correlated and a new equilibration phenomenon is discovered. By comparison with exact results it is shown that a symmetry of the Bose- Hubbard model between attractive and repulsive interactions must be considered an artefact of the model. A conceptual innovation of this thesis are time-dependent Wannier functions. Equations of motion for time-dependent Wannier functions are derived from the variational principle. By comparison with exact results it is shown that lattice models can be greatly improved at little computational cost by letting the Wannier functions of a lattice model become time-dependent. (orig.)

  16. The Schroedinger-Poisson equations as the large-N limit of the Newtonian N-body system. Applications to the large scale dark matter dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briscese, Fabio [Northumbria University, Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Citta Universitaria, Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica Francesco Severi, Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, Rome (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper it is argued how the dynamics of the classical Newtonian N-body system can be described in terms of the Schroedinger-Poisson equations in the large N limit. This result is based on the stochastic quantization introduced by Nelson, and on the Calogero conjecture. According to the Calogero conjecture, the emerging effective Planck constant is computed in terms of the parameters of the N-body system as ℎ ∝ M{sup 5/3}G{sup 1/2}(N/ left angle ρ right angle){sup 1/6}, where is G the gravitational constant, N and M are the number and the mass of the bodies, and left angle ρ right angle is their average density. The relevance of this result in the context of large scale structure formation is discussed. In particular, this finding gives a further argument in support of the validity of the Schroedinger method as numerical double of the N-body simulations of dark matter dynamics at large cosmological scales. (orig.)

  17. Symbolic derivation of high-order Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation energies using computer algebra: Application to vibrational-rotational analysis of diatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, John M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory is an effective and popular tool for describing low-lying vibrational and rotational states of molecules. This method, in conjunction with ab initio techniques for computation of electronic potential energy surfaces, can be used to calculate first-principles molecular vibrational-rotational energies to successive orders of approximation. Because of mathematical complexities, however, such perturbation calculations are rarely extended beyond the second order of approximation, although recent work by Herbert has provided a formula for the nth-order energy correction. This report extends that work and furnishes the remaining theoretical details (including a general formula for the Rayleigh-Schroedinger expansion coefficients) necessary for calculation of energy corrections to arbitrary order. The commercial computer algebra software Mathematica is employed to perform the prohibitively tedious symbolic manipulations necessary for derivation of generalized energy formulae in terms of universal constants, molecular constants, and quantum numbers. As a pedagogical example, a Hamiltonian operator tailored specifically to diatomic molecules is derived, and the perturbation formulae obtained from this Hamiltonian are evaluated for a number of such molecules. This work provides a foundation for future analyses of polyatomic molecules, since it demonstrates that arbitrary-order perturbation theory can successfully be applied with the aid of commercially available computer algebra software.

  18. Predictors of picture naming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F Xavier; Ferrand, Ludovic; Laganaro, Marina; New, Boris; Frauenfelder, Uli H; Segui, Juan

    2004-02-01

    We report the results of a large-scale picture naming experiment in which we evaluated the potential contribution of nine theoretically relevant factors to naming latencies. The experiment included a large number of items and a large sample of participants. In order to make this experiment as similar as possible to classic picture naming experiments, participants were familiarized with the materials during a training session. Speeded naming latencies were determined by a software key on the basis of the digital recording of the responses. The effects of various variables on these latencies were assessed with multiple regression techniques, using a repeated measures design. The interpretation of the observed effects is discussed in relation to previous studies and current views on lexical access during speech production.

  19. A Picture of Subsidized Housholds 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008...

  20. Can Pictures in Advertisements Curb Consumption?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meng Zhu; Darron Billeter; J Jeffrey Inman

    2010-01-01

      Contrary to the common belief that pictures in advertisements generate positive influences on consumer demand, we argue that pictures can decrease sales of the advertised products due to reduced consumption volume...

  1. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  2. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  4. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  5. Using Picture Books Kindergarten through High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Maurine V.; Miller, Margaret B.

    A picture book is defined as a book in which the illustrations are as important as the text or written story. Picture books published today seem appropriate and exciting for anyone from 1 to 100 years old. Among the many kinds of picture books are Mother Goose books; toy books (board books, pop-up books, concept books, flap books, cloth books, and…

  6. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal....5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing customers to include business-related... Newman at 202-268-5581. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed...

  7. The Role of Decorative Pictures in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzner, Alwine; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Müller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments with students from 7th and 8th grade were performed to investigate the effects of decorative pictures in learning as compared to instructional pictures. Pictures were considered as instructional, when they were primarily informative, and as decorative, when they were primarily aesthetically appealing. The experiments…

  8. Large-distance and long-time asymptotic behavior of the reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2010-12-15

    Starting from the form factor expansion in finite volume, we derive the multidimensional generalization of the so-called Natte series for the zero-temperature, time and distance dependent reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model. This representation allows one to read-off straightforwardly the long-time/large-distance asymptotic behavior of this correlator. Our method of analysis reduces the complexity of the computation of the asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in the so-called interacting integrable models, to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We compute explicitly the first few terms appearing in the asymptotic expansion. Part of these terms stems from excitations lying away from the Fermi boundary, and hence go beyond what can be obtained by using the CFT/Luttinger liquid based predictions. (orig.)

  9. Long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the current-current correlators in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Terras, V. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique

    2010-12-15

    We present a new method allowing us to derive the long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the correlations functions of quantum integrable models from their exact representations. Starting from the form factor expansion of the correlation functions in finite volume, we explain how to reduce the complexity of the computation in the so-called interacting integrable models to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We apply our method to the time-dependent zero-temperature current-current correlation function in the non-linear Schroedinger model and compute the first few terms in its asymptotic expansion. Our result goes beyond the conformal field theory based predictions: in the time-dependent case, other types of excitations than the ones on the Fermi surface contribute to the leading orders of the asymptotics. (orig.)

  10. The picture exchange communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed.

  11. Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show...... that the dynamics of the interaction picture Wigner function is solved by running a swarm of trajectories in the classical interaction picture introduced previously in the literature. Solving the Wigner method dynamics of collision processes in the interaction picture ensures that the calculated transition...... probabilities are unambiguous even when the asymptotic potentials are anharmonic. An application of the interaction picture Wigner method to a Morse oscillator interacting with a laser field is presented. The calculated transition probabilities are in good agreement with results obtained by a numerical...

  12. Selected pictures of the month

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    View of a single MDT Big Wheel (on side A in UX15 cavern) taken during its last movement immediately after being assembled and just before being connected to the neighbouring TGC1 wheel. Assembly work on the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Wheel C in building 190. Connecting the services for the Cathode Strip Chambers. The installation of the optical fibers for the readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Weel C by the Irvine group. Best from our archives: View of the End Cap Calorimeter and TGC big wheel from the Cryostat side A of ATLAS cavern taken on 22 May 2007. The picture above was taken from the platform in the middle, between the Cryostat and the End-Cap. Muriel hopes you all had a great vacation. She herself had a wonderful time sailing in Galicia (North Western Spain). She can be seen here wearing the traditional dress offered to her by "Los Amigos de las Dornas" (Friends of the Dornas -traditional sailing boats used for fishing) - when she became ...

  13. An innovative technique for recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2013-08-01

    Many ultrasound educational products and ultrasound researchers present diagnostic and interventional ultrasound information using picture-in-picture videos, which simultaneously show the ultrasound image and transducer and patient positions. Traditional techniques for creating picture-in-picture videos are expensive, nonportable, or time-consuming. This article describes an inexpensive, simple, and portable way of creating picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. This technique uses a laptop computer with a video capture device to acquire the ultrasound feed. Simultaneously, a webcam captures a live video feed of the transducer and patient position and live audio. Both sources are streamed onto the computer screen and recorded by screen capture software. This technique makes the process of recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos more accessible for ultrasound educators and researchers for use in their presentations or publications.

  14. Tableau algorithms defined naturally for pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A. van Leeuwen

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe consider pictures as defined by Zelevinsky. We elaborate on the generalisation of the Robinson-Schensted correspondence to pictures defined by him, and on the result of Fomin and Greene that shows that this correspondence is natural, i.e., independent of the precise ``reading'' order

  15. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  16. Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

  17. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  18. An MEG study of picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Praamstra, P.; Meyer, A.S.; Helenius, P.I.; Salmelin, R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate a psycholinguistic processing model of picture naming to the dynamics of cortical activation during picture naming. The activation was recorded from eight Dutch subjects with a whole-head neuromagnetometer. The processing model, based on extensive naming

  19. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  20. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    at the same time providing new perspectives and data to the general theoretical debate on the communicative potential of pictures versus words. Our findings showed that pictures did have an effect on assessments of naturalness that was however marginal compared to that of product type. Moreover, participants......’ general level of food knowledge had a significant influence on their expectations about naturalness....

  1. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  2. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  3. An Introduction to Recording, Editing, and Streaming Picture-in-Picture Ultrasound Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Hall, Mederic M; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the process by which high-definition resolution (up to 1920 × 1080 pixels) ultrasound video can be captured in conjunction with high-definition video of the transducer position (picture-in-picture). In addition, we describe how to edit the recorded video feeds to combine both feeds, and to crop, resize, split, stitch, cut, annotate videos, and also change the frame rate, insert pictures, edit the audio feed, and use chroma keying. We also describe how to stream a picture-in-picture ultrasound feed during a videoconference. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pictures open unexpected horizons in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A

    1986-01-01

    Picture literacy constitutes one of the main accomplishments of Nepal's nonformal education program. Although program participants had little difficulty initially in identifying pictured objects, they were unable to understand the meaning or intended message of an illustration. In classroom discussions, participants were asked to analyze pictures, relate them to their own experiences, and read more meaning into illustrations. As the literacy curriculum was developed and tested, it became clear that the use of pictures greatly increased the number of meaningful ideas that could be communicated in the lessons. Comics were especially valuable in introducing social issues in a dramatic, exciting way that could not be achieved through stories with a limited vocabulary. While the written story must be coherent, the comic can be fragmentary and more ground can be covered. The pictures make the page less formidable and reinforce the written word. Once pictures and comics had been introduced into the literacy curriculum, experimentation with other uses was possible. For example, participants role-played the comics and created their own stories around discussion pictures. All these activities proved to be educationally sound and appropriate to the cultural setting.

  5. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.

  6. Personalizing the Collaborative Learning Environment with Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Mackie

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and Web-based technologies, as well as rapid globalization, are changing the way businesses communicate. Continuous progress in Information Technology (IT enables effective and efficient communication, particularly with the use of collaborative systems. Such systems have many different types of interfaces and attributes, and one such attribute is the use of visuals. This research assesses the usefulness of participant pictures in a collaborative exchange. To evaluate the usefulness of such pictures, participants were asked a series of questions regarding the use of pictures in CAMS, a collaborative environment. The results suggest that, in a collaborative setting, the use of pictures is valuable in enhancing a "sense of community," particularly in cases where participants have not met face-to-face.

  7. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Faculty of Medicine, University of Makerere, in Kampala, working with Julia Royall, chief of international programs at ...

  8. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  9. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Remembering Left–Right Orientation of Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, James C.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Till, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    In a study of recognition memory for pictures, we observed an asymmetry in classifying test items as “same” versus “different” in left–right orientation: Identical copies of previously viewed items were classified more accurately than left–right reversals of those items. Response bias could not explain this asymmetry, and, moreover, correct “same” and “different” classifications were independently manipulable: Whereas repetition of input pictures (one vs. two presentations) affected primarily...

  11. Picture Memory Improves with Longer On Time and Off Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy

    1975-01-01

    Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)

  12. Pictures with narration versus pictures with on-screen text during teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Ioannou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students’ comprehension in Mathematics: pictures with concurrent narration versus pictures with on-screen text, during teaching triangles, a lesson in Mathematics. Forty primary school children (boys and girls selected to participate in this study. Students splitted into two experimental groups with the technique of simple random sampling. The first group consisted of students who viewed and listened (pictures with narration group, while the second group consisted of students who viewed (pictures with on-screen text a presentation of triangles. A recall test was used to evaluate students’ comprehension. The results showed that students’ comprehension was better when triangles' presentation (pictures was accompanied with spoken words, than with printed words. The pictures with narration group performed better than the pictures with on-screen text group, in recall test (M = 4.97, SD = 1.32 p<0.01. Results are consistent with the modality principle in which learners are more likely to build connections between corresponding words and pictures when words are presented in a spoken form (narration simultaneously with pictures.

  13. The mechanism underlying lexical selection: evidence from the picture-picture interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jingyi; Kirchgessner, Megan; Schnur, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments using the picture-picture and picture-word interference paradigms, we compared predictions from the swinging lexical network and the response exclusion hypothesis to determine whether the process of word selection is competitive. Further, we suggest that previous categorical effects in the picture-picture interference paradigm were due to stimuli confounds, thus readdressing the debate concerning categorical effects in the paradigm. Consistent with both hypotheses, in Experiment 1 we found faster picture naming times when distractor pictures were associatively related than when they were unrelated, explained as a result of a spread of activation at the conceptual level with little (swinging lexical network) or no (response exclusion hypothesis) contribution from lexical competition. In Experiment 2, we found a significant categorical interference effect in the picture-word interference paradigm, and this effect significantly decreased but was not facilitatory when distractors were pictures. We discuss how these results are consistent with the swinging lexical network and conclude that the process to select a word is a competitive one.

  14. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures. PMID:27242621

  15. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.

  16. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  17. Timed picture naming norms for Mandarin Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyi Liu

    Full Text Available The present study reports timed norms for 435 object pictures in Mandarin Chinese. These data include naming latency, name agreement, concept agreement, word length, and age of acquisition (AoA based on children's naming and adult ratings, and several other adult ratings of concept familiarity, subjective word frequency, image agreement, image variability, and visual complexity. Furthermore, we examined factors that influence the naming latencies of the pictures. The results show that concept familiarity, AoA, concept agreement, name agreement, and image agreement are significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas subjective word frequency is not a reliable determinant. These results are discussed in light of picture naming data in other languages. An item-based index for the norms is provided in the Table S1.

  18. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Picture or Text First? Explaining Sequence Effects When Learning with Pictures and Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The present article reviews 42 studies investigating the role of sequencing of text and pictures for learning outcomes. Whereas several of the reviewed studies revealed better learning outcomes from presenting the picture before the text rather than after it, other studies demonstrated the opposite effect. Against the backdrop of theories on…

  20. Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    In my presentation at the InSEA Conference 2015 I want to introduce my ongoing Ph.D. project with the title ‘Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design’. The objective of the project is to provide a basis for upgrading and renewal of lessons in the school...... subject Visual Arts – and crosswise of subjects in school. The overall research question has been: How can IT-didactic designs support lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increase the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences? By using the expression ‘complex...... meaning production in digital pictures’ I want to stress the particular complexity related to meaning represented in digital pictures. Nelson Goodman has pointed out specific aesthetic features of symbols, which characterize visual symbolism in general to a greater or lesser extent. The presence...

  1. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  2. Picture surface illusion in parallel perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy John M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the picture-surface illusion, 2D features on the picture’s surface are seen biased towards their 3D referent e.g. an angle of 200 depicting a 900 corner of a cube is seen as 300. We tested linear and parallel perspective drawings of cubes with cube drawings subtending 50 to 500. The picture-surface illusion occurs for both parallel and linear perspective drawings, at about equal strength. We argue that the 3D information at work may be the aspect ratio of a quadrilateral depicting the tilt of the cube’s top face.

  3. Más allá del laboratorio: las dimensiones sociológicas de la ecuación de Schroedinger Más allá del laboratorio: las dimensiones sociológicas de la ecuación de Schroedinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A.V. Ferreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it is exposed synthetically part of an empirical investigation in the field of the sociology of scientific knowledge. From the sociological perspective that assumes the (social activity producing scientific knowledge as one of the epistemological components of this knowledge, it is exposed as, from an autobservational methodology, it has been possible to state the constituently reflexive nature of this activity. A reflexivity in which the formal and formalizeable it is intermingled very indisociably with the existential and informalizable. We present, from these methodologic foundations a (sociological vision of Schroedinger equation that reveals it in its social nataure: beyond its neutral appearance, formal and mathematical, it shows one agencial and active potentiality, shows all the dimensions of an authentic social subject.En el presente trabajo se expone sintéticamente parte de lo que ha sido una investigación empírica en el campo de la sociología del conocimiento científico. Desde la perspectiva sociológica que asume la actividad (social productora de conocimiento científico como uno de los constituyentes epistemológicos de dicho conocimiento, se expone cómo a partir de una metodología autobservacional se ha podido constatar la naturaleza constitutivamente reflexiva de dicha actividad. Una reflexividad en la que lo formal y formalizable se entremezcla indisociablemente con lo informal y vivencial. Presentamos, a partir de estos fundamentos metodológicos, una visión (sociológica de la ecuación de Schroedinger que la revela en su naturaleza social: más allá de su apariencia neutra, formal y matemática, muestra una virtualidad agencial y activa, muestra todas las dimensiones de un auténtico sujeto social. Proponemos, para culminar, que el tipo de reflexividad que entendemos constitutivo de la práctica científica y, por extensión, de cualquier práctica social, se distancia de lo que ha venido defini

  4. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  5. Intrinsic Memorability of Pictures in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, Nico; Potter, Mary C.; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Studies of long-term recognition memory for pictures have shown that some pictures are consistently more likely to be remembered than others (Isola, Xiao, Parikh, & Torralba, 2014). Do memorable pictures take longer to perceive than less memorable pictures? Immediate memory for 128 highly memorable

  6. Strategy Shifts during Learning from Texts and Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Ludewig, Ulrich; Ullrich, Mark; Horz, Holger; McElvany, Nele; Baumert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Reading for learning frequently requires integrating text and picture information into coherent knowledge structures. This article presents an experimental study aimed at analyzing the strategies used by students for integrating text and picture information. Four combinations of texts and pictures (text-picture units) were selected from textbooks…

  7. Picture Stories for ESL Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Kate

    These picture stories help English as a Second Language teachers address topics affecting their students' health and wellbeing. They are useful for beginner and low-literacy students, offering a safe, impromptu way to discuss difficult topics, ask questions, and obtain information. As the stories are about cartoon characters, students are not…

  8. Algorithms for coding scanned halftone pictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Forchhammer, Morten

    1988-01-01

    data structure and related algorithms for handling the digital screen without restrictions on the screen parameters is presented. Data compression rates above 20 are obtained for the halftone pictures. The algorithms are suited for implementation with fast dedicated hardware. The rescreening can also...

  9. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  10. Learning about Environmental Print through Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes picture books that contain environmental print (print found in the natural environment of a child, such as logos, billboards, and road signs) and how they can be used in the classroom. Includes "ABC Drive!" by Naomi Howland (1994), "The Signmaker's Assistant" by Tedd Arnold (1992), and four others. Also provides a…

  11. Semantic and associative priming in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F X; Segui, J; Ferrand, L

    2000-08-01

    We report four picture-naming experiments in which the pictures were preceded by visually presented word primes. The primes could either be semantically related to the picture (e.g., "boat"--TRAIN: co-ordinate pairs) or associatively related (e.g., "nest"--BIRD: associated pairs). Performance under these conditions was always compared to performance under unrelated conditions (e.g., "flower"--CAT). In order to distinguish clearly the first two kinds of prime, we chose our materials so that (a) the words in the co-ordinate pairs were not verbally associated, and (b) the associate pairs were not co-ordinates. Results show that the two related conditions behaved in different ways depending on the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) separating word and picture appearance, but not on how long the primes were presented. When presented with a brief SOA (114 ms, Experiment 1), the co-ordinate primes produced an interference effect, but the associated primes did not differ significantly from the unrelated primes. Conversely, with a longer SOA (234 ms, Experiment 2) the co-ordinate primes produced no effect, whereas a significant facilitation effect was observed for associated primes, independent of the duration of presentation of the primes. This difference is interpreted in the context of current models of speech production as an argument for the existence, at an automatic processing level, of two distinguishable kinds of meaning relatedness.

  12. The changing picture of practicing dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-01-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of

  13. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.

  14. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  15. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  16. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  17. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  18. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.

  19. Dementia in the movies: the clinical picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Debby L; Kuin, Yolande; Nijboer, Jessika

    2014-01-01

    Visual media influence the general public's perceptions and attitudes regarding people with mental conditions. This qualitative study investigates the depiction accuracy of dementia's clinical features in motion pictures. Using the search terms 'dementia', 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'senility' movies with release dates between January 2000 and March 2012 were sought on the Internet Movie Database. Based on four selection criteria 23 movies were included. Independently, three researchers watched all movies, scored symptoms, capacities, and behaviors. Scores were discussed and refined during consensus meetings, resulting in a taxonomy of clinical features. Various features are found, most often cognitive symptoms. Behavioral features are also shown - retiring behavior more than agitation - and various emotions, but physical symptoms are rarely depicted. Capacities are infrequently presented and are unrealistic in several of the movies. The clinical picture of dementia portrayed in fictional movies is mild and may be misleading.

  20. The Complex Picture Test in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gustaw Rothenberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed Complex Picture Test (CPT examines main cognitive domains, especially perceptual and visual-spatial abilities. The potential usefulness of the CPT in the assessment of dementia was evaluated. Patients with different forms of dementia [14 vascular dementia (VaD, 30 Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 6 Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD], 12 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 30 matched controls were examined by the CPT, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the WAIS-R Digit Span subtest, and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT. The CPT consists of 10 complex pictures, each presenting characteristics paradoxically in opposition to each other. The subjects scored points for naming the object and noticing the paradox. One point was added for commenting on the paradox without prompting (3 points each picture/maximum of 30. CPT scores were significantly higher in the control group (mean ± SD, 29.46 ± 1.43 than in the AD, VaD, MCI, and PDD groups (13.1 ± 2.3, 16.9 ± 3.5, 23.2 ± 1.4, and 23.6 ± 3.4, respectively; p < 0.05. Significant positive correlations between MMSE, Digit Span, CDT, and CPT scores were observed (rho 0.76, 0.35, and 0.56, respectively. These data show perception of complex pictures being compromised in dementia. The correlation between CPT scores and MMSE scores suggests that tests may be used as a brief screening tool for dementia.

  1. Numb and Alzheimer's disease: the current picture

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios eNtelios; Benedikt eBerninger; Georgios eTzimagiorgis

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago, numb was identified as a critical regulator in Drosophila sensory organ precursor cell asymmetric divisions. Beyond the recently recognized role in carcinogenesis, Numb seems to be important in Alzheimer’s disease. This assertion comes from the involvement in various processes such as synapse morphogenesis, amyloid precursor protein trafficking, notch signaling, and neurogenesis. The purpose of the present mini-review is to provide the current picture of Numb’s partici...

  2. Adaptive Hybrid Picture Coding. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    shifted two pixels in the x direction between time frames. Figure 2.1 is a picture of the actual test image . FIGURE 2.1 Radially Decaying Cosine...very limited class of simple images , but this method has many drawbacks that will limit its overall usefulness. First, the output is very sensitive to... images that code the most common gray levels into short code words and rare gray levels into long code words . Hybrid coding is a combination of both

  3. Constructing meaning in interaction through picture books

    OpenAIRE

    Lugossy, Reka

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners’ spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers’ responses to learners’ comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children’s talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners (ages 5–12) and their teachers, through qualitative processes. The main findings give insights into the role of classroom talk in negotiating meanin...

  4. Ocular position in sentence-picture comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R D; Setley, M A; Lerman, J M

    1982-02-01

    If oculomotor activity in verifying orally presented sentences about pictures is important, then there ought to be an increase in such activity in the area of a picture in which a critical feature in the analysis is missing. If the process is purely cognitive, there ought not be greater activity in that area. 32 sentences combining such attributes as positive/negative, true/false, subject of sentence shown/not shown, "before"/"after," resulting in sentences such as, "Star isn't before square," were orally presented to 10 college-age students along with tachistoscopically presented pictures with either an object on the right or left. True/false reaction times were recorded as well as horizontal eye fixations for the time interval via an electromyograph and chart recorder. Mean eye-location/time indices indicated that some sentence types seemed to be analyzed predominantly visually and others predominantly cognitively. Results suggested that there is a need for the development of a combined visual imagery and cognitive model.

  5. Gender congruency effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-X; Matos, Rafael E; Segui, Juan

    2004-10-01

    The analysis of speech error corpora in various gender-marked languages has shown that noun substitutions tend to preserve grammatical gender. This result has been taken as an indication that grammatical gender could play a constraining role during the process of lexical selection. To gain insights on the status of grammatical gender in the speech production system, we discuss this hypothesis and we report three picture naming experiments. We attempted to observe gender-marked context effects in the course of error-free speech production. Participants named pictures shortly after processing a prime that was or was not gender marked and that was or was not congruent with the name of the picture. A clear congruency effect was observed, involving both facilitation in the gender congruent conditions and inhibition in gender incongruent conditions. Different interpretations of this effect and of previously reported gender context effects are discussed in the context of current models of speech production. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  6. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard F.

    2006-12-01

    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  7. Cut and paste pictures in surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.

  8. How Children Learn to Navigate the Symbolic World of Pictures: The Importance of the Artist's Mind and Differentiating Picture Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M L; Armitage, E

    2017-01-01

    Pictures offer a unique and essential contribution to our lives, both in terms of aesthetic pleasure and links to symbolic thought. As such, psychologists have devoted significant time to investigating how children acquire an understanding of pictures. This chapter focuses on two particular facets of this development: the role of the artist and the importance of picture modality. First, we review work that has focused on tracking children's ability to (a) map the relationship between the mental state of the artist and their pictures, and (b) incorporate such considerations into their evaluations of pictures. Drawing these literatures together provides an up-to-date account of how children acquire a mentalistic understanding of pictures. Second, we argue that a mature theory of pictures must enable children to distinguish between different picture types (e.g., photographs vs drawings), and therefore that picture modality should be incorporated into existing theoretical accounts of pictorial development. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 'Reading' bubble chamber pictures with the Spiral Reader eyes.

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Interactive techniques were widely used to study bubble chamber pictures. After a visual scanning of the pictures and a vertex measurement on a Shivamatic, the Spiral Reader allowed the track polar coordinates to be easily measured. See photo 7408137X

  10. The Properties of Retrieval Cues Constrain the Picture Superiority Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weldon, Mary Susan; Roediger, Henry L., III; Challis, Bradford H

    1989-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined why pictures are remembered better than words on explicit memory tests like recall and recognition, whereas words produce more priming than pictures on some implicit...

  11. How Do Young Adults Read Directions with and without Pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    attempted to d termine whether pictures would improve memory for news items. Results indicated that the addition of pictures did produce improved...information content to text directions would enhance adults’ Picture /Text Amalgams 15 comprehension significantly more than that produced by either text or...243. Loftus, G. R. and Bell, S. N. Two types of information in picture memory . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory , 1975

  12. Origin and history of an early TAT card: picture C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W G

    2000-02-01

    The origin and history of Picture C is reviewed, and the role that David Ricks played in preserving many original TAT materials is presented. I suggest that a process similar to that employed with Picture C may have been used in the development of the other "old standbys." The unusual directions for the use of Picture C may possibly suggest awareness by C. D. Morgan and Murray of Schwartz's earlier work with the picture-story technique.

  13. Prepositions and Pictures in the English Learning Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pramono, Y.G. Harto

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the types of prepositions and the common picture types used to teach these prepositions found in English textbooks commonly used in primary schools. The results showed that the types of pictures may be problematic for presenting spatial relations due to an ambiguity the pictures may create and so as may affect the understanding and use of prepositions. Ideally all accompanying pictures should play an active and effective role in supporting learning.

  14. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  15. Science-Oriented Picture Books for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Jerry; Sullivan, Marie

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project that encouraged combining pictures and words by middle school students to create science picture books. Suggests six steps to help students plan, research, and create picture books. Discusses a variety of final products that emerged, and benefits of the project. (BAC)

  16. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving and communications system. (a) Identification. A picture archiving and communications system is a device that...

  18. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago... will enforce the temporary safety zone for motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago, IL from 9... intended to ensure safety of life on navigable waters during nighttime filming of a motion picture in...

  19. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL... from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones... work, low-flying helicopter, and other hazards involved in the filming of a motion picture. DATES: This...

  20. 29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709 Section 541.709... SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry... motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $695 a week (exclusive of...

  1. Promoting Self-Questioning through Picture Book Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Gayla

    2013-01-01

    This teaching tip manuscript demonstrates how picture book illustrations can be used as an inquiry tool that facilitates one's connecting of visual investigations in a picture to the process of generating self-questions. Techniques suggested to promote self-questioning are (1) introducing young readers to an interactive picture book read aloud…

  2. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  3. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  4. The Improvement of Children's Creativity through Korean Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Jeongjun

    1999-01-01

    Examines how one Korean kindergarten used picture books to facilitate children's creativity. Describes students' responses to literature-based science activities related to a picture book. Concludes that good picture books can unleash children's minds from conventional science activities and that the development of the children's ideas depended on…

  5. The Progress of Students Reading Comprehension through Wordless Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Romaida

    2018-01-01

    Wordless picture book is an unique book that could help the young learner to get their literacy. The content of the wordless picture book must be communicated through the visual of the illustration. This research discusses a case study of how a kid of six years old produce his narrative through wordless picture book. The kid was allowed to see and…

  6. NATO initial common operational picture capability project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Laura; Beach, David

    2002-08-01

    The Common Operational Picture (COP) capability can be defined as the ability to display on a single screen integrated views of the Recognized Maritime, Air and Ground Pictures, enriched by other tactical data, such as theater plans, assets, intelligence and logistics information. The purpose of the COP capability is to provide military forces a comprehensive view of the battle space, thereby enhancing situational awareness and the decision-making process across the military command and control spectrum. The availability of a COP capability throughout the command structure is a high priority operational requirement in NATO. A COP capability for NATO is being procured and implemented in an incremental way within the NATO Automated Information System (Bi-SC AIS) Functional Services programme under the coordination of the NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) Integrated Programme Team 5 (IPT5). The NATO Initial COP (iCOP) capability project, first step of this evolutionary procurement, will provide an initial COP capability to NATO in a highly pragmatic and low-risk fashion, by using existing operational communications infrastructure and NATO systems, i.e. the NATO-Wide Integrated Command and Control Software for Air Operations (ICC), the Maritime Command and Control Information System (MCCIS), and the Joint Operations and Intelligence Information System (JOIIS), which will provide respectively the Recognized Air, Maritime and Ground Pictures. This paper gives an overview of the NATO Initial COP capability project, including its evolutionary implementation approach, and describes the technical solution selected to satisfy the urgent operational requirement in a timely and cost effective manner.

  7. Numb and Alzheimer's disease: the current picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntelios, Dimitrios; Berninger, Benedikt; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago, numb was identified as a critical regulator in Drosophila sensory organ precursor cell asymmetric divisions. Beyond the recently recognized role in carcinogenesis, Numb seems to be important in Alzheimer's disease. This assertion comes from the involvement in various processes such as synapse morphogenesis, amyloid precursor protein trafficking, notch signaling, and neurogenesis. The purpose of the present mini-review is to provide the current picture of Numb's participation in mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and emphasize potential aspects for future research.

  8. Numb and Alzheimer's Disease: The Current Picture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios eNtelios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three years ago, numb was identified as a critical regulator in Drosophila sensory organ precursor cell asymmetric divisions. Beyond the recently recognized role in carcinogenesis, Numb seems to be important in Alzheimer’s disease. This assertion comes from the involvement in various processes such as synapse morphogenesis, APP trafficking, notch signaling and neurogenesis. The purpose of the present mini-review is to provide the current picture of Numb’s participation in mechanisms underlying Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis and emphasize potential aspects for future research.

  9. Java EE 7 the big picture

    CERN Document Server

    Coward, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Java EE 7: The Big Picture uniquely explores the entire Java EE 7 platform in an all-encompassing style while examining each tier of the platform in enough detail so that you can select the right technologies for specific project needs. In this authoritative guide, Java expert Danny Coward walks you through the code, applications, and frameworks that power the platform. Take full advantage of the robust capabilities of Java EE 7, increase your productivity, and meet enterprise demands with help from this Oracle Press resource.

  10. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a software tool to support rich pictures creation for object-oriented analysis. This software should be useful both as an e-learning tool for bachelor-level students, as well as for practitioners working with agile methodologies. The transposition of manual...... us in the design of the tool next version. At a more general level we realized that modern object-oriented development methodologies, such as agile methods, are informed by design, hence they sometimes assume design skills that programmers do not have or do not value....

  11. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    With over 3,000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS’s scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration will be described. Their role on various communication platforms will be described and their impact examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  12. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    With over 3000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS's scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration and on various communication platforms will be described. Their impact will be examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  13. Constructing Meaning in Interaction through Picture Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka Lugossy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners’ spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers’ responses to learners’ comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children’s talk in their first language (L1. Data were collected from young Hungarian learners (ages 5–12 and their teachers, through qualitative processes. The main findings give insights into the role of classroom talk in negotiating meaning in the foreign language and in developing literacy.

  14. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  15. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  16. The Picture Theory of the Phantasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Leo White

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquinas's realism is underpinned by his theory of cognition as the reception of sensible forms that exist in nature. In order to convey the receptivity of cognitive powers to forms in nature, he, like Aristotle, likens sensation and intellection to wax's being impressed with the shape of a seal. While this metaphor vividly emphasizes the receptive aspect of human perception and intellection, it does not convey the whole picture. The perceptual awareness that we share with brutes of our goal-directed interactions with environment is likewise essential to realism; our human awareness of these interactions is transformed, if you will, by the human "instinct" for the universal good, so that it can become the basis of our receiving forms through which we know the natures of things. Without the interactive component of perception, we would be left with the "picture theory of the phantasm," at which point Aquinas's theory of abstraction would break down. In such a case, we would either possess no genuine knowledge or what knowledge we did possess would be innate rather than acquired through the senses. Our only alternative is to seek to understand perception as a synergy of its active and passive aspects. Aquinas himself manifests such an understanding of perception in his description of the many roles performed by the cogitative power.

  17. The Obstinate Gaze: Derrida Looking at Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev S. Patke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys all of Derrida’s numerous and occasional discourses on the visual arts with a view to describing both the history of his interest in the visual arts and its relations to visuality. The argument begins with recognition that his responses to art are self-consciously affective. Derrida’s early treatment of Kant and his qualified defense of Heidegger on Van Gogh are analyzed in detail, followed by an account of his fascination with Artaud and the significance of the exhibition Derrida curated at the Louvre on drawings and paintings that represent blindness. The argument concludes with the inference that three motifs recur throughout Derrida’s writing on the visual arts: the displacement of the gaze by the sense of touch in the structure of experience; the appositional-oppositional relation of the pictural to the verbal; and the need, in looking (at pictures, to see nothing that is not there, and to keep seeing the nothing that is.

  18. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus. In the present study, we examine whether semantic interference in picture naming depends on SOA in case of a task choice (naming the picture vs reading the word of a picture-word stimulus) based on tones. This situation requires concurrent processing of the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus, but not a manual response to the tones. On each trial, participants either named a picture or read aloud a word depending on the pitch of a tone, which was presented simultaneously with picture-word onset or 350 ms or 1000 ms before picture-word onset. Semantic interference was present with tone pre-exposure, but absent when tone and picture-word stimulus were presented simultaneously. Against the background of the available studies, these results support an account according to which speakers tend to avoid concurrent response selection, but can engage in other types of concurrent processing, such as task choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced recognition of memorable pictures in ultra-fast RSVP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, Nico; Potter, Mary C; Nieuwenstein, Mark R

    2017-05-08

    Long-term recognition memory for some pictures is consistently better than for others (Isola, Xiao, Parikh, Torralba, & Oliva, IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 36(7), 1469-1482, 2014). Here, we investigated whether pictures found to be memorable in a long-term memory test are also perceived more easily when presented in ultra-rapid RSVP. Participants viewed 6 pictures they had never seen before that were presented for 13 to 360 ms per picture in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence. In half the trials, one of the pictures was a memorable or a nonmemorable picture and perception of this picture was probed by a visual recognition test at the end of the sequence. Recognition for pictures from the memorable set was higher than for those from the nonmemorable set, and this difference increased with increasing duration. Nonmemorable picture recognition was low initially, did not increase until 120 ms, and never caught up with memorable picture recognition performance. Thus, the long-term memorability of an image is associated with initial perceptibility: A picture that is hard to grasp quickly is hard to remember later.

  20. Pictures from Year Two CNEC and CVT Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Jesson D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bahran, Rian Mustafa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKenzie, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Below are all of the pictures for the CNEC and CVT measurements performed at the DAF in July 2016. In total there are 165 pictures. The photos on pages 2-105 were taken during the first week of measurements and the photos on pages 106-165 were taken during the second week of measurements. Many photos are applicable to both sets, which is why it is best to keep the entire set together. For most configurations, a description of the configuration was written on a white board; photos of the measurement setup were taken, then a photo of the white board was taken. For example, the pictures on pages 6-19 (which precede a white board picture on page 20) are of the configuration with Rocky Flats Shells 1-2 surrounded by 4 AmLi sources, which is listed on the white board picture on page 20. In some cases, the white board picture precedes the configuration pictures.

  1. Do perceived context pictures automatically activate their phonological code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jescheniak, Jörg D; Oppermann, Frank; Hantsch, Ansgar; Wagner, Valentin; Mädebach, Andreas; Schriefers, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Morsella and Miozzo (Morsella, E., & Miozzo, M. (2002). Evidence for a cascade model of lexical access in speech production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28, 555-563) have reported that the to-be-ignored context pictures become phonologically activated when participants name a target picture, and took this finding as support for cascaded models of lexical retrieval in speech production. In a replication and extension of their experiment in German, we failed to obtain priming effects from context pictures phonologically related to a to-be-named target picture. By contrast, corresponding context words (i.e., the names of the respective pictures) and the same context pictures, when used in an identity condition, did reliably facilitate the naming process. This pattern calls into question the generality of the claim advanced by Morsella and Miozzo that perceptual processing of pictures in the context of a naming task automatically leads to the activation of corresponding lexical-phonological codes.

  2. A cinema for the unborn: moving pictures, mental pictures and Electra Sparks's New Thought film theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought. This metaphysical Christian doctrine existed alongside the self-help and esoteric publishing domains and testified, above all, to the possibility of the 'mind-cure' of the body through the positive application of 'mental pictures'. Physiologically, their method began best in the womb, where the thoughts of the mother were of utmost importance: the eventual difference between birthing an Elephant Man or an Adonis. This positive maternal impression was commonplace in New Thought literature; it was Sparks's innovation to apply it to cinema. Investigating Sparks's film theory, practice and programming reveals her to be a harbinger of the abiding analogy between mind and motion picture that occupies film theorists to this day.

  3. [Clinical picture of neuroblast migratory disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Dinorin, L

    Disturbances of neuroblast migration are prominent among the numerous causes of symptomatic epilepsy and of abnormal neurological development in children. Although their clinical manifestations are generally nonspecific with considerable overlap of symptoms and signs amongst the various disorders, the clinical picture of migratory disorders is continuously being redefined with greater precision and, in some cases, disorders of migration may be grouped into syndromes that are more easily diagnosed during life, in large part because of major advances in recent years in the technology of neuroimaging and in molecular genetics. It is therefore possible to study these patients in greater detail and over longer periods when detected early in life. I have reviewed the clinical manifestations of some of the defined disorders of neuroblast migration: lissencephaly-pachygyria types I and II, pachygyria, schizencephaly, polymicrogyria, special location heterotopia, for example, periventricular heterotopia and subcortical band heterotopia or 'double cortex' syndrome, the latter closely related to isolated lissencephaly type I.

  4. Random Walk Picture of Basketball Scoring

    CERN Document Server

    Gabel, Alan

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence, based on play-by-play data from all 6087 games from the 2006/07--2009/10 seasons of the National Basketball Association (NBA), that basketball scoring is well described by a weakly-biased continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between different scoring intervals. Using this random-walk picture that is augmented by features idiosyncratic to basketball, we account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead. By further including the heterogeneity of team strengths, we build a computational model that accounts for essentially all statistical features of game scoring data and season win/loss records of each team.

  5. The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Siegmund

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum mechanics by means of visualization. Computer-generated illustrations in color are used extensively throughout the text, helping to establish the relation between quantum mechanics—wave functions, interference, atomic structure, and so forth—and classical physics—point mechanics, statistical mechanics, and wave optics. Even more important, by studying the pictures in parallel with the text, readers develop an intuition for such notoriously abstract phenomena as • the tunnel effect • excitation and decay of metastable states • wave-packet motion within a well • systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles • free wave packets and scattering in 3 dimensions • angular-momentum decomposition • stationary bound states in various 3-dimensional potentials • hybrid states • Kepler motion of wave packets in the Coulomb field • spin and magnetic resonance Illustrations from experiments in a variety of f...

  6. Picture-books: first structured reading materials for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Martinović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Early literacy has recently become a current topic, and there’s a widespread belief that literacy startsdeveloping almost as soon as the child is born, if the child is surrounded with adequate materials and persons who will motivate the development of literacy. The first structured reading materials that a child interacts with are picture-books. It is usually the first contact a child has with literature and a written word in general, and it happens during childhood, the child's most sensitive period, which is why it is important to pay special attention to the quality of picture-books. Croatian picture-books published till the early 80ies of the past century have been investigated to a some extent. However, the picture-books found on the Croatian market and in the libraries in the past 30 years have been the subject of research only sporadically. There's little data on the quality and features of this multifunctional material that is of such great importance for children. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the relevant data found in literature on the historical development of picture-book publishing, their features, functions they help develop, their age-appropriateness, and quality. The paper presents research results stemming from the analysis of the Croatian Children's Book Centre documentation on contemporary picture-book publishing and data on the language of picture-books that are the result of a picture-book corpus study made as part of the PhD research by the author. The data on contemporary authors and illustrators was obtained by analysing the documentation of the Croatian Library Association, Commission for library services for children and youth. The language of the picture-book corpus was analysed using a computer programme, i.e. the analysis was conducted of the lexical diversity of picture-books for three-year olds. The picture-books have not been investigated from the linguistic perspective before, which makes this

  7. Processing emotional pictures and words: effects of valence and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2006-06-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which limbic regions respond differentially to items with different valences (positive or negative) or to different stimulus types (pictures or words). In the present event-related fMRI study, 21 participants viewed words and pictures that were neutral, negative, or positive. Negative and positive items were equated on arousal. The participants rated each item for whether it depicted or described something animate or inanimate or something common or uncommon. For both pictures and words, the amygdala, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), and ventromedial PFC responded equally to all high-arousal items, regardless of valence. Laterality effects in the amygdala were based on the stimulus type (word = left, picture = bilateral). Valence effects were most apparent when the individuals processed pictures, and the results revealed a lateral/medial distinction within the PFC: The lateral PFC responded differentially to negative items, whereas the medial PFC was more engaged during the processing of positive pictures.

  8. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  9. Fashion pictures and women pictures in French women magazine. Normatives parades or strategic masquerade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine MARILLONNET

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to study the fashion pictures within a representative sample of French women magazines. Based on the method of “sémiologie des indices”, used to analyze a corpus of woman’s body and fashion staged, this paper addresses the issue of new functions granted to the stereotyping process. Starting to the assumption of a contract between audience and media, this analysis shows that the gender stereotype may be prescribed, up to a caricature of the womanhood, to the female readers identified as co-producers of the media discourse. Demonstrating both the co-existence of a plurality of gender representations in its pictures and their variability, this work proposes the concept of strategic masquerade to apprehend the possible new functions for the process of gender stereotyping in media.

  10. Facilitation and Interference in Identification of Pictures and Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-05

    compact than the pictures , we chose fragmented images . The enhancement for the most clarified a smaller unit of deletion--an 8 x 8 pixel square in contrast...the implicit test of picture fragment completion and the explicit test of recognition memory . Our major interest has been on the importance of...set of items, such as pictures of common objects or known words, which have representations in semantic memory . To test this, we compared the

  11. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuanghua eShi; Lina eJia; Hermann Josef Mueller

    2012-01-01

    Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures – a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial – on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stim...

  12. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  13. Visual complexity accentuates picture-description deficit in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Neroni, Maria Adriana; Zeman, Adam; Beschin, Nicoletta; Della Sala, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    A recent study indicated that amnesic patients have difficulties not only in describing past and imagined scenarios, but also in describing pictures that are in full view. This finding suggests that impaired memory hampers descriptions of scenarios more broadly. However, no such impairment in picture description in amnesic patients was observed in a related study. One key methodological difference between these studies was the complexity of the pictures to be described, hinting that group differences might be marked only if pictures are sufficiently complex to tax aspects of memory. To test this complexity hypothesis, we examined whether differences in picture description between amnesic patients and controls increase with increasing picture complexity. As in previous studies, we also assessed our participants' ability to describe imagined scenarios. Amnesic patients reported significantly fewer elements than did controls when describing pictures and imagined scenarios. The group difference in picture description was significantly larger for complex than for simple pictures. Although variations in lesion sites might have accounted for the aforementioned cross-study differences in picture description in amnesic patients, our results suggest that, at least in amnesic patients with extramedial temporal lobe lesions, the complexity of pictures can determine whether or not a (substantial) picture-description deficit is observed. We interpret these findings in terms of a narrative-construction deficit. We hypothesize that, whereas brief narrative can be constructed via nonmemory cognitive processes, the construction of more detailed narrative depends upon intact functioning of a temporary memory system, such as the episodic buffer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Enhanced choice for viewing cocaine pictures in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Dunning, Jonathan P; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A; Hajcak, Greg; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2009-07-15

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures--under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)--was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects' choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  15. Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to t...

  16. Neural correlates of the episodic encoding of pictures and words

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Anthony R. Mcintosh; Rajah, M. Natasha; Craik, Fergus I.M.

    1998-01-01

    A striking characteristic of human memory is that pictures are remembered better than words. We examined the neural correlates of memory for pictures and words in the context of episodic memory encoding to determine material-specific differences in brain activity patterns. To do this, we used positron emission tomography to map the brain regions active during encoding of words and pictures of objects. Encoding was carried out by using three different strategies to explore possible interaction...

  17. “Surprised!” Telling the pictures. Can the illustrations in picture books promote language acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandie Mourão

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura apresentar os resultados da re-análise dos dados recolhidos em dois projectos de investigaçãoacçãosobre a utilização de álbuns em língua inglesa nas aulas de Inglês da Educação Pré-Escolar em Portugal.Dois álbums forum usados, demonstrando diferentes interacções entre texto e imagem, ‘paralela’ e ‘interdependente’. Transcrições de gravações de horas do conto com estes livros foram categorizadas de acordo com asfalas em Inglês a que o texto ou imagem deram origem. Os resultados indicam que a linguagem que as criançasaprendem de facto, com os livros ‘inter-dependentes’ (onde a história escrita é diferente da história ilustrada émais rica e as próprias crianças tomam um papel mais activo na criação de um significado. As implicações destesresultados são discutidas.The following article presents the findings of a re-analysis of data from two action research projects investigatingthe use of English picture books in Pre-school English classes in Portugal. Two picture books were used, eachrepresenting parallel and interdependent storytelling models. Audio tapescripts of the picture book read aloudswere categorised according to the utterances prompted by the verbal and visual texts. Results show that foreignlanguage acquisition is extended when both the verbal and visual texts of a picture book are used for languageinput and that children are more actively involved in meaning making. Implications are discussed.

  18. A Story Told by a Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshayahu Shen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: We investigate whether people use a narrative/story schema to organize visual information in figurative isolated pictures representing a "pregnant moment", and, if so, how they do this.  The participants in our study were asked to freely describe pictures that depict some event. Their descriptions were analyzed according to a system of categories developed especially for examining the use of an elaborated narrative organization. The findings support the hypothesis that observers use elaborated narrative organization that goes beyond mere temporal and causal organization (including, e.g., exposition, complication, resolution. Furthermore, the findings suggest that this elaborative narrative organization sometimes dominates the visual organization of the pictures.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante: est-ce que les spectateurs se servent d’un schéma base sur l

  19. Phase space picture of quantum mechanics group theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the theory and applications of the Wigner phase space distribution function and its symmetry properties. The book explains why the phase space picture of quantum mechanics is needed, in addition to the conventional Schrödinger or Heisenberg picture. It is shown that the uncertainty relation can be represented more accurately in this picture. In addition, the phase space picture is shown to be the natural representation of quantum mechanics for modern optics and relativistic quantum mechanics of extended objects.

  20. False recollection of emotional pictures in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Foster, Katherine T; Wong, Jessica T; Bennett, David A

    2010-10-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controls incorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studied with pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotional compared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in early AD may impair recollection, but AD did not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Pedagogical Experiment Using Bubble Chamber Pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We have taken, in October 1981, 20.000 pictures of proton-proton interactions at 5 GeV/c in order to get some clean elastic events which can be easily studied by high school students. The purpose is to illustrate, by actual measurements of these real events, some basic concepts of relativistic mechanisms. This experiment will be an extension of our previous one, performed with HBC 2m events taken at 2 GeV/c. In 1980, all french lycees were provided with large size reproduction of HBC 2m events. Before distribution they were carefully selected and severe kinematical cuts were made. The students measured track curvatures by template, and checked the necessity and the validity of relativistic mechanics by computing the energy balance using non-relativistic and relativistic formulae. No practical problems have been encountered during this experiment and the pedagogical results are encouraging. This new sample of events will be interesting because they are relativistic than the old ones although with the same curv...

  2. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Name agreement in picture naming: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G

    2010-06-01

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded whilst 19 healthy, native English speakers silently named pictures which had either high or low name agreement. A series of ERP components was examined: P1 approximately 120ms from picture onset, N1 around 170ms, P2 around 220ms, N2 around 290ms, and P3 around 400ms. Additionally, a late time window from 800 to 900ms was considered. Name agreement had an early effect, starting at P1 and possibly resulting from uncertainty of picture identity, and continuing into N2, possibly resulting from alternative names for pictures. These results support the idea that name agreement affects two consecutive processes: first, object recognition, and second, lexical selection and/or phonological encoding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reading pictures for story comprehension requires mental imagery skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, I.E.; Mol, S.E.; Jolles, J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in

  5. Reading Pictures for Story Comprehension Requires Mental Imagery Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, Inouk E; Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in

  6. Visualising Cultures: The "European Picture Book Collection" Moves "Down Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Penni; Daly, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The potential for picture books in national collections to act as mirrors reflecting the reader's cultural identity, is widely accepted. This paper shows that the books in a New Zealand Picture Book Collection can also become windows into unfamiliar worlds for non-New Zealand readers, giving them the opportunity to learn more about a context in…

  7. Effectiveness of Picture Books for Italian Instruction at Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…

  8. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with

  9. Using Picture Books as Paired Texts to Teach Educational Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Bintz, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Picture books, when used thoughtfully and artfully, can teach theories to graduate students in literacy and foreign language education. In this article, the authors described how a pair of picture books is used to teach Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development" and Krashen's "Input Hypothesis" in the fields of literacy…

  10. Creating Science Picture Books for an Authentic Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFauw, Danielle L.; Saad, Klodia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an authentic writing opportunity to help ninth-grade students use the writing process in a science classroom to write and illustrate picture books for fourth-grade students to demonstrate and share their understanding of a biology unit on cells. By creating a picture book, students experience the writing process, understand…

  11. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  12. Multilingual Children's Interaction with Metafiction in a Postmodern Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case study of multilingual children's encounter with a…

  13. The robustness of false memory for emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette-Symons, Brandy A

    2017-06-17

    Emotional material is commonly reported to be more accurately recognised; however, there is substantial evidence of increased false alarm rates (FAR) for emotional material and several reports of stronger influences on response bias than accuracy. This pattern is more frequently reported for words than pictures. Research on the mechanisms underlying bias differences has mostly focused on word lists under short retention intervals. This article presents four series of experiments examining recognition memory for emotional pictures while varying arousal and the control over the content of the pictures at two retention intervals, and one study measuring the relatedness of the series picture sets. Under the shorter retention interval, emotion increased false alarms and reduced accuracy. Under the longer retention interval emotion increased hit rates and FAR, resulting in reduced accuracy and/or bias. At both retention intervals, the pattern of valence effects differed based on the arousal associated with the picture sets. Emotional pictures were found to be more related than neutral pictures in each set; however, the influence of relatedness alone does not provide an adequate explanation for all emotional differences. The results demonstrate substantial emotional differences in picture recognition that vary based on valence, arousal and retention interval.

  14. A positivity effect in older adults' memorability judgments of pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Fernandes, Myra A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: A growing literature suggests that older adults are biased to preferentially cognitively process positively valenced information. The authors investigated whether this bias extended to preferential selection of information to remember, and also examined whether the arousal invoked by stimuli biased item selection and memory. Thirty older (63-88 years of age) and 30 younger (18-25 years of age) adults viewed emotional (positive, negative) and neutral pictures that varied in arousal (low, high), and were asked to select a subset they deemed memorable (memorability judgments), before recalling pictures. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to examine aging-related differences in selection and recall of positive, negative, and neutral pictures, and of low- and high-arousal pictures. Older adults selected more positive pictures as memorable, whereas in younger adults selection did not differ by valence. In both age groups, recall of positive pictures was highest. Older adults selected more low- than high-arousal pictures as memorable, although recall was greater for high- than low-arousal pictures in both age groups. Findings are consistent with the view that the aging-related positivity bias is under cognitive control, and suggest an awareness of this in older adults. Future investigations should seek to disentangle the influence of positive valence from other factors (e.g., perceptual, semantic, arousal level) on older adults' memorability judgments.

  15. Effects of Strategy Instructions on Learning from Text and Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Claudia; Doerner, Marcel; Leutner, Detlev; Dutke, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we compared effects of instructions that encourage learners to create referential connections between words and pictures with instructions that distract learners from creating referential connections. In Experiment 1, students read a scientific text under four conditions. In the text-picture condition, students read the…

  16. Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-11-15

    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)

  17. Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.

  18. Contextual modulation of hippocampal activity during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, A; Dubarry, A-S; Trébuchon, A; Chauvel, P; Alario, F-X; Liégeois-Chauvel, C

    2016-08-01

    Picture naming is a standard task used to probe language processes in healthy and impaired speakers. It recruits a broad neural network of language related areas, among which the hippocampus is rarely included. However, the hippocampus could play a role during picture naming, subtending, for example, implicit learning of the links between pictured objects and their names. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hippocampal activity during plain picture naming, without memorization requirement; we further assessed whether this activity was modulated by contextual factors such as repetition priming and semantic interference. Local field potentials recorded from intracerebral electrodes implanted in the healthy hippocampi of epileptic patients revealed a specific and reliable pattern of activity, markedly modulated by repetition priming and semantic context. These results indicate that the hippocampus is recruited during picture naming, presumably in relation to implicit learning, with contextual factors promoting differential hippocampal processes, possibly subtended by different sub-circuitries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Origin and history of the earliest Thematic Apperception Test pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Wesley G

    2002-12-01

    I present the origin and history of the "Series A" pictures of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943/1971). The TAT and its pictures evolved during the 1930s and early 1940s. The Series A pictures were probably never a distinct, fixed set of cards as the name seems to imply. The pictures used were in a constant state of flux with additions, deletions, and modifications common. In this article I describe the origins of the test and catalog its earliest pictures. It is hoped that familiarity with the test's development will increase appreciation for the efforts of the test's originators and add perspective and depth to one's awareness of the stimuli used.

  20. Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence, and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP, independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception.

  1. Picture reality decision, semantic categories and gender. A new set of pictures, with norms and an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarotto, Riccardo; Laiacona, Marcella; Macchi, Valeria; Capitani, Erminio

    2002-01-01

    We present a new corpus of 80 pictures of unreal objects, useful for a controlled assessment of object reality decision. The new pictures were assembled from parts of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart [J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Learning Memory 6; 1980: 174] set and were devised for the purpose of contrasting natural categories (animals, fruits and vegetables), artefacts (tools, vehicles and furniture), body parts and musical instruments. We examined 140 normal subjects in a free-choice and a multiple-choice object decision task, assembled with 80 pictures of real objects and above 80 new pictures of unreal objects in order to obtain a difficulty index for each picture. We found that the tasks were more difficult with pictures representing natural entities than with pictures of artefacts. We found a gender by category interaction, with a female superiority with some natural categories (fruits and vegetables, but not animals), and a male advantage with artefacts. On this basis, the difficulty index we calculated for each picture is separately reported for males and females. We discuss the possible origin of the gender effect, which has been found with the same categories in other tasks and has a counterpart in the different familiarity of the stimuli for males and females. In particular, we contrast explanations based on socially determined gender differences with accounts based on evolutionary pressures. We further comment on the relationship between data from normal subjects and the domain-specific account of semantic category dissociations observed in brain-damaged patients.

  2. Picture Books Are for Little Kids, Aren't They? Using Picture Books with Adolescent Readers to Enhance Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of using picture books with adolescent readers, describes strategies that can be taught with picture books, and provides examples of books the author has used. Some of the topics discussed include: reading comprehension, visual literacy, interactive read-aloud with facilitative talk, literary elements, and…

  3. The properties of retrieval cues constrain the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, M S; Roediger, H L; Challis, B H

    1989-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined why pictures are remembered better than words on explicit memory tests like recall and recognition, whereas words produce more priming than pictures on some implicit tests, such as word-fragment and word-stem completion (e.g., completing -l-ph-nt or ele----- as elephant). One possibility is that pictures are always more accessible than words if subjects are given explicit retrieval instructions. An alternative possibility is that the properties of the retrieval cues themselves constrain the retrieval processes engaged; word fragments might induce data-driven (perceptually based) retrieval, which favors words regardless of the retrieval instructions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that words were remembered better than pictures on both the word-fragment and word-stem completion tasks under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions. In Experiment 2, pictures were recalled better than words with semantically related extralist cues. In Experiment 3, when semantic cues were combined with word fragments, pictures and words were recalled equally well under explicit retrieval conditions, but words were superior to pictures under implicit instructions. Thus, the inherently data-limited properties of fragmented words limit their use in accessing conceptual codes. Overall, the results indicate that retrieval operations are largely determined by properties of the retrieval cues under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions.

  4. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007

  5. Pornographic picture processing interferes with working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. In this study, 28 healthy individuals performed 4 experimental manipulations of a pictorial 4-back WM task with neutral, negative, positive, or pornographic stimuli. Participants also rated 100 pornographic pictures with respect to sexual arousal and indicated masturbation urges previous to and following pornographic picture presentation. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis indicated an explanation of variance of the sensitivity in the pornographic picture condition by the subjective rating of the pornographic pictures as well as by a moderation effect of masturbation urges. Results contribute to the view that indicators of sexual arousal due to pornographic picture processing interfere with WM performance. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet sex addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies.

  6. Intentions vs. resemblance: understanding pictures in typical development and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2014-04-01

    Research has debated whether children reflect on artists' intentions when comprehending pictures, or instead derive meaning entirely from resemblance. We explore these hypotheses by comparing how typically developing toddlers and low-functioning children with autism (a population impaired in intentional reasoning) interpret abstract pictures. In Experiment 1, both groups mapped familiar object names onto abstract pictures, however, they related the same representations to different 3-D referents. Toddlers linked abstract pictures with intended referents they did not resemble, while children with autism mapped picture-referent relations based on resemblance. Experiment 2 showed that toddlers do not rely upon linguistic cues to determine intended referential relations. Experiment 3 confirmed that the responding of children with autism was not due to perseveration or associative word learning, and also provided independent evidence of their intention-reading difficulties. We argue that typically developing children derive meaning from the social-communicative intentions underlying pictures when resemblance is an inadequate cue to meaning. By contrast, children with autism do not reflect on artists' intentions and simply relate pictures to whatever they happen to resemble. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Children’s Book Illustrations: Visual Language of Picture Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladíková Hana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality picture books that merge text and illustration together in order to tell a story are eminent for healthy mental and social growth of children. This paper is to outline the benefits picture books bring to children between the ages three to eight, determine functions of its illustrative language, examine the process of its production, and point out a set of elements that, according to number of professional children's book illustrators, significantly contribute to the success of a picture book

  8. The blocked-random effect in pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toglia, M P; Hinman, P J; Dayton, B S; Catalano, J F

    1997-06-01

    Picture and word recall was examined in conjunction with list organization. 60 subjects studied a list of 30 items, either words or their pictorial equivalents. The 30 words/pictures, members of five conceptual categories, each represented by six exemplars, were presented either blocked by category or in a random order. While pictures were recalled better than words and a standard blocked-random effect was observed, the interaction indicated that the recall advantage of a blocked presentation was restricted to the word lists. A similar pattern emerged for clustering. These findings are discussed in terms of limitations upon the pictorial superiority effect.

  9. Verifying Visual Properties in Sentence Verification Facilitates Picture Recognition Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pecher (Diane); K. Zanolie (Kiki); R. Zeelenberg (René)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the perceptual symbols theory (Barsalou, 1999), sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. We investigated whether recognition memory for pictures of concepts was facilitated by earlier representation of visual properties of those concepts. During

  10. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

    2014-06-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multilingual children's interaction with metafiction in a postmodern picture book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case...... study of multilingual children's encounter with a postmodern picture book with distinct metafictional features. In the page-by-page walkthroughs of the book, many of the multilingual children demonstrate a high level of literary competence. They deal with the book's metafictional features with great...... confidence and explicitly call for books which challenge them and break with their expectations as readers. Consequently, it is argued that postmodern picture books should be part of the range of books presented to multilingual children....

  12. Words vs. Pictures: Perceived Impact and Connotative Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Hugh M.

    1974-01-01

    Results of two studies indicate that word messages carry more impact than pictures and an analysis of variance reveals that iconicity and sensationalism each related positively to both evaluative-ethical and interest-vitality ratings. (RB)

  13. Directed forgetting of complex pictures in an item method paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna

    2008-11-01

    An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect--that is, better recognition of "to-be-remembered" than of "to-be-forgotten" pictures--was observed, although its size was smaller than previously reported for words or line drawings. The magnitude of the directed forgetting effect correlated negatively with participants' depression and dissociation scores. The results indicate that, at least in an item method, directed forgetting occurs for complex pictures as well as words and simple line drawings. Furthermore, people with higher levels of dissociative or depressive symptoms exhibit altered memory encoding patterns.

  14. PACS (picture archiving and communication systems): filmless radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, N

    2000-01-01

    A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a computerised means of replacing the roles of conventional radiological film. This review describes the Hammersmith PACS, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of PACS systems.



  15. The Interpretation of Pictures and the Documentary Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Bohnsack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The considerable progress in qualitative methods is directly connected with developments in the field of text-interpretation. On the basis of a thorough reconstruction of their formal structures texts are treated as autonomous domains of self-referential systems. Such a methodological status has been denied to pictures in empirical research in the field of social sciences up until now. The documentary method, based on Karl MANNHEIM's Sociology of Knowledge, opens up methodical access to pictures. Methodologies from art history (PANOFSKY, IMDAHL can thus become relevant for empirical research in social sciences. Connections to semiotics (BARTHES, ECO and philosophy (FOUCAULT are worked out in their consequences for qualitative methods. Thus verbal contextual and pre-knowledge can be controlled methodically in the documentary interpretation of pictures. The reconstruction of formal structure of pictures becomes of central importance in analysis. All of this will be demonstrated by examples from research practice. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803267

  16. Recognition memory for concrete, regular abstract, and diverse abstract pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse-King, Mathew W; Standing, Lionel G

    2007-06-01

    Based on previous research by Goldstein and Chance in which poor recognition memory for abstract visual patterns was reported, this study compared recognition memory for pictures of everyday concrete objects, regular abstract stimuli as employed by Goldstein and Chance, and diverse abstract stimuli. A (3) x 2 design (stimulus type x test order) analysis of variance design was used. The subjects (N = 31) first viewed 30 target stimuli, followed by an immediate recognition test in which for 30 paired target and distractor stimuli shown they indicated which one they had seen previously. Concrete pictures were recognized with near perfect accuracy, and above the level for diverse abstract pictures; these in turn were better identified than regular abstract items, on which performance resembled that found by Goldstein and Chance. It is concluded that stimulus discriminability, rather than representational meaningfulness, may be crucial in picture recognition.

  17. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Z.; Jia, L.; Muller, Hermann J.

    2012-01-01

    Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures—a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial—on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus...

  18. THE EXPLORATION OF THE SELF IN PICTURES. PHOTO-THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA NEDELCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We are living in a world surrounded by images; everywhere we go we are overwhelmed by commercials, plasma screens, posters etc. We get lost in these “perfect” pictures, we dream about that perfect body, that perfect sunny holiday and that perfectly happy family. We spend time consuming those pictures, but we don’t spend time to see ourselves as we are, to discover our inner self. But, can we discover ourselves in pictures? I believe so, but only when the pictures are created and not consumed. When pictures are created, creation becomes therapy and the result of the work becomes a means of self discovery and exploration. There are many examples of artists using different media like: sculpture, painting, installation, video that create pictures making use of their own body/face, of their own lives, of their own dreams, hallucinations or obsessions. This is a good way to bring their problems out of the subconscious, to use them in a creative and playful way, to visualize them and to share them with the world. The paper intends to explore the possibilities of self discovery through creating pictures, and in what proportion this activity can become therapy, art or both. The analysis will focus on the possibilities of accepting and comprehending oneself by taking pictures of oneself; on how genuine self-portraits can overcome the individual conflict between who one actually is, what one believes people’s perceptions of oneself are and who one thinks people want one to be in order to be accepted or even successful.

  19. Learning from picture books: Infants’ use of naming information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eKhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants’ transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object’s nonobvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object’s newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-colour exemplar. Infants’ performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to elicit the object’s nonobvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object’s label before learning about the object’s hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds’ performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object’s nonobvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-colour exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ learning and transfer from picture books.

  20. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Suvi; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Wikgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness) induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command) eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  1. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Karla

    Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  2. Learning from picture books: Infants' use of naming information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khu, Melanie; Graham, Susan A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants' transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object's non-obvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object's newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-color exemplar. Infants' performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to attempt to elicit the object's non-obvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object's label before learning about the object's hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds' performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object's non-obvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-color exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants' learning and transfer from picture books.

  3. Aging memory for pictures: Using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Waring, Jill D.; Beth, Ellen H.; McKeever, Joshua D.; Milberg, William P.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to e...

  4. Une iconotheque pour la classe de langue (A Picture Bank for the Language Class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Christian

    1983-01-01

    A list of subjects and sources of pictures for a classroom "picture bank" is suggested. Tips are given for the use and conservation of pictures, and a classification scheme and ideas for language and civilization instruction are included. (MSE)

  5. The Role of Pictures in Learning Biology: Part 1, Perception and Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a "picture superiority effect" is discussed. Examined are a number of perceptual considerations that need to be given to picture construction. Parameters which appear to attract the learner's attention to a picture are considered. (CW)

  6. Picture for tropical medicine article: How to provide the qualifid one?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Picture is an important media for communication. A picture can represent hundreds of words. In tropical medicine, picture is important for the description in many situations. To prepare and provide a good picture is an important step for publishing an article in tropical medicine. How to provide qualified picture is hereby discussed. Also, the authors discuss an important publication ethical problem, picture plagiarism.

  7. The locus of taboo context effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Samuel J; McMahon, Katie L; Burt, Jennifer S; de Zubicaray, Greig I

    2016-07-20

    Speakers respond more slowly when naming pictures presented with taboo (i.e., offensive/embarrassing) than with neutral distractor words in the picture-word interference paradigm. Over four experiments, we attempted to localize the processing stage at which this effect occurs during word production and determine whether it reflects the socially offensive/embarrassing nature of the stimuli. Experiment 1 demonstrated taboo interference at early stimulus onset asynchronies of -150 ms and 0 ms although not at 150 ms. In Experiment 2, taboo distractors sharing initial phonemes with target picture names eliminated the interference effect. Using additive factors logic, Experiment 3 demonstrated that taboo interference and phonological facilitation effects do not interact, indicating that the two effects originate at different processing levels within the speech production system. In Experiment 4, interference was observed for masked taboo distractors, including those sharing initial phonemes with the target picture names, indicating that the effect cannot be attributed to a processing level involving responses in an output buffer. In two of the four experiments, the magnitude of the interference effect correlated significantly with arousal ratings of the taboo words. However, no significant correlations were found for either offensiveness or valence ratings. These findings are consistent with a locus for the taboo interference effect prior to the processing stage responsible for word form encoding. We propose a pre-lexical account in which taboo distractors capture attention at the expense of target picture processing due to their high arousal levels.

  8. Picture Books Featuring Literary Characters with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batič Janja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a selection of picture books that feature a person with special needs as the main literary character. The selection of the books to be showcased was based on three crucial aspects: the form of the (picture book, as we wanted to underline the visual importance of a literary character with special needs; the age limit of the readers the books are intended for (preschool and early primary school; and undisputable quality of the literary and artistic components of the picture books. The picture books we have selected based on the above criteria are Veveriček posebne sorte by Svetlana Makarovič and Marjan Manček, Mrožek dobi očala by Peter Svetina and Mojca Osojnik, and Zakaj je babica jezna by Lela B. Njatin and Alenka Sottler. Picture books about literary characters with special needs can help highly sensitive children accepting people that are different, while children with special needs can build a better self-image based on such books. Quality literary books which foster a positive attitude towards a character with special needs promote tolerance and can thus play an important role in the early childhood, with regard to awareness of an inclusive society.

  9. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanghua eShi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures – a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial – on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus. We found an overestimation of tactile duration following exposure to pictures of threat, but not pictures of disgust (even though these scored equally high on arousal, in a short-range temporal bisection task (range 300/900 ms. Follow-up experiments revealed that this duration lengthening effect was abolished when the range to be bisected was increased (1000/1900 ms. However, duration overestimation was maintained in the short-range bisection task regardless of whether the interval between the visual and tactile events was short or long. This pattern is inconsistent with a general arousal interpretation of duration distortion and suggests that crossmodal linkages in the processing of emotions and emotional regulation are two main factors underlying the manifestation of crossmodal duration modulation.

  10. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhuanghua; Jia, Lina; Müller, Hermann J

    2012-01-01

    Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures-a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial-on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus. We found an overestimation of tactile duration following exposure to pictures of threat, but not pictures of disgust (even though these scored equally high on arousal), in a short-range temporal bisection task (range 300/900 ms). Follow-up experiments revealed that this duration lengthening effect was abolished when the range to be bisected was increased (1000/1900 ms). However, duration overestimation was maintained in the short-range bisection task regardless of whether the interval between the visual and tactile events was short or long. This pattern is inconsistent with a general arousal interpretation of duration distortion and suggests that crossmodal linkages in the processing of emotions and emotional regulation are two main factors underlying the manifestation of crossmodal duration modulation.

  11. Selective and nonselective inhibition of competitors in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relation between nonselective inhibition and selective inhibition in picture naming performance. Nonselective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress any unwanted response, whereas selective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress specific competing responses. The degree of competition in picture naming was manipulated by presenting targets along with distractor words that could be semantically related (e.g., a picture of a dog combined with the word cat) or unrelated (tree) to the picture name. The mean naming response time (RT) was longer in the related than in the unrelated condition, reflecting semantic interference. Delta plot analyses showed that participants with small mean semantic interference effects employed selective inhibition more effectively than did participants with larger semantic interference effects. The participants were also tested on the stop-signal task, which taps nonselective inhibition. Their performance on this task was correlated with their mean naming RT but, importantly, not with the selective inhibition indexed by the delta plot analyses and the magnitude of the semantic interference effect. These results indicate that nonselective inhibition ability and selective inhibition of competitors in picture naming are separable to some extent.

  12. Emotional reactivity during anticipation and perception of affective pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M Carmen; Poy, Rosario; Segarra, Pilar; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-13

    The focus of the present study was on further exploring anticipatory responses to emotional stimuli by measuring the eyeblink startle reflex in a variation of the picture-picture affective learning procedure. Participants (113 undergraduate women) were not explicitly instructed before the experiment began. Instead, they had to learn the specific relations between cues (geometrical shapes) and emotional pictures based on pairings during the first part of the task. Plausible contingency learning effects were tested afterwards, in a parallel sequence of trials including auditory probes during cues and pictures processing during the second part of the task. Results did show the typical affective startle modulation pattern during perception, linear F(1, 200) = 52.67, p anticipation, quadratic F(1, 200) = 7.07, p anticipatory periods (greater activity for emotional vs. neutral; overall quadratic F(1, 224) = 7.04, p anticipation (cues processing) seem to suggest that more resources were allocated to highly arousing pictures that engage attention. Differences between the present results and prior research may be attributed to procedural variations in the sample, cues, or instructions. Future studies should also explore in more detail the role of the contingency awareness during anticipation.

  13. Pigeons use high spatial frequencies when memorizing pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew S; Brooks, Daniel I; Cook, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    The ability of animals to visually memorize and categorize a large number of pictures is well established. Determining the kinds of information animals use to accomplish these goals has been more difficult. This experiment examined the contribution of spatial frequency information to picture memorization by pigeons. A series of grayscale pictures were notch-filtered to eliminate different portions of the spatial frequency spectrum of memorized pictures. The results indicated that the higher spatial frequencies in the pictures were most important to accurate recognition, suggesting that the detection of fine detail at the high range of pigeon visual acuity was a critical component to their memorized representations. Subsequent tests with band-pass and hybrid conflict stimuli confirmed this conclusion. It is suggested that cognitive and task demands may determine how spatial frequency is used by pigeons, with higher frequencies more important to item memorization, while lower spatial frequencies may contribute to categorization in other types of discrimination tasks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. THE USE OF PICTURE SERIES IN TEACHING WRITING RECOUNT TEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarti Apsari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to investigate the kind of activities take place during the processof teaching writing recount text through picture series and to identify the benefits that the students obtained from writing recount text through picture series. This research used a qualitative descriptive research method. The respondents of the research are an English teacher and seven grade students of Mts Nurul Hidayah Batujajar. The data were obtained from observation and interview. The results of the study revealed that the teaching writing by using picture series can improve students’ ability in writing recount text. Specifically, they showed some improvement on process of writing and vocabulary. Moreover, the data from observation and interview showed that there are some benefits, which are the development of students’ writing ability, the increasing of students’ participation in the class, fun learning’s atmosphere and the increasing of students’ writing interest.

  15. Effects of reading picture books on kindergartners' mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Elia, Iliada; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-02-07

    This article describes a field experiment with a pretest-posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands. During three months, the children in the nine experimental classes were read picture books. Data analysis revealed that, when controlled for relevant covariates, the picture book reading programme had a positive effect ( d  = .13) on kindergartners' mathematics performance as measured by a project test containing items on number, measurement and geometry. Compared to the increase from pretest to posttest in the control group, the increase in the experimental group was 22% larger. No significant differential intervention effects were found between subgroups based on kindergarten year, age, home language, socio-economic status and mathematics and language ability, but a significant intervention effect was found for girls and not for boys.

  16. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  17. Effects of reading picture books on kindergartners’ mathematics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Elia, Iliada; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a field experiment with a pretest–posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands. During three months, the children in the nine experimental classes were read picture books. Data analysis revealed that, when controlled for relevant covariates, the picture book reading programme had a positive effect (d = .13) on kindergartners’ mathematics performance as measured by a project test containing items on number, measurement and geometry. Compared to the increase from pretest to posttest in the control group, the increase in the experimental group was 22% larger. No significant differential intervention effects were found between subgroups based on kindergarten year, age, home language, socio-economic status and mathematics and language ability, but a significant intervention effect was found for girls and not for boys. PMID:26855457

  18. Differential Processing for Actively Ignored Pictures and Words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegen Walker

    Full Text Available Previous work suggests that, when attended, pictures may be processed more readily than words. The current study extends this research to assess potential differences in processing between these stimulus types when they are actively ignored. In a dual-task paradigm, facilitated recognition for previously ignored words was found provided that they appeared frequently with an attended target. When adapting the same paradigm here, previously unattended pictures were recognized at high rates regardless of how they were paired with items during the primary task, whereas unattended words were later recognized at higher rates only if they had previously been aligned with primary task targets. Implicit learning effects obtained by aligning unattended items with attended task-targets may apply only to conceptually abstract stimulus types, such as words. Pictures, on the other hand, may maintain direct access to semantic information, and are therefore processed more readily than words, even when being actively ignored.

  19. Differential Processing for Actively Ignored Pictures and Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Maegen; Ciraolo, Margeaux; Dewald, Andrew; Sinnett, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Previous work suggests that, when attended, pictures may be processed more readily than words. The current study extends this research to assess potential differences in processing between these stimulus types when they are actively ignored. In a dual-task paradigm, facilitated recognition for previously ignored words was found provided that they appeared frequently with an attended target. When adapting the same paradigm here, previously unattended pictures were recognized at high rates regardless of how they were paired with items during the primary task, whereas unattended words were later recognized at higher rates only if they had previously been aligned with primary task targets. Implicit learning effects obtained by aligning unattended items with attended task-targets may apply only to conceptually abstract stimulus types, such as words. Pictures, on the other hand, may maintain direct access to semantic information, and are therefore processed more readily than words, even when being actively ignored.

  20. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Jing, Jin; Zou, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Meng-Long; Li, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ai-Hua

    2008-09-05

    Reading Chinese, a kind of ideogram, relies more on visual cognition. The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention. The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test. According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10, twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12 +/- 1.42) years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06 +/- 1.29) years), 1:1 matched by age, sex, grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group. Four groups of pictures (cock, accident, canyon, meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets. All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink II High-Speed Eye Tracker. The duration time, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children. The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F = 7.711, P vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group. The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words, all eye movement indexes, except saccade amplitude, had a significant difference within groups (P < 0.05). Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching, applying slow fixations, more fixations and small and frequent saccades. Their abnormal eye movement mode reflects the poor ability and strategy of visual information processing.

  1. Decoding Pedophilia: Increased Anterior Insula Response to Infant Animal Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponseti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By using pictures of infant animals (instead of human infants, we aimed to elicit nurturing processing without triggering sexual processing. We hypothesized that elevated brain responses to nurturing stimuli will be found – in addition to other brain areas – in the anterior insula of pedophiles because this area was repeatedly found to be activated when adults see pictures of babies. Behavioral ratings confirmed that pictures of infant or adult animals were not perceived as sexually arousing neither by the pedophilic participants nor by the heathy controls. Statistical analysis was applied to the whole brain as well as to the anterior insula as region of interest. Only in pedophiles did infants relative to adult animals increase brain activity in the anterior insula, supplementary motor cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal areas. Within-group analysis revealed an increased brain response to infant animals in the left anterior insular cortex of the pedophilic participants. Currently, pedophilia is considered the consequence of disturbed sexual or executive brain processing, but details are far from known. The present findings raise the question whether there is also an over-responsive nurturing system in pedophilia.

  2. Snake pictures draw more early attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, J W; Eijlers, R; Franken, I H A; Huijding, J

    2014-02-01

    Snakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of early and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hypothesis that more early visual attention is automatically allocated to snakes than to spiders. To measure the early posterior negativity (EPN), 24 healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of 600 snake pictures, 600 spider pictures, and 600 bird pictures (three pictures per second). To measure the late positive potential (LPP), they also watched similar pictures (30 pictures per stimulus category) in a non-speeded presentation. The EPN amplitude was largest for snake pictures, intermediate for spider pictures and smallest for bird pictures. The LPP was significantly larger for both snake and spider pictures when compared to bird pictures. Interestingly, spider fear (as measured by a questionnaire) was associated with EPN amplitude for spider pictures, whereas snake fear was not associated with EPN amplitude for snake pictures. The results suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention and that early attention to snakes is more innate and independent of reported fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Influence of Teaching Vocabulary by Using Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanik Nuzulimah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to explore whether there is significant difference of achievement in vocabulary between students taught by using pictures and those are not. The subject of this study is the first year students of SLTP Muhammadiyah Simo Susukan, Semarang where the sample contains 50 students that is divided into experimental group (with treatment and control group (without treatment. The data is gathered from participants’ score obtained from pre test and post test. Using t test as technique of data analysis, result shows that students taught by using pictures perform better than those are not. It means that there is significant difference between the two groups.

  4. Picture processing of SAR L-band imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M. L.; Stromberg, W. D.; Farr, T.

    1977-01-01

    Data digitization and thresholding are applied to two scenes - sea ice and fresh-water lakes - to define the possible uses of automatic picture processing of uncalibrated SAR L-band imagery. It is shown that certain types of features, those which have constant returns which are also very high or very low in intensity can be effectively studied using simple automatic picture processing techniques applied to uncalibrated radar data. In areas which are generally inaccessible or in which monitoring of the changes of some types of earth surfaces are required, the uncalibrated SAR data can provide valuable inputs for modeling and mapping purposes.

  5. Space-Time, Phenomenology, and the Picture Theory of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelland, Hans Herlof

    To estimate Minkowski's introduction of space-time in relativity, the case is made for the view that abstract language and mathematics carries meaning not only by its connections with observation but as pictures of facts. This view is contrasted to the more traditional intuitionism of Hume, Mach, and Husserl. Einstein's attempt at a conceptual reconstruction of space and time as well as Husserl's analysis of the loss of meaning in science through increasing abstraction is analysed. Wittgenstein's picture theory of language is used to explain how meaning is conveyed by abstract expressions, with the Minkowski space as a case.

  6. Brief Report: Randomized Test of the Efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System on Highly Generalized Picture Exchanges in Children with ASD

    OpenAIRE

    Yoder, Paul J.; Lieberman, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social-communication interventions in young children with autism examined far-transfer of the use of picture exchange to communicate. Thirty-six children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, one of which was the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). All children had access to picture symbols during assessments. Post-treatment measurement of the number of picture exchanges in a far-transfer, assessment context favored the P...

  7. Color constancy demonstrated in a photographic picture by means of a D-up viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuangsuwan, Chanprapha; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Katemake, Pichayada

    2013-01-01

    According to the recognized visual space of illumination concept, space perception is essential for color constancy. It should be possible to experience the color constancy in a picture if we perceive a three-dimensional space in the picture. A dimension-up (D-up) viewer was constructed to perceive a space for a picture. An experimental room illuminated by various color lights was used as the reference scene and the subject determined a picture in which the color impression was matched to that of the room by selecting from 13 different colored pictures of the room. The picture with the color nearest to the color of the room was selected with the D-up viewer implying the existence of color constancy in the picture. When subjects observed a picture in a normal way the picture of the room illuminated in white was selected regardless of the actual room illumination color, confirming no color constancy in the picture.

  8. U.S. Children's Picture Books and the Homonormative Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The author examines the role U.S. lesbian- and gay-themed children's picture books play in the deployment of a homonormative subject, how that deployment occurs, and what the consequences are of such a deployment for children; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex (LGBTQI) communities; and the larger society. The author, through…

  9. Boy Troubles? Male Literacy Depictions in Children's Choices Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritter, Kristine; Van Duinen, Deborah Vriend; Montgomery, Kimberly; Blowers, Devony; Bishop, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This article is a critical content analysis of Children's Choice award-winning picture books from 2000 to 2014. The "critical" part of the analysis consists of selecting archetypes for males presented in these texts based on applying feminist poststructuralist literacy theory that situates literacy and language at the center of gender…

  10. The Effect of Picture Story Books on Students’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslina -

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a non formal education students, PKBM (a Non-Formal Community Learning Center Medaso Kolaka students tend to encounter some difficulties in reading such as low motivation, infrequent tutors (non-formal education teachers coming, inappropriate teaching materials, etc.  This research aimed to investigate the effects of picture story books on the students’ reading comprehension and to clarify students’ perception on the utilization of  picture story books in teaching reading. The research was conducted at the PKBM Medaso Kolaka by applying the experimental design. There were 15 students randomly took as the sample and they were taking a Paket B. The sample was divided into two groups, namely experimental group and control groups.  The data were collected by administering a test, namely pre-test that aimed to determine the prior students’ knowledge, and the post-test that was conducted in the end of the experiment. Questionnaires and interviews were also used to collect data of the students’ perception. Then, the data were analyzed by using Pearson Product Moment assisted by SPSS 14.0. The results revealed that picture story books were able to improve students’ reading as well as the students’ interest in reading. The result showed that the utilization of picture story books had effect on the students’ reading comprehension that revealed the value of 0.025 with higher scores found in the post-test.

  11. Effects of reading picture books on kindergartners’ mathematics performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Elia, I.; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a field experiment with a pretest–posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands.

  12. Effects of Reading Picture Books on Kindergartners' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Elia, Iliada; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a field experiment with a pretest-posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands. During three months, the children in the nine…

  13. Kodak Picture Exchange--Online Access to Photographs and Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valauskas, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Kodak Picture Exchange that includes a database of over 200,000 photographic images collected from 28 stock photography companies in the United States that allows the user to search for images by topic. Highlights include installing the software, alternative search strategies, costs, manipulating images, and rules governing the use…

  14. Picturing Peace: Local and Universal Symbols in Three Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robert J.; Cummins, Jonathan; Yep, Jasmine

    2005-01-01

    Picturing Peace is an ArtsBridge collaboration in which K-12 students learn to use digital cameras to communicate their feelings and ideas about peace. The photographs of three student cultures were analyzed. Both local and universal symbols of peace were found, such as nature, light, community, environment, peace signs, play, spiritual symbols,…

  15. Powerful pictures: popular Christian aesthetics in southern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, B.

    2008-01-01

    If images are life-forms, and objects are the body they animate, then media are the habitats or ecosystems in which pictures become alive. (Mitchell 2005: 198) Situated in an approach of religion in Africa that stresses the need to move beyond essentializing oppositions of Africa and the West, this

  16. Making Pictures as a Method of Teaching Art History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Jari

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the affective and sensory turns in the paradigm of art history, this article discusses making pictures as a method of teaching art history in Finnish Upper Secondary Vocational Education and Training (Qualification in Visual Expression, Study Programmes in Visual and Media Arts and Photography). A total of 25 students majoring in…

  17. Cognitive loci of impairments in picture naming by aphasic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R H; Knox, A W; Juola, J F; Salmon, S J

    1979-03-01

    In order to identify the process or processes responsible for impaired naming by aphasic patients, ten aphasic adults and ten normal adults performed three independent tasks--picture naming, modified Sternberg picture recognition, and modified Sternberg random shape recognition (Sternberg, 1966). Response times and error percentages were the dependent variables. Independent variables in naming were stimulus codability measured in bits of uncertainty (two levels) and number of naming trials (three trials). Independent variables in the recognition tasks were uncertainty (two levels), number of stimuli to be remembered (two or four stimuli) and response type ("yes" or "no"). The results showed that uncertainty had significant effects on naming but not on recognition performance. The aphasic group produced significantly longer naming response times regardless of uncertainty level. The differences between groups were much greater for high-uncertainty pictures (1100 msec) than for low-uncertainty pictures (270 msec). A comparison of estimates of word retrieval times showed that the two subject groups differed significantly for high-uncertainty but not for low-uncertainty items. It was concluded that (1) use of the term "word retrieval problem" rather than "loss of memory problem" was justified to describe the major component in the aphasic naming impairment for high-uncertainty items, and (2) when naming low-uncertainty items these aphasic subjects did not demonstrate a word retrieval problem. The results indicate that treatment procedures designed to improve naming should be process rather than content oriented.

  18. The Picture of Nobody: Shakespeare’s anti-authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available "The Picture of Nobody" posits that Shakespeare's birth as an author in print was “aborted” by strategies of absence that avoided institutionalized forms of authorial representation. Wilson argues that these possibly deliberate acts of evasion and self-concealment are linked to early modern problems of social class and to Shakespeare's ambition to become "a subject without an identity".

  19. Exploring Children's Picture Storybooks with Adult and Adolescent EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Kathleen F.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework to support the use of children's picture storybooks in teaching EFL to adults and adolescents. The author presents ways to use these books, addresses the twin goals of teaching mechanics and culture, and includes a list of books and a wide variety of activities that EFL teachers can use to effectively…

  20. Picture Books and the Digital World: Educators Making Informed Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Junko; Teale, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The book publishing industry in general and picture book materials for children in particular have undergone rapid and profound changes in recent years with the developments in the digital realm. As a result, teachers, school librarians, and literacy researchers have been largely left to their own devices to figure out basic questions related to…

  1. Enhancing English Learners' Language Development Using Wordless Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Belinda; Sierschynski, Jarek

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an approach to use wordless picture books to enhance the language development of English language learners. This approach is grounded in best practices to teach ELLs. The process starts with viewing and analyzing the visual images, engaging ELLs in discussion, and ending with students' self-authored texts. The wordless…

  2. Timed written picture naming in 14 European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Nottbusch, Guido; Alves, Rui A; Arfé, Barbara; Chanquoy, Lucile; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Dimakos, Ioannis; Fidalgo, Raquel; Hyönä, Jukka; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Madjarov, George; Pauly, Dennis N; Uppstad, Per Henning; van Waes, Luuk; Vernon, Michael; Wengelin, Åsa

    2017-05-24

    We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish). We measured the time to initiate a response (RT) and interkeypress intervals, and calculated measures of name and spelling agreement. There was a tendency across all languages for quicker RTs to pictures with higher familiarity, image agreement, and name frequency, and with higher name agreement. Effects of spelling agreement and effects on output rates after writing onset were present in some, but not all, languages. Written naming therefore shows name retrieval effects that are similar to those found in speech, but our findings suggest the need for cross-language comparisons as we seek to understand the orthographic retrieval and/or assembly processes that are specific to written output.

  3. There's more to the picture than meets the eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2007-01-01

    observation, most economists have failed to see that ‘there's more to the picture than meets the eye', as Neil Young once sang. We use statistical, historical and fieldwork data from two Danish, marginal rural communities both rich on intangible capital. This to show how intangible capital in the form...

  4. Emerging picture of multiple sclerosis in Kenya | Kioy | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging picture of multiple sclerosis in Kenya. P. G. Kioy. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(2): 93-96). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  5. Small wormholes change our picture of the big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Matt Visser has studied tiny wormholes, which may be produced on a subatomic scale by quantum fluctuations in the energy of the vacuum. He believes these quantum wormholes could change our picture of the origin of the Universe in the big bang (1/2 p)

  6. Thinking in Pictures as a Cognitive Account of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, Maithilee; Goel, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the hypothesis that some individuals on the autism spectrum may use visual mental representations and processes to perform certain tasks that typically developing individuals perform verbally. We present a framework for interpreting empirical evidence related to this "Thinking in Pictures" hypothesis and then provide…

  7. RORSCHACH'S TEST. VOLUME II, A VARIETY OF PERSONALITY PICTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BECK, SAMUEL J.; MOLISH, HERMAN B.

    REVISED AND REWRITTEN FROM THE 1945 EDITION, THE TEXT DESCRIBES AND ANALYZES THE RORSCHACH TEST. PART 1 OF THE VOLUME WAS WRITTEN BY SAMUEL J. BECK AND PRESENTS A VARIETY OF PERSONALITY PICTURES DRAWN FROM RORSCHACH PROTOCOLS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION. EXCERPTS FROM 29 CASE STUDIES ARE INCLUDED ON FIVE DIMENSIONS--THE INTELLIGENCE CURVE, YOUNG…

  8. Reading Pictures: Developing Visual Literacy for Greater Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kathleen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Picturebooks tell stories in both words and pictures. Interacting with the printed word, the technical elements of illustration--color, line, shape and composition--work to establish and enhance the story. Sometimes simply by adding description of characters and setting, and, at times, by challenging the veracity of the text with ironic or…

  9. Extensions of the picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E; Bancroft, Tyler

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the picture superiority effect (PSE) is seen in tests of associative recognition for random pairs of line drawings compared to pairs of concrete words (Hockley, 2008). In the present study we demonstrated that the PSE for associative recognition is still observed when subjects have correctly identified the individual items of each pair as old (Experiment 1), and that this effect is not due to rehearsal borrowing (Experiment 2). The PSE for associative recognition also is shown to be present but attenuated for mixed picture-word pairs (Experiment 3), and similar in magnitude for pairs of simple black and white line drawings and coloured photographs of detailed objects (Experiment 4). The results are consistent with the view that the semantic meaning of nameable pictures is activated faster than that of words thereby affording subjects more time to generate and elaborate meaningful associations between items depicted in picture form. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. An auditory analog of the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Robert J; Beer, Jenay M

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that pictures (e.g., a picture of an elephant) are remembered better than words (e.g., the word "elephant"), an empirical finding called the picture superiority effect (Paivio & Csapo. Cognitive Psychology 5(2):176-206, 1973). However, very little research has investigated such memory differences for other types of sensory stimuli (e.g. sounds or odors) and their verbal labels. Four experiments compared recall of environmental sounds (e.g., ringing) and spoken verbal labels of those sounds (e.g., "ringing"). In contrast to earlier studies that have shown no difference in recall of sounds and spoken verbal labels (Philipchalk & Rowe. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91(2):341-343, 1971; Paivio, Philipchalk, & Rowe. Memory & Cognition 3(6):586-590, 1975), the experiments reported here yielded clear evidence for an auditory analog of the picture superiority effect. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that sounds were recalled better than the verbal labels of those sounds. Experiment 2 also showed that verbal labels are recalled as well as sounds when participants imagine the sound that the word labels. Experiments 3 and 4 extended these findings to incidental-processing task paradigms and showed that the advantage of sounds over words is enhanced when participants are induced to label the sounds.

  11. Measuring the reliability of picture story exercises like the TAT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gruber

    Full Text Available As frequently reported, psychometric assessments on Picture Story Exercises, especially variations of the Thematic Apperception Test, mostly reveal inadequate scores for internal consistency. We demonstrate that the reason for this apparent shortcoming is not caused by the coding system itself but from the incorrect use of internal consistency coefficients, especially Cronbach's α. This problem could be eliminated by using the category-scores as items instead of the picture-scores. In addition to a theoretical explanation we prove mathematically why the use of category-scores produces an adequate internal consistency estimation and examine our idea empirically with the origin data set of the Thematic Apperception Test by Heckhausen and two additional data sets. We found generally higher values when using the category-scores as items instead of picture-scores. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, the estimated reliability is also superior to each category within a picture as item measuring. When comparing our suggestion with a multifaceted Rasch-model we provide evidence that our procedure better fits the underlying principles of PSE.

  12. Words & Pictures: Literacy, Art and Common Core Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Juline A.

    2015-01-01

    In a two-year study, Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University education staff found that students who participated in a museum-school collaboration became more proficient in several Common Core State Standard skills than a control group. The program, Words & Pictures, directly ties to the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and is…

  13. Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB control. Thomas Nyirenda, Matthew Boxshall, John Kwanjana, Felix Salaniponi, Julia Kemp. Abstract. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is becoming a useful tool in disease control by health planners. However little is known about its potential in ...

  14. Pictures of a Gone World: Using Keats and Shelley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamache, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Describes a four-week poetry workshop for fifth and sixth graders that tied into the school's focus of study of ancient Egypt and Greece. Describes how the author read poems by Keats and Shelley to the students as they drew pictures while listening, and then wrote poems in response to their own art work. Includes 12 poems written by students. (SR)

  15. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  16. "We're All Kids!" Picture Books and Cultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    Picture books engage young learners across the elementary curriculum and can effectively help teach about a variety of social studies topics. Social studies may be a neglected subject in many elementary schools, but purposefully incorporating it through children's literature provides an effective means of advancing both literacy skills and social…

  17. Colourants in transferable picture tattoos for the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    concerned CI 75300, curcumin, which is reported to have caused a few cases of contact allergy as a colourant in food or in disinfectants used prior to surgery. In no case, allergic reactions to any of the colourants have been verified from transferable picture tattoos. On the basis of this investigation...

  18. Exercices langagiers sur des images (Language Exercises Based on Pictures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Bernard; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A description of exercises originally designed for foreign children in the French educational system. A detailed lesson on reading a picture is given, involving brainstorming, classification of information, a listing of details and a possible interpretation. The exercises might be adapted to French foreign language instruction. (Text is in…

  19. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING PICTURES TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Episiasi Episiasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of this study was “Is it significantly effective to use pictures to improve students’ speaking skill to the sixth semester students of English Education Study Program at STKIP PGRI Lubuklinggau?”. This study was conducted to find out whether it is significantly effective to use pictures to improve students’ speaking skill. There were two hypotheses; null hypotheses (H0 and alternative hypotheses (Ha. The sample of the study was 23 students which were taken through cluster random sampling. Research method of this study was pre-experimental with one group pre-test and post-test design. The writer used speaking test and analyzed the data by using conversion of score range, individual score, and match t-test. Based on the result of data analysis, it was found out that students’ average score in the pre-test was 46.43 and post-test was 60.54. Finally, the results of matched t-test calculation shows that the t-obtain was higher than t-table. The t-obtained was 31.37 while the t-table was 1.717. It means that the null hypotheses (Ho was rejected and automatically the alternative hypotheses (Ha was accepted. It can be concluded that it is significantly effective to teach speaking skill by using pictures. Keywords: Effectiveness, Speaking, Picture

  20. Effectiveness of eLearning in Statistics: Pictures and Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates (1) the effectiveness of using eLearning-embedded stories and pictures in order to improve learning outcomes for students and (2) how universities can adopt innovative approaches to the creation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) resources and embed them in educational technology for teaching domain-specific content, such as…

  1. The Effect of Picture Story Books on Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslina

    2017-01-01

    As a non formal education students, PKBM (a Non-Formal Community Learning Center) Medaso Kolaka students tend to encounter some difficulties in reading such as low motivation, infrequent tutors (non-formal education teachers) coming, inappropriate teaching materials, etc. This research aimed to investigate the effects of picture story books on the…

  2. Clinical and CT scan pictures of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singounas, E.G.; Krassanakis, K.; Karvounis, P.C. (Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece))

    1982-01-01

    The clinical presentations and CT scan pictures of four patients harbouring big cysticercus cysts are described. The value of CT scanning in detecting these cysts is emphasized, and also the fact that these cysts can behave as space-occyping lesions, which must be differentiated from other cystic formations.

  3. Children's Observations about the Art in Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewig, John Warren

    This report establishes a foundation of information about how children in classroom settings develop visual literacy. Data was gathered during five 45-minute sessions with a second and a fourth grade classroom during which children looked at pictures in four versions of the Noah's Ark tale. The intent was to elicit whatever children chose to say…

  4. Grand Images: Exploring Images of Grandparents in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Bhattacharya, Sharika

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's picture books as a source of socialization messages, specifically regarding ageism. Thus, the appearances, cultural backgrounds, and roles of grandparent characters were examined in a sample of 220 books published over a 20-year span. Findings indicate that grandparent characters have come to…

  5. Impaired picture sequencing ability in children with premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Jantarapagdee, Kakanang; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Nunnarumit, Pracha

    2014-07-01

    Children born preterm are at increased risk for executive dysfunction, which affects learning outcomes. Picture sequencing ability is considered as executive function (EF) that requires skills in working memory and organizing the pictures. Children born preterm might have difficulties in these skills. The present study aimed to develop practical Picture Sequencing test (PS test) and examine the sequencing ability in preterm children comparing with term children. The PS test was developed to assess the child's ability to arrange pictures into a sequence. It consisted of three conditions, which were daily activities, social interaction routines, and feeling expressions. Each story had four cartoon styles cards. The child had to rearrange picture cards into the correct sequence positions. Thirty preterm children aged five to six years with gestational ages of 32 weeks and birth weights of < 1,500 grams, and thirty-five term children matched age, gender child 's education, parental education, and socioeconomic status were performed the PS test. The total scores were compared between the preterm group and the term group. The PS test scores on the daily activities domain of the preterm and term group were 18 and 25 (p = 0.03), respectively. The scores on the social interaction routines domain ofthe preterm and term group were 20 and 28 (p = 0.01) and the scores on the feeling expression domain were 18.5 and25 (p = 0.03), respectively. There was no significant correlation between perinatal complications and the PS test scores. The preterm children with IQs in the average range showed impairment in sequencing ability compared with the term children. The results underline the need for follow-up care with more comprehensive assessment of EF.

  6. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  7. Children’s Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator’s intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture’s referent. In 3 experiments, we contrasted an artist’s intention with her picture’s appearance to investigate children’s use of appearance and intentional cues. In Experiment 1, children aged 3–4 and 5–6 years (N = 151) were presented with 4 trials of 3-object arrays (e.g., a pink duck, a blue duck, and a teddy). The experimenter photographed or drew 1 of the objects (e.g., blue duck), however, the subsequent picture depicted the referent in grayscale (black and white condition) or the color of its shape-matched object, for example, a pink duck (color change condition). Children were asked 3 questions regarding the identity of the pictures; responses were guided by intentional cues in the black and white condition, but appearance in the color change condition. Experiment 2 confirmed that appearance responses were not due to the artist’s changing knowledge state. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with adult participants. Together, these studies show that children and adults are neither strictly realist nor intentional route followers. They are realists until resemblance cues fail, at which point they defer to intentional cues. PMID:26192043

  8. How Affective Charge and Text-Picture Connectedness Moderate the Impact of Decorative Pictures on Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sascha; Dyrna, Jonathan; Meier, Luis; Beege, Maik; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Decorative pictures, which make a learning text aesthetically appealing rather than provide information, have been predominantly found to impair learning by an increase of learning-irrelevant cognitive processes. Recent research, however, indicates that this effect is moderated by various factors. On the basis of cognitive-affective theories and…

  9. A misleading feeling of happiness: metamemory for positive emotional and neutral pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Bursey, Elliott

    2017-01-01

    Emotional information is often remembered better than neutral information, but the emotional benefit for positive information is less consistently observed than the benefit for negative information. The current study examined whether positive emotional pictures are recognised better than neutral pictures, and further examined whether participants can predict how emotion affects picture recognition. In two experiments, participants studied a mixed list of positive and neutral pictures, and made immediate judgements of learning (JOLs). JOLs for positive pictures were consistently higher than for neutral pictures. However, recognition performance displayed an inconsistent pattern. In Experiment 1, neutral pictures were more discriminable than positive pictures, but Experiment 2 found no difference in recognition based on emotional content. Despite participants' beliefs, positive emotional content does not appear to consistently benefit picture memory.

  10. Gist-based conceptual processing of pictures remains intact in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Rebecca G; Hussey, Erin P; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-03-01

    The picture superiority effect, better memory for pictures compared to words, has been found in young adults, healthy older adults, and, most recently, in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the picture superiority effect is widely found, there is still debate over what drives this effect. One main question is whether it is enhanced perceptual or conceptual information that leads to the advantage for pictures over words. In this experiment, we examined the picture superiority effect in healthy older adults and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to better understand the role of gist-based conceptual processing. We had participants study three exemplars of categories as either words or pictures. In the test phase, participants were again shown pictures or words and were asked to determine whether the item was in the same category as something they had studied earlier or whether it was from a new category. We found that all participants demonstrated a robust picture superiority effect, better performance for pictures than for words. These results suggest that the gist-based conceptual processing of pictures is preserved in patients with MCI. While in healthy older adults preserved recollection for pictures could lead to the picture superiority effect, in patients with MCI it is most likely that the picture superiority effect is a result of spared conceptually based familiarity for pictures, perhaps combined with their intact ability to extract and use gist information.

  11. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...

  12. The sources of Gessner's pictures for the Historia animalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusukawa, S

    2010-07-01

    Gessner's sources for the pictures in his Historia animalium were varied in kind and in quality. This should be understood within the larger context of the Historia animalium in which Gessner sought to collect everything ever written about animals, an enterprise that could not be completed by a single individual. Just as Gessner did not distil or reduce similar texts but retained these as well as contradictory or false textual descriptions as part of a repository of knowledge, so also Gessner included several pictures of the same animal, false or badly drawn ones, and juxtaposed erroneous and 'true' images. The attribution of images to witnesses and correspondences also reflects Gessner's strategy to credit those who drew his attention to new information first. The sources of Gessner's images thus indicate how his visual world encompassed more than the strictly self-observable, and a pictorial practice that was intimately connected with textual traditions and intellectual networks.

  13. Communicating pictures a course in image and video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, David R

    2014-01-01

    Communicating Pictures starts with a unique historical perspective of the role of images in communications and then builds on this to explain the applications and requirements of a modern video coding system. It draws on the author's extensive academic and professional experience of signal processing and video coding to deliver a text that is algorithmically rigorous, yet accessible, relevant to modern standards, and practical. It offers a thorough grounding in visual perception, and demonstrates how modern image and video compression methods can be designed in order to meet the rate-quality performance levels demanded by today's applications, networks and users. With this book you will learn: Practical issues when implementing a codec, such as picture boundary extension and complexity reduction, with particular emphasis on efficient algorithms for transforms, motion estimators and error resilience Conflicts between conventional video compression, based on variable length coding and spatiotemporal prediction,...

  14. Perceptual effects on remembering: recollective processes in picture recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, S

    1996-03-01

    In 3 experiments, the effects of perceptual manipulations on recollective experience were tested. In Experiment 1, a picture-superiority effect was obtained for overall recognition and Remember judgements in a picture recognition task. In Experiment 2, size changes of pictorial stimuli across study and test reduced recognition memory and Remember judgements. In Experiment 3, deleterious effects of changes in left-right orientation of pictorial stimuli across study and test were obtained for Remember judgements. An alternate framework that emphasizes a distinctiveness-fluency processing distinction is proposed to account for these findings because they cannot easily be accommodated within the existing account of differences in conceptual and perceptual processing for the 2 categories of recollective experience: Remembering and Knowing, respectively (J. M. Gardiner, 1988; S. Rajaram, 1993).

  15. Is the picture bizarreness effect a generation effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, A; Nicolas, S

    2000-08-01

    Bizarre stimuli usually facilitate recall compared to common stimuli. This investigation explored the so-called bizarreness effect in free recall by using 80 simple line drawings of common objects (common vs bizarre). 64 subjects participated with 16 subjects in each group. Half of the subjects received learning instructions and the other half rated the bizarreness of each drawing. Moreover, drawings were presented either alone or with the name of the object under mixed-list encoding conditions. After the free recall task, subjects had to make metamemory judgments about how many items of each format they had seen and recalled. The key result was that a superiority of bizarre pictures over common ones was found in all conditions although performance was better when the pictures were presented alone than with their corresponding label. Subsequent metamemory judgments, however, showed that subjects underestimated the number of bizarre items actually recalled.

  16. Cognitive impairments of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R; Glöckner-Rist, A; Lutz, M; Maier, T; Meier, E

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of earlier experiments showing a differential deficit of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks, two experiments were conducted to test the conjecture of a specific deficit of aphasics in the analytical appraisal of individual features. Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics--according to clinical diagnoses and the Aachener Aphasie Test--were compared with patients having right-hemisphere lesions or left-hemisphere lesions without aphasia. Both groups of aphasics differed from the control groups in the sorting task, irrespective of the sorting criterion, but the differences were small. The picture matching task did not discriminate between groups. Obviously, the basic assumption has to be modified with respect to specific conditions of task requirements. The experimental literature is reviewed.

  17. Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinina, Yulia; Malyutina, Svetlana; Ivanova, Maria; Iskra, Ekaterina; Mannova, Elena; Dragoy, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes.

  18. Teaching Vocabulary By Using Powerpoint Slide Show Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Tini, Siskawati; Sada, Clarry; Sumarni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to solve the problemin learning English by using PowerPoint Slide Show Pictures media at the third grade elementary students of PelitaHarapan Pontianak, West Kalimantan. This study used Classroom Action Research (CAR) through 3 cycles. The participants in this study were the third grade students which consist of 38 people. The technique of data collection in this research is observation, field note and achievement test by asking students to write vocabulary based ...

  19. Jerry Pickman: “The Picture Worked.”

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    Jerome (Jerry) Pickman (b. 1916; d. 2010) worked for more than fifty years in Hollywood film marketing and distribution. Entering the film industry in 1944, he spent short stints at several companies, including Twentieth Century-Fox and Eagle-Lion, before embarking on a thirteen-year stay at Paramount Pictures (1949-62), where he became vice president in charge of worldwide advertising, publicity, and exploitation, and subsequently also general sales manager for the domestic market–the first ...

  20. Improving Students' Writing Skill of Descriptive Text by Using Picture

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Akhmad Mukhotim; Asib, Abdul; Pudjobroto, A. Handoko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to investigate whether or not pictures can improve students' writing skill and class condition. The subject of this research is students of class VIII A in SMP N 5 Kebumen. The method of the research is a classroom action research. This research was conducted in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of four steps: planning, action, observation and reflection. To collect the qualitative data, the researcher used field notes, photograph and interview. To collect the qu...

  1. On two pictures in the heuristic approach to gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Nikishov, A. I.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the heuristic approach to constant gravitational field by Dehnen, H\\"onl and Westpfahl, extending it everywhere beyond linear approximation. Then it becomes flexible to accommodate possible modifications of General Relativity. We have found that two pictures introduced in the related paper by Thirring are helpful in better understanding some features of gravitation. In particular, this approach suggest that the privileged system for constant gravitational field must be the isotropi...

  2. What your Facebook Profile Picture Reveals about your Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Segalin, Cristina; Celli, Fabio; Polonio, Luca; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Sebe, Nicu; Cristani, Marco; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    People spend considerable effort managing the impressions they give others. Social psychologists have shown that people manage these impressions differently depending upon their personality. Facebook and other social media provide a new forum for this fundamental process; hence, understanding people's behaviour on social media could provide interesting insights on their personality. In this paper we investigate automatic personality recognition from Facebook profile pictures. We analyze the e...

  3. Thermodynamic picture of ultrafast charge transport in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Mics, Z.; Tielrooij, K.; Parvez, K.; Jensen, S.; Ivanov, I.; Feng,X.; Müllen, K.; Bonn, M.; Turchinovich, D.

    2015-01-01

    The outstanding charge transport properties of graphene enable numerous electronic applications of this remarkable material, many of which are expected to operate at ultrahigh speeds. In the regime of ultrafast, sub-picosecond electric fields, however, the very high conduction properties of graphene are not necessarily preserved, with the physical picture explaining this behaviour remaining unclear. Here we show that in graphene, the charge transport on an ultrafast timescale is determined by...

  4. Written distractor words influence brain activity during overt picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T; Hogstrom, Larson J; Zhuang, Jie; Voyvodic, James T; Johnson, Micah A; Camblin, C Christine

    2014-01-01

    Language production requires multiple stages of processing (e.g., semantic retrieval, lexical selection), each of which may involve distinct brain regions. Distractor words can be combined with picture naming to examine factors that influence language production. Phonologically-related distractors have been found to speed picture naming (facilitation), while slower response times and decreased accuracy (interference) generally occur when a distractor is categorically related to the target image. However, other types of semantically-related distractors have been reported to produce a facilitative effect (e.g., associative, part-whole). The different pattern of results for different types of semantically-related distractors raises the question about how the nature of the semantic relation influences the effect of the distractor. To explore the nature of these semantic effects further, we used functional MRI to examine the influence of four types of written distractors on brain activation during overt picture naming. Distractors began with the same sound, were categorically-related, part of the object to be named, or were unrelated to the picture. Phonologically-related trials elicited greater activation than both semantic conditions (categorically-related and part-whole) in left insula and bilateral parietal cortex, regions that have been attributed to phonological aspects of production and encoding, respectively. Semantic conditions elicited greater activation than phonological trials in left posterior MTG, a region that has been linked to concept retrieval and semantic integration. Overall, the two semantic conditions did not differ substantially in their functional activation which suggests a similarity in the semantic demands and lexical competition across these two conditions.

  5. Images of Empty Space: Einstein’s Word Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-10

    34L FILE Co-y CV N m The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology Project Departments of’ Computer Science and Psychologv Carn w.gi M l lhon h miersilh...EINSTEIN’S WORD PICTURES Technical Report AlP - 90 Herbert A. Simon Depflmnt of Psychology Canegie Meon Univey Plttsburgh, PA 15213 10 August 1988 This... perintted for any purpose of the United States Goverment. Approved for public release; distributlon unlimited. DTICS ELECTE B D UnclassifiLed REPORT

  6. A Picture Archiving and Communication System Module for Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Ricky K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a clinical picture archiving and communication system (PACS) module within the radiology department of a 700-bed teaching hospital. The system is composed of an integrated network of digital devices used to electronically acquire, store, manage, and display radiological text and image information. Preliminary evaluation based on formal survey and usage statistics show that the system is rapidly being accepted by radiologists and clinicians ...

  7. Whole practice productivity applies 'big picture' solution to performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    When health care organizations look at improving productivity, they typically focus on a few specific measures--work RVUs, office visits per day, or gross charges per physician, for instance--in which they've identified variations among physicians or clinics. Instead of relying strictly on the collection of a handful of isolated data points, two consultants affiliated with the Medical Group Management Association are trying to convince provider groups to become more efficient by looking at the bigger picture.

  8. Does it Matter to be Pictured from Below?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sevenants

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Does the way in which a scene is viewed influence the interpretation of the role of the characters that appear in it, and does narrative context influence sensitivity to camera angle? In the linear conditions of the present study, each of 3 stories consisted of a sequence of 5 pictures. Pictures 2 and 3 introduced the 2 characters with either a high-angle, an eye-level, or a low-angle shot. In the random conditions, the 5 pictures were rearranged into a random order. Immediately after viewing each story, the 2 characters were rated on the 3 factors of Osgood's semantic differential (Evaluation, Potency, & Activation. Thereafter, an acceptable end to each of the 3 stories was to be chosen on a multiple-choice questionnaire. The results show a significant effect of the camera angle on the factor "Potency" under the linear condition: A low-angle shot elicited more potency. In addition, for one of the 3 stories in which the 2 characters were engaged in a common activity (chess playing, there was a significant difference on the choice of the probable ends as a function of camera position: The character, presented with a low-angle shot, was perceived as the winning player.

  9. Numerical Congruency Effect in the Sentence-Picture Verification Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šetić, Mia; Domijan, Dražen

    2017-05-01

    In two experiments, we showed that irrelevant numerical information influenced the speed of sentence-picture verification. Participants were asked to verify whether the concept mentioned in a sentence matched the object presented in a subsequent picture. Concurrently, the number word attached to the concept in the sentence and the quantity of objects presented in the picture were manipulated (numerical congruency). The number of objects varied from one to four. In Experiment 1, participants read statements such as three dogs. In Experiment 2, they read sentences such as three dogs were wandering in the street. In both experiments, the verification speed revealed the interaction between response and numerical congruency. The verification times for concept-object match were faster when there was also numerical congruence (compared with incongruence) between the number word and quantity. On the other hand, there was no difference between numerical congruence and incongruence when the concept and object mismatched. The results are interpreted as evidence for the symbol grounding of number words in perceptual representation of small quantities, that is, quantities falling in the subitization range.

  10. Picture agnosia as a characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Hieda, Sotaro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive visual agnosia with posterior cerebral atrophy. We examine the role of the picture naming test and make a number of suggestions with regard to diagnosing PCA as atypical dementia. We investigated 3 cases of early-stage PCA with 7 control cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). The patients and controls underwent a naming test with real objects and colored photographs of familiar objects. We then compared rates of correct answers. Patients with early-stage PCA showed significant inability to recognize photographs compared to real objects (F = 196.284, p = 0.0000) as measured by analysis of variants. This difficulty was also significant to AD controls (F = 58.717, p = 0.0000). Picture agnosia is a characteristic symptom of early-stage PCA, and the picture naming test is useful for the diagnosis of PCA as atypical dementia at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A PICTURE OF MODERN FEMINISM THROUGH SOUNDTRACKS LYRICS IN FROZEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sriastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Feminism as it is viewed in the modern world is appreciated in various products. It has become a common sense and understanding that women keep on having movements to pursue equality to men. Literary works play an important role to promote the awareness and spirit of women emancipation. It becomes an interesting view to examine how this women movement is introduced to women in general regardless age. This issue has also been introduced to kids through various ways; among them are novel sand movies. A movie produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios, Frozen, is rich in the elements of the story, animations, pictures, and music. The story itself draws the young readers of the stories of princesses with abundant moral issued of goodness against badness, loyalty, and courage. However, examining deeper to the lyrics of the soundtracks, readers can get a more vivid picture of modern feminism through encouragements of women‘s struggles to face problems, to have bargaining power, and to have right to decide what the best for them. This paper is aimed to find out a picture of modern feminism through the lyrics of the soundtracks. The result of the study can be used to track the development of feminism ideas in modern world.

  12. Distributional analysis of semantic interference in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória

    2017-04-01

    In picture-word interference experiments, participants name pictures (e.g., of a cat) while trying to ignore distractor words. Mean response time (RT) is typically longer with semantically related distractor words (e.g., dog) than with unrelated words (e.g., shoe), called semantic interference. Previous research has examined the RT distributional characteristics of distractor effects by performing ex-Gaussian analyses, which reveal whether effects are present in the normal part of the distribution (the μ parameter), its long right tail (the τ parameter), or both. One previous study linked the semantic interference effect selectively to the distribution tail. In the present study, we replicated the semantic interference effect in the mean picture naming RTs. Distributional analysis of the RTs and those of a previous study revealed that semantic interference was present in both μ and τ. These results provide evidence that the effect is not selectively linked to the τ parameter, and they warn against any simple one-to-one mapping between semantic interference and distributional parameters.

  13. Dynamic reorganization of functional brain networks during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Benquet, Pascal; Biraben, Arnaud; Berrou, Claude; Dufor, Olivier; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-12-01

    For efficient information processing during cognitive activity, functional brain networks have to rapidly and dynamically reorganize on a sub-second time scale. Tracking the spatiotemporal dynamics of large scale networks over this short time duration is a very challenging issue. Here, we tackle this problem by using dense electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a picture naming task. We found that (i) the picture naming task can be divided into six brain network states (BNSs) characterized by significantly high synchronization of gamma (30-45 Hz) oscillations, (ii) fast transitions occur between these BNSs that last from 30 msec to 160 msec, (iii) based on the state of the art of the picture naming task, we consider that the spatial location of their nodes and edges, as well as the timing of transitions, indicate that each network can be associated with one or several specific function (from visual processing to articulation) and (iv) the comparison with previously-used approach aimed at localizing the sources showed that the network-based approach reveals networks that are more specific to the performed task. We speculate that the persistence of several brain regions in successive BNSs participates to fast and efficient information processing in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A picture-based carbohydrate-counting resource for Somalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunni, Muna; Brunzell, Carol; Kyllo, Jennifer; Purcell, Loren; Plager, Phillip; Moran, Antoinette

    2018-01-01

    Objective Carbohydrate counting is essential for effective management of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Somali diet-specific carbohydrate-counting references are lacking, creating an additional barrier to effective diabetes control. We developed a picture-based carbohydrate-counting resource for Somalis with T1D. Methods Traditional Somali foods were selected using a variety of methods. Serving sizes and carbohydrate calculations were tabulated using the United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Carbohydrate contents of home-prepared foods were calculated by measuring the total yield and total carbohydrates of ingredients in the recipe divided by the number of servings to be consumed. When available, recipes were used for food preparation and analysis for more accurate carbohydrate estimation. Results Photographs of prepared Somali foods were compiled into a PDF file. While introductions are written in text, the resource is primarily picture-based to bypass limited literacy. The resource is shared free of charge via the following link: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/0300060517718732 . The link will be updated annually with new information. Conclusion There is a necessity to tailor educational materials to address the needs of Somalis with diabetes. We have created a picture-based nutrition resource for carbohydrate counting of traditional Somali foods and have made this freely available to individuals worldwide.

  15. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed.

  16. Removing speech artifacts from electroencephalographic recordings during overt picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Camillo; Medaglia, Maria Teresa; Krott, Andrea

    2015-01-15

    A number of electroencephalography (EEG) studies have investigated the time course of brain activation during overt word production. The interpretation of their results is complicated by the fact that articulatory movements may mask the cognitive components of interest. The first aim of the present study was to investigate when speech artifacts occur during word production planning and what effects they have on the spatio-temporal neural activation pattern. The second aim was to propose a new method that strongly attenuates speech artifacts during overt picture naming and to compare it with existing methods. EEG and surface electromyograms (EMGs) of the lips were recorded while participants overtly named pictures in a picture-word interference paradigm. The comparison of the raw data with lip EMG and the comparison of source localizations of raw and corrected EEG data showed that speech artifacts occurred mainly from ~400 ms post-stimulus onset, but some earlier artifacts mean that they occur much earlier than hitherto assumed. We compared previously used methods of speech artifacts removal (SAR) with a new method, which is based on Independent Component Analysis (SAR-ICA). Our new method clearly outperformed other methods. In contrast to other methods, there was only a weak correlation between the lip EMG and the corrected data by SAR-ICA. Also, only the data corrected with our method showed activation of cerebral sources consistent with meta-analyses of word production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods For Electronic 3-D Moving Pictures Without Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collender, Robert B.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes implementation approaches in image acquisition and playback for 3-D computer graphics, 3-D television and 3-D theatre movies without special glasses. Projection lamps, spatial light modulators, CRT's and dynamic scanning are all eliminated by the application of an active image array, all static components and a semi-specular screen. The resulting picture shows horizontal parallax with a wide horizontal view field (up to 360 de-grees) giving a holographic appearance in full color with smooth continuous viewing without speckle. Static component systems are compared with dynamic component systems using both linear and circular arrays. Implementation of computer graphic systems are shown that allow complex shaded color images to extend from the viewer's eyes to infinity. Large screen systems visible by hundreds of people are feasible by the use of low f-stops and high gain screens in projection. Screen geometries and special screen properties are shown. Viewing characteristics offer no restrictions in view-position over the entire view-field and have a "look-around" feature for all the categories of computer graphics, television and movies. Standard video cassettes and optical discs can also interface the system to generate a 3-D window viewable without glasses. A prognosis is given for technology application to 3-D pictures without glasses that replicate the daily viewing experience. Super-position of computer graphics on real-world pictures is shown feasible.

  18. The portrayal of coma in contemporary motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2006-05-09

    Coma has been a theme of screenplays in motion pictures, but there is no information about its accuracy. The authors reviewed 30 movies from 1970 to 2004 with actors depicting prolonged coma. Accurate depiction of comatose patients was defined by appearance, the complexity of care, accurate cause of coma and probability of awakening, and appropriate compassionate discussion between the physician and family members. Twenty-two key scenes from 17 movies were rated for accuracy by a panel of neurointensivists and neuroscience nurses and then were shown to 72 nonmedical viewers. Accuracy of the scenes was assessed using a Likert Scale. Coma was most often caused by motor vehicle accidents or violence (63%). The time in a comatose state varied from days to 10 years. Awakening occurred in 18 of 30 motion pictures (60%). Awakening was sudden with cognition intact, even after prolonged time in a coma. Actors personified "Sleeping Beauty" (eyes closed, beautifully groomed). Physicians appeared as caricatures. Only two movies had a reasonable accurate representation (Dream Life of Angels and Reversal of Fortune). The majority of the surveyed viewers identified inaccuracy of representation of coma, awakenings, and conversations on the experience of being in a coma, except in 8 of the 22 scenes (36%). Twenty-eight of the 72 viewers (39%) could potentially allow these scenes to influence decisions in real life. Misrepresentation of coma and awakening was common in motion pictures and impacted on the public perception of coma. Neurologic advice regarding prolonged coma is needed.

  19. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  20. Memory for Emotional Pictures in Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia: Comparing Picture-Location Binding and Subsequent Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Marloes J.; Bergmann, Heiko C.; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional content typically facilitates subsequent memory, known as the emotional enhancement effect. We investigated whether emotional content facilitates spatial and item memory in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Twenty-three AD patients, twenty-three healthy elderly, and twenty-three young adults performed a picture relocation task and a delayed recognition task with positive, negative, and neutral stimuli. AD patients showed a benefit in immediate spatial memory for positive pictures, while healthy young and older participants did not benefit from emotional content. No emotional enhancement effects on delayed item recognition were seen. We conclude that AD patients may have a memory bias for positive information in spatial memory. Discrepancies between our findings and earlier studies are discussed. PMID:21822492

  1. Development of Pupils Picture Aesthetic Competences on the Basis of IT-didactic Designs of Digital Picture Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    Education” (English Title), The Danish University of Education Cobb, P. et al. (2003): “Design Experiments in Educational Research” in “Educational Researcher”, vol. 32, no. 1. Collins, Allan et. al. (2004): “Design Research: Theoretical and Metodological Issuses” in “Journal of the Learning Sciences”, Vol...... Competences on the Basis of IT-didactic Designs of Digital Picture Production Proposal information: The topic for this presentation is an ongoing investigation of the connection between the learning outcome of digital picture production and IT-didactic designs, and it refers to a Ph.D.-project in progress...... to that, results of recent research in IT-didactics make challenges to the didactics of visual arts. Results show, that use of IT and digital medias facilitates learning processes in those subjects, where such investigations have taken place. (Levinsen og Sørensen 2008). Until now most didactic research...

  2. Memory for Emotional Pictures in Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia: Comparing Picture-Location Binding and Subsequent Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marloes J. Huijbers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional content typically facilitates subsequent memory, known as the emotional enhancement effect. We investigated whether emotional content facilitates spatial and item memory in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD. Twenty-three AD patients, twenty-three healthy elderly, and twenty-three young adults performed a picture relocation task and a delayed recognition task with positive, negative, and neutral stimuli. AD patients showed a benefit in immediate spatial memory for positive pictures, while healthy young and older participants did not benefit from emotional content. No emotional enhancement effects on delayed item recognition were seen. We conclude that AD patients may have a memory bias for positive information in spatial memory. Discrepancies between our findings and earlier studies are discussed.

  3. Memory for emotional pictures in patients with Alzheimer's dementia: comparing picture-location binding and subsequent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Marloes J; Bergmann, Heiko C; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Kessels, Roy P C

    2011-01-01

    Emotional content typically facilitates subsequent memory, known as the emotional enhancement effect. We investigated whether emotional content facilitates spatial and item memory in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Twenty-three AD patients, twenty-three healthy elderly, and twenty-three young adults performed a picture relocation task and a delayed recognition task with positive, negative, and neutral stimuli. AD patients showed a benefit in immediate spatial memory for positive pictures, while healthy young and older participants did not benefit from emotional content. No emotional enhancement effects on delayed item recognition were seen. We conclude that AD patients may have a memory bias for positive information in spatial memory. Discrepancies between our findings and earlier studies are discussed.

  4. One look is worth a thousand words: New picture stimuli of interpersonal situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Simon; Bohleber, Laura M; Ernst, Jutta; Soguel-Dit-Piquard, Jasmine; Boeker, Heinz; Richter, Andre

    2017-05-18

    This paper introduces a picture system that can be used in functional imaging experiments exploring interpersonal relations. This is important for psychotherapy research to understand the neural basis of psychological treatment effects. Pictures have many advantages for the design of functional imaging experiments, but no picture system illustrating interpersonal behavior patterns is, to date, available. We therefore developed, on the basis of a validated card-sorting test, the Interpersonal Relations Picture System. In summary, 43 pictures with 2 or more stick figures in different social situations and 9 control pictures were composed. To test the relation between each picture and the appropriate description, two successive online surveys, including 1058 and 675 individuals respectively, were conducted. Using two question types, the grade expressiveness of each picture was assessed. In total, 24 pictures and 6 control pictures met our criteria for sufficient strength and consistency with the appropriate description. Both measures are correlated with each other in all pictures illustrating interpersonal behavior, but not in the control pictures. Relations to other stimulus types and the applicability of the new picture system in functional neuroimaging methods are discussed. It is concluded that the new system will be helpful in studying the profound effect of relational change in psychotherapy.

  5. The Nine Lives of Schroedinger's Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Zvi

    1995-01-01

    This MSc dissertation surveys nine interpretations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Extensive references are given. The interpretations covered are: the orthodox interpretation, Bohr's interpretation, the idea that the mind causes collapse, hidden variables, the many-worlds interpretation, the many-minds interpretation, Bohm's interpretation and two interpretations based on decoherent histories.

  6. Quantum measurements without Schroedinger cat states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehner, D [Institut Fourier, 100 rue des Maths, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Haake, F [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We report and give an alternative derivation of some results on a model for a quantum measurement studied in [1]. The measured microscopic system is coupled to the position of a macroscopic pointer, which itself interacts with its environment via its momentum. The entanglement between the system and the pointer produced by their mutual interaction is simultaneous with the decoherence of distinct pointer readings resulting from leakage of information to the environment. After a discussion on the various time scales in the model we calculate the matrix elements of the system-pointer density operator between eigenstates of the measured observable with distinct eigenvalues. In general, the decay with time of these coherences is neither exponential nor gaussian. We determine the decoherence (decay) time in terms of the strength of the system-pointer and pointer-environment couplings. This decoherence time does not depend upon the details of the pointer-bath coupling as soon as it is smaller than the bath correlation time (non-Markov regime). In contrast, in the Markov regime it depends strongly on whether this coupling is Ohmic or super-Ohmic.

  7. Derivation of an applied nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laine, Mark Richard [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwarz, Jens [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rambo, Patrick K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  8. Solving Schroedinger's equation using random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    Exact and almost exact solutions for energies and properties of atoms and molecules can be obtained by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. This thesis is composed of different contributions to various QMC methodologies, as well as applications to electronic excitations of biological systems. We propose a wave function optimization functional that is robust regarding the presence of outliers. Our work, and subsequent applications by others, has shown the convergence properties and robustness of the absolute deviation (AD) functional as compared to the variance functional (VF). We apply the method to atoms from the second row of the periodic table, as well as third-row transition metal atoms, including an all-electron calculation of Sc. In all cases, the AD functional converges faster than the VF. Soft effective core potentials (ECPs) with no divergence at the origin are constructed and validated for second- an third-row atoms of the periodic table. The ECPs we developed have been used by others in several successful studies. As an application of the DMC approach to biochemical problems, we studied the electronic excitations of free-base porphyrin and obtained results in excellent agreement with experiment. These findings validate the use of the DMC approach for these kinds of systems. A study of the role of spheroidene in the photo-protection mechanism of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is described. At the time of writing, calculations for the estimation of excitation energies for the bacteriochlorophyll and spheroidene molecules as well as storage of the random walkers for future prediction of the excitation energy transfer rate are being performed. To date, the calculations mentioned above are the largest all-electron studies on molecules. For the computation of these systems, a sparse linear-scaling DMC algorithm was developed. This algorithm provides a speedup of at least a factor of ten over previously published methods. The method is validated on systems up to 390 electrons. A summary of the Fermion Monte Carlo (FMC) algorithm as well as an application to the Be atom are discussed. The Zori package, a linear-scaling massively-parallel open-source program that uses modern programming libraries, was developed. The program is made available to the public under the GNU/General Public License (GPL). The capabilities of the Zori program are summarized.

  9. Less is More: How manipulative features affect children's learning from picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Medha; Chiong, Cynthia; Ganea, Patricia; Deloache, Judy

    2010-09-01

    Picture books are ubiquitous in young children's lives and are assumed to support children's acquisition of information about the world. Given their importance, relatively little research has directly examined children's learning from picture books. We report two studies examining children's acquisition of labels and facts from picture books that vary on two dimensions: iconicity of the pictures and presence of manipulative features (or "pop-ups"). In Study 1, 20-month-old children generalized novel labels less well when taught from a book with manipulative features than from standard picture books without such elements. In Study 2, 30- and 36-month-old children learned fewer facts when taught from a manipulative picture book with drawings than from a standard picture book with realistic images and no manipulative features. The results of the two studies indicate that children's learning from picture books is facilitated by realistic illustrations, but impeded by manipulative features.

  10. Get the Real Picture About College Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Get the Real Picture About College Drinking Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents Get the Real Picture About College Drinking Learn more at CollegeDrinkingPrevention.gov ...

  11. The picture superiority effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A; Gold, Carl A; Budson, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact, and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance.

  12. The picture superiority effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A.; Gold, Carl A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact, and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance. PMID:18992266

  13. Validation of the Amsterdam Beverage Picture Set: A Controlled Picture Set for Cognitive Bias Measurement and Modification Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Thomas; van Deursen, Denise S; Beraha, Esther M; Larsen, Helle; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol research may benefit from controlled and validated picture sets. We have constructed the Amsterdam Beverage Picture Set (ABPS), which was designed for alcohol research in general and cognitive bias measurement and modification in particular. Here, we first formulate a position on alcohol stimulus validity that prescribes that alcohol-containing pictures, compared to nonalcohol-containing pictures, should induce a stronger urge to drink in heavy drinkers than in light drinkers. Because a perceptually simple picture might induce stronger cognitive biases but the presence of a drinking context might induce a stronger urge to drink, the ABPS contains pictures with and without drinking context. By limiting drinking contexts to simple consumption scenes instead of real-life scenes, complexity was minimized. A validation study was conducted to establish validity, to examine ABPS drinking contexts, and to explore the role of familiarity, valence, arousal, and control. Two hundred ninety-one psychology students completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, as well as rating and recognition tasks for a subset of the ABPS pictures. The ABPS was well-recognized, familiar, and heavy drinkers reported a greater urge to drink in response to the alcohol-containing pictures only. Alcohol presented in drinking context did not elicit a stronger urge to drink but was recognized more slowly than alcohol presented without context. The ABPS was found to be valid, although pictures without context might be preferable for measuring cognitive biases than pictures with context. We discuss how an explicit approach to picture construction may aid in creating variations of the ABPS. Finally, we describe how ABPS adoption across studies may allow more reproducible and comparable results across paradigms, while allowing researchers to apply picture selection criteria that correspond to a wide range of theoretical positions. The latter is exemplified by ABPS derivatives and

  14. ACQUISITION OF 3D INFORMATION FOR VANISHED STRUCTURE BY USING ONLY AN ANCIENT PICTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Kunii, Y.; R. Sakamoto

    2016-01-01

    In order to acquire 3D information for reconstruction of vanished historical structure, grasp of 3D shape of such structure was attempted by using an ancient picture. Generally, 3D information of a structure is acquired by photogrammetric theory which requires two or more pictures. This paper clarifies that the geometrical information of the structure was obtained only from an ancient picture, and 3D information was acquired. This kind of method was applied for an ancient picture of the Old I...

  15. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains u...

  16. The picture superiority effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Gold, Carl A; Budson, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. H...

  17. Memory and event-related potentials for rapidly presented emotional pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Versace, Francesco; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Dense array event-related potentials (ERPs) and memory performance were assessed following rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of emotional and neutral pictures. Despite the extremely brief presentation, emotionally arousing pictures prompted an enhanced negative voltage over occipital sensors, compared to neutral pictures, replicating previous encoding effects. Emotionally arousing pictures were also remembered better in a subsequent recognition test, with higher hit rates and better dis...

  18. Less is more: How manipulative features affect children's learning from picture books

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tare, Medha; Chiong, Cynthia; Ganea, Patricia; DeLoache, Judy

    2010-01-01

    ... from picture books: the iconicity of the images and the presence of manipulative features, such as “pop-ups.” Learning from picture books Learning in the young age group of 2–3 year olds often occurs through social interaction with an adult who is reading or reacting to some form of media, such as a picture book. Picture books are often intended a...

  19. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  20. Training and Maintenance of a Picture-Based Communication Response in Older Adults with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Maranda A.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.; McNabney, Matthew K.; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether adults with dementia could learn to emit a picture-based communication response and if this skill would maintain over time. Three women with moderate to severe dementia were taught to exchange a picture card for a highly preferred activity. All participants quickly learned to exchange the picture card and maintained this…

  1. Contents and Graphics in Line : When is it Beneficial to Schematize Pictures in Expository Prose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; van Amelsvoort, M.A.A.; Maes, Alfons; Swerts, M.G.J.; Tabbers, Huib; de Koning, Bjorn; van Amelsvoort, Marije; van der Meij, Jan; Jacobson, Neil; de Vries, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Learners generally benefit from representational pictures that are added to expository text. But what determines whether it is better to design such pictures as schematized drawings or as detailed photographs? In some studies learning outcomes are positively affected by schematized pictures, but in

  2. Measuring everyday visual discrimination in visually impaired children with the Sonksen Picture Guide to visual function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Ormel, E.A.; Schiphorst, S.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Sonksen Picture Guide to Visual Function (SPGVF) assesses a person's ability to discriminate pictures of everyday objects. Sonksen added the SPGVF to tests of visual acuity, because real objects, miniatures, and pictures are the main learning medium for young children. In earlier studies

  3. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  4. Examining Kindergarteners' Drawings for Their Perspectives on Picture Books' Themes and Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Mei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize children's perspectives on a picture book's themes and characters by examining their drawings. The study was conducted over a five-month period in a public kindergarten in southern Taiwan, with six children aged 5-6 years. Picture book appreciation activities focused on eight picture books.…

  5. 77 FR 37324 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear River; Wilmington, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear... will be performed on the river during the filming of this motion picture. DATES: This rule is effective... performed during the filming of a major motion picture. The filming will involve fast-paced, multi-vessel...

  6. 78 FR 46810 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Chicago River due to the filming of a motion picture... picture. DATES: This rule will be enforced with actual notice from 4 a.m. on July 21, 2013, until August 2...

  7. 78 FR 60222 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming... restrict vessels from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary... motion picture. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 a.m. on October 1 through 12 a.m. on October 31...

  8. The Use of Picture Prompts and Prompt Delay to Teach Receptive Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedora, Joseph; Barry, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The current study extended research on picture prompts by using them with a progressive prompt delay to teach receptive labeling of pictures to 2 teenagers with autism. The procedure differed from prior research because the auditory stimulus was not presented or was presented only once during the picture-prompt condition. The results indicated…

  9. 77 FR 40513 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Southport, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic... associated with the stunts that will be performed on the river during the filming of this motion picture... associated with the stunts that will be performed during the filming of a major motion picture. The filming...

  10. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effect of Adjunct Pictures on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readence, John E.; Moore, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Overall findings of this meta-analysis reveal small effects of adjunct pictures on reading comprehension. No advantage was found when traditional v nontraditional text settings were compared. Line drawings seem to facilitate comprehension and color pictures seem to have a greater effect than black and white pictures. (Author)

  11. Picture Superiority Doubly Dissociates the ERP Correlates of Recollection and Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Tim; Doyle, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes underlying the picture superiority effect on recognition memory. Studied pictures were associated with higher accuracy than studied words, regardless of whether test stimuli were words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded during test suggested that the…

  12. The Picture Superiority Effect in Recognition Memory: A Developmental Study Using the Response Signal Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Russo, Riccardo; McPartlin, Pamela Louise

    2009-01-01

    Items studied as pictures are better remembered than items studied as words even when test items are presented as words. The present study examined the development of this picture superiority effect in recognition memory. Four groups ranging in age from 7 to 20 years participated. They studied words and pictures, with test stimuli always presented…

  13. The Effect of Extraversion and Presentation Order on Learning from Picture-Commentary Sequences by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, R. J.; Wicks, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Groups of extrovert, ambivert, and introvert children, aged 8, saw pictures with a taped commentary about each. On an immediate recall test, extroverts recalled most if given the commentary before the picture, introverts did best when the picture came first, and ambiverts performed similarly in both conditions. (Author/SJL)

  14. PAT workbench: Annotation and Evaluation of Text and Pictures in Multimodal Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Kloppenburg, Lennart; Redeker, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tool to investigate the design of multimodal instructions (MIs), i.e., instructions that contain both text and pictures. The benefit of including pictures in information presentation has been established, but the characteristics of those pictures and of their textual

  15. An Investigation of Teachers' Growing Understandings of the Picture Book Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Miriam G.; Harmon, Janis M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a graduate course that focused on picture books on teachers' understandings of the picture book format and the ways in which these understandings influenced their self-reports of picture book use in the classroom. Findings of this qualitative investigation revealed that immersion in and analysis of the picture…

  16. Reading from Multimedia Materials: Benefits of Non-Congruent Pictures on Reading Comprehension for Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brante, Eva Wennås; Holmqvist, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Pictures are often integrated in digital learning materials with the purpose of enhancing learning. This mixed methods study uses quantitative eye-tracking data and qualitative data such as oral answers to discover whether characteristics of pictures influence patterns of text-picture transition in readers with (n = 10) and without (n = 14)…

  17. Associative Learning of Pictures and Words by Low-Functioning Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Melissa Allen

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates whether children with autism learn picture, word and object relations as associative pairs or whether they understand such relations as referential. In Experiment 1, children were taught a new word (e.g. "whisk") repeatedly paired with a novel picture. When given the picture and a previously unseen real whisk and asked…

  18. Semantic interference in picture naming during dual-task performance does not vary with reading ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Roete, I.E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous dual-task studies examining the locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming have obtained diverging results. In these studies, participants manually responded to tones and named pictures while ignoring distractor words (picture-word interference, PWI) with varying

  19. Pictures of pain: their contribution to the neuroscience of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, G D

    2015-03-01

    The study of empathy, a translation of the term 'Einfühlung', originated in 19th century Germany in the sphere of aesthetics, and was followed by studies in psychology and then neuroscience. During the past decade the links between empathy and art have started to be investigated, but now from the neuroscientific perspective, and two different approaches have emerged. Recently, the primacy of the mirror neuron system and its association with automaticity and imitative, simulated movement has been envisaged. But earlier, a number of eminent art historians had pointed to the importance of cognitive responses to art; these responses might plausibly be subserved by alternative neural networks. Focusing here mainly on pictures depicting pain and evoking empathy, both approaches are considered by summarizing the evidence that either supports the involvement of the mirror neuron system, or alternatively suggests other neural networks are likely to be implicated. The use of such pictures in experimental studies exploring the underlying neural processes, however, raises a number of concerns, and suggests caution is exercised in drawing conclusions concerning the networks that might be engaged. These various networks are discussed next, taking into account the affective and sensory components of the pain experience, before concluding that both mirror neuron and alternative neural networks are likelyto be enlisted in the empathetic response to images of pain. A somewhat similar duality of spontaneous and cognitive processes may perhaps also be paralleled in the creation of such images. While noting that some have repudiated the neuroscientific approach to the subject, pictures are nevertheless shown here to represent an unusual but invaluable tool in the study of pain and empathy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Four Ultrasound and Clinical Pictures of Parathyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Halenka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. It may be suspected based on severe clinical signs, significant laboratory findings, and the tumor size. High-resolution ultrasonography with Doppler imaging has become the principal imaging method in the preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. The ultrasound finding is not specific, but three of the described pictures are different from the typical appearance of benign adenoma of the thyroid gland and were suspicious in the context of clinical findings. According to the ultrasound criteria, one finding was benign and only the histological examination revealed carcinoma.

  1. Some aspects on the Pictures of the North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Pettersson

    2008-02-01

    In order to show some of the possibilities of the methods mentioned above I will discuss some of the possible aspects of a quantitative study of the pictures of the north as they appear in illustrated travel literature of the nineteenth century. I will present statistics dealing with artistic subjects, differences between the patterns of illustrations in books published in different languages and how the pictorial revolution in the 19th century changed the travel literature. In the second part of the article I will examine one illustrated travel book in order to high-light how text and illustration complemented each other and created significance together.

  2. Recent progress in automatic digital restoration of color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambah, Majed; Besserer, Bernard; Courtellemont, Pierre

    2001-12-01

    The motion pictures represent a precious cultural heritage, however the chemical support on which they are recorded becomes unstable with time, unless they are stored at low temperatures. Some defects affecting color movies, such as bleaching, are out of reach of photochemical restoration means, digital restoration is hence unquestionable. We propose an original automatic technique for faded image correction. Bleaching results in damage to one or two chromatic layers, giving a drab image with poor saturation and an overall color cast. Our automatic fading correction technique consists in reviving the colors of the image (color enhancement), then in balancing the colors of the image.

  3. The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test: Pictures vs. Words

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Annabel

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a group of young (18-25) and old (>60) healthy adults to examine whether a pictorial superiority effect influences performance in the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT). 81 participants were recruited and performed the ACE-R, TOPF and FCSRT. Stimulus items for the FCSRT consisted of either 16 line drawings (in the picture form) or 16 written words (in the word form). The design was completely-between subjects and the form of test was fully counterbalanced...

  4. The picture superiority effect in categorization: visual or semantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, R; Rumiati, R; Lotto, L

    1992-09-01

    Two experiments are reported whose aim was to replicate and generalize the results presented by Snodgrass and McCullough (1986) on the effect of visual similarity in the categorization process. For pictures, Snodgrass and McCullough's results were replicated because Ss took longer to discriminate elements from 2 categories when they were visually similar than when they were visually dissimilar. However, unlike Snodgrass and McCullough, an analogous increase was also observed for word stimuli. The pattern of results obtained here can be explained most parsimoniously with reference to the effect of semantic similarity, or semantic and visual relatedness, rather than to visual similarity alone.

  5. Selfie culture: An analysis of women's perceptions of selfie pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Because of the common use of picture editing programs for mass media content, such as advertising images, the Western beauty ideal has reached a more rigid and uniform standard. This has not only been proven to be linked to a negative body image, but also stands in close relation to the expectation for women to measure up to it. Even though it has become common knowledge that such media content is not a reflection of reality, selfies on social media networks prove that there are indeed women ...

  6. The Information Content of Picture-Text Assembly Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    34 instructions, thus confirming the experimental thesis . A *1 Unclassified I ISSIUY @LAPICAYUN OP TMIG PMSEUtf BUSbs ’ -i I I Picture-Text Information... thesis is that examina- tion of tasks other than assembly tasks was not done. This was intentional. However, the generalizability of these results is...Development Cantor~ Relling Air Foree game San Oiogo. CA W912 11ahintee. VC 2,03.2 ftD. Osowlee Noded Lift Weeses Direeterate Army n Boln An,. IC to=2 s teenie

  7. Online redistribution of intimate pictures without consent among Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Charlotte Amalie

    are all working in field. These three interviewees provide the main data for the project. Online articles, letters from Børnetelefonen.dk, as well as a DR documentary supplement the interviews. The theory section is constructed based on collected theory from the following main themes, which includes...... a lack of addressing which boundaries should be applied online offer possible explanations of the phenomenon of redistributing intimate pictures without consent among Danish youth. Based on the findings of this project, I will conclude with specific recommendations on how to combat this phenomenon....

  8. Dementia: epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnosis, approaches to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeyevna Preobrazhenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature discusses in detail the clinical signs of non-dementia cognitive impairments (CIs and differences between subclinical, mild, and moderate CIs. It considers in detail the manifestations of dementia, the typical clinical picture of the most common forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and vascular dementia. The paper outlines basic approaches to the pathogenetic therapy for dementia and the efficiency and safety of using NMDA receptor antagonists in patients with this pathology.

  9. Practical issues in picture archiving and communication system and networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Arjun; Singh, Jasbir; Bedi, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is a key workflow tool in the functioning of radiology departments worldwide, today, and its utilization is rapidly growing in India. The key challenges in PACS implementation are related to vendor and feature selection, integration with the existing HIS, user training, maintenance and scalability to meet increasing demands. Additionally, the networking requirements that PACS imposes on hospital networks are not insignificant. This article attempts to review these issues from the standpoint of what a prospective or new user needs to know. PMID:20351983

  10. Practical issues in picture archiving and communication system and networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanpur Arjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS is a key workflow tool in the functioning of radiology departments worldwide, today, and its utilization is rapidly growing in India. The key challenges in PACS implementation are related to vendor and feature selection, integration with the existing HIS, user training, maintenance and scalability to meet increasing demands. Additionally, the networking requirements that PACS imposes on hospital networks are not insignificant. This article attempts to review these issues from the standpoint of what a prospective or new user needs to know.

  11. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  12. Colloid cysts of the third ventricle exhibit heterogeneous clinical picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Ravnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colloid cysts are rare benign intracranial tumours generally occurring in the front part of the third ventricle. Clinical picture may be non-specific. Various problems are usually associated with hydrocephalus that these cysts may cause.Methods: Five patients with colloid cyst of the third ventricle were consecutively operated on at our department. All had different clinical pictures. Two patients suffered from acute hydrocephalus, one of them also from rapid deterioration of consciousness. In two patients, the cyst was discovered accidentally owing to non-specific problems. One patient experienced progressive deterioration due to chronic hydrocephalus.Results: All patients had a colloid cyst removed via the right anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach. One patient had surgical complication with transient left-sided haemiparesis, followed by osteomyelitis. Postoperative course in all other patients was unremarkable.Conclusions: Due to a high risk of potential sudden deterioration the colloid cysts may cause, a rapid surgical intervention is generally needed. The anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach is a well accepted and safe surgical option.

  13. Cartographic Anxieties in Mongolia: The Bogd Khan's Picture-Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uranchimeg Tsultemin,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article extends cartography into ethnographic and representational practices for territorial inclusion (Hostetler 2005 and nation building (Krishna 1994. Outer Mongolia, a vassal state of the Qing Empire until 1911, produced ethnographic paintings intended as new cartographic visuals around the time of its independence. Mongolia’s last ruler, the Bogd Khan (1870–1924 commissioned the artist Balduugin Sharav to produce a large painting of the Mongol countryside titled Daily Events, a work that constitutes an unusual cartographic “picture-map” (Paul Harvey 1980 intended for a special public display. The work (now known as One Day in Mongolia depicts the Mongolian people as a distinct ethnic group in quotidian scenes of Central Mongolian (Khalkha nomadic life. This article demonstrates how the covert connections between the scenes together construct a Buddhist didactic narrative of the Wheel of Life, and argues that this picture-map was the result of the Tibetan-born ruler’s anxieties over ethnic identity, national unity, and the survival of his people, who strove for independence from the Qing, as well as their safe positioning vis-à-vis new political neighbors.

  14. The representation of physically active girls in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Emily A; Clifton, Alexandra M

    2013-06-01

    Borrowing from Tuchman's (1978) concept of symbolic annihilation, the purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which physically active females were represented in children's picture books. Employing a qualitative content analysis methodology (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005), the written and pictorial portrayals of girls' physical activities were analyzed in 10 children's picture books. A directed approach to content analysis (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005) was employed in which the researchers began with predetermined categories that were used to code the text and images. The findings indicated that the majority of the primary female characters were illustrated wearing appropriate athletic attire that would allow for physical movement. Although all of the primary female characters were depicted as excited about being physically active, 6 of the books described the movement of the primary female characters using action-oriented descriptors. The parents of the primary female characters were identified as the primary source of encouragement and peers were found to be the primary source of discouragement toward the primary female characters' physical activity or sport involvement. The physical abilities of the primary female characters were compared to male peers in 3 of the books. Although the 10 books studied provide young girls with imagery and text that encourage female physicality, it is apparent that more books are needed that focus on girls' involvement in sport and physical activity. Meaningful forms of literature that encourage physical activity and sport involvement for girls are needed.

  15. New picture of jet quenching dictated by color coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Salgado, Carlos A.; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new description of the jet quenching phenomenon observed in nuclear collisions at high energies in which coherent parton branching plays a central role. This picture is based on the appearance of a dynamically generated scale, the jet resolution scale, which controls the transverse resolution power of the medium to simultaneously propagating color probes. Since from the point of view of the medium all partonic jet fragments within this transverse distance act coherently as a single emitter, this scale allows us to rearrange the jet shower into effective emitters. We observe that in the kinematic regime of the LHC, the corresponding characteristic angle is comparable to the typical opening angle of high energy jets such that most of the jet energy is contained within a non-resolvable color coherent inner core. Thus, a sizable fraction of the jets are unresolved, losing energy as a single parton without modifications of their intra-jet structure. This new picture provides a consistent understanding...

  16. Revealing the invisible: the paradox of picturing a phantom limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, G D

    2014-03-01

    Illustrations of phantom limbs are intriguing as they depict an invisible perception. But such illustrations are also important: they provide a form of objectivity to phenomena, which particularly in the past, have often stretched credulity. Acknowledging the paradox of using images to reveal an absent though sensate body part, depictions of phantom limbs are discussed from the neurological perspective, starting with medieval pictures that showed the miraculous restoration of limbs, and which possibly represented pictorial metaphors for a phantom limb. Centuries later, phantom limbs-whether resulting from amputation or deafferentation-became illustrated, and some reasons for their illustration are considered. Although often depicted by others, the most precise and perhaps revealing illustrations of these phantoms have been those made when patients guide the artist, or draw the phantom themselves. In the case of phantom pains, the painful component too is sometimes illustrated, again, as with the miraculous, in metaphorical terms. More recently, depictions of phantoms have also been revealing in studies of some underlying mechanisms of phantom phenomena, notably in demonstrating novel patterns of referred sensations after amputation and attributable to cortical plasticity. Mention is made of photographs of phantom hands visualized using a mirror box, such visualization recalling full circle the miraculous restoration of limbs pictured in the past. The nature of the outline of the phantom is included in a discussion of demarcation of an invisible body part, before concluding that images of phantom limbs provide an invaluable background to understanding and studying these remarkable sensory phenomena.

  17. Enzyme kinetics: the whole picture reveals hidden meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria F; Estevinho, Berta N; Crespo, Rosa; Rocha, Fernando A; Damas, Ana M; Martins, Pedro M

    2015-06-01

    The methodology adopted by Michaelis and Menten in 1913 is still routinely used to characterize the catalytic power and selectivity of enzymes. These kinetic measurements must be performed soon after the purified enzyme is mixed with a large excess of substrate. Other time scales and solution compositions are no less physiologically relevant, but fall outside the range of applicability of the classical formalism. Here we show that the complete picture of an enzyme's mode of function is critically obscured by the limited scope of conventional kinetic analysis, even in the simplest case of a single active site without inhibition. This picture is now unveiled in a mathematically closed form that remains valid over the reaction time for all combinations of enzyme/substrate concentrations and rate constants. Algebraic simplicity is maintained in the new formalism when stationary reaction phases are considered. By achieving this century-old objective, the otherwise hidden role of the reversible binding step is revealed and atypical kinetic profiles are explained. Most singular kinetic behaviors are identified in a critical region of conditions that coincide with typical cell conditions. Because it is not covered by the Michaelis-Menten model, the critical region has been missed until now by low- and high-throughput screenings of new drugs. New possibilities are therefore raised for novel and once-promising inhibitors to therapeutically target enzymes. © 2015 FEBS.

  18. [Asymmetric confusability effect in recognition memory of cats pictures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, M; Hakoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    Performance superiority of the addition of features in the stimuli over the deletion on recognition (asymmetric confusability effect) has been shown in previous studies (Pezdek, Maki, Valencia-Laver, Whetstone, Stoeckert, & Dougherty, 1988; Ando & Hakoda, 1998). We investigated the same effect by using a familiar living thing (cat) as a stimulus. Ten subjects were given a recognition task using pictures of cats with feature changes (additions, deletions, or no change). Results showed that the picture with deletions were easier to recognize than those with additions, which was opposite to the previous studies. Then, we examined the possibility that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression. Another group of 18 subjects was asked to rate the impression scales consisting of a "typicality-reality factor", a "stability-balance factor", and a "grotesque-disgust factor". Results showed that there was a significant difference in impression ratings for each factor between the additions and the deletions, and that impression ratings predicted recognition performance well. It was concluded that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression.

  19. Picture representation during REM dreams: a redox molecular hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókkon, István; Dai, Jiapei; Antal, István

    2010-05-01

    A novel molecular hypothesis about visual perception and imagery has recently been proposed (Bókkon, 2009; BioSystems). Namely, external electromagnetic visible photons are converted into electrical signals in the retina and are then conveyed to V1. Next, these retinotopic electrical signals (spike-related electrical signals along classical axonal-dendritic pathways) can be converted into synchronized bioluminescent biophoton signals (inside the neurons) by neurocellular radical reactions (redox processes) in retinotopically organized V1 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas. The bioluminescent photonic signals (inside the neurons) generated by neurocellular redox/radical reactions in synchronized V1 neurons make it possible to produce computational biophysical pictures during visual perception and imagery. Our hypothesis is in line with the functional roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in living cells and states that this is not a random process, but rather a strict mechanism used in signaling pathways. Here, we suggest that intrinsic biophysical pictures can also emerge during REM dreams. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. "Big Science: the LHC in Pictures" in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    An exhibition of spectacular photographs of the LHC and its experiments is about to open in the Globe. The LHC and its four experiments are not only huge in size but also uniquely beautiful, as the exhibition "Big Science: the LHC in Pictures" in the Globe of Science and Innovation will show. The exhibition features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. These giant pictures reflecting the immense scale of the LHC and the mysteries of the Universe it is designed to uncover fill the Globe with shape and colour. The exhibition, which will open on 4 March, is divided into six different themes: CERN, the LHC and the four experiments ATLAS, LHCb, CMS and ALICE. Facts about all these subjects will be available at information points and in an explanatory booklet accompanying the exhibition (which visitors will be able to buy if they wish to take it home with them). Globe of Science and Innovatio...

  2. Short-term memory for pictures seen once or twice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paolo; Maljkovic, Vera

    2009-06-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of exposure time, repetition, spacing and lag on old/new recognition memory for generic visual scenes presented in a RSVP paradigm. Early memory studies with verbal material found that knowledge of total exposure time at study is sufficient to accurately predict memory performance at test (the Total Time Hypothesis), irrespective of number of repetitions, spacing or lag. However, other studies have disputed such simple dependence of memory strength on total study time, demonstrating super-additive facilitatory effects of spacing and lag, as well as inhibitory effects, such as the Ranschburg effect, Repetition Blindness and the Attentional Blink. In the experimental conditions of the present study we find no evidence of either facilitatory or inhibitory effects: recognition memory for pictures in RSVP supports the Total Time Hypothesis. The data are consistent with an Unequal-Variance Signal Detection Theory model of memory that assumes the average strength and the variance of the familiarity of pictures both increase with total study time. The main conclusion is that the growth of visual scene familiarity with temporal exposure and repetition is a stochastically independent process.

  3. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect. A pedagogic explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2017-05-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  4. MPEG-2 video coding with an adaptive selection of scanning path and picture structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minhua; De Lameillieure, Jan L.; Schaefer, Ralf

    1996-09-01

    In the MPEG-2 video coding an interlaced frame can be encoded as either a frame-picture or two field-pictures. The selection of picture structure (frame/field) has a strong impact on picture quality. In order to achieve the best possible picture quality, an adaptive scheme is proposed in this paper to select the optimal picture structure on a frame by frame basis. The selection of picture structure is performed in connection with that of the optimal scanning path. First, the scanning path (zig-zag scan/alternate scan) is chosen based on a post-analysis of DCT-coefficients. Secondly, the optimal picture structure is selected for the next frame according to the chosen scanning path, i.e. a zig-zag scan corresponds to frame picture structure, while an alternate scan corresponds to field picture structure. Furthermore, the TM5 buffer control algorithm is extended to support the coding with adaptive frame/field picture structure. Finally, simulation results verify the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper.

  5. Effects of picture amount on preference, balance, and dynamic feel of Web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Chien-Hsiung

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of picture amount on subjective evaluation. The experiment herein adopted two variables to define picture amount: column ratio and picture size. Six column ratios were employed: 7:93,15:85, 24:76, 33:67, 41:59, and 50:50. Five picture sizes were examined: 140 x 81, 220 x 127, 300 x 173, 380 x 219, and 460 x 266 pixels. The experiment implemented a within-subject design; 104 participants were asked to evaluate 30 web page layouts. Repeated measurements revealed that the column ratio and picture size have significant effects on preference, balance, and dynamic feel. The results indicated the most appropriate picture amount for display: column ratios of 15:85 and 24:76, and picture sizes of 220 x 127, 300 x 173, and 380 x 219. The research findings can serve as the basis for the application of design guidelines for future web page interface design.

  6. Effects of Aging on Associative Memory for Related and Unrelated Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela H; Park, Denise C

    2009-03-01

    Associative memory deficits are pervasive with age. Memory for complex pictures, however, also seems to require the association of several scene elements into one representation, but picture memory is often age-invariant. We speculated that the natural relationships contained in pictures may explain this distinction and that memory for scenes with unusual novel relationships would be affected with aging. In three experiments, we found that, counter to our predictions, the relatedness of scene elements exerted little influence on picture memory and did not differentially affect older compared to younger adults. These data suggest that the semantically rich associations contained in pictures need not rely on prior knowledge and experiences in order to support age-invariant picture memory. Our results indicate that associative memory for complex pictures may differ from memory for inter-item associations, which may be more affected by aging.

  7. Brief Report: Randomized Test of the Efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System on Highly Generalized Picture Exchanges in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Lieberman, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social-communication interventions in young children with autism examined far-transfer of the use of picture exchange to communicate. Thirty-six children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, one of which was the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). All children had access to…

  8. Investigating the flow of information during speaking: The impact of morpho-phonological, associative and categorical picture distractors on picture naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBölte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In three experiments, participants named target pictures by means of German compound words (e.g., Gartenstuhl - garden chair, each accompanied by two different distractor pictures (e.g., lawn mower and swimming pool.Targets and distractor pictures were semantically related, either associatively (garden chair and lawn mower or by a shared semantic category (garden chair and wardrobe. Within each type of semantic relation, target and distractor pictures either shared morpho-phonological (word-form information (Gartenstuhl with Gartenzwerg, garden gnome, and Gartenschlauch, garden hose or not. A condition with two completely unrelated pictures served as baseline. Target naming was facilitated when distractor and target pictures were morpho-phonologically related. This is clear evidence for the activation of lexical information of distractor pictures. Effects were larger for associatively than for categorically related distractors and targets, which constitutes evidence for lexical competition. Mere categorical relatedness, in the absence of morpho-phonological overlap, resulted in null effects (Experiments 1 and 2, and only speeded target naming when effects reflect only conceptual, not lexical processing (Experiment 3. Given that distractor pictures activate their word forms, the data cannot be easily reconciled with discrete serial models. The results fit well with models that allow information to cascade forward from conceptual to word-form levels.

  9. Spanish Picture Vocabulary Test. Prueba Ilustrada de vocabulario Espanol. An Adaptation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Manual [and] Plates. Research Project 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Florence D.; And Others

    The Spanish Picture Vocabulary Test was designed to provide a Spanish-language translation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test which would be suitable for Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican school-children in New York City. The 300 stimulus words were translated according to a consensus of linguists and persons of Puerto Rican descent, and were…

  10. Investigating the flow of information during speaking: the impact of morpho-phonological, associative, and categorical picture distractors on picture naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Jens; Böhl, Andrea; Dobel, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, participants named target pictures by means of German compound words (e.g., Gartenstuhl–garden chair), each accompanied by two different distractor pictures (e.g., lawn mower and swimming pool). Targets and distractor pictures were semantically related either associatively (garden chair and lawn mower) or by a shared semantic category (garden chair and wardrobe). Within each type of semantic relation, target and distractor pictures either shared morpho-phonological (word-form) information (Gartenstuhl with Gartenzwerg, garden gnome, and Gartenschlauch, garden hose) or not. A condition with two completely unrelated pictures served as baseline. Target naming was facilitated when distractor and target pictures were morpho-phonologically related. This is clear evidence for the activation of word-form information of distractor pictures. Effects were larger for associatively than for categorically related distractors and targets, which constitute evidence for lexical competition. Mere categorical relatedness, in the absence of morpho-phonological overlap, resulted in null effects (Experiments 1 and 2), and only speeded target naming when effects reflect only conceptual, but not lexical processing (Experiment 3). Given that distractor pictures activate their word forms, the data cannot be easily reconciled with discrete serial models. The results fit well with models that allow information to cascade forward from conceptual to word-form levels. PMID:26528209

  11. "When" Does Picture Naming Take Longer Than Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Andrea; Pinet, Svetlana; Alario, F-Xavier; Laganaro, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Differences between the cognitive processes involved in word reading and picture naming are well established (e.g., visual or lexico-semantic stages). Still, it is commonly thought that retrieval of phonological forms is shared across tasks. We report a test of this second hypothesis based on the time course of electroencephalographic (EEG) neural activity, reasoning that similar EEG patterns might index similar processing stages. Seventeen participants named objects and read aloud the corresponding words while their behavior and EEG activity were recorded. The latter was analyzed from stimulus onset onward (stimulus-locked analysis) and from response onset backward (response-locked analysis), using non-parametric statistics and the spatio-temporal segmentation of ERPs. Behavioral results confirmed that reading entails shorter latencies than naming. The analysis of EEG activity within the stimulus-to-response period allowed to distinguish three phases, broadly successive. Early on, we observed identical distribution of electric field potentials (i.e., topographies) albeit with large amplitude divergences between tasks. Then, we observed sustained cross-task differences in topographies accompanied by extended amplitude differences. Finally, the two tasks again revealed the same topographies, with significant cross-task delays in their onsets and offsets, and still significant amplitude differences. In the response-locked ERPs, the common topography displayed an offset closer to response articulation in word reading compared with picture naming, that is the transition between the offset of this shared map and the onset of articulation was significantly faster in word reading. The results suggest that the degree of cross-task similarity varies across time. The first phase suggests similar visual processes of variable intensity and time course across tasks, while the second phase suggests marked differences. Finally, similarities and differences within the third phase

  12. The contribution of regional pictures to the reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Maria Bagatini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to answer the question: “How can images of known regional pictures facilitate the understanding of a text in English?” It was intended to deepen the knowledge of facilitators of reading and interpretation of texts in English, in order to develop the habit of reading through texts related to the students’ socio-cultural context. The theoretical framework explored the importance of the reading skill, the teacher’s role, reading techniques, and the use of inference along with the use of memory for vocabulary retention. For data collection the following methods were used: semi-open questionnaire, an audio and video recording of the text interpretation activity, and oral interview. The data under investigation, whose analysis was interpretative, were provided by three third year informant pupils of a Secondary School located in Palmas-TO, Brazil.

  13. Thermodynamic picture of ultrafast charge transport in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mics, Zoltán; Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan; Parvez, Khaled; Jensen, Søren A; Ivanov, Ivan; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Bonn, Mischa; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2015-07-16

    The outstanding charge transport properties of graphene enable numerous electronic applications of this remarkable material, many of which are expected to operate at ultrahigh speeds. In the regime of ultrafast, sub-picosecond electric fields, however, the very high conduction properties of graphene are not necessarily preserved, with the physical picture explaining this behaviour remaining unclear. Here we show that in graphene, the charge transport on an ultrafast timescale is determined by a simple thermodynamic balance maintained within the graphene electronic system acting as a thermalized electron gas. The energy of ultrafast electric fields applied to graphene is converted into the thermal energy of its entire charge carrier population, near-instantaneously raising the electronic temperature. The dynamic interplay between heating and cooling of the electron gas ultimately defines the ultrafast conductivity of graphene, which in a highly nonlinear manner depends on the dynamics and the strength of the applied electric fields.

  14. Dysfunction of the hypothalamus: etiology, clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment (guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Botsyurko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the hypothalamus, there are nuclei of autonomic nervous system, as well endocrine system, and vitally important centers — of hunger, saturation, thermoregulation, sleep and wakefulness. Under the influence of traumatic brain injuries, neuroinfections and poisons, this complex integral system is often disturbed causing dysfunction of the hypothalamus. The prepared guidelines observe questions of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of hypothalamic dysfunction. In terms of therapy, a main emphasis is put on physiological approaches to the normalization of hypothalamic disorders. Particular attention is paid to the formulation of diagnosis according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems that has a significant importance for the regulation of statistical statements. Guidelines are intended for endocrinologists, neuropathologists, cardiologists, general practitioners and family doctors.

  15. The sound picture of the Saami shamanic drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kristoffersson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the Saami shamanic drum has mainly concerned the pictorial world of the drumhead. Therefore, studying the sound picture may give new insights into the Saami Shamanic drum. In my study of the Saami drum I have tried to find the answer to two questions: 1 Is it possible to detect the sound pictogram from some of the drums preserved? 2 Are there marks of usage which might indicate what kind of sounds the users preferred? A comparison of the different drums shows that the signs of usage are surprisingly consistent. The drum sounds reach the receptive organs in the human ear in a range of low but strong tones, with low frequencies but high amplitude. This means that more energy is transferred into the nervous system than with various other types of instrumental sounds.

  16. Picture a Protest: Analyzing Media Images Tweeted From Ferguson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly S. Cowart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This content analysis examines media depiction of events in Ferguson, Missouri, following the shooting of the unarmed teenager Michael Brown by a police officer. Using images from the Twitter feeds of nine major media outlets in the month following the shooting, it identifies themes present in those images. Descriptive statistics reveal differences in the roles of people who appear to be White and those who appear to be Black. The two groups are rarely pictured together. The visual narrative presented on Twitter depicts two distinct sides. Police are consistently shown prepared for conflict, but rarely are protesters in images with police. The implications of these findings are explored through the theoretical viewpoint of agenda setting.

  17. Astronomy Picture of the Day on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Bonnell, J.; Lowe, S. R.; Connelly, P.; Haring, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website has been developing a presence on social media. As with APOD's ~20 foreign language mirror sites, these social media pages have been created and are maintained by volunteers. As of this writing in 2012 October 1, the APOD Twitter feed has over 520,000 followers, the APOD Facebook page has over 28,000 Likes, and the APOD Google Plus mirror has been circled over 8,700 times. In addition three new social media sites -- APOD Sky and Universo (in Spanish) on Facebook and APOD River on Google Plus -- have been added that update more often than once daily, many times featuring unique image submissions or classic APODs from the 17+ year archive. Preliminary indications indicate that the doubling time for readers of most of these social media pages is typically less than a year. Volunteering opportunities exist to develop and contribute to APOD-related social media.

  18. Venus: Atmospheric motion and structure from Mariner 10 pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B.C.; Belton, M.J.S.; Edward, Danielson G.; Davies, M.E.; Gault, D.; Hapke, B.; O'Leary, B.; Strom, R.G.; Suomi, V.; Trask, N.

    1974-01-01

    The Mariner 10 television cameras imaged the planet Venus in the visible and near ultraviolet for a period of 8 days at resolutions ranging from 100 meters to 130 kilometers. The general pattern of the atmospheric circulation in the upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric region is displayed in the pictures. Atmospheric flow is symmetrical between north and south hemispheres. The equatorial motions are zonal (east-west) at approximately 100 meters per second, consistent with the previously inferred 4-day retrograde rotation. Angular velocity increases with latitude. The subsolar region, and the region downwind from it, show evidence of large-scale convection that persists in spite of the main zonal motion. Dynamical interaction between the zonal motion and the relatively stationary region of convection is evidenced by bowlike waves.

  19. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  20. How to Take a Picture of A Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie first shows an artist's animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander snapping a picture of its arm, then transitions to the actual picture of the arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier unpeeled. The arm is still folded up, with its 'elbow' shown at upper left and its scoop at bottom right. The biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm in this view. The barrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have come about during the final steps before launch, and during the journey to Mars, will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The arm is scheduled to begin to unlatch on the third Martian day of the mission, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008). This image was taken on Sol 1 (May 26, 2008) by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  2. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony; Macdonald, Anna; van Hees, Sophia; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David

    2012-02-27

    Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  3. Concept for a common operational picture in a guidance vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Boris; Eck, Ralf; Maier, Sebastian

    2017-05-01

    A Common Operational Picture (COP) shows many operational aspects in coded form inside a geodata representation like a map. For building this picture, many specialized groups produce information. Beside the operating forces these are intelligences, logistics, or the own leaders planning group. Operations in which a COP is used typically are disaster management or military actions. An existing software for Interactive Visualization of Integrated Geodata runs on Tablet-PCs, PCs, Digital Map Tables and video walls. It is already used by the Deutsche Führungsakademie (military academy) for the education of staff officers. German civil disaster management agency decided to use the Digital Map Table for their intelligence analysis. In a mobile scenario, however, novel requirements have to be taken into account to adapt the software to the new environment. This paper investigates these requirements as well as the possible adaptions to provide a COP across multiple players on the go. When acting together, the groups do this in a widespread manner. They are physically spread and they use a variety of software and hardware to produce their contribution. This requires hardware to be ruggedized, mobile, and to support a variety of interfaces. The limited bandwidth in such a setting poses the main challenge for the software, which has to synchronize exchanging a minimum of information. Especially for mobile participants, a solution is planned that scales the amount of data (maps/intelligence data) to the available equipment, the upcoming mission, and the underlying theatre. Special focus is laid on a guidance vehicle leading a convoy.

  4. Eating behaviour associated with differences in conflict adaptation for food pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Margaret; Banks, Adrian P; Seiss, Ellen

    2016-10-01

    The goal conflict model of eating (Stroebe, Mensink, Aarts, Schut, & Kruglanski, 2008) proposes differences in eating behaviour result from peoples' experience of holding conflicting goals of eating enjoyment and weight maintenance. However, little is understood about the relationship between eating behaviour and the cognitive processes involved in conflict. This study aims to investigate associations between eating behaviour traits and cognitive conflict processes, specifically the application of cognitive control when processing distracting food pictures. A flanker task using food and non-food pictures was used to examine individual differences in conflict adaptation. Participants responded to target pictures whilst ignoring distracting flanking pictures. Individual differences in eating behaviour traits, attention towards target pictures, and ability to apply cognitive control through adaptation to conflicting picture trials were analysed. Increased levels of external and emotional eating were related to slower responses to food pictures indicating food target avoidance. All participants showed greater distraction by food compared to non-food pictures. Of particular significance, increased levels of emotional eating were associated with greater conflict adaptation for conflicting food pictures only. Emotional eaters demonstrate greater application of cognitive control for conflicting food pictures as part of a food avoidance strategy. This could represent an attempt to inhibit their eating enjoyment goal in order for their weight maintenance goal to dominate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The picture superiority effect in a cross-modality recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbert, G; Radeborg, K; Hedman, L R

    1995-07-01

    Words and pictures were studied and recognition tests given in which each studied object was to be recognized in both word and picture format. The main dependent variable was the latency of the recognition decision. The purpose was to investigate the effects of study modality (word or picture), of congruence between study and test modalities, and of priming resulting from repeated testing. Experiments 1 and 2 used the same basic design, but the latter also varied retention interval. Experiment 3 added a manipulation of instructions to name studied objects, and Experiment 4 deviated from the others by presenting both picture and word referring to the same object together for study. The results showed that congruence between study and test modalities consistently facilitated recognition. Furthermore, items studied as pictures were more rapidly recognized than were items studied as words. With repeated testing, the second instance was affected by its predecessor, but the facilitating effect of picture-to-word priming exceeded that of word-to-picture priming. The finds suggest a two- stage recognition process, in which the first is based on perceptual familiarity and the second uses semantic links for a retrieval search. Common-code theories that grant privileged access to the semantic code for pictures or, alternatively, dual-code theories that assume mnemonic superiority for the image code are supported by the findings. Explanations of the picture superiority effect as resulting from dual encoding of pictures are not supported by the data.

  6. Selective attention affects implicit and explicit memory for familiar pictures at different delay conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; García, Eulalio; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-02-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of two variables -selective attention during encoding and delay between study and test- on implicit (picture fragment completion and object naming) and explicit (free recall and recognition) memory tests. Experiments 1 and 2 consistently indicated that (a) at all delays (immediate to 1 month), picture-fragment identification threshold was lower for the attended than the unattended pictures; (b) the attended pictures were recalled and recognized better than the unattended; and (c) attention and delay interacted in both memory tests. For implicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for both attended and unattended pictures, but priming was more pronounced and lasted longer for the attended pictures; it was still present after a 1-month delay. For explicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for attended pictures, but for unattended pictures performance was consistent throughout delay. By using a perceptual object naming task, Experiment 3 showed reliable implicit and explicit memory for attended but not for unattended pictures. This study indicates that picture repetition priming requires attention at the time of study and that neither delay nor attention dissociate performance in explicit and implicit memory tests; both types of memory require attention, but explicit memory does so to a larger degree.

  7. Aging memory for pictures: using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A; Waring, Jill D; Beth, Ellen H; McKeever, Joshua D; Milberg, William P; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-01-31

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults.

  8. The worth of pictures: using high density event-related potentials to understand the memorial power of pictures and the dynamics of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2007-03-01

    To understand the neural correlates of the memorial power of pictures, pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test within subjects, and high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at retrieval. Using both conventional and novel methods, the results were presented as ERP waveforms, 50 ms scalp topographies, and video clips, and analyzed using t-statistic topographic maps and nonparametric p-value maps. The authors found that a parietally-based ERP component was enhanced when pictures were presented at study or test, compared to when words were presented. An early frontally-based component was enhanced when words were presented at study compared to pictures. From these data the authors speculate that the memorial power of pictures is related to the ability of pictures to enhance recollection. Familiarity, by contrast, was enhanced when words were presented at study compared to pictures. From these results and the dynamic view of memory afforded by viewing the data as video clips, the authors propose an ERP model of recognition memory.

  9. Word and picture processing in children: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna; Maron, Leeza; Wolf, Maryanne; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2002-01-01

    In an investigation of the N400 component, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by 4 types of word stimuli (real words, pseudowords, random letter strings, and false fonts) and 3 types of picture stimuli (real pictures, pseudopictures, and picture parts) presented in separate lists were recorded from 10- and 11-year-old children. All types of word stimuli elicited an anteriorly distributed negativity peaking at about 400 msec (antN400). Words and pseudowords elicited similar ERPs, whereas ERPs to letter strings differed from those to both pseudowords and false fonts. All types of picture stimuli elicited dual anterior negativities (N350 and N430). Real pictures and pseudopictures elicited similar ERPs, whereas pseudopictures and picture parts elicited asymmetrical processing. The results are discussed in terms of increased sensitivity to and dependence on context in children.

  10. On the categorical nature of the semantic interference effect in the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Alario, F Xavier; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2005-02-01

    Two picture-word interference experiments are reported in which the boundaries of the semantic interference effect are explored. In both experiments, participants named pictures (e.g., a picture of a car) that appeared with superimposed word distractors. Distractor words from the same semantic category as the word for the picture (e.g., CAR) produced semantic interference, whereas semantically related distractors from a different category (e.g., BUMPER) led to semantic facilitation. In Experiment 2, the semantic facilitation from semantically related distractors was replicated. These results indicate that a semantic relationship between picture and distractor does not necessarily lead to interference and in fact can lead to facilitation. In all but one case tested until now, a semantic relationship between picture and distractor has led to semantic facilitation. The implications of these results for the assumption that the semantic interference effect arises as a consequence of lexical competition are discussed.

  11. Previously reappraised: the lasting effect of description type on picture-elicited electrocortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Annmarie; Ochsner, Kevin N; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-06-01

    To examine whether reappraisal modifies responses to subsequent encounters with stimuli, participants viewed neutral and unpleasant pictures that were preceded by negative or neutral descriptions which served as reappraisal frames. A half an hour later, the same pictures were presented, without preceding frames; EEG was recorded and participants rated each picture on arousal and valence. In line with previous work, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures elicited more positive early- (359 ms), mid- (1074 ms) and late-latency (2436 ms) centrally-distributed ERP components. Pictures previously preceded by negative compared to neutral reappraisal frames were rated as more unpleasant and more emotionally arousing; these pictures elicited a larger mid-latency (1074 ms) occipital positivity. Together, the data suggest that reappraisal exerts an enduring effect on both subjective and neural responses to stimuli.

  12. Picture-induced semantic interference reflects lexical competition during object naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eAristei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With a picture-picture experiment we contrasted competitive and non-competitive models of lexical selection during language production. Participants produced novel noun-noun compounds in response to two separately displayed categorically related or unrelated objects (e.g. depicted objects: apple and cherry; naming response: "apple-cherry". We observed a classic interference effect, with slower naming for related relative to unrelated pairs. This finding suggests that previous failures to find strong interference induced by context pictures may be due to the weakness of picture-induced lexical competition. Apparently, the production of both picture names within one integrated compound word enhances lexical activation and thus, increases lexical competition, resulting in measurable interference effects. We conclude that lexical selection is competitive, given that interference due to pictures is not due to privileged access of word stimuli to the articulatory buffer.

  13. Getting the picture: iconicity does not affect representation-referent confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Koenig, Laura; Corder, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 428) understanding of the relationship between pictorial iconicity (photograph, colored drawing, schematic drawing) and the real world referent. Experiments 1 and 2 explored pictorial iconicity in picture-referent confusion after the picture-object relationship has been established. Pictorial iconicity had no effect on referential confusion when the referent changed after the picture had been taken/drawn (Experiment 1) and when the referent and the picture were different from the outset (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 investigated whether children are sensitive to iconicity to begin with. Children deemed photographs from a choice of varying iconicity representations as best representations for object reference. Together, findings suggest that iconicity plays a role in establishing a picture-object relation per se but is irrelevant once children have accepted that a picture represents an object. The latter finding may reflect domain general representational abilities.

  14. Emotion regulation of the affect-modulated startle reflex during different picture categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzelmann, Annette; McGregor, Victoria; Pauli, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on emotion regulation of the startle reflex found an increase in startle amplitude from down-, to non-, to up-regulation for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. We wanted to clarify whether this regulation effect remains stable for different picture categories within pleasant and unpleasant picture sets. We assessed startle amplitude of 31 participants during down-, non-, or up-regulation of feelings elicited by pleasant erotic and adventure and unpleasant victim and threat pictures. Startle amplitude was smaller during adventure and erotic compared to victim and threat pictures and increased from down-, to non-, to up-regulation independently of the picture category. Results indicate that the motivational priming effect on startle modulation elicited by different picture categories is independent of emotion regulation instructions. In addition, the emotion regulation effect is independent of motivational priming effects. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  16. Effects of grammatical gender on picture and word naming: evidence from German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, T

    1999-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of prior grammatical gender information (masculine, feminine, and neuter) provided by a minimal sentence context on both picture- and word-naming latencies. Named targets were nouns or pictures of concepts featuring unambiguous grammatical gender. Simple sentence fragments were presented auditorily prior to each picture or word target; the relation between these sentence primes and the word or picture target was either gender-congruent, gender-incongruent, or gender-neutral. Relative to the gender-neutral baseline, reliable facilitation and inhibition effects were both observed in the picture-naming task. By contrast, only inhibition effects were observed in the word-naming task. The results suggest that the processes of picture and word naming differ qualitatively when gender information is precued. The findings are discussed with respect to the distinction between postlexical and intralexical loci of the effects of gender context on word recognition and production.

  17. Long-term memory for 400 pictures on a common theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Stine; Magnussen, Svein

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memory for large numbers of color photographs with a common motif--doors--was studied using pictures with two levels of informative cues: original photographs, and edited pictures in which extraneous information on details such as vegetation, paint scratches, signs, and lamp posts was removed. In the study phase, subjects viewed 400 pictures and were subsequently tested for memory on two-alternative forced-choice discriminations between studied and distracter pictures from the same picture category, at retention intervals between 0.5 h and 9 days. When tested with the nonedited original photographs immediate memory performance was close to 85% correct; when pictorial details were removed memory performance dropped by 20%. The decay functions were shallow with parallel paths for the categories of pictures. It is concluded that specific details of visual scenes contributed to long-term memory of those scenes.

  18. Does Colour Affect the Quality or Quantity of Children's Stories Elicited by Pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Phyillis; Rivard, Reane; Debreuil, Buffy

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of colour vs. black-and-white pictures on the stories children told using the pictures as stimuli. Participants were 22 preschool children aged 4-6 (M = 59.98, SD = 7.52) attending day-care centres in a Western Canadian city. Two story sets of five pictures each, depicting stories with similar structure,…

  19. Picture-Word Interaction: Implications for Speeded On-Line Processing and Delayed Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    PICTURE -WORD INTERACTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR Scientific Interim Report SPEEDED ON-LINE PROCESSING AND DELAYED MEMORY Jn 1 - March 31, 1978 RETRIEVAL 6... picture -word comparisun studies may thus represent a small portion of lexical memory which may be the only subset of words that can be represented in a...Effect of a picture mask on memory for visual detail The following experiment is one of a series concernd with the extraction and encoding of information

  20. Effect of numbers vs pictures on perceived effectiveness of a public safety awareness advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniak, S; Lammers, H B

    1991-08-01

    In a 2 x 2 completely randomized factorial experiment, 24 women and 16 men rated the perceived effectiveness of an earthquake preparedness advertisement which contained either a picture or no picture of prior earthquake damage and contained either statistics or no statistics on likelihood of an earthquake. A main effect for superiority of the picture was found. The presence of statistics had no main or interactive effects on the perceived effectiveness of the advertisement.

  1. The picture superiority effect in a cross-modality recognition task

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Georg; Radeborg, Karl; Hedman, Leif R.

    1995-01-01

    Words and pictures were studied, and recognition tests were given in which each studied object was to be recognized in both word and picture format. The main dependent variable was the latency of the recognition decision. The purpose was to investigate the effects of study modality (word or picture), of congruence between study and test modalities, and of priming resulting from repeated testing. Experiments 1 and 2 used the same basic design, but the latter also varied retention interval. Exp...

  2. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Articulation: N400 Attenuation despite Behavioral Interference in Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Trevor; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We measured Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and naming times to picture targets preceded by masked words (stimulus onset asynchrony: 80 ms) that shared one of three different types of relationship with the names of the pictures: (1) Identity related, in which the prime was the name of the picture ("socks"--[picture of socks]), (2) Phonemic Onset…

  3. Faces On Facebook Associated Factors In Choosing The Facebook Profile Picture By Young Adults In SLIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gunasekara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary study which focuses on Facebook profile picture from two different perspectives selection and substitution. It attempt to identify amp evaluate the related variables that has an impact on profile picture selection. Participants include 309 male and female Facebook users between the ages of 18 to 34 who are enrolled in a higher education institute in Sri Lanka. The analysis finds that profile picture categories differ according to gender. Majority of the males prefer to use their own close up photo while female equally like to use their own close up photo or a photo of a celebrity. Profile picture category did not significantly vary by age perhaps because of less variation in the age group considered. But it depends on the appearance Facebook user is trying to convey through the profile picture. The individuals who post their own close up photos believe that they appear attractive. The individuals who feel that they look happy are uploading photos with their friends mostly. Most of the individuals change their profile picture when they find a better picture. Reason for changing the profile picture vary according to the age. The males believe they can build an impression about themselves through the profile picture whilst the females respond is neutral. Implications of these findings as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Less is More: How manipulative features affect children’s learning from picture books

    OpenAIRE

    Tare, Medha; Chiong, Cynthia; Ganea, Patricia; DeLoache, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Picture books are ubiquitous in young children’s lives and are assumed to support children’s acquisition of information about the world. Given their importance, relatively little research has directly examined children’s learning from picture books. We report two studies examining children’s acquisition of labels and facts from picture books that vary on two dimensions: iconicity of the pictures and presence of manipulative features (or “pop-ups”). In Study 1, 20-month-old children generalize...

  5. Not just scenery: viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Katherine R; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan, 1995, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169-182) suggests that exposure to nature improves attention. Berman, Jonides, and Kaplan (2008, Psychological Science, 19, 1207-1212) showed that simply viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in young adults. The present study is the first to investigate this Nature Effect in older adults. The authors investigated whether executive attention could be improved in healthy older adults following brief exposure to nature pictures. Thirty healthy older adults (64-79 years old) and 26 young university students (18-25 years old) participated. They completed the Attention Network Test before and after 6 min of viewing either nature or urban pictures, with random assignment into a picture type. Attention immediately before (most fatigued) and after (most restored) picture viewing was measured, and change in attention was compared between age groups and picture types. Results showed that viewing nature, but not urban, pictures significantly improved executive attention in both older and young adults as measured by the Attention Network Test, with similar effects seen in the two age groups. Alerting and orienting attention scores were not affected by picture viewing. This was the first study to show that viewing nature pictures improves attention in older adults, and to show that it is executive attention, specifically, that is improved. Among a growing number of interventions, nature exposure offers a quick, inexpensive, and enjoyable means to provide a temporary boost in executive attention.

  6. Bonding Pictures: Affective Ratings Are Specifically Associated to Loneliness But Not to Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo D. Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Responding to pro-social cues plays an important adaptive role in humans. Our aims were (i to create a catalog of bonding and matched-control pictures to compare the emotional reports of valence and arousal with the International Affective Picture System (IAPS pictures; (ii to verify sex influence on the valence and arousal of bonding and matched-control pictures; (iii to investigate if empathy and loneliness traits exert a specific influence on emotional reports for the bonding pictures. To provide a finer tool for social interaction studies, the present work defined two new sets of pictures consisting of “interacting dyads” (Bonding: N = 70 and matched controls “non-interacting dyads” (Controls: N = 70. The dyads could be either a child and an adult, or two children. Participants (N = 283, 182 women were divided in 10 groups for the experimental sessions. The task was to rate the hedonic valence and emotional arousal of bonding and controls; and of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures from the IAPS. Effects of social-related traits, empathy and loneliness, on affective ratings were tested. Participants rated bonding pictures as more pleasant and arousing than control ones. Ratings did not differentiate bonding from IAPS pleasant pictures. Control pictures showed lower ratings than pleasant but higher ratings than neutral IAPS pictures. Women rated bonding and control pictures as more positive than men. There was no sex difference for arousal ratings. High empathic participants rated bonding and control pictures higher than low empathic participants. Also, they rated pleasant IAPS pictures more positive and arousing; and unpleasant pictures more negative and arousing than the less empathic ones. Loneliness trait, on the other hand, affected very specifically the ratings of bonding pictures; lonelier participants rated them less pleasant and less arousing than less lonely. Loneliness trait did not modulate ratings of other

  7. Road-safety education: spatial decentering and subjective or objective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercin, F

    2007-10-01

    The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.

  8. Young women's genital self-image and effects of exposure to pictures of natural vulvas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Ellen; Martoredjo, Daphne K; Hesselink, Sara; Snijders, Nóinín; van Lunsen, Rik H W

    2017-12-01

    Many women have doubts about the normality of the physical appearance of their vulvas. This study measured genital self-image in a convenience sample of college-educated women, and assessed whether exposure to pictures of natural vulvas influenced their genital self-image. Forty-three women were either shown pictures of natural vulvas (N = 29) or pictures of neutral objects (N = 14). Genital self-image was measured before and after exposure to the pictures and two weeks later. Sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety were measured to investigate whether these factors influenced genital self-image scores after vulva picture exposure. A majority of the participants felt generally positively about their genitals. Having been exposed to pictures of natural vulvas resulted in an even more positive genital self-image, irrespective of levels of sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety. In the women who had seen the vulva pictures, the positive effect on genital self-image was still present after two weeks. The results of this study seem to indicate that even in young women with a relatively positive genital self-image, exposure to pictures of a large variety of natural vulvas positively affects genital self-image. This finding may suggest that exposure to pictures of natural vulvas may also lead to a more positive genital self-image in women who consider labiaplasty.

  9. Study of journal bearing dynamics using 3-dimensional motion picture graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, D. E.; Sosoka, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Computer generated motion pictures of three dimensional graphics are being used to analyze journal bearings under dynamically loaded conditions. The motion pictures simultaneously present the motion of the journal and the pressures predicted within the fluid film of the bearing as they evolve in time. The correct prediction of these fluid film pressures can be complicated by the development of cavitation within the fluid. The numerical model that is used predicts the formation of the cavitation bubble and its growth, downstream movement, and subsequent collapse. A complete physical picture is created in the motion picture as the journal traverses through the entire dynamic cycle.

  10. The role of symbol-based experience in early learning and transfer from pictures: Evidence from tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, CM; Walker, LB; Ganea, PA

    2013-01-01

    Extensive exposure to representational media is common for infants in Western culture, and previous research has shown that soon after their 1st birthday, infants can acquire and extend new information from pictures to real objects. Here we explore the extent to which lack of exposure to pictures during infancy affects children's learning from pictures. Infants were recruited from a rural village in Tanzania and had no prior experience with pictures. After a picture book interaction during wh...

  11. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  12. Image Segmentation Method Using Thresholds Automatically Determined from Picture Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Been Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation has become an indispensable task in many image and video applications. This work develops an image segmentation method based on the modified edge-following scheme where different thresholds are automatically determined according to areas with varied contents in a picture, thus yielding suitable segmentation results in different areas. First, the iterative threshold selection technique is modified to calculate the initial-point threshold of the whole image or a particular block. Second, the quad-tree decomposition that starts from the whole image employs gray-level gradient characteristics of the currently-processed block to decide further decomposition or not. After the quad-tree decomposition, the initial-point threshold in each decomposed block is adopted to determine initial points. Additionally, the contour threshold is determined based on the histogram of gradients in each decomposed block. Particularly, contour thresholds could eliminate inappropriate contours to increase the accuracy of the search and minimize the required searching time. Finally, the edge-following method is modified and then conducted based on initial points and contour thresholds to find contours precisely and rapidly. By using the Berkeley segmentation data set with realistic images, the proposed method is demonstrated to take the least computational time for achieving fairly good segmentation performance in various image types.

  13. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Morelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS in the hospital information system (HIS through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS. Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD. Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM, introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA, has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  14. Future trends in picture archiving and communication system (PACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajeri, Mona; Clarke, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Objective: This research investigates the needs and opinions of radiologists on the use of enhanced information technologies and approaches to improve the functionality of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). Method: Six interviews were conducted in the main governmental hospital in Kuwait (AL-Sabah Hospital) with radiologists, including two senior radiologists, two junior radiologists, and two trainee radiologists undertaking the Irish radiology board. Results: The radiologists identified a number of limitations that exist in current PACS and requirements to enhance usability and functionality. However, it was the case that some of the radiologists had little knowledge about the advanced trends in PACS. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis of the data: (1) limitations of traditional PACS; (2) Features and requirements that can increase PACS functionality; (3) web based solutions of PACS; (4) PACS in mobile phones. Conclusion: It is widely recognized that PACS has limitations. This research has identified themes that, when incorporated, will enhance the functionality of PACS and provide better quality clinical practice. This research has determined the important future trends of PACS. Primarily web based solutions and use in mobile phones. The findings from this research can be used as recommendations to vendors, for product development and medical institutes to consider when undertaking implementation of PACS and training future radiologists.

  15. Clinical picture of spinal tumors; Klinik spinaler Raumforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, F. [Helios-Kliniken, Neurologische Klinik, Schwerin (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Spinal tumors may present with symptoms such as pain and motor and sensory deficits. Sphincter dysfunction may also occur. The clinical picture depends upon the size and localization of the tumor in relation to the cross section and the height along the longitudinal axis of the spinal cord. Typical symptoms due to transverse damage of the spinal cord are complete lesion, Brown-Sequard syndrome, a lesion of the central spinal cord, and posterior cord syndrome. Tetraparesis, spastic, or flaccid paraparesis result from lesions at the cervical spine, thoracic spine, or below the first lumbar vertebral body, respectively. (orig.) Schmerzen, Paresen und Sensibilitaetsstoerungen stellen die wesentlichen und haeufigen Symptome spinaler Raumforderungen dar. Blasen- und Mastdarmstoerungen sind weitere moegliche Symptome. Ausdehnungen der Raumforderungen im Querschnitt und im Hinblick auf die Laengsachse des Rueckenmarks bestimmen das klinische Bild. Kompletter Querschnitt, Brown-Sequard-Syndrom, zentrale Rueckenmarkschaedigung und Hinterstrangsyndrom sind haeufige Auspraegungen entsprechend der Querschnittslaesion. Tetraparese, spastische oder schlaffe Paraparese resultieren aus Laesionen in Hoehe HWS, BWS bzw. unterhalb von LWK1. (orig.)

  16. Selling “Performance” Assessments with Inaccurate Pictures from Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Innes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new white paper from Ace Parsi and Linda Darling-Hammond, “Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning,” has a discussion on Page 7 about supposed success of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS used in that state from 1992 to 1998. This discussion paper explains the numerous problems with that description. The Kentucky-related comments in the Parsi/Darling-Hammond paper claim a basis in a technical report titled “Commonwealth Accountability and Testing System: 2007–08 Technical report, Version 1.2” created by Measured Progress in 2009. Unfortunately, the Kentucky Department of Education recently redesigned its web site and this technical report is no longer online. However, if the report actually does show the information attributed to it by Parsi and Darling-Hammond, that information is incorrect. Of course, as a closeout epitaph of yet another failure, Kentucky’s now failed Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, which succeeded the failed KIRIS system, the 2007-08 technical report may not have received an appropriate level of attention to detail. The comments below are referenced to reports issued during or shortly after the events occurred and are known to this long-time Kentucky resident to present an accurate picture.

  17. Heavy tetraquarks in the diquark–antidiquark picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hadizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous Lippmann–Schwinger integral equation is solved in momentum space to calculate the masses of heavy tetraquarks with hidden charm and bottom. The tetraquark bound states are studied in the diquark–antidiquark picture as a two-body problem. A regularized form of the diquark–antidiquark potential is used to overcome the singularity of the confining potential at large distances or small momenta. Our numerical results indicate that the relativistic effect leads to a small reduction in the mass of heavy tetraquarks, which is less than 2% for charm and less than 0.2% for bottom tetraquarks. The calculated masses of heavy tetraquarks for 1s, 1p, 2s, 1d and 2p states are in good agreement with other theoretical calculations and experimental data. Our numerical analysis predict the masses of heavy tetraquarks for 3s, 2d and 3p states for the first time, and we are not aware of any other theoretical results or experimental data for these states.

  18. The string-junction picture of multiquark states: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, G.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Centro Fermi, Museo Storico della Fisica,Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma (Italy); Veneziano, G. [Collège de France,11 place M. Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza,Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-07

    We recall and update, both theoretically and phenomenologically, our (nearly) forty-years-old proposal of a string-junction as a necessary complement to the conventional classification of hadrons based just on their quark-antiquark constituents. In that proposal single (though in general metastable) hadronic states are associated with “irreducible' gauge-invariant operators consisting of Wilson lines (visualized as strings of color flux tubes) that may either end on a quark or an antiquark, or annihilate in triplets at a junction J or an anti-junction J̄. For the junction-free sector (ordinary q q̄ mesons and glueballs) the picture is supported by large-N (number of colors) considerations as well as by a lattice strong-coupling expansion. Both imply the famous OZI rule suppressing quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams. For hadrons with J and/or J̄ constituents the same expansions support our proposal, including its generalization of the OZI rule to the suppression of J−J̄ annihilation diagrams. Such a rule implies that hadrons with junctions are “mesophobic' and thus unusually narrow if they are below threshold for decaying into as many baryons as their total number of junctions (two for a tetraquark, three for a pentaquark). Experimental support for our claim, based on the observation that narrow multiquark states typically lie below (well above) the relevant baryonic (mesonic) thresholds, will be presented.

  19. Picture this! grasping the dimensions of time and space

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical concepts can be truly hard to comprehend, especially those of planetary sizes and distances from Earth and from each other. These concepts are made more comprehensible by the group of illustrations in this book, which put, in scale, side by side extraterrestrial objects with objects on Earth we can more easily relate to. For example, study the pictures of Earth floating above Jupiter’s Great Red Spot and the asteroid Itokawa resting beside Toronto’s CN Tower. These mind-bending images bring things better into perspective and will help you understand the size and scale of our Solar System. In later chapters, you will be told how close the visionaries of the past came to guessing what today’s explorers would find. Astronomer/painter Lucien Rudaux’s masterpieces of Mars dust storms anticipated Viking and Mars rover images by nearly a century. Space artist Ludek Pesek envisioned astronauts setting up camp on the lunar surface in scenes hauntingly similar to photos taken by Apollo a...

  20. A Picture-perfect Pure-disc Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The bright galaxy NGC 3621, captured here using the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, appears to be a fine example of a classical spiral. But it is in fact rather unusual: it does not have a central bulge and is therefore described as a pure-disc galaxy. NGC 3621 is a spiral galaxy about 22 million light-years away in the constellation of Hydra (The Sea Snake). It is comparatively bright and can be seen well in moderate-sized telescopes. This picture was taken using the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The data were selected from the ESO archive by Joe DePasquale as part of the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. Joe's picture of NGC 3621 was ranked fifth in the competition. This galaxy has a flat pancake shape, indicating that it hasn't yet come face to face with another galaxy as such a galactic collision would have disturbed the thin disc of stars, creating a small bulge in its centre. Most astronomers think that galaxies grow by merging with other galaxies, in a process called hierarchical galaxy formation. Over time, this should create large bulges in the centres of spirals. Recent research, however, has suggested that bulgeless, or pure-disc, spiral galaxies like NGC 3621 are actually fairly common. This galaxy is of further interest to astronomers because its relative proximity allows them to study a wide range of astronomical objects within it, including stellar nurseries, dust clouds, and pulsating stars called Cepheid variables, which astronomers use as distance markers in the Universe [2]. In the late 1990s, NGC 3621 was one of 18 galaxies selected for a Key Project of the Hubble Space Telescope: to observe Cepheid variables and measure the rate of expansion of the Universe to a higher accuracy than had been possible before. In the successful project, 69 Cepheid variables were observed in this galaxy alone. Multiple monochrome images taken through