Sample records for schreibersii fuliginosus hipposideros

  1. schreibersii natalensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lens weight in Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana as a criterion while tooth characteristics including tooth eruption ... juveniles at intervals and examine them at known ages. This technique proved to be a failure as will be ... 40% formalin, glacial acetic acid and distilled water in the relation of 3: 1: 1:5 respectively). Because they ...

  2. Flight activity of Noack's round-leafbat (Hipposideros cf. ruber) at two caves in central Ghana, West Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nkrumah, E. E.; Badu, E. K.; Baldwin, H. J.; Anti, P.; Klose, S. M.; Vallo, Peter; Drosten, C.; Kalko, E. K. V.; Oppong, S. K.; Tschapka, M.


    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2017), s. 347-355 ISSN 1508-1109 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : prey * insects * temperature * caves * flight activity * Hipposideros cf. ruber Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.040, year: 2016

  3. Phylogeography and postglacial recolonization of Europe by Rhinolophus hipposideros: evidence from multiple genetic markers. (United States)

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Dietz, Christian; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Hulva, Pavel; Roué, Stéphane G; Petit, Eric J; Jones, Gareth; Russo, Danilo; Toffoli, Roberto; Viglino, Andrea; Martinoli, Adriano; Rossiter, Stephen J; Teeling, Emma C


    The demographic history of Rhinolophus hipposideros (lesser horseshoe bat) was reconstructed across its European, North African and Middle-Eastern distribution prior to, during and following the most recent glaciations by generating and analysing a multimarker data set. This data set consisted of an X-linked nuclear intron (Bgn; 543 bp), mitochondrial DNA (cytb-tRNA-control region; 1630 bp) and eight variable microsatellite loci for up to 373 individuals from 86 localities. Using this data set of diverse markers, it was possible to determine the species' demography at three temporal stages. Nuclear intron data revealed early colonization into Europe from the east, which pre-dates the Quaternary glaciations. The mtDNA data supported multiple glacial refugia across the Mediterranean, the largest of which were found in the Ibero-Maghreb region and an eastern location (Anatolia/Middle East)-that were used by R. hipposideros during the most recent glacial cycles. Finally, microsatellites provided the most recent information on these species' movements since the Last Glacial Maximum and suggested that lineages that had diverged into glacial refugia, such as in the Ibero-Maghreb region, have remained isolated. These findings should be used to inform future conservation management strategies for R. hipposideros and show the power of using a multimarker data set for phylogeographic studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Dietary composition, echolocation pulses and morphological measurements of the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus (Chiroptera: Vespertilioninae)]. (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhu, Teng-Teng; Wang, Xu-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Biao


    We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%, by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58+/-0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85+/-0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M. fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45+/-0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08+/-21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50+/-2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.

  5. Electroretinography in the western gray kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus). (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Hamor, Ralph E; Narfström, Kristina; Breaux, Carrie B


    To perform electroretinography on normal anesthetized western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). Animals studied  Six captive western gray kangaroos. The kangaroos were anesthetized using a combination of ketamine and medetomidine via a remote drug delivery system, then were maintained on isoflurane after endotracheal intubation and reversal of the medetomidine with atipamazole. After a minimum of 20 min of dark adaptation, electroretinograms were obtained using a handheld electroretinography (ERG) machine using a single flash protocol at three light intensities: 10 mcd.s/m(2), 3000 mcd.s/m(2), 10 000 mcd.s/m(2). At 10 mcd.s/m(2) the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 102.0 μV (SD ± 41.3 and 95% CI 68.9-135.1) and 78.4 ms (SD ± 8.3 and 95% CI 71.8-85.0). At 3000 mcd.s/m(2) the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time was 69.9 μV (SD ± 20.5 and 95% CI 53.5-86.3) and 17.6 ms (SD ± 1.5 and 95% CI 16.4-18.8) and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 175.4 μV (SD ± 35.9 and 95% CI 146.7-204.1) and 74.1 ms (SD ± 3.5 and 95% CI 71.2-76.9). At 10 000 mcd.s/m(2) the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time was 89.1 μV (SD ± 27.1 and 95% CI 67.5-110.8) and 16.8 ms (SD ± 1.0 and 95% CI 16.0-17.0) and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 203.7 μV (SD ± 41.4 and 95% CI 170.6-236.8) and 75.4 ms (SD ± 3.3 and 95% CI 72.8-78.1). Electroretinography outside of the typical clinical setting is feasible using a portable ERG system and allows for quick analysis of retinal function in exotic species.

  6. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus)


    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib; Amin Hassanin; Mohamed Elnasharty


    The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus). The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS) of the sacciform forestomach; the layer cov...

  7. New distribution record and a review on Hipposideros fulvus Gray, 1838 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) distribution from Andhra Pradesh, India


    Srinivasulu, Chelmala; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Kaur, Harpreet; Venkateshwarlu, Panjgula; Kumar, Gandla


    We report a new distribution record and review the earlier records of the Fulvous roundleaf bat, Hipposideros fulvus, from Andhra Pradesh, India, based on a female specimen collected from Hyderabad, India. This species has been hitherto reported from only two localities in Andhra Pradesh and has been missed out from most of the reports and publications.

  8. Regionally and climatically restricted patterns of distribution of genetic diversity in a migratory bat species, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Çoraman Emrah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.

  9. Cryptic diversity in Hipposideros commersoni sensu stricto (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in the western portion of Madagascar. (United States)

    Rakotoarivelo, Andrinajoro R; Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie; Lamb, Jennifer M; Goodman, Steven M


    The Commerson's leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros commersoni sensu stricto, is endemic to Madagascar and is relatively common in the western portion of the island, where it is found in areas, including forested zones, from sea level to 1325 m. A previous study on morphological patterns of geographic variation within the species highlighted the presence of two distinct morphotypes; larger individuals in the north portion of the island and smaller individuals in the south. The main aim of this study was to use a combination of craniodental morphology and molecular data (mitochondrial and nuclear) to test previous hypotheses based on morphology and clarify the evolutionary history of the species group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from Hipposideros commersoni obtained from the western portion of Madagascar, and compared them with other African species as outgroups. We analyzed the sequence data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Divergence dates were estimated using Bayesian molecular clock approach. Variation in craniodental variables was also assessed from sequenced individuals. The molecular analyses suggest that H. commersoni is not monophyletic, with strong support for the presence of several independently evolving lineages. Two individuals amongst those sequenced from Isalo (south central) and Itampolo (southwest) form a separate clade (Clade A), distinct from other H. commersoni, and sister to continental African H. vittatus and H. gigas. Within the H. commersoni clade, the molecular data support two geographically distributed clades; one from the south (Clade B) and the other from the north (Clade C), which diverged approximately 3.38 million years ago. Morphometric data were consistent with the molecular analyses, suggesting a north-south break within H. commersoni. However, at some localities, animals from both clades occurred in sympatry and these individuals could not be differentiated based on external and

  10. [Echolocation sound waves, morphological features and foraging strategies in Hipposideros pratti]. (United States)

    Chen, Min; Feng, Jiang; Li, Zhenxin; Zhou, Jiang; Zhao, Huihua; Zhang, Shuyi; Sheng, Lianxi


    Studies on the echolocation sound waves in different states (flying and hanging), morphological features and ecological processes (foraging strategies, foraging habitat and diet type) of Hipposideros pratti showed that H. pratti had CF (constant frequency)-FM (frequency modulated) echolocation sounds. There were some differences in dominant frequency (caused by Doppler compensating effect), pulse repetition rate, pulse duration and interpulse interval between the bats at flying and hanging. The dominant frequency, FM bandwidth, pulse duration and interpulse interval were lower, while the pulse repetition rate and duty cycle were higher at flying than at hanging. All the differences indicated that H. pratti could adopt specific echolocation sounds to adapt to specific environments and conditions to detect, approach and capture their preys successfully. On the basis of echolocation sound and field observation, it was concluded that H. pratti might search the preys at flying in the period of insect fastigium, and after the period, it might search the targets at hanging. The foraging habitat was near the tree crowns, and the preys consisted mainly of relatively large insects, such as beetles.

  11. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia. (United States)

    Potter, Abbey S; Banazis, Michael J; Yang, Rongchang; Reid, Simon A; Fenwick, Stan G


    We investigated the role of the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in the maintenance and transmission of Coxiella burnetii in Western Australia. Sera from 1,017 kangaroos were tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The overall antibody prevalence across 12 locations throughout mid- to southwestern Western Australia was 24.1% (95% CI: 21.6-26.8). Feces from 990 of the same animals were tested using PCR to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 4.1% (95% CI: 3.1-5.6) of samples. Our results suggest that kangaroos are reservoirs for C. burnetii in Western Australia and may contribute to transmission of the organism to domestic livestock and humans.

  12. Amphotis marginata (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae a highwayman of the ant Lasius fuliginosus.

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    Bert Hölldobler

    Full Text Available The space occupied by evolutionarily advanced ant societies can be subdivided into functional sites, such as broodchambers; peripheral nest chambers; kitchen middens; and foraging routes. Many predators and social parasites are specially adapted to make their living inside specific niches created by ants. In particular, the foraging paths of certain ant species are frequented by predatory and kleptoparasitic arthropods, including one striking example, the nitidulid beetle, Amphotis marginata. Adults of this species obtain the majority of their nutrition by acting as a kind of "highwayman" on the foraging trails of the ant Lasius fuliginosus, where they solicit regurgitation from food laden ant-workers by mimicking the ant's food-begging signals. Employing food labeled with the radio isotope 32P, we assessed the quantities of food the beetles siphoned-off of food-laden ants, and we investigated the site preferences, behavioral mechanisms and possible morphological adaptations underlying the food kleptoparasitism of A. marginata.

  13. First record of the Diadem Leaf-Nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae from the Andaman Islands, India with the possible occurrence of a hitherto unreported subspecies

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    Bhargavi Srinivasulu


    Full Text Available The Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 is recorded for the first time from the Andaman Islands, India. A solitary female specimen was collected on October 13, 2015 from a limestone cave on Baratang Island. Cranial measurements and other morphological characters indicate that the specimen differs from the endemic subspecies, the Nicobar Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema nicobarensis (Dobson, 1871, but compares favourably with the South-east Asian subspecies, Mason’s Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema masoni (Dobson, 1872, in description, craniodental characters, and echolocation calls. This is the first record of Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 from Andaman Islands, and the subspecies Mason’s Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema masoni (Dobson, 1872 from India.

  14. Reproductive implications of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus). (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Jeff; Mawson, Peter R; Bencini, Roberta


    Australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of Toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by Neospora caninum. Pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. We studied adult female western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban Perth, Western Australia, between May 2006 and October 2008. We used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to T. gondii and N. caninum in M. fuliginosus ocydromus and tested the association between their reproductive performance and a positive test result. Although 20% of plasma samples collected from 102 female kangaroos were positive for T. gondii and 18% were positive for N. caninum, we found no association between positive results and reproductive performance. Further study will be required to clarify if, and under what circumstances, T. gondii and N. caninum are pathogenic to macropod marsupials.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella in fecal samples of western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). (United States)

    Potter, Abbey S; Reid, Simon A; Fenwick, Stan G


    This is the first extensive study of the prevalence of naturally acquired Salmonella infection in wild-caught kangaroos in Australia. Given the close association between kangaroos, livestock, and humans and the growing popularity of kangaroo meat, it is important to identify epidemiologic factors associated with infection in these marsupials in order to minimize the risk of Salmonella transmission. The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella in 645 western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) sampled across 10 locations in Western Australia was 3.6% (95% CI: 2.3-5.3). Seven Salmonella serovars were identified including Salmonella enterica serovar Muenchen, Kiambu, Rubislaw, Lindern, Champaign, Saintpaul and II 42:g,t:-. Prevalence was significantly associated with rainfall (Pkangaroos are infected with Salmonella in their natural habitat, infection is less common than in hand-reared joeys, pet kangaroos, and macropods raised in captivity. Care should be taken to maintain hygiene during the evisceration, processing, and handling of kangaroos and to adequately cook kangaroo meat prior to consumption to reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  16. Morphologic evidence suggestive of hypertension in western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). (United States)

    Kagan, R A; Kinsel, M; Gloor, K; Mylniczenko, N D; Langan, J N; Farina, L L; Terio, K A


    Marked renal vascular changes, suggestive of hypertension, were present in adult western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) from a single facility over a 14-year period. A subset of these kangaroos also had vague clinical nervous system deficits, including blindness. To characterize the vascular lesions, determine prevalence, and document other changes, case histories and archival tissue sections from 21 adult kangaroos (8 male, 13 female) that died or were euthanatized between 1994 and 2008 were reviewed. Relevant lesions included increased thickness of the renal arteriolar tunica media with smooth muscle hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia, accumulation of extracellular matrix within arterioles, increased vascular tortuosity, and varying degrees of juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Renal tissue from two more severely affected animals was further examined by transmission electron microscopy, highlighting arteriolar endothelial cell hypertrophy and disruption of the medial architecture. Hypertrophy of arteries and arterioles in other organ systems was also present (3/21), including vessels in the brain and spinal cord of one animal with clinical neurologic signs. Four kangaroos had antemortem retinal detachment, a potential sequel of hypertension in humans and domestic mammals. The cause of these vascular lesions in this mob is uncertain. Lesions were not associated with an infectious disease process, age, underlying renal disease, or thyroid abnormalities. In the absence of other causes, hypertension was a differential. Further investigation into clinical significance and predisposing factors, such as genetics and diet, is warranted.

  17. Ophthalmic examination findings in a captive colony of western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Low, Martha; Hamor, Ralph E; Breaux, Carrie B; Langan, Jennifer N; Zarfoss, Mitzi K; Zachariah, Trevor T


    Complete ophthalmic examination of a mob of western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) was performed under chemical restraint. Examination included intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by rebound and applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, corneal diameter measurement, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect funduscopy. The corneal diameters had a mean of 19.52 mm, SD 2.16 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.71-20.32 mm. Ocular abnormalities were noted in 4/8 (50%) of examined kangaroos. Intraocular pressure as estimated by rebound tonometry was 9.00 mm Hg with a 25-75% quartile range of 6.5-10.75 mm Hg and a minimum-maximum range of 5.00-23.00 mm Hg. Intraocular pressure as estimated by applanation tonometry was 11.50 mm Hg with a 25-75% quartile range of 10.00-17.00 mm Hg and a minimum-maximum range of 9.00-20.00 mm Hg. This is the first report of ocular examination findings in a mob of captive western gray kangaroos and provides ranges and values for tonometry and corneal diameter.

  18. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

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    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  19. The seroprevalence and factors associated with Ross river virus infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia. (United States)

    Potter, Abbey; Johansen, Cheryl A; Fenwick, Stan; Reid, Simon A; Lindsay, Michael D A


    A serosurvey was undertaken in 15 locations in the midwest to southwest of Western Australia (WA) to investigate the seroprevalence of Ross River virus (RRV) neutralizing antibodies and factors associated with infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). The estimated seroprevalence in 2632 kangaroo samples, using a serum neutralization test, was 43.9% (95% CI 42.0, 45.8). Location was significantly associated with seroprevalence (pkangaroos was significantly higher than in subadult kangaroos (pkangaroos (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that kangaroos in WA are regularly infected with RRV and may be involved in the maintenance and transmission of RRV.

  20. Scaling of left ventricle cardiomyocyte ultrastructure across development in the kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus. (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Taggart, David A; Maloney, Shane K; Farrell, Anthony P; Leigh, Christopher M; Waterhouse, Lyn; Williams, Ruth; Seymour, Roger S


    The heart and left ventricle of the marsupial western grey kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus exhibit biphasic allometric growth, whereby a negative shift in the trajectory of cardiac growth occurs at pouch exit. In this study, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine the scaling of left ventricle cardiomyocyte ultrastructure across development in the western grey kangaroo over a 190-fold body mass range (0.355-67.5 kg). The volume-density (%) of myofibrils, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticuli and T-tubules increase significantly during in-pouch growth, such that the absolute volume (ml) of these organelles scales with body mass (Mb; kg) with steep hyperallometry: 1.41Mb (1.38), 0.64Mb (1.29), 0.066Mb (1.45) and 0.035Mb (1.87), respectively. Maturation of the left ventricle ultrastructure coincides with pouch vacation, as organelle volume-densities scale independent of body mass across post-pouch development, such that absolute organelle volumes scale in parallel and with relatively shallow hypoallometry: 4.65Mb (0.79), 1.75Mb (0.77), 0.21Mb (0.79) and 0.35Mb (0.79), respectively. The steep hyperallometry of organelle volumes and volume-densities across in-pouch growth is consistent with the improved contractile performance of isolated cardiac muscle during fetal development in placental mammals, and is probably critical in augmenting cardiac output to levels necessary for endothermy and independent locomotion in the young kangaroo as it prepares for pouch exit. The shallow hypoallometry of organelle volumes during post-pouch growth suggests a decrease in relative cardiac requirements as body mass increases in free-roaming kangaroos, which is possibly because the energy required for hopping is independent of speed, and the capacity for energy storage during hopping could increase as the kangaroo grows. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Biphasic Allometry of Cardiac Growth in the Developing Kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus. (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Taggart, David A; Maloney, Shane K; Farrell, Anthony P; Seymour, Roger S


    Interspecific studies of adult mammals show that heart mass (M(h), g) increases in direct proportion to body mass (M(b), kg), such that M(h) ∝ M(b)(1.00). However, intraspecific studies on heart mass in mammals at different stages of development reveal considerable variation between species, M(h) ∝ M(b)(0.70-1.00). Part of this variation may arise as a result of the narrow body size range of growing placental mammals, from birth to adulthood. Marsupial mammals are born relatively small and offer an opportunity to examine the ontogeny of heart mass over a much broader body size range. Data from 29 western grey kangaroos Macropus fuliginosus spanning 800-fold in body mass (0.084-67.5 kg) reveal the exponent for heart mass decreases significantly when the joey leaves the pouch (ca. 5-6 kg body mass). In the pouch, the heart mass of joeys scales with hyperallometry, M(h(in-pouch)) = 6.39 M(b)(1.10 ± 0.05), whereas in free-roaming juveniles and adults, heart mass scales with hypoallometry, M(h(postpouch)) = 14.2 Mb(0.77 ± 0.08). Measurements of heart height, width, and depth support this finding. The relatively steep heart growth allometry during in-pouch development is consistent with the increase in relative cardiac demands as joeys develop endothermy and the capacity for hopping locomotion. Once out of the pouch, the exponent decreases sharply, possibly because the energy required for hopping is independent of speed, and the efficiency of energy storage during hopping increases as the kangaroo grows. The right:left ventricular mass ratios (0.30-0.35) do not change over the body mass range and are similar to those of other mammals, reflecting the principle of Laplace for the heart.

  2. Re-sighting record of Fulvous Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros fulvus Gray, 1838 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae from Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India

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    Sumit Dookia


    Full Text Available Here we report re-sighting records of the Fulvous Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros fulvus after a gap of almost four decades (37 years, from Rajasthan, India, on the basis of two male specimens collected from a cave dwelling colony of about 20 individuals from Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.  This species has been once reported in 1979 from a man-made tunnel in Mandore Garden in Jodhpur and later the same sighting information was re-quoted by several researchers.  The present sighting from a new locality and the voucher specimen confirms the re-sighting of this species after a long gap. 

  3. Dental anomalies in Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae, Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae Anomalías en la dentición de Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae, Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae

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    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are described after analyzing series of skulls and mandibles of three species of South American marsupials: the monito del monte {Dromiciops gliroides, the silky shrew-opossum {Caenolestes fuliginosus and the Chilean shrew-opossum {Rhyncholestes raphanurus. The anomalies are classified into three categories: (1 supernumerary or missing teeth in normal positions of the dental series, (2 morphological anomalies like teeth fusion or anomalous crown shape, and (3 presence of teeth in unusual positions. Cusp fusion and supernumerary teeth at the end of the toothrow have been observed predominantly in D. gliroides. A tendency to find supernumerary or missing teeth is observed between the procumbent incisors and the second lower premolars in caenolestids. Possible causes for these anomalies and their morphofunctional value are discussed. A comparison with other marsupials is presented and discussed. Isolation of local populations and its effects on genetic drift processes might explain the high percentage of dental anomaliesA partir del análisis de series de cráneos y mandíbulas del monito de monte {Dromiciops gliroides, el ratón marsupial sedoso {Caenolestes fuliginosus y la comadrejita trompuda {Rhyncholestes raphanurus, se describen las anomalías en la dentición (incisivos, premolares, molares, clasificándose de acuerdo a tres categorías: (1 dientes supernumerarios o faltantes en alguna posición, (2 anomalías morfológicas tales como fusión de dientes o variaciones en el número de raíces, y (3 presencia de dientes en posiciones inusuales. Se observa una tendencia al desarrollo de dientes supernumerarios en cenoléstidos, o pérdida de elementos dentarios en la mandíbula, principalmente entre los incisivos procumbentes y el segundo premolar. En D. gliroides, la tendencia es hacia la fusión de cúspides y la producción de dientes supernumerarios al final de la hilera molar superior (apareciendo como M5. Se discuten las

  4. Development and characterisation of 20 microsatellite loci isolated from the large bent-wing bat, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae) and their cross-taxa utility in the family Miniopteridae. (United States)

    Wood, Rebecca; Weyeneth, Nicole; Appleton, Belinda


    The large bent-wing bat, Miniopterus schreibersii (Kuhl 1819), has a long history of taxonomic uncertainty and many populations are known to be in a state of decline. Microsatellite loci were developed for the taxonomic and population genetic assessment of the Australian complex of this species. Of the 33 primer sets designed for this research, seven (21%) were deemed suitably polymorphic for population-level analyses of the Australian taxa, with five (71%) of these loci revealing moderate to high levels of polymorphism (PIC = 0.56 to 0.91). The cross-taxa utility of the M. schreibersii microsatellite markers was assessed in the microbat (Chiroptera) family Miniopteridae. Sub-species and species covering the Miniopteridae's global distribution (with the exception of the Middle East) were selected, numbering 25 taxa in total. Amplification was successful for 26 loci, of which 20 (77%) were polymorphic. High cross-taxa utility of markers was observed with amplification achieved for all taxa for between four (20%) and 20 (100%) loci, and polymorphism was considered moderate to high (PIC = 0.47-0.91) for 12 (60%) of these loci. The high cross-taxa utility of the microsatellites reported herein reveal versatile and cost-effective molecular markers, contributing an important genetic resource for the research and conservation of Miniopteridae species worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The reassessment of the threatened status of the Indian endemic Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae

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    Bhargavi Srinivasulu


    Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.

  6. Nocardia lasii sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the cuticle of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L). (United States)

    Liu, Chongxi; Bai, Lu; Ye, Lan; Zhao, Junwei; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing


    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 3C-HV12(T), was isolated from the cuticle of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L) and characterised using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3C-HV12(T) belongs to the genus Nocardia with high sequence similarities to Nocardia soli DSM 44488(T) (99.2 %) and Nocardia cummidelens R89(T) (99.2 %), and phylogenetically clustered with these two species and Nocardia ignorata DSM 44496(T) (98.8 %), Nocardia salmonicida JCM 4826(T) (98.8 %), Nocardia fluminea S1(T) (98.8 %), Nocardia coubleae OFN N12(T) (98 %) and Nocardia camponoti 1H-HV4(T) (97.4 %). The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain are also consistent with those of members of the genus Nocardia. The strain was observed to form extensively branched substrate hyphae which fragmented into rod-shaped and non-motile elements. The cell wall was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole cell sugars were identified as arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8(H4, ω-cycl). The phospholipid profile was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as C18:0 10-methyl, C16:0 and C16:1ω7c. Mycolic acids were found to be present. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridisation experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3C-HV12(T) and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 3C-HV12(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia lasii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3C-HV12(T) (=DSM 100525(T) = CGMCC 4.7279(T)).

  7. Recovery cycle of inferior collicular neurons in Hipposideros pratti under behavior-related sound stimulus and the best Doppler-shift compensation conditions. (United States)

    Tang, Jia; Wei, Chen-Xue; Chen, Meng-Xia; Wang, Qiao-Chao; Kong, Hui-Fang; Fu, Zi-Ying; Chen, Qi-Cai


    The Doppler-shift compensation (DSC) behavior of constant frequency - frequency modulation (CF-FM) bat (Hipposideros pratti) is vital for extraction and analysis of echo information. This type of behavior affects the recovery cycles of sound-sensitive neurons, but their precise relationship remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of DSC on the recovery cycles of inferior collicular (IC) neurons in H. pratti. We simulated the pulse-echo pair in bats by changing the emitted pulse frequency and keeping the echo frequency constant during DSC in echolocation. The neuronal recovery cycles of IC neurons are categorized into four types: unrecovered, monotonic, single-peak, and multi-peak. The recovery cycle of IC neurons shortens after DSC; moreover, the amount of neurons with multi-peak recovery cycle increases and concentrates in the short recovery area. This paper also discusses the possible neural mechanisms and their biological relevance to different phases of bat predation behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a good model for cold-induced browning of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue. (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhu, Tengteng; Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe


    Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans.

  9. Some remarks on Hipposideros speoris and Hipposideros larvatus (Chiroptera, Rhinolophoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, H.P.; Feen, van der P.J.


    Three hitherto unpublished specimens of Hipposidéros larvátus (HORSFIELD, 1824) from the Island of Nias (off Sumatra’s West Coast), and one specimen of the same species from the Island of Sumba (ESE of Java) led us to a critical study of the subgeneric ”spéoris-group” of this genus of horseshoe

  10. (Nycteris thebaica and Hipposideros caller)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this prediction. Although both species foraged in the same habitat, they had distinctly different diets. The diet of. N. thebaica consisted mainly of non-volant prey. primarily orthopterans and ... cation call characteristics to predict differences in habitat use and, as .... stress value is associated with MDS and can be thought of as.

  11. Helminth Fauna of Bats in Japan XXVII


    SAWADA, Isamu


    Twenty-nine specimens of forest bats were examined for the presence of cestodes, but no bats were infected with cestodes. Out of 144 cave bats belonging to 14 species examined, 23 bats were found infected with cestodes. The cestodes, Hymenolepis rashomonensis and H. nishidai were found in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon, H. sp. in R. ferrumequinum nippon and Myotis nattereri bombinus, Vampirolepis isensis in R. cornutus cornutus, and V. hidaensis in Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus.

  12. First mycological investigations on italian bats.


    Voyron, Samuele; Lazzari, Alexandra; Riccucci, Marco; Calvini, Mara; Varese, Giovanna Cristina


    To ascertain the occurrence of White-nose syndrome or similar mycotic diseases in Italian bats, fifteen bat carcasses (Myotis capaccini, Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis sp., Pipistrellus sp.) found in a cave in southern Italy, two dead bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros) collected in a cave in Piedmont, and three living bats (Tadarida teniotis, Hypsugo savii and Pipistrellus nathusii) sampled in Turin (NW Italy) were analysed. Fortysix fungal strains, belonging to 15 species, were isolated in pu...

  13. Miniere e pipistrelli in Sardegna


    Mucedda, Mauro; Pidinchedda, Ermanno; Bertelli, Maria Luisa


    Attualmente sono note in Sardegna 89 cavità minerarie che ospitano pipistrelli nel loro interno; esse costituiscono il 27 % di tutte le cavità sotterranee studiate. Le specie di pipistrelli sino ad oggi segnalate in miniera o grotte di miniera sono 8: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Rhinolophus mehelyi, Rhinolophus euryale, Myotis myotis, Myotis capaccinii, Myotis emarginatus, Miniopterus schreibersii. Di queste, le specie più frequentemente riscontrate son...

  14. Ricerche sugli enterobatteri nelle feci di Chirotteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli


    Full Text Available Dal 2002, grazie al protocollo stipulato tra il gruppo di studio chirotteri del Museo di Onferno e l?Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell?Emilia, sezione di Forlì, si è iniziato un progetto di studio sulla enteroflora di varie specie di Chirotteri. I campioni fecali o più raramente da carcassa, sono stati procssati mediante sistemi standardizzati e tipizzati mediante Enterotubes, creando anche una collezione di riferimento. Le ricerche ad oggi hanno interessato campioni provenienti da diverse regioni e da un certo pool di specie: Myotis daubentonii, M. blythii, M. myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros. Non sono stati mai identificati vettori di zoonosi o altri batteri che siano di alcun interesse per la salute umana, mentre si descrivono qui alcune specie nuove per la fauna italiana in relazione ai Chirotteri quali Providencia alcalifaciens in N.noctula, Serratia marcescens in M. schreibersii e Klebsiella oezaenale in R. hipposideros. Il lavoro invita inoltre ad una maggiore collaborazione e a stringere accordi per ampliare la possibile raccolta dei campioni.

  15. Handedness in the echolocating Schreiber's Long-Fingered Bat (Miniopterus schreibersii). (United States)

    Zucca, Paolo; Palladini, Alessandra; Baciadonna, Luigi; Scaravelli, Dino


    Bats, in terms of variety of species and their absolute numbers, are the most successful mammals on earth. The anatomical and functional peculiarities of Microchiroptera are not confined only to the auditory system; the wings (hands) of bats are unique both from an anatomical point of view as from a sensorial one. They are much thinner than those of birds and their bony structure is much more similar to a primate hand than to the forelimb of other mammals of the bat's size; the thumb, is very small and on its distal end there is a little claw that bats use for crawling and manipulating food. However, despite this very frequent use of the hands for food catching and for walking, nothing is known about the existence of a preferential use of the hands in Microchiroptera. The present study investigates the existence of handedness in the Schreiber's Long-Fingered Bat by recording the preferential use of the hand while climbing the walls of a plastic cylinder. This bat species is lateralized at population level and shows a left forelimb bias when using hands for climbing/grasping. This result is the first evidence of population-level handedness in an echolocating bat species. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bat head contains soft magnetic particles: evidence from magnetism. (United States)

    Tian, Lanxiang; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yongxin


    Recent behavioral observations have indicated that bats can sense the Earth's magnetic field. To unravel the magnetoreception mechanism, the present study has utilized magnetic measurements on three migratory species (Miniopterus fuliginosus, Chaerephon plicata, and Nyctalus plancyi) and three non-migratory species (Hipposideros armiger, Myotis ricketti, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and alternating-field demagnetization showed that the bats' heads contain soft magnetic particles. Statistical analyses indicated that the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization of brains (SIRM(1T_brain)) of migratory species is higher than those of non-migratory species. Furthermore, the SIRM(1T_brain) of migratory bats is greater than their SIRM(1T_skull). Low-temperature magnetic measurements suggested that the magnetic particles are likely magnetite (Fe3O4). This new evidence supports the assumption that some bats use magnetite particles for sensing and orientation in the Earth's magnetic field.

  17. Variation of mitochondrial DNA in the Hipposideros caffer complex (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) and its taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallo, Peter; Guillén-Servent, A.; Benda, P.; Pires, D. B.; Koubek, Petr


    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2008), s. 193-206 ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : leaf-nosed bats * Africa * cryptic species * cytochrome b * molecular systematics * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.825, year: 2008

  18. Assessment of mercury exposure and maternal-foetal transfer in Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae) from southeastern Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Lisón, Fulgencio; Espín, Silvia; Aroca, Bárbara; Calvo, José F; García-Fernández, Antonio J


    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic and widely distributed metal that is bioaccumulated in insectivorous mammals and may cause adverse effects on the reproductive system. Bats are considered excellent Hg bioindicators due to their wide distribution, life span, trophic position, metabolic rate and food intake. However, few studies have analysed Hg residues in bats, and to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been made in the Iberian Peninsula. The main aim of this study was to undertake the first ever assessment of Hg exposure in Schreiber's bent-winged bats inhabiting a natural cave in the southeast of Spain. The findings suggest that Schreiber's bent-winged bats in the sampling area are chronically exposed to low levels of Hg. The Hg concentrations found in different tissues (fur, kidney, liver, muscle and brain) were below the threshold levels associated with toxic effects in mammals. Non-gestating females showed Hg concentrations in the brain and muscle that doubled those found in gestating females. This could be due to Hg mobilization from the mother to the foetus in gestating females, although other factors could contribute to explain this result such as variations in hunting areas and the insect-prey consumed and/or different energetic needs and average food consumption during the breeding season. Hg levels were 1.7 times higher, although not significant, in foetus' brains than in the maternal brains, and Hg concentration in foetus' brain was significantly correlated with levels in the corresponding mothers' kidney. These results suggest that there could be an active mother-to-foetus transfer of Hg in bats, which would be of special relevance in a scenario of higher Hg exposure than that found in this study. However, further research is needed to support this view due to the limited number of samples analysed. Given the scarce ecotoxicological data available for bats and their protected status, we encourage further opportunistic studies using carcasses found in the field, the validation of non-destructive samples such as fur and guano for Hg monitoring, and new modelling approaches that will increase the data needed for proper ecological risk assessment in bat populations.

  19. Distribution and morphology of cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of Schreiber's long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii. (United States)

    Maseko, Busisiwe C; Manger, Paul R


    The current study describes the nuclear parcellation and neuronal morphology of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems within the brain of a representative species of microbat. While these systems have been investigated in detail in the laboratory rat, and examined in several other mammalian species, no chiropterans, to the author's knowledge, have been examined. Using immunohistochemical stains for choline-acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin, we were able to observe and document these systems in relation to the cytoarchitecture. The majority of cholinergic nuclei typically found in mammals were evident in the microbat, however we could not find evidence for choline-acetyltransferase immunopositive neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, and the medullary tegmental field, as seen in several other mammalian species. A typically mammalian appearance of the catecholaminergic nuclei was observed, however, the anterior hypothalamic groups (A15 dorsal and ventral), the dorsal and dorsal caudal subdivisions of the ventral tegmental area (A10d and A10dc), and the ventral (pars reticulata) substantia nigra (A9v) were not present. The serotonergic nuclei were similar to that reported in all eutherian mammalian species studied to date. The overall complement of nuclei of these systems in the microbat, while different to the species examined in other orders of mammals, resembles most closely the complement seen in earlier studies of insectivore species, and is clearly distinguished from that seen in rodents, carnivores and primates. This data is discussed in terms of the phylogenetic relationships of the chiropterans.

  20. Latency modulation of collicular neurons induced by electric stimulation of the auditory cortex in Hipposideros pratti: In vivo intracellular recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Peng

    Full Text Available In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the lower auditory nuclei, contralateral IC, and auditory cortex (AC, and then uploads these inputs to the thalamus and cortex. Meanwhile, the AC modulates the sound signal processing of IC neurons, including their latency (i.e., first-spike latency. Excitatory and inhibitory corticofugal projections to the IC may shorten and prolong the latency of IC neurons, respectively. However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying the corticofugal latency modulation of IC neurons remain unclear. Thus, this study probed these mechanisms via in vivo intracellular recording and acoustic and focal electric stimulation. The AC latency modulation of IC neurons is possibly mediated by pre-spike depolarization duration, pre-spike hyperpolarization duration, and spike onset time. This study suggests an effective strategy for the timing sequence determination of auditory information uploaded to the thalamus and cortex.

  1. Case report of a new pathogenic variant of Aspergillus fumigates isolated from Hipposideros cervinus (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    S.S.J. Seelan


    Full Text Available First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009 was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.

  2. Caratteristiche dei roost di Chirotteri in Emilia Romagna

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    Massimo Bertozzi


    Full Text Available Il lavoro riassume le caratteristiche dei roost di maggior interesse per i Chirotteri in Romagna (Italia settentrionale. Sono stati considerati localizzazione, tipologia ambientale, consistenza e struttura di una serie di rifugi ove siano stati rilevati chirotteri o in ambito riproduttivo o in svernamento. La conoscenza delle caratteristiche di detti ambiti è fondamentale non solo per approfondire le conoscenze autoecologiche delle specie ma anche per ottenere indicazioni per la conservazione delle stesse. Le specie considerate sono Rhinolophus euryale, R. ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, Myotis daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. myotis, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus serotinus, Plecotus auritus, Plecotus austriacus, Miniopterus schreibersii. Si rileva come oltre agli ambiti ipogei naturali e artificiali, un ruolo prioritario sia rappresentato dagli edifici. Infine alcune considerazioni sulla gestione di questi ambienti vengono proposte.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Arene Candide Cave (Finale Ligure, Northern Italy is considered one of the most important prehistoric site in Italy. The archaeological excavations conducted by the “Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana” of Rome revealed 3 different horizons: an upper horizon with Holocene human presence dated from the Neolithic to the Byzantine period, and two underlying Pleistocene horizons with Gravettian and Epigravettian lithic artefacts. The stratigraphical sequence of the upper Palaeolithic is divided in two groups of strata separated by a depositional gap: the “P” complex, divided in 13 layers, dated from 25,620 to 18,560 years BP, and the 5 “M” layers dated between 11,750 and 9,980 years BP (14C non-calibrated dating.In this paper the fossil bone remains of bats from “M” layers are described. Fifteen taxa, divided into 3 families and 6 genera have been identified: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. mehelyi, R. euryale, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. capaccinii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus s.l., Myotis sp. (small sized, Plecotus auritus s.l., Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. noctula, Barbastella barbastellus and Miniopterus schreibersii. Comments for each of these taxa on current ecological and geographical distributions are presented, together with some osteometric measures and recent data referred to Late Pleistocene fossils bats in Italy. Finally, the value of this bat tanathocoenoses as a microclimatic, environmental, and human activity indicators is discussed. SHORT NOTE

  4. Effects of temperature and duration of sample storage on the haematological characteristics of western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). (United States)

    Hulme-Moir, K L; Clark, P; Spencer, P B S


    To investigate the effects of storage duration and temperature on haematological analyses performed on blood from the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosis). Blood samples from five western grey kangaroos were stored at 4 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 36 degrees C. Each sample was analysed haematologically over a 5-day period. The blood samples maintained optimal stability at 4 degrees C. At this temperature the haematological values remained essentially unchanged for the duration of the study, while samples stored at 36 degrees C and 24 degrees C showed significant changes in some haematological measures by 12 h and 48 h, respectively. Disturbances in leukocyte morphology were evident, to varying degrees, in all samples. Blood samples from macropodids should be tested within 48 h of collection if stored at a room temperature of about 24 degrees C. Where testing is to be delayed for more than 48 h, samples should be refrigerated as soon as possible. Exposure of samples to heat in excess of 24 degrees C should be avoided at all times.

  5. Brain thermal inertia, but no evidence for selective brain cooling, in free-ranging western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan


    Marsupials reportedly can implement selective brain cooling despite lacking a carotid rete. We measured brain (hypothalamic) and carotid arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for 5, 17, and 63 days in spring in three free-living western grey kangaroos. Body temperature was highest during the night, and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00. The highest body temperatures recorded occurred sporadically in the afternoon, presumably associated with exercise. Hypothalamic temperature consistently exceeded arterial blood temperature, by an average 0.3 degrees C, except during these afternoon events when hypothalamic temperature lagged behind, and was occasionally lower than, the simultaneous arterial blood temperature. The reversal in temperatures resulted from the thermal inertia of the brain; changes in the brain to arterial blood temperature difference were related to the rate of change of arterial blood temperature on both heating and cooling (P kangaroos). We conclude that these data are not evidence for active selective brain cooling in kangaroos. The effect of thermal inertia on brain temperature is larger than might be expected in the grey kangaroo, a discrepancy that we speculate derives from the unique vascular anatomy of the marsupial brain.

  6. Primi dati sulla chirotterofauna del Parco Nazionale del Cilento - Vallo di Diano (Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Feola


    Full Text Available Nell?ambito di una ricerca per la raccolta di dati sulla chirotterofauna del Parco Nazionale del Cilento svolta nel 2001, abbiamo complessivamente documentato la presenza di ben 19 specie. Alcuni riferimenti bibliografici indicano, senza peraltro specificare il tipo di reperto, anche la presenza del Myotis capaccinii. Successive ricerche potrebbero confermare la presenza di questo interessante vespertilionide. In particolare è interessante l?identificazione del Rhinolophus mehelyi segnalato per la prima volta nel territorio regionale campano. Le metodologie di rilievo sono: la cattura con reti, bat-detector (modello Pettersson D-240 con espansione temporale e bat-box e rifugi per pipistrelli collocati nelle principali tipologie forestali del Parco. Le specie documentate nel Parco sono le seguenti: 1. Rhinolophus euryale 2. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum 3. Rhinolophus hipposideros 4. Rhinolophus mehelyi 5. Eptesicus serotinus 6. Hypsugo savii 7. Myotis bechsteini 8. Myotis blythii 9. Myotis daubentonii 10. Myotis myotis 11. Myotis nattererii 12. Nyctalus leisleri 13. Pipistrellus kuhlii 14. Pipistrellus nathusii 15. Pipistrellus pipistrellus 16. Plecotus auritus 17. Plecotus austriacus 18. Miniopterus schreibersii 19. Tadarida teniotis

  7. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility of red (Macropus rufus) and grey (Macropus fuliginosus and Macropus giganteus) kangaroos and free-ranging sheep of the arid regions of Australia. (United States)

    Buffenstein, R; McCarron, H C; Dawson, T J


    The mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) of erythrocytes may reflect phylogenetic characteristics as well as an animal's ability to respond to the osmotic challenges associated with cyclic dehydration and rehydration. This type of ecophysiological stress is commonly encountered by animals living in arid regions and low MCF may contribute to their ability to survive and thrive in these xeric habitats. The eastern grey kangaroo has only in recent times extended its range into the arid zone, and is considered a more mesic inhabitant than the red kangaroo. We therefore compared the ability of eastern grey kangaroos and red kangaroos to handle prolonged periods of water restriction, as well as the MCF of the erythrocytes of free-ranging red, eastern grey and western grey kangaroos found at the Fowlers Gap field station. In addition, the MCF of free-ranging sheep inhabiting the same pastures were used as an experimental control; they are phylogenetically unrelated yet are subjected to the same acclimatisation stresses. While red kangaroos exhibited greater tolerance of dehydration compared to eastern grey kangaroos, the MCF of all three kangaroo species was similar and more resilient to osmotic stresses (MCF, 130 mosmol/kg) than erythrocytes of sheep (MCF, 220 mosmol/kg). The MCF did not change with water restriction, however, the erythrocytes of long-term captive populations fed a comparatively better quality diet were more resistant to osmotic shock than the free-ranging animals. Phylogenetic commonality rather than ecophysiological responses to life in the arid zone appeared to influence MCF. The MCF values of sheep corresponded to that of other ovines; similarly the MCF of kangaroos concurred regardless of their preferred habitats. ecological history and differential success in the arid zone.

  8. Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats Hipposideros commersoni (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in South-Central Africa: interactions between seasonality and large body size; and implications for conservation.

  9. Bat hibernacula in a cave-rich landscape of the northern Dinaric karst, Slovenia

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    Boris Krystufek


    Full Text Available AbstractThe northern Dinaric karst in Slovenia (area 6880 km2 has 5470 caves of variable size (length 2–20570 m, depth up to 650 m scattered along the entire elevation gradient of the region (74–1785 m above sea level. Sixteen bat species, of 26 known to occur in the area, were recorded in 156 caves (118 hibernacula between 1990 and 2003. Miniopterus schreibersii was the most abundant species observed in these caves (74.0% of the total number of hibernating individuals, followed by three species of Rhinolophus (24.9%, but the remaining 12 species formed only a small proportion of those observed (1.1%. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros were the only widespread species, hibernating in 66 and 106 caves, respectively. The majority of hibernating bats (89.9% occurred in ten caves whereas 71 hibernacula (60.2% were occupied by ≤ 10 bats each. Hibernacula were 10–13092 m long (median = 160 m, 1–250 m deep (median = 21 m and located 98–1200 m above sea level (median = 466 m. Wintering bats were not randomly dispersed among caves in the region and tended to occur in longer and deeper caves located at low elevations. Of the ten most important hibernacula in the study area, nine can be accessed by human visitors. One of the largest potential hibernacula had been progressively commercially exploited from the beginning of the 19th century and has thereby lost at least three cave-dwelling bat species, including Rhinolophus blasii, which is now locally extinct in the Dinaric karst of Slovenia. Riassunto Caratterizzazione dei siti di svernamento della chirotterofauna nel Carso Dinarico settentrionale, Slovenia. Nella porzione settentrionale del Carso Dinarico in Slovenia (superficie di 6880 km2 sono presenti 5470 grotte, con differenti dimensioni e caratteristiche (lunghezze comprese tra 2 e 20570 m, profondit

  10. Distribución y estado de conservación de los quirópteros en Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, J. T.


    Full Text Available In the period 2004-2006 a sampling of bats took place in Aragón. Traps were set in 47 forests and 67 potential shelters were inspected. Mist nets, harp traps, ultrasound detectors and video cameras were used. A total of 1197 specimens, belonging to 24 species, were captured; 529 records were obtained and the presence of at least 120 breeding colonies was identified (32 of them the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, 110 records and 30 breeding colonies, Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii, 63 records and 11 colonies and Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 48 records and 13 colonies. Reproduction data have been found for all species except for Myotis capaccinii, Myotis cf. nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, Nyctalus leisleri and Eptesicus serotinus. The species found can be divided into four large groups: one of general and continuous distribution (P. pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, H. savii, E. serotinus and P. austriacus, another of general but discontinuous distribution (R. ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, M. myotis, M. blythii, M. escalerae, M. emarginatus, M. daubentonii, P. pygmaeus, M. schreibersii and T. teniotis, a third of forest species, which were found only in some of the extensive wooded areas (Pyrenees, Moncayo and the south of Teruel: M. mystacinus, M. cf. nattereri, P. auritus, B. barbastellus, N. lasiopterus and N. leisleri and finally two very rare species in the region (M. capaccinii and P. macrobullaris. The distribution of these species in Aragon is shown and their status in relation to data obtained and the bibliography is reviewed.

    En el período 2004-2006 se ha realizado un muestreo de los quirópteros de Aragón. Se ha trampeado en 47 bosques y se han inspeccionado 67 refugios potenciales. Para ello se han utilizado redes finas, trampas de arpa, detectores de ultrasonidos, focos y cámaras de grabaci


    Morozova, D A; Zhokhov, A E


    Adult trematodes Paralecithodendrium chilostomum (Mehlis, 1831) were detected in the roundleaf bat Hipposideros sp. and in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from Tana Lake, Ethiopia. The catfish is an accidental host for P. chilostomum. This is the first record of P. chilostomum from Ethiopia. The description and figures of P. chilostomum from both host species, Hipposideros sp. and Clarias gariepinus are given.

  12. A new dune-dwelling lizard of the genus Leiocephalus (Iguania, Leiocephalidae) from the Dominican Republic. (United States)

    Köhler, Gunther; Bobadilla, Marcos J Rodríguez; Hedges, S Blair


    We describe a new species of Leiocephalus from the coastal dunes of Bahía de las Calderas in the southwestern Dominican Republic. In external morphology, Leiocephalus sixtoi sp. nov. is most similar to L. schreibersii and L. inaguae. Leiocephalus sixtoi differs from L. inaguae in having a U-shaped bony parietal table (vs. V-shaped in L. inaguae), 3 or 4 enlarged postcloacal scales in males (vs. 2 in L. inaguae), most scales on snout posterior to internasal scales rugose to keeled scales (vs. smooth in L. inaguae), and a patternless throat in males, spots on the throat in females (vs. throat with dark streaks and bars in males and females of L. inaguae). Leiocephalus sixtoi differs from L. schreibersii in having the scales of the lateral fold only slightly smaller than adjacent scales (vs. scales of lateral fold distinctly smaller than adjacent scales), having prominent caudal crest scales in adult males (vs. caudal crest scales of moderate size, even in very large males in L. schreibersii), a pattern of dark gray bars on a grayish brown background in the region above the lateral body fold (vs. dense turquoise blue mottling with heavy suffusion of red pigment in L. schreibersii), a darker dorsal ground color (vs. paler in L. schreibersii), and a red iris in adult males (vs. pale grayish blue in adult male L. schreibersii). Leiocephalus sixtoi differs further from L. schreibersii in several osteological characters as follows: in L. sixtoi the nasal process of the premaxilla reaches to mid-level of the bony external nares (vs. to level of posterior margin of the bony external nares in L. schreibersii), lacking a constriction at the base of the nasal process of the premaxilla (vs. such a constriction present in L. schreibersii), and having a reduced nasal-prefrontal contact leaving the nasal processes of the frontal bone exposed (vs. nasal and prefrontal bones contact one another, thereby obscuring the nasal processes of the frontal bone in L. schreibersii). We

  13. Metabolism and thermoregulation of individual and clustered long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxygen consumption of individual long-fingered bats, Miniopterus schreibersii, was measured at air temperatures (Tr) between 2 and 42°C and that of clusters of four and six bats between 5 and 30°C. BMR of individuals was estimated to be 2.29 ml O2 g-1 h-1 between 34 and about 38°C. M. schreibersii showed two ...

  14. Strategie di conservazione dei Chirotteri nel Progetto LIFE "I Chirotteri di Onferno"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli


    Full Text Available I Progetti LIFE, nati sull?attivazione di azioni di conservazione per le specie e i siti Natura 2000, sono certamente uno dei più innovativi, complessi e funzionali mezzi del settore. Il progetto NAT00IT7216 ?I Chirotteri di Onferno? si propone di allargare l'azione di conservazione e salvaguardia dei Chirotteri operata dalla Riserva, ed in particolare delle specie prioritarie viventi nel SICp di Onferno, conservando e migliorando gli ambienti di foraggiamento di una comunità di Chirotteri di 11 specie che trova rifugio nel sistema ipogeo presente e nelle aree limitrofe. Nella cavità si riproducono Miniopterus schreibersii (oltre 6000 esemplari insieme a circa 600 tra Myotis myotis, Myotis blythii, Rhinolophus hipposideros e R. euryale. Vi svernano e soggiornano inoltre R. ferrumequinum, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis nattereri e M. emarginatus. Il progetto si propone di acquisire alcuni terreni posti nel SIC ma attualmente al di fuori nella Riserva per far fronte al progressivo degrado della copertura vegetale interessante habitat prioritari, operando un recupero di siepi di guardia e del cotico erboso con specie autoctone per fermare l'erosione soprattutto dei pascoli aridi, habitat di alimentazione elettivo per Myotis blythii. Queste aree appaiono appartenere o all'essere in transizione verso brometi dell'ordine Festuco-Brometalia con fioriture di orchidee e per il loro controllo è stato avviato un pascolo controllato. I brometi sono inoltre in parte da recuperare per vari fenomeni di degrado biologico e morfologico favorendo il reimpianto di specie locali e l'aumento della diversità floristica. Per le specie particolarmente importanti si è promosso la moltiplicazione ex situ e in vitro. Sono state ricreate le pozze a base dei calanchi che oltre a ricostituire la zona di

  15. Amniogenesis in Schreiber's long-fingered bat Miniopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schreiber's long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii natalensis is seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in the right uterine horn. Implantation is superficial, the amnion being a pleuramnion. Lateral folds, originating from the ends of the caudal and cephalic folds, are the main contributors in the formation of the ...

  16. Molecular Survey of Bacterial Zoonotic Agents in Bats from the Country of Georgia (Caucasus.

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    Ying Bai

    Full Text Available Bats are important reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. However, no surveys of bacterial pathogens in bats have been performed in the Caucasus region. To understand the occurrence and distribution of bacterial infections in these mammals, 218 bats belonging to eight species collected from four regions of Georgia were examined for Bartonella, Brucella, Leptospira, and Yersinia using molecular approaches. Bartonella DNA was detected in 77 (35% bats from all eight species and was distributed in all four regions. The prevalence ranged 6-50% per bat species. The Bartonella DNA represented 25 unique genetic variants that clustered into 21 lineages. Brucella DNA was detected in two Miniopterus schreibersii bats and in two Myotis blythii bats, all of which were from Imereti (west-central region. Leptospira DNA was detected in 25 (13% bats that included four M. schreibersii bats and 21 M. blythii bats collected from two regions. The Leptospira sequences represented five genetic variants with one of them being closely related to the zoonotic pathogen L. interrogans (98.6% genetic identity. No Yersinia DNA was detected in the bats. Mixed infections were observed in several cases. One M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella, Brucella, and Leptospira; one M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella and Brucella; 15 M. blythii bats and three M. schreibersii bats were co-infected with Bartonella and Leptospira. Our results suggest that bats in Georgia are exposed to multiple bacterial infections. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenicity of these agents to bats and their zoonotic potential.

  17. African Zoology - Vol 34, No 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource use by two morphologically similar insectivorous bats (Nycteris thebaica and Hipposideros caffer) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rauri C.K. Bowie, David S. Jacobs, Peter J. Taylor, 27-33 ...

  18. Notes on bat diversity at Berenty Private Reserve and Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys of bat diversity are rare for the southern domain of Madagascar. Mistnetting for bats took place at Berenty Private Reserve in southeastern Madagascar during a six months study in 2009 and at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar for one month in 2011. At Berenty, Hipposideros ...

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of leaf-nosed bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation and population structure of the leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros speoris were estimated using 16S rRNA sequence and microsatellite analysis. Twenty seven distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified from 186 individuals, sampled from eleven populations. FST test revealed significant variations ...

  20. Reproductive ecology of Com merson's leaf-nosed bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cially well developed in males), sturdy jaws and large canines. (Freeman 1981 .... from anterior edge of canine teeth to posterior border of su- ... The degree of tooth wear (particularly of the canines) was a useful criterion for recognising parous females. Male cycle. Male Hipposideros commersoni were present in Mabura I.

  1. Primi dati sui pipistrelli dell'area mineraria Montevecchio-Ingurtosu (Guspini-Arbus, Sardegna Sud-Occidentale)


    Mucedda, Mauro; Bertelli, Mariolina; Pidinchedda, Ermanno


    A study in the mining area of Montevecchio-Ingurtosu, in territory of Guspini and Arbus (South western Sardinia), found 8 species of bats were present: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis myotis, Myotis capaccinii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Tadarida teniotis, 17 roosts were localized, 11 in subterranean cavities and 6 in building.

  2. Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar | Jenkins | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bats are eaten by people throughout Madagascar and although the larger species like Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, Rousettus madagascariensis and Hipposideros commersoni are preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable

  3. 50 CFR 17.11 - Endangered and threatened wildlife. (United States)


    ... Central Asia E 3 NA NA Avahi Avahi laniger (=entire genus) Malagasy Republic (=Madagascar...—Rodrigues Island E 139 NA NA Bat, Singapore roundleaf horseshoe Hipposideros ridleyi Malaysia... iriomotensis Japan (Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Islands) E 50 NA NA Cat, leopard Prionailurus (=Felis...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 34, No 1 (1999), Resource use by two morphologically similar insectivorous bats (Nycteris thebaica and Hipposideros caffer), Abstract PDF. Rauri C.K. Bowie, David S. Jacobs, Peter J. Taylor. Vol 16, No 2 (1981), Respiration and ecological energetics of the sea urchin Parechinus angulosus, Abstract PDF. Venetia ...

  5. A continent-wide analysis of the shade requirements of red and western grey kangaroos. (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Coulson, G; Munn, A J; Kearney, M R


    Foraging time may be constrained by a suite of phenomena including weather, which can restrict a species' activity and energy intake. This is recognized as pivotal for many species whose distributions are known to correlate with climate, including kangaroos, although such impacts are rarely quantified. We explore how differences in shade seeking, a thermoregulatory behavior, of 2 closely-related kangaroo species, Macropus rufus (red kangaroos) and M. fuliginosus (western grey kangaroos), might reflect differences in their distributions across Australia. We observed foraging and shade-seeking behavior in the field and, together with local weather observations, calculated threshold radiant temperatures (based on solar and infrared radiant heat loads) over which the kangaroos retreated to shade. We apply these calculated tolerance thresholds to hourly microclimatic estimates derived from daily-gridded weather data to predict activity constraints across the Australian continent over a 10-year period. M. fuliginosus spent more time than M. rufus in the shade (7.6 ± 0.7 h versus 6.4 ± 0.9 h) and more time foraging (11.8 ± 0.5 h vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 h), although total time resting was equivalent (∼8.2 h). M. rufus tolerated 19°C higher radiant temperatures than M. fuliginosus (89°C versus 70°C radiant temperature). Across Australia, we predicted M. fuliginosus to be more restricted to shade than M. rufus, with higher absolute shade requirements farther north. These results corroborate previous findings that M. rufus is more adept at dealing with heat than M. fuliginosus and indicate that M. rufus is less dependent on shade on a continental scale.

  6. Insights into persistence mechanisms of a zoonotic virus in bat colonies using a multispecies metapopulation model.

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    Margarita Pons-Salort

    Full Text Available Rabies is a worldwide zoonosis resulting from Lyssavirus infection. In Europe, Eptesicus serotinus is the most frequently reported bat species infected with Lyssavirus, and thus considered to be the reservoir of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1. To date, the role of other bat species in EBLV-1 epidemiology and persistence remains unknown. Here, we built an EBLV-1-transmission model based on local observations of a three-cave and four-bat species (Myotis capaccinii, Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum system in the Balearic Islands, for which a 1995-2011 serological dataset indicated the continuous presence of EBLV-1. Eptesicus serotinus was never observed in the system during the 16-year follow-up and therefore was not included in the model. We used the model to explore virus persistence mechanisms and to assess the importance of each bat species in the transmission dynamics. We found that EBLV-1 could not be sustained if transmission between M. schreibersii and other bat species was eliminated, suggesting that this species serves as a regional reservoir. Global sensitivity analysis using Sobol's method revealed that following the rate of autumn-winter infectious contacts, M. schreibersii's incubation- and immune-period durations, but not the infectious period length, were the most relevant factors driving virus persistence.

  7. European bat lyssavirus infection in Spanish bat populations. (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Amengual, Blanca; Abellán, Carlos; Bourhy, Hervé


    From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Insights into persistence mechanisms of a zoonotic virus in bat colonies using a multispecies metapopulation model. (United States)

    Pons-Salort, Margarita; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Jay, Flora; López-Roig, Marc; Lavenir, Rachel; Guillemot, Didier; Letort, Véronique; Bourhy, Hervé; Opatowski, Lulla


    Rabies is a worldwide zoonosis resulting from Lyssavirus infection. In Europe, Eptesicus serotinus is the most frequently reported bat species infected with Lyssavirus, and thus considered to be the reservoir of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1). To date, the role of other bat species in EBLV-1 epidemiology and persistence remains unknown. Here, we built an EBLV-1-transmission model based on local observations of a three-cave and four-bat species (Myotis capaccinii, Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) system in the Balearic Islands, for which a 1995-2011 serological dataset indicated the continuous presence of EBLV-1. Eptesicus serotinus was never observed in the system during the 16-year follow-up and therefore was not included in the model. We used the model to explore virus persistence mechanisms and to assess the importance of each bat species in the transmission dynamics. We found that EBLV-1 could not be sustained if transmission between M. schreibersii and other bat species was eliminated, suggesting that this species serves as a regional reservoir. Global sensitivity analysis using Sobol's method revealed that following the rate of autumn-winter infectious contacts, M. schreibersii's incubation- and immune-period durations, but not the infectious period length, were the most relevant factors driving virus persistence.

  9. Predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae from Montenegro with new records and description of the female of Hydroporus Macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006

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    Pavićević Ana


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aquatic beetle species of the family Dytiscidae collected from various freshwaters habitats in Montenegro. In total 39 water beetle species were collected from 56 localities in Montenegro between 2007 and 2010. Twelve species and one subspecies are reported for the first time for Montenegro: Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. paludosus (Fabricius, 1801, Deronectes moestus inconspectus (Leprieur, 1876, D. platynotus (Germar, 1834, Dytiscus circumcinctus Ahrens, 1811, D. dimidiatus Bergstrдsser, 1778, Hydroporus macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006, H. pubescens (Gyllenhal, 1808, Ilybius chalconatus (Panzer, 1797, I. fuliginosus fuliginosus (Fabricius, 1792, I. pseudoneglectus (Franciscolo, 1972, Liopterus haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius, 1787 and Nebrioporus luctuosus (Aubй, 1838. The female genitalia of Hydroporus macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006, a rare water beetle previously known only from southern Macedonia, are illustrated. The present state of knowledge of the Montenegrin diving beetle fauna and its ecological characteristics is discussed.

  10. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo


    Vendl, C; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, M; Leggett, K.; Hummel, J; Kreuzer, M; Munn, A


    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested...

  11. Molecular detection of hybridization between sympatric kangaroo species in south-eastern Australia. (United States)

    Neaves, L E; Zenger, K R; Cooper, D W; Eldridge, M D B


    Introgressive hybridization has traditionally been regarded as rare in many vertebrate groups, including mammals. Despite a propensity to hybridize in captivity, introgression has rarely been reported between wild sympatric macropodid marsupials. Here we investigate sympatric populations of western (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern (Macropus giganteus) grey kangaroos through 12 autosomal microsatellite loci and 626 bp of the hypervariable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. M. fuliginosus and M. giganteus within the region of sympatry corresponded, both genetically and morphologically, to their respective species elsewhere in their distributions. Of the 223 grey kangaroos examined, 7.6% displayed evidence of introgression, although no F1 hybrids were detected. In contrast to captive studies, there was no evidence for unidirectional hybridization in sympatric grey kangaroos. However, a higher portion of M. giganteus backcrosses existed within the sample compared with M. fuliginosus. Hybridization in grey kangaroos is reflective of occasional breakdowns in species boundaries, occurring throughout the region and potentially associated with variable conditions and dramatic reductions in densities. Such rare hybridization events allow populations to incorporate novel diversity while still retaining species integrity.

  12. Status and distribution of mammals in the Netherlands since 1800

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    Johan Thissen


    Full Text Available Abstract The recent and historical status and distribution of 64 Dutch wild mammals are described. In the last two centuries there have been a lot of changes in this field. Some species are increasing, but others are decreasing. Greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (in 1984, lesser horseshoe bat Rh. hipposideros (in 1983, wolf Canis lupus (in 1869, otter (in 1988, but a very small number of solitary individuals is still present and Eurasian beaver (in 1826, but reintroduced in 1988 got extinct.

  13. Lack of evidence for co-speciation in a parasitic nematode of grey kangaroos. (United States)

    Chilton, N B; Morris, G M; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G


    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to compare specimens of the parasitic nematode Cloacina obtusa from the stomach of the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the western grey kangaroo, M. fuliginosus. Allelic variation among nematodes was detected at 17 (85%) of 20 loci, but there was only a single fixed genetic difference (at the locus for isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH) between C. obtusa from M. fuliginosus and those from M. giganteus in areas where each host occurred in allopatry. However, this fixed difference was not apparent within the zone of host sympatry. Although electrophoretic data indicate genetic divergence among allopatric populations of C. obtusa in the two host species, the magnitude of the electrophoretic difference (5%) between these populations does not refute the hypothesis that C. obtusa represents a single species. The 'usual' situation for parasitic helminths of grey kangaroos is that pairs of parasite species occur in the two host species. This situation differs for C. obtusa, where there has been a lack of speciation following a speciation event in its macropodid marsupial hosts. This finding suggests that a speciation event in the host does not necessarily lead to a speciation event for all its parasites and further highlights our lack of understanding of which processes drive speciation in parasites.

  14. Impacts of visitor number on Kangaroos housed in free-range exhibits. (United States)

    Sherwen, Sally L; Hemsworth, Paul H; Butler, Kym L; Fanson, Kerry V; Magrath, Michael J L


    Free range exhibits are becoming increasingly popular in zoos as a means to enhance interaction between visitors and animals. However very little research exists on the impacts of visitors on animal behaviour and stress in free range exhibits. We investigated the effects of visitor number on the behaviour and stress physiology of Kangaroo Island (KI) Kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, and Red Kangaroos, Macropus rufus, housed in two free range exhibits in Australian zoos. Behavioural observations were conducted on individual kangaroos at each site using instantaneous scan sampling to record activity (e.g., vigilance, foraging, resting) and distance from the visitor pathway. Individually identifiable faecal samples were collected at the end of each study day and analysed for faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration. When visitor number increased, both KI Kangaroos and Red Kangaroos increased the time spent engaged in visitor-directed vigilance and KI Kangaroos also increased the time spent engaged in locomotion and decreased the time spent resting. There was no effect of visitor number on the distance kangaroos positioned themselves from the visitor pathway or FGM concentration in either species. While there are limitations in interpreting these results in terms of fear of visitors, there was no evidence of adverse effects animal welfare in these study groups based on avoidance behaviour or stress physiology under the range of visitor numbers that we studied. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Horseshoe bats and Old World leaf-nosed bats have two discrete types of pinna motions. (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Peiwen; Yang, Lili; Müller, Rolf


    Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) and the related Old World leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae) both show conspicuous pinna motions as part of their biosonar behaviors. In the current work, the kinematics of these motions in one species from each family (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Hipposideros armiger) has been analyzed quantitatively using three-dimensional tracking of landmarks placed on the pinna. The pinna motions that were observed in both species fell into two categories: In "rigid rotations" motions the geometry of the pinna was preserved and only its orientation in space was altered. In "open-close motions" the geometry of the pinna was changed which was evident in a change of the distances between the landmark points. A linear discriminant analysis showed that motions from both categories could be separated without any overlap in the analyzed data set. Hence, bats from both species have two separate types of pinna motions with apparently no transitions between them. The deformations associated with open-close pinna motions in Hipposideros armiger were found to be substantially larger compared to the wavelength associated with the largest pulse energy than in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (137% vs 99%). The role of the two different motions in the biosonar behaviors of the animals remains to be determined.

  16. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy (Chiroptera

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    Pierangelo Crucitti


    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.

  17. Optimalisasi Peran Kelelawar Microchiroptera sebagai Biokontrol Serangga Tomcat (Paederus fuscipes dan Ulat Bulu (Lymantriidae di Perkotaan

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    Fahma Wijayanti


    Full Text Available The research aims to determine the diet of microchiroptera bats in   urban areas..  The research was done in June 2012 to August 2012. Sample of bat was captured in six locations using misnet and harp net at bat foraging areas.  Stomach contents was collected and dissolved in aquadest. The material of insect were sorted and identified under microscope and compare to the insects that were collected by light trap in bat foraging area. The data were analyzed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA. There were three species of insectivorous bat which catch at South Tangerang and South Jakarta. The insects in gut content of insectivorous bats belong to 8 orders, distributed into 12 families. Based on prey preference, the insectivorous bats can be classified into two groups.  This study proves that the tomcat beetles eaten by Hipposideros sp. and Chaerophon plicata, while Lymantriidae moth being eaten by Hipposideros sp. and  Murina sp.

  18. Current status, distribution and conservation status of Algerian bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera

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    Mourad Ahmim


    Full Text Available Algeria is the largest country in Africa (2,381,741km², with 85% of the area consisting of the Sahara opening on to the Mediterranean (1,200 km coastline.  Initially, 26 species of microbats were reported, and no comprehensive study has been undertaken since 1991.  The advent of genetic molecular studies has revealed some species to be the same (Pipistrellus deserti and Pipistrellus kuhlii while others have had their nomenclature changed (Eptisecus isabellinus instead of Eptisecus serotinus, Plecotus gaisleri instead of Plecotus austriacus, Rhinopoma cystops instead of Rhinopoma hardwickei.  Miniopterus schreibersii is now classified in the new family of Miniopteridae.  These changes have corrected the number of Algerian bat species to 25, belonging to seven different families.  All species are threatened globally and are protected at the national level by Decree 12-135. 

  19. Árboles viejos como indicadores de biodiversidad de vertebrados forestales amenazados de la provincia de Salamanca (España

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    Núñez, M.


    Full Text Available Ancient trees abundance has been compared with distribution of threatened forest vertebrate species at the province of Salamanca (Spain. A significant correlation between both parameters has been observed for the following considered species: imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, black vulture (Aegypus monachus, iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus, red kite (Milvus milvus and a group of forest bats (Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis emarginatus, Myotis mystacinus, Myotis myotis, Nyctalus lasiopterus, Nyctalus noctula, Rhinolophus euryale, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum y Rhinolophus mehelyi. It has been proved that there is an increase of threatened forest vertebrates biodiversity along with increasing ancient trees density at the municipalities of the province. Therefore, we can deduce that ancient trees density is a good indicator parameter of the conservation status of the forest ecosystem and it is essential for the maintenance of these endangered species.Se ha comparado la abundancia de árboles viejos en la provincia de Salamanca (España con la distribución de las especies de vertebrados forestales amenazados presentes, observándose que existe una correlación significativa entre ambos parámetros para las siguientes especies estudiadas: águila imperial (Aquila adalberti, buitre negro (Aegypus monachus, lince ibérico (Lynx pardinus, milano real (Milvus milvus y un grupo de especies de quirópteros forestales (Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis emarginatus, Myotis mystacinus, Myotis myotis, Nyctalus lasiopterus, Nyctalus noctula, Rhinolophus euryale, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum y Rhinolophus mehelyi. Se ha demostrado que existe un incremento de la biodiversidad de vertebrados forestales amenazados paralelo al aumento de la densidad de árboles viejos en los municipios de la provincia. Por ello, se puede deducir que la densidad de árboles viejos es un buen parámetro indicador del estado de conservación del

  20. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera.

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    Irmgard Amrein

    Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat

  1. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

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    A. Mould


    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  2. Distribution and diversity of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy / Distribuzione e diversità dei chirotteri troglofili della regione laziale (Italia centrale

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    Pierangelo Crucitti


    Full Text Available Abstract An attempt was made to evaluate the diversity and distribution of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy. Data about twelve species were examined and their frequency have been determined. Only Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros are really frequent: the other species are more or less localized. The average number of species (2,63 has a great importance for future contro1 of cave bat populations. Similarity between cave bat coenosis was examined, together with the altitude distribution of five species. The relation between altitudinal range, number of caves and average number of species was also studied: between 801 and 1000 m.s.l., the last parameter increases considerably and a hypothesis is presented to explain the phenomenon. This troglophilous bat fauna is probably very rich in species in comparison with other Italian bat communities. Riassunto Viene svolta un'analisi delle cenosi di Chirotteri troglofili dell'Italia Centrale. Vengono esaminati i dati relativi a 12 specie; di ciascuna è stata determinata la frequenza. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum e R. hipposideros risultano le specie più frequenti. I1 numero medio di specie (2,63 assume un importante significato ai fini del controllo delle chirotterofaune troglofile. L'affinità tra le chirotterofaune è stata esaminata, analogamente alla distribuzione altitudinale di cinque specie. Range altitudinale, numero delle cavità e numero medio di specie sono comparati: fra 801 e 1000 m, si osserva un aumento dell'ultimo parametro e vengono formulate ipotesi per spiegare il fenomeno. La ricchezza di specie del Lazio viene evidenziata dal confronto con altre chirotterofaune troglofile regionali italiane.

  3. Identification of a novel bat papillomavirus by metagenomics.

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    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96, pigs (n = 9, cattles (n = 9, stray dogs (n = 11, stray cats (n = 11 and monkeys (n = 20 using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV, Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1, with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6, was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii. It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1 are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2-91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus.

  4. Identification of a Novel Bat Papillomavirus by Metagenomics (United States)

    Leung, Andy S. P.; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung


    The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96), pigs (n = 9), cattles (n = 9), stray dogs (n = 11), stray cats (n = 11) and monkeys (n = 20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2–91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda

  5. Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level? (United States)

    Ferri, Vincenzo; Battisti, Corrado; Soccini, Christiana


    We reported data on flying bat assemblages in a Mediterranean mountain landscape of central Italy on a 5-year time span (2005-2010) where a wind farm repowering has been carried out (from 2009, 17 three-blade turbines substituted an a priori set of one-blade turbines). In 4 yearly based surveys, we calculated a set of univariate metrics at species and assemblage level and also performing a diversity/dominance analysis (k-dominance plots) to evaluate temporal changes. Nine species of bats were present (eight classified at species level, one at genus level). Number of detected taxa, Margalef richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity apparently decreased between 2005-2007 (one-blade turbine period) and 2009-2010 (three-blade turbines period). We showed a weak temporal turnover only between 2007 and 2009. In k-dominance plots, the occurrence curves of the years before the new wind farming activity (2005 and 2007) were lower when compared to the curves related to the 2009 and 2010 years, suggesting an apparent stress at assemblage level in the second period (2009 and 2010). Myotis emarginatus and Pipistrellus pipistrellus significantly changed their relative frequency during the three-blade wind farming activity, supporting the hypothesis that some bats may be sensitive to repowering. Further research is necessary to confirm a possible sensitivity also for locally rare bats (Miniopterus schreibersii and Plecotus sp.).

  6. Growing old, yet staying young: The role of telomeres in bats' exceptional longevity. (United States)

    Foley, Nicole M; Hughes, Graham M; Huang, Zixia; Clarke, Michael; Jebb, David; Whelan, Conor V; Petit, Eric J; Touzalin, Frédéric; Farcy, Olivier; Jones, Gareth; Ransome, Roger D; Kacprzyk, Joanna; O'Connell, Mary J; Kerth, Gerald; Rebelo, Hugo; Rodrigues, Luísa; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Teeling, Emma C


    Understanding aging is a grand challenge in biology. Exceptionally long-lived animals have mechanisms that underpin extreme longevity. Telomeres are protective nucleotide repeats on chromosome tips that shorten with cell division, potentially limiting life span. Bats are the longest-lived mammals for their size, but it is unknown whether their telomeres shorten. Using >60 years of cumulative mark-recapture field data, we show that telomeres shorten with age in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Miniopterus schreibersii , but not in the bat genus with greatest longevity, Myotis . As in humans, telomerase is not expressed in Myotis myotis blood or fibroblasts. Selection tests on telomere maintenance genes show that ATM and SETX , which repair and prevent DNA damage, potentially mediate telomere dynamics in Myotis bats. Twenty-one telomere maintenance genes are differentially expressed in Myotis , of which 14 are enriched for DNA repair, and 5 for alternative telomere-lengthening mechanisms. We demonstrate how telomeres, telomerase, and DNA repair genes have contributed to the evolution of exceptional longevity in Myotis bats, advancing our understanding of healthy aging.

  7. The small mammals (Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera, Rodentia and Lagomorpha from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo (Cantabria, Spain

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    C. Sesé


    Full Text Available The micromammals remains from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo studied here in detail, came from the Aurignacian levels 18b and 18c (dated in 40.000-45.000 BP, level 19, and the Musterian levels 20b, 20c, 20d, 20e (dated in 41.000-49.000 BP, 21a and 21b. The micromammal association is the following: Erinaceus europaeus, Crocidura russula, Sorex coronatus, Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Talpa europaea, Galemys pyrenaicus, cf. Miniopterus schreibersii, Chiroptera indet., Pliomys lenki, Microtus arvalis – Microtus agrestis, Microtus lusitanicus, Microtus oeconomus, Chionomys nivalis, Arvicola terrestris, Apodemus sylvaticus – Apodemus flavicollis and Lepus sp. Most of these species are in the present fauna of Cantabria, except Pliomys lenki that got extinct in the last third of the Upper Pleistocene, and Microtus oeconomus that disappeared from the Iberian Peninsula during the Holocene, in historical times, and is nowadays present in northern Euroasiatic regions. There is a great continuity of most of the taxa in all the levels. The faunal association seems to indicate a mainly open environment, in general with wet meadows (and few dry meadows, with good vegetation cover in the soil, with perhaps also some tree-covered areas, and some watercourses. The thermophiles indicators are very scarce, which could indicate that the climate could be a lesser temperate than other Upper Pleistocene periods and the present-day climate in the area.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Pyrene Mineralizing Mycobacterium spp. from Contaminated and Uncontaminated Sources

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    Christopher W. M. Lease


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium isolates obtained from PAH-contaminated and uncontaminated matrices were evaluated for their ability to degrade three-, four- and five-ring PAHs. PAH enrichment studies were prepared using pyrene and inocula obtained from manufacturing gas plant (MGP soil, uncontaminated agricultural soil, and faeces from Macropus fuliginosus (Western Grey Kangaroo. Three pyrene-degrading microorganisms isolated from the corresponding enrichment cultures had broad substrate ranges, however, isolates could be differentiated based on surfactant, phenol, hydrocarbon and PAH utilisation. 16S rRNA analysis identified all three isolates as Mycobacterium sp. The Mycobacterium spp. could rapidly degrade phenanthrene and pyrene, however, no strain had the capacity to utilise fluorene or benzo[a]pyrene. When pyrene mineralisation experiments were performed, 70–79% of added 14C was evolved as 14CO2 after 10 days. The present study demonstrates that PAH degrading microorganisms may be isolated from a diverse range of environmental matrices. The present study demonstrates that prior exposure to PAHs was not a prerequisite for PAH catabolic activity for two of these Mycobacterium isolates.

  9. Diving beetles (Dytiscidae) as predators of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) in field experiments and in laboratory tests of prey preference. (United States)

    Lundkvist, E; Landin, J; Jackson, M; Svensson, C


    Field experiments were performed in artificial ponds to evaluate how the density of predatory diving beetles (Dytiscidae) would affect the population levels of mosquito larvae (Culicidae). Mosquitoes colonizing the ponds were predominantly species of the genus Culex. In 2000, most of the dytiscids colonizing the ponds were small (Hydroporus spp.), and these predators had no impact on the size of larval mosquito populations, not even in ponds with added dytiscids. In 2001, larger beetles (Ilybius, Rhantus, and Agabus spp.) were more common, and there were significantly fewer mosquito larvae in ponds with the highest numbers of dytiscids. There was a negative correlation between numbers of diving beetles in the ponds and the mean body length of mosquito larvae. In neither year could dytiscid densities be maintained above a certain level owing to emigration. In laboratory tests, there were marked differences between three common dytiscid species in regard to preferences for Daphnia and Culex species as prey: Colymbetes paykulli Erichson chose mosquito larvae more often, whereas both Ilybius ater (De Geer) and I. fuliginosus (Fabricius) preferred Daphnia spp. All of the tested dytiscids consumed large numbers of prey. Since some dytiscid species can efficiently decrease populations of mosquito larvae, they are probably important in the natural control of these dipterans.

  10. Identification of novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in kangaroos from Western Australia. (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stanley; Potter, Abbey; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una


    A total of 763 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. Samples that were positive at the 18S locus were also amplified at the actin locus. The overall prevalence was 9.3% (71/763). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 28 of the 71 positives. Sequence analysis identified four species; Cryptosporidium fayeri in seven isolates, Cryptosporidium marcopodum in four isolates, Cryptosporidium xiaoi in six isolates and a novel genotype (kangaroo genotype I) in eleven isolates. Analysis at the actin locus confirmed the genetic distinctness of the novel genotype. The results of the present study indicate that in addition to C. fayeri and C. marcopodum, kangaroos may be capable of being infected with a wider range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes including livestock species such as C. xiaoi. The novel genotype identified in the kangaroos most likely represents a cryptic species that requires further analyses to confirm its species status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of Papillostrongylus Johnston & Mawson, 1939 (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from wallabies and kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) using morphological and molecular techniques, with the description of P. barbatus n. sp. (United States)

    Chilton, N B; Huby-Chilton, F; Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I


    The strongyloid nematode genus Papillostrongylus Johnston & Mawson, 1939, from kangaroos and wallabies, is reviewed using morphological and molecular methods. P. labiatus Johnston & Mawson, 1939 is re-described from material from the type-host, the black-striped wallaby Macropus dorsalis, from eastern Queensland, Australia, in which it is a relatively common parasite. Additional records from M. parryi and Thylogale thetis are confirmed and considered to represent examples of host-switching. A geographically disjunct population of the nematode species occurs in M. bernardus and Petrogale brachyotis in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, but assessment of its status requires additional material. Nematodes from M. rufus, M. giganteus, M. fuliginosus and M. robustus from inland regions of Australia, formerly attributed to P. labiatus, are here assigned to a new species, P. barbatus, distinguished by the presence of an external leaf-crown, larger size, by greater spicule length in the male and by a sinuous vagina in the female. Additional hosts of P. barbatus n. sp. are Petrogale assimilis and Pet. lateralis purpureicollis. Sequence analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS-2) also showed that P. barbatus n. sp. differed at 40 (16.7%) of the 240 alignment positions when compared with P. labiatus. Most of these interspecific sequence differences occurred in loops or bulges of the predicted precursor rRNA secondary structure, or represented partial or total compenstory base pair changes in stems.

  12. Imidacloprid toxicity impairs spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Lung; Lin, Tian-Yu; Wang, Sheue-Er; Wu, Chung-Hsin


    It has been reported that the decimation of honey bees was because of pesticides of imidacloprid. The imidacloprid is a wildly used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, whether imidacloprid toxicity interferes with the spatial memory of echolocation bats is still unclear. Thus, we compared the spatial memory of Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, before and after chronic treatment with a low dose of imidacloprid. We observed that stereotyped flight patterns of echolocation bats that received chronic imidacloprid treatment were quite different from their originally learned paths. We further found that neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas of echolocation bats that received imidacloprid treatment was significantly enhanced in comparison with echolocation bats that received sham treatment. Thus, we suggest that imidacloprid toxicity may interfere with the spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. The results provide direct evidence that pesticide toxicity causes a spatial memory disorder in echolocation bats. This implies that agricultural pesticides may pose severe threats to the survival of echolocation bats.

  13. The peripheral auditory characteristics of noctuid moths: responses to the search-phase echolocation calls of bats (United States)

    Waters; Jones


    The noctuid moths Agrotis segetum and Noctua pronuba show peak auditory sensitivity between 15 and 25 kHz, and a maximum sensitivity of 35 dB SPL. A. segetum shows a temporal integration time of 69 ms. It is predicted that bats using high-frequency and short-duration calls will be acoustically less apparent to these moths. Short-duration frequency-modulated (FM) calls of Plecotus auritus are not significantly less acoustically apparent than those of other FM bats with slightly longer call durations, based on their combined frequency and temporal structure alone. Long-duration, high-frequency, constant-frequency (CF) calls of Rhinolophus hipposideros at 113 kHz are significantly less apparent than those of the FM bats tested. The predicted low call apparency of the 83 kHz CF calls of R. ferrumequinum appears to be counteracted by their long duration. It is proposed that two separate mechanisms are exploited by bats to reduce their call apparency, low intensity in FM bats and high frequency in CF bats. Within the FM bats tested, shorter-duration calls do not significantly reduce the apparency of the call at the peripheral level, though they may limit the amount of information available to the central nervous system.

  14. Chirotterofauna della provincia di Parma

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    Antonio Ruggieri


    Full Text Available In questo lavoro viene definito lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sui Chirotteri nella provincia di Parma (regione Emilia Romagna, Nord Italia. Le segnalazioni storiche si riferiscono alla pubblicazione ?I Vertebrati della Provincia di Parma? (Del Prato, 1899 e alla collezione ?Del Prato? conservata presso il Museo dell?Università di Parma. Dal 1995 ho iniziato lo studio della chirotterofauna utilizzando diverse tecniche: ricerca dei siti di rifugio, raccolta occasionale di esemplari feriti o morti, catture con reti, rilevamento ultrasonico con bat-detector. Il territorio provinciale non è stato indagato omogeneamente poiché ricerche approfondite sono state effettuate solo nelle aree protette. Le specie di Chirotteri sinora accertate per la provincia di Parma sono 19: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis mystacinus, Myotis emarginatus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis blythi, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus serotinus, Nyctalus noctula, Nyctalus leisleri, Plecotus auritus, Barbastella barbastellus, Tadarida teniotis. I dati distributivi di ogni specie sono riportati su una carta suddivisa nel reticolo UTM (griglia di 5 Km di lato.

  15. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel bat sapovirus with unusual genomic features and phylogenetic position.

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    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Sapovirus is a genus of caliciviruses that are known to cause enteric disease in humans and animals. There is considerable genetic diversity among the sapoviruses, which are classified into different genogroups based on phylogenetic analysis of the full-length capsid protein sequence. While several mammalian species, including humans, pigs, minks, and dogs, have been identified as animal hosts for sapoviruses, there were no reports of sapoviruses in bats in spite of their biological diversity. In this report, we present the results of a targeted surveillance study in different bat species in Hong Kong. Five of the 321 specimens from the bat species, Hipposideros pomona, were found to be positive for sapoviruses by RT-PCR. Complete or nearly full-length genome sequences of approximately 7.7 kb in length were obtained for three strains, which showed similar organization of the genome compared to other sapoviruses. Interestingly, they possess many genomic features atypical of most sapoviruses, like high G+C content and minimal CpG suppression. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral proteins suggested that the bat sapovirus descended from an ancestral sapovirus lineage and is most closely related to the porcine sapoviruses. Codon usage analysis showed that the bat sapovirus genome has greater codon usage bias relative to other sapovirus genomes. In summary, we report the discovery and genomic characterization of the first bat calicivirus, which appears to have evolved under different conditions after early divergence from other sapovirus lineages.

  16. Behavioral evidence for cone-based ultraviolet vision in divergent bat species and implications for its evolution

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    Xuan Fujun


    Full Text Available We investigated the reactions of four bat species from four different lineages to UV light: Hipposideros armiger (Hodgson, 1835 and Scotophilus kuhlii Leach, 1821, which use constant frequency (CF or frequency modulation (FM echolocation, respectively; and Rousettus leschenaultii (Desmarest, 1820 and Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl, 1797, cave and tree-roosting Old World fruit bats, respectively. Following acclimation and training involving aversive stimuli when exposed to UV light, individuals of S. kuhlii and C. sphinx exposed to such stimuli displayed conditioned reflexes such as body crouching, wing retracting, horizontal crawling, flying and/or vocalization, whereas individuals of H. armiger and R. leschenaultii, in most cue-testing sessions, remained still on receiving the stimuli. Our behavioral study provides direct evidence for the diversity of cone-based UV vision in the order Chiroptera and further supports our earlier postulate that, due to possible sensory tradeoffs and roosting ecology, defects in the short wavelength opsin genes have resulted in loss of UV vision in CF bats, but not in FM bats. In addition, Old World fruit bats roosting in caves have lost UV vision, but those roosting in trees have not. Bats are thus the third mammalian taxon to retain ancestral cone-based UV sensitivity in some species.

  17. Immunohistochemical evidence of cone-based ultraviolet vision in divergent bat species and implications for its evolution. (United States)

    Xuan, Fujun; Hu, Kailiang; Zhu, Tengteng; Racey, Paul; Wang, Xuzhong; Zhang, Shuyi; Sun, Yi


    We characterized Fos-like expression patterns in the primary visual cortex (V1) by binocular flicking stimulation with UV light to investigate cone-based UV vision in four bat species representing four lineages: Hipposideros armiger and Scotophilus kuhlii, insectivores using constant frequency (CF) or frequency modulation (FM) echolocation, respectively, and Rousettus leschenaultii and Cynopterus sphinx, cave-roosting and tree-roosting fruit bats, respectively. The optic centre processing the visual image, V1, appears more distinctly immunostaining in S. kuhlii and C. sphinx after 1h of UV light stimuli while in H. armiger and R. leschenaultii, staining was no more distinct than in corresponding controls. Our immunohistochemical evidence supports differences in the distribution of cone-based UV vision in the order Chiroptera and supports our earlier postulate that due to possible sensory tradeoffs and roosting ecology, defects in the short wavelength opsin genes have resulted in loss of UV vision in CF but not in FM bats. In addition, fruit bats roosting in caves have lost UV vision but not those roosting in trees. Our results thus confirm that bats are a further mammalian taxon that has retained cone-based UV sensitivity in some species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of Hantaviruses Harbored by Insectivorous Bats in Côte d’Ivoire and Vietnam

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    Se Hun Gu


    Full Text Available The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera, captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981–2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona (family Hipposideridae, captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus (family Vespertilionidae, captured in Côte d’Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.

  19. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

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    Krizler C. Tanalgo


    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  20. Komunitas Kelelawar (Ordo Chiroptera di Beberapa Gua Karst Gunung Kendeng Kabupaten Pati Jawa Tengah

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    Kamal Tamasuki


    Full Text Available The existance of bats in cave type with diverge managerial system are influenced abundance and species bats. This research was conducted from January to June 2012 that counting abundance and to identify bats at Gunung Kendeng Karst Area Pati Central Java. The bats were collected by using mist net and stalk net at flying track surrounding cave’s mouth of Pancur Cave, Serut Cave, Bandung Cave, Pawon Cave, Larangan Cave and Gantung Cave. Bats abundance at Pancur Cave amount  ±  484 bats, Serut Cave amount ± 1233 bats, Bandung Cave amount ± 715 bats, Pawon Cave amount ± 392 bats, Larangan Cave ± 23 bats and Gantung Cave ± 5 bats. The six species were collected from this research, such as Cyanopterus horsfieldii, Hipposederos larvatus, Hipposideros bicolor, Rhinolophus affinis, Murina suilla dan Miniopterus australis. The analyst result is used Diversity Index of Shannon-Wiennner showed the highest diversity at Pancur Cave (H=0,35054 and the lowest at Gantung Cave (H=0,13633. Similarity index of shannon Evenness is showed the highest similarity at Pancur Cave (E=0,50572 and the lowest at Larangan Cave (E=0. Domination index of simpson is showed the highest domination at Pancur Cave (C=0,06805  and the lowest at Gantung Cave (C=0,00189. Hipposederos larvatus and Miniopterus australis are species that common and often founded during this research.

  1. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

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    Maria B. Boniotti


    Full Text Available Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii, three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros, and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii. This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses.

  2. Bat ectoparasites (Nycteribiidae, Streblidae, Siphonaptera, Heteroptera, Mesostigmata, Argasidae, and Ixodidae) from Algeria. (United States)

    Bendjeddou, Mohammed Lamine; Loumassine, Hibat Allah; Scheffler, Ingo; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair


    Twenty two species of ectoparasites (Family Nycteribiidae: Nycteribia (Listropoda) schmidlii schmidlii, Nycteribia (Nycteribia) latreillii, Nycteribia (Nycteribia) pedicularia, Penicillidia (Penicillidia) dufourii, and Phthiridium biarticulatum; Family Streblidae: Brachytarsina (Brachytarsina) flavipennis and Raymondia huberi; Order Siphonaptera: Rhinolophopsylla unipectinata arabs, Nycteridopsylla longiceps, Araeopsylla gestroi, Ischnopsyllus intermedius, and Ischnopsyllus octactenus; Order Heteroptera: Cimex pipistrelli, Cimex lectularius, and Cacodmus vicinus; Class Arachnida: Order Mesostigmata: Spinturnix myoti and Eyndhovenia euryalis; Order Ixodida: Family Argasidae: Argas transgariepinus and Argas vespertilionis; Family Ixodidae: Hyalomma dromedarii, Ixodes ricinus, and Ixodes vespertilionis) were recovered from 19 bat species in Algeria. New host records for bats are recorded for the first time: N. schmidlii from Rh. clivosus and R. cystops; N. latreillii from Rh. blasii and P. gaisleri; R. huberi from Rh. clivosus; C. pipistrelli from E. isabellinus and H. savii; C. vicinus from E. isabellinus; S. myoti from P. gaisleri; E. euryalis from P. gaisleri and Rh. blasii; A. vespertilionis from P. gaisleri; I. ricinus from T. teniotis and Rh. hipposideros and H. dromedarii from P. kuhlii. Raymondia huberi is recorded for the first time from Algeria. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Support for the allotonic frequency hypothesis in an insectivorous bat community. (United States)

    Schoeman, M Corrie; Jacobs, David S


    The allotonic frequency hypothesis proposes that certain insectivorous bat species can prey upon moths that can hear bat echolocation calls by using echolocation frequencies outside the sensitivity range of moth ears. The hypothesis predicts that the peak frequencies of bat echolocation calls are correlated with the incidence of moths in the diets of these bats. The aim of this study was to test this prediction on a bat community dominated by bats using low duty cycle echolocation calls, i.e. aerial foraging, insectivorous species using frequency modulated calls. The community consisted of nine species, two molossids, Sauromys petrophillus and Tadarida aegyptiaca, five vespertilionids, Eptesicus capensis, Eptesicus hottentotus, Miniopteris schreibersii, Myotis tricolor, and Myotis lesueuri, one rhinolophid, Rhinolophus clivosus, and one nycterid, Nycteris thebaica. The insect fauna in the habitat used by the bat community was suited to the testing of the allotonic frequency hypothesis because more than 90% of the moths comprising the insect fauna were tympanate. These included Pyralidae (3.8%), Geometridae (44.9%), Notodontidae (3.8%), Arctiidae (4.6%), Lymantriidae (0.8%) and Noctuidae (32.4%). As predicted, peak echolocation frequency was correlated with the incidence of moths in the diets of these nine species (r=0.98, df=7, Phearing might have acted directly on call frequency and secondarily on body size and wing morphology, as part of the same adaptive complex. It is unlikely that dietary differences were due to temporal and spatial differences in the availability of prey because the pattern of differences in skull morphology of the nine species supported our dietary analyses. The skull morphology of a bat represents a historical record of the kind of diet it has become adapted to over its evolutionary history. These results suggest that prey defences may mediate other factors structuring bat communities, e.g. competition. Competition may be reduced for those

  4. La Chirotterofauna della Puglia

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    Michele Bux


    Full Text Available Le conoscenze sulla chirotterofauna pugliese sono a tutt?oggi frammentarie, in quanto in letteratura sono disponibili dati parziali su aree ristrette o molto datati. Nel presente studio si espongono i primi risultati di una campagna sistematica di ricerca sulla chirotterofauna della Puglia, finalizzata all'aggiornamento dell'elenco faunistico e alla valutazione dello stato di conservazione delle popolazioni di Chirotteri. La ricerca si avvale per lo più di segnalazioni originali, ma anche di prospezioni di collezioni museali e dati di bibliografia. Per la gestione dei dati è stato realizzato un database informatizzato. Sono stati raccolti in totale 209 records relativi a 18 specie (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, R. mehely, Myotis blythii, M. capaccini, M. daubentoni, M. emarginatus, M. myotis, Pipistrellus kuhli, P. pipistrellus/pygmaeus, Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus serotinus, Plecotus austriacus, Miniopterus schreibersi e Tadarida teniotis, pari al 58% delle specie note per l'Italia. Il 30% (63 records delle segnalazioni è antecedente al 1960, il 7% (15 records è relativo al periodo compreso tra il 1961 e il 1980 e il 63% (131 records è successivo al 1980. Due specie Rhinolophus mehelyi e Myotis daubentoni non sono state più segnalate dopo il 1980, mentre una sola specie, Myotis emarginatus, è stata segnalata dopo il 1980. Il 60% dei records hanno riguardato 6 specie (R. ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, P. kuhli, H. savii e M. schreibersi probabilmente in relazione alla loro maggiore diffusione e abbondanza e alla maggiore facilità di osservazione e studio, almeno per le specie dalle abitudini troglofile. I dati raccolti consentono una

  5. Progetto Roost Chirotteri Piemonte - Valle d'Aosta. Primo censimento dei siti e priorità di conservazione

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    Paolo De Bernardi


    Full Text Available Secondo la metodologia del Progetto Roost Chirotteri Italia, coordinato a livello nazionale dal GIRC, sono stati archiviati tutti i dati disponibili (pubblicati o inediti, raccolti da 24 rilevatori circa i siti di rifugio utilizzati da Chirotteri in Piemonte e Valle d'Aosta a partire dal 1990. Risultano segnalati 193 roost, complessivamente utilizzati da almeno 17 specie, ai fini di: svernamento (57 siti, il 66,7% dei quali rappresentati da grotte e il 24,6% da miniere e bunker, parto e dell'allevamento della prole (63 siti, il 96,8% dei quali all'interno di edifici, riposo diurno o altra funzione biologica non accertata (88 siti. Nel 73,7% dei roost di svernamento è segnalata un'unica specie e nel 15,8% di essi sono state rilevate due specie, ma sono noti anche casi (singoli di roost ospitanti almeno 5, 6 e 7 diverse specie ibernanti. Il numero di esemplari segnalati risulta prevalentemente compreso negli intervalli 1-3 (66,7 % dei casi e 4-10 (14,0%. Solo 3 siti, coincidenti con quelli caratterizzati da maggior ricchezza di specie, presentano più di 50 esemplari ibernanti. In 2 di essi va sottolineata la presenza rispettivamente di 388 esemplari di Rhinolophus hipposideros e 76 esemplari di Barbastella barbastellus, pari all'85,5% e all'83,5% dei totali degli esemplari di tali specie censiti in ibernazione nelle due regioni. Allo stato attuale delle conoscenze tali siti rappresentano i più importanti roost di svernamento delle due specie noti in Italia. Fra le colonie riproduttive si evidenzia la rilevanza, per lo meno a livello regionale, di quelle di Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (un'unica colonia nota con 86 esemplari censiti prima dei parti e 127 esemplari dopo i parti, R. hipposideros (un'unica colonia nota con 19 esemplari censiti in agosto, Myotis capaccinii (un'unica colonia nota con 720 esemplari prima dei parti, M. emarginatus (6 colonie note; consistenza massima accertata in una

  6. Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.

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    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m. The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web.

  7. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents. (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H; Blumstein, Daniel T


    Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water). If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones). Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps) to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5). Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2) = 83.8; P<0.001). Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local response

  8. A survey of Western Australian sheep, cattle and kangaroos to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii. (United States)

    Banazis, Michael Janis; Bestall, Abbey Simone; Reid, Simon Andrew; Fenwick, Stan Gordon


    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in two domestic ruminant species (cattle and sheep) and the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia (WA). The IDEXX CHEKiT Q Fever ELISA and CFT were used to test sera from 50 sheep and 329 head of cattle for anti-C. burnetii antibodies and 343 kangaroo sera were tested using an indirect ELISA developed specifically for this study. Faecal or urine samples collected from the same animals were tested with two PCR assays to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Only two of the 379 ruminant sera had detectable levels of anti-C. burnetii antibodies according to the ELISA while the CFT did not detect any positive samples. In contrast 115 of the 343 western grey kangaroo serum samples were positive when tested with the antibody-ELISA. The first qPCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element, identified 41 of 379 ruminant and 42 of 343 kangaroo DNA samples as positive for C. burnetii DNA. The second qPCR, targeting the JB153-3 gene, identified nine C. burnetii DNA-positive ruminant samples and six positive kangaroo samples. Sequence comparisons showed high degrees of identity with C. burnetii. Isolation of C. burnetii from faeces was also attempted but was not successful. From the results presented here it appears that domestic ruminants may not be the most significant reservoir of C. burnetii in WA and that kangaroos may pose a significant threat for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo. (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam


    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Differences down-under: alcohol-fueled methanogenesis by archaea present in Australian macropodids (United States)

    Hoedt, Emily C; Cuív, Páraic Ó; Evans, Paul N; Smith, Wendy J M; McSweeney, Chris S; Denman, Stuart E; Morrison, Mark


    The Australian macropodids (kangaroos and wallabies) possess a distinctive foregut microbiota that contributes to their reduced methane emissions. However, methanogenic archaea are present within the macropodid foregut, although there is scant understanding of these microbes. Here, an isolate taxonomically assigned to the Methanosphaera genus (Methanosphaera sp. WGK6) was recovered from the anterior sacciform forestomach contents of a Western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus). Like the human gut isolate Methanosphaera stadtmanae DSMZ 3091T, strain WGK6 is a methylotroph with no capacity for autotrophic growth. In contrast, though with the human isolate, strain WGK6 was found to utilize ethanol to support growth, but principally as a source of reducing power. Both the WGK6 and DSMZ 3091T genomes are very similar in terms of their size, synteny and G:C content. However, the WGK6 genome was found to encode contiguous genes encoding putative alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are absent from the DSMZ 3091T genome. Interestingly, homologs of these genes are present in the genomes for several other members of the Methanobacteriales. In WGK6, these genes are cotranscribed under both growth conditions, and we propose the two genes provide a plausible explanation for the ability of WGK6 to utilize ethanol for methanol reduction to methane. Furthermore, our in vitro studies suggest that ethanol supports a greater cell yield per mol of methane formed compared to hydrogen-dependent growth. Taken together, this expansion in metabolic versatility can explain the persistence of these archaea in the kangaroo foregut, and their abundance in these ‘low-methane-emitting' herbivores. PMID:27022996

  11. Complete genomic characterisation of two novel poxviruses (WKPV and EKPV) from western and eastern grey kangaroos. (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Tu, Shin-Lin; Upton, Chris; McArtor, Cassie; Gillett, Amber; Laird, Tanya; O'Dea, Mark


    Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled using MIRA and SPAdes, and annotations performed using tools available from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Centre. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy analysis was also performed on WKPV and its associated lesions. The WKPV and EKPV genomes show 96% identity (nucleotide) to each other and phylogenetic analysis places them on a distinct branch between the established Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera. WKPV and EKPV are 170 kbp and 167 kbp long, containing 165 and 162 putative genes, respectively. Together, their genomes encode up to 47 novel unique hypothetical proteins, and possess virulence proteins including a major histocompatibility complex class II inhibitor, a semaphorin-like protein, a serpin, a 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ 5→4 isomerase, and a CD200-like protein. These viruses also encode a large putative protein (WKPV-WA-039 and EKPV-SC-038) with a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to the C-terminal domain of a cullin, suggestive of a role in the control of host ubiquitination. The relationship of these viruses to members of the Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera is discussed in terms of sequence similarity, gene content and nucleotide composition. A novel genus within subfamily Chordopoxvirinae is proposed to accommodate these two poxvirus species from kangaroos; we suggest

  12. Seroprevalence of retrovirus in North American captive macropodidae. (United States)

    Georoff, Timothy A; Joyner, Priscilla H; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Pogranichniy, Roman M


    Laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. Serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 North American captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, and among animals with identified parentage was examined by nonparametric statistical analyses. Median age of animals at time of sample collection was 36 mo (range 2-201 mo). Total percentage seropositive was 20.4%. Serum antibody was detected in 31 of 47 (66.0%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), nine of 24 (37.5%) yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus), four of 11 (36.4%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 10 of 80 (12.5%) red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), and one of 54 (1.9%) parma wallaby (Macropus parma). No individuals of western gray kangaroo (n=3) (Macropus fuliginosus), eastern gray kangaroo (n=19) (Macropus giganteus), common wallaroo (n=6) (Macropus robustus), red kangaroo (n=11) (Macropus rufus), or Matschie's tree kangaroo (n=14) (Dendrolagus matschiei) were positive for retrovirus antibody. These results demonstrate that five species of captive macropods have a history of exposure to retrovirus, with the highest percentage seropositive and highest statistical correlation in M. eugenii (pair-wise Fisher's exact test, alpha = 0.05). Additionally, one wild-caught M. eugenii was confirmed seropositive during quarantine period, indicating that retrovirus exposure may exist in wild populations.

  13. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

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    Michael H Parsons


    Full Text Available Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area.We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001.Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local

  14. Effects of feeding on luminal pH and morphology of the gastroesophageal junction of snakes. (United States)

    Bessler, Scott M; Secor, Stephen M


    At the gastroesophageal junction, most vertebrates possess a functional lower esophageal sphincter (LES) which may serve to regulate the passage of liquids and food into the stomach and prevent the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Snakes seemingly lack an LES and consume meals large enough to extend anteriorly from the stomach into the esophagus thereby providing the opportunity for the reflux of gastric juices. To explore whether snakes experience or can prevent gastric reflux, we examined post-feeding changes of luminal pH of the distal esophagus and stomach, the fine scale luminal pH profile at the gastroesophageal junction, and the morphology of the gastroesophageal junction for the Burmese python (Python molurus), the African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), and the diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer). For each species fasted, there was no distension of the gastroesophageal junction and only modest changes in luminal pH from the distal esophagus into the stomach. Feeding resulted in marked distension and changes in tissue morphology of the gastroesophageal junction. Simultaneously, there was a significant decrease in luminal pH of the distal esophagus for pythons and house snakes, and for all three species a steep gradient in luminal pH decreasing across a 3-cm span from the distal edge of the esophagus into the proximal edge of the stomach. The moderate acidification of the distal most portion of the esophagus for pythons and house snakes suggests that there is some anterior movement of gastric juices across the gastroesophageal junction. Given that this modest reflux of gastric fluid is localized to the most distal region of the esophagus, snakes are apparently able to prevent and protect against acid reflux in the absence of a functional LES. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Traditional and scientific conceptions of snakes in Kenya: Alternative perspectives for teaching (United States)

    Wojnowski, David

    A 3-month qualitative study was conducted mid-September through mid-December 2005 to investigate rural southeast Kenyan teachers' conceptions of snakes. Teachers from five villages near Mt. Kasigau were interviewed to obtain an overall sense of what they thought about snakes (n = 60). Of those 60 teachers, 28 attended a 6-hour seminar on reptiles and amphibians. From these 28 teachers, 8 teachers from three villages were afforded additional educational opportunities about snakes, and 2 teachers from this group of 8 were teamed with 2 herpetologists as mentors during the last 2 months of the study. In turn, seven of these eight teachers presented lessons about snakes using live specimens to their fellow teachers and students. Observations of teacher participants during workshops and field outings were documented as well as teacher classroom pedagogy involving snakes before, during, and after the institute. Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with the eight core teacher participants and field notes were used to document participant observations during serendipitous live snake encounters, of which, there were many. In addition, village elders, including medicine men, one education administrator and one minister were interviewed to obtain a historical cultural backdrop, which teachers expressed as being an important influence while formulating their own conceptions about snakes. Findings suggest that teachers' conceptions of snakes, within a culture where all snakes are feared and killed onsite, can change toward a more favorable orientation when given the opportunity to learn about snakes, witness positive modeling of snake handling through mentoring by herpetologists, and experience direct contact with live harmless nonaggressive snakes (e.g., the Brown House Snake [Lamprohis fuliginosus] and Kenyan Sand Boa [ Eryx colubrinus]).

  16. Digital gene expression tag profiling of bat digits provides robust candidates contributing to wing formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rebecca L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the only truly flying mammals, bats use their unique wing - consisting of four elongated digits (digits II-V connected by membranes - to power their flight. In addition to the elongated digits II-V, the forelimb contains one shorter digit (digit I that is morphologically similar to the hindlimb digits. Here, we capitalized on the morphological variation among the bat forelimb digits to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying digit elongation and wing formation. Using next generation sequencing technology, we performed digital gene expression tag profiling (DGE-tag profiling of developing digits in a pooled sample of two Myotis ricketti and validated our sequencing results using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR of gene expression in the developing digits of two Hipposideros armiger. Results Among hundreds of genes exhibiting significant differences in expression between the short and long digits, we highlight 14 genes most related to digit elongation. These genes include two Tbx genes (Tbx3 and Tbx15, five BMP pathway genes (Bmp3, RGMB, Smad1, Smad4 and Nog, four Homeobox genes (Hoxd8, Hoxd9, Hoxa1 and Satb1, and three other genes (Twist1, Tmeff2 and Enpp2 related to digit malformations or cell proliferation. In addition, our results suggest that Tbx4 and Pitx2 contribute to the morphological similarity and five genes (Acta1, Tnnc2, Atp2a1, Hrc and Myoz1 contribute to the functional similarity between the thumb and hindlimb digits. Conclusions Results of this study not only implicate many developmental genes as robust candidates underlying digit elongation and wing formation in bats, but also provide a better understanding of the genes involved in autopodial development in general.

  17. Surviving cave bats: auditory and behavioural defences in the Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans. (United States)

    Fullard, James H; Jackson, Matt E; Jacobs, David S; Pavey, Chris R; Burwell, Chris J


    The Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans shares its subterranean day roosts (caves and abandoned mines) with insectivorous bats, some of which prey upon it. The capacity of this moth to survive is assumed to arise from its ability to listen for the bats' echolocation calls and take evasive action; however, the auditory characteristics of this moth or any tropically distributed Australian moth have never been examined. We investigated the ears of S. spectans and determined that they are among the most sensitive ever described for a noctuid moth. Using playbacks of cave-recorded bats, we determined that S. spectans is able to detect most of the calls of two co-habiting bats, Rhinolophus megaphyllus and Miniopterus australis, whose echolocation calls are dominated by frequencies ranging from 60 to 79 kHz. Video-recorded observations of this roost site show that S. spectans adjusts its flight activity to avoid bats but this defence may delay the normal emergence of the moths and leave some 'pinned down' in the roosts for the entire night. At a different day roost, we observed the auditory responses of one moth to the exceptionally high echolocation frequencies (150-160 kHz) of the bat Hipposideros ater and determined that S. spectans is unable to detect most of its calls. We suggest that this auditory constraint, in addition to the greater flight manoeuvrability of H. ater, renders S. spectans vulnerable to predation by this bat to the point of excluding the moth from day roosts where the bat occurs.

  18. Adaptation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to hibernation in bats. (United States)

    Han, Yijie; Zheng, Guantao; Yang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong; Pan, Yi-Hsuan


    Hibernation is a survival mechanism in the winter for some animals. Fat preserved instead of glucose produced is the primary fuel during winter hibernation of mammals. Many genes involved in lipid metabolism are regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The role of PPARα in hibernation of mammals remains largely unknown. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we investigated whether PPARα is adapted to hibernation in bats. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the ω value of Pparα of the ancestral lineage of hibernating bats in both Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera was lower than that of non-hibernating bats in Yinpterochiroptera, suggesting that a higher selective pressure acts on Pparα in hibernating bats. PPARα expression was found to be increased at both mRNA and protein levels in distantly related bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Hipposideros armiger in Yinpterochiroptera and Myotis ricketti in Yangochiroptera) during their torpid episodes. Transcription factors such as FOXL1, NFYA, NFYB, SP1, TBP, and ERG were bioinformatically determined to have a higher binding affinity to the potential regulatory regions of Pparα in hibernating than in non-hibernating mammals. Genome-wide bioinformatic analyses of 64 mammalian species showed that PPARα has more potential target genes and higher binding affinity to these genes in hibernating than in non-hibernating mammals. We conclude that PPARα is adapted to hibernation in bats based on the observations that Pparα has a more stringent functional constraint in the ancestral lineage of hibernating bats and a higher level of expression in hibernating than in non-hibernating bats. We also conclude that PPARα plays a very important role in hibernation as hibernators have more PPARα target genes than non-hibernators, and PPARα in hibernators has a higher binding affinity for its target genes than in non-hibernators.

  19. Combining noninvasive genetics and a new mammalian sex-linked marker provides new tools to investigate population size, structure and individual behaviour: an application to bats. (United States)

    Zarzoso-Lacoste, D; Jan, P-L; Lehnen, L; Girard, T; Besnard, A-L; Puechmaille, S J; Petit, E J


    Monitoring wild populations is crucial for their effective management. Noninvasive genetic methods provide robust data from individual free-ranging animals, which can be used in capture-mark-recapture (CMR) models to estimate demographic parameters without capturing or disturbing them. However, sex- and status-specific behaviour, which may lead to differences in detection probabilities, is rarely considered in monitoring. Here, we investigated population size, sex ratio, sex- and status-related behaviour in 19 Rhinolophus hipposideros maternity colonies (Northern France) with a noninvasive genetic CMR approach (using faeces) combined with parentage assignments. The use of the DDX3X/Y-Mam sexual marker designed in this study, which shows inter- and intra-chromosomal length polymorphism across placental mammals, together with 8 polymorphic microsatellite markers, produced high quality genetic data with limited genotyping errors and allowed us to reliably distinguish different categories of individuals (males, reproductive and non-reproductive females) and to estimate population sizes. We showed that visual counts represent well adult female numbers and that population composition in maternity colonies changes dynamically during the summer. Before parturition, colonies mainly harbour pregnant and non-pregnant females with a few visiting males whereas after parturition, colonies are mainly composed of mothers and their offspring with a few visiting non-mothers and males. Our approach gives deeper insight into sex- and status-specific behaviour, a prerequisite for understanding population dynamics and developing effective monitoring and management strategies. Provided sufficient samples can be obtained, this approach can be readily applied to a wide range of species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability in Echolocation Call Intensity in a Community of Horseshoe Bats: A Role for Resource Partitioning or Communication? (United States)

    Schuchmann, Maike; Siemers, Björn M.


    Background Only recently data on bat echolocation call intensities is starting to accumulate. Yet, intensity is an ecologically crucial parameter, as it determines the extent of the bats' perceptual space and, specifically, prey detection distance. Interspecifically, we thus asked whether sympatric, congeneric bat species differ in call intensities and whether differences play a role for niche differentiation. Specifically, we investigated whether R. mehelyi that calls at a frequency clearly above what is predicted by allometry, compensates for frequency-dependent loss in detection distance by using elevated call intensity. Maximum echolocation call intensities might depend on body size or condition and thus be used as an honest signal of quality for intraspecific communication. We for the first time investigated whether a size-intensity relation is present in echolocating bats. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured maximum call intensities and frequencies for all five European horseshoe bat species. Maximum intensity differed among species largely due to R. euryale. Furthermore, we found no compensation for frequency-dependent loss in detection distance in R. mehelyi. Intraspecifically, there is a negative correlation between forearm lengths and intensity in R. euryale and a trend for a negative correlation between body condition index and intensity in R. ferrumequinum. In R. hipposideros, females had 8 dB higher intensities than males. There were no correlations with body size or sex differences and intensity for the other species. Conclusions/Significance Based on call intensity and frequency measurements, we estimated echolocation ranges for our study community. These suggest that intensity differences result in different prey detection distances and thus likely play some role for resource access. It is interesting and at first glance counter-intuitive that, where a correlation was found, smaller bats called louder than large individuals. Such negative

  1. Parasites of parasites of bats: Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycota) on bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) in central Europe. (United States)

    Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W; Pfister, Donald H


    Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. In Europe, members of the Nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus Arthrorhynchus. We carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fungus-bat fly associations of the genus in central Europe (Hungary, Romania). We encountered the bat fly Nycteribia pedicularia and the fungus Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae as new country records for Hungary. The following bat-bat fly associations are for the first time reported: Nycteribia kolenatii on Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis blythii, Myotis capaccinii and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Penicillidia conspicua on Myotis daubentonii; and Phthiridium biarticulatum on Myotis capaccinii. Laboulbeniales infections were found on 45 of 1,494 screened bat flies (3.0%). We report two fungal species: Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae on Nycteribia schmidlii, and A. nycteribiae on N. schmidlii, Penicillidia conspicua, and P. dufourii. Penicillidia conspicua was infected with Laboulbeniales most frequently (25%, n = 152), followed by N. schmidlii (3.1%, n = 159) and P. dufourii (2.0%, n = 102). Laboulbeniales seem to prefer female bat fly hosts to males. We think this might be due to a combination of factors: female bat flies have a longer life span, while during pregnancy female bat flies are significantly larger than males and accumulate an excess of fat reserves. Finally, ribosomal DNA sequences for A. nycteribiae are presented. We screened ectoparasitic bat flies from Hungary and Romania for the presence of ectoparasitic Laboulbeniales fungi. Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae and A. nycteribiae were found on three species of bat flies. This study extends geographical and host

  2. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States. (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A


    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  3. Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo Scents (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H.; Blumstein, Daniel T.


    Background Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water). If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones). Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps) to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75±3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0±107.0 g (P0.5). Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R2 = 83.8; P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been

  4. Snakes and snakebite envenoming in Northern Tanzania: a neglected tropical health problem. (United States)

    Kipanyula, M J; Kimaro, W H


    Snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-Saharan Africa. Generating a basic platform of information on the characteristics of snakes and snakebites in various countries is relevant for designing and implementing public health interventions. This study was performed to identify types of snakes and some of the characteristics of snakebite cases in two communities, an agricultural and a pastoralist, in Arusha region, northern Tanzania. A total of 30 field visits were carried out in areas considered by local inhabitants to be potential microhabitats for snakes. Direct observation of snake types based on morphological features and a structured questionnaire were employed for data collection. A total of 25 live and 14 dead snakes were encountered. Among the dead ones, the following species were identified: two black-necked spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis); five puff adders (Bitis arietans), one common egg-eater (Dasypeltis scabra); two rufous-beaked snakes (Ramphiophis rostratus); two brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus); one Kenyan sand boa (Eryx colubrinus), and one black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis). The frequency of snake encounters was significantly higher (χ (2) = 4.6; p = 0.03) in the pastoral than in the agricultural area; there were more snakebite cases in the former, but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.7). A total of 242 snakebite victims attended at the Meserani Clinic, located in the study area, between the years 2007 to 2012. Of all cases, 146 (61.6 %) and 96 (38.4 %) were male and female patients, respectively. As for age distribution, 59.1 % of snakebite victims were from the economically active age groups between 15 and 55 years. Snakebites are a threat to rural communities and public health in general. The burden of snakebites in Tanzania presents an epidemiologically similar picture to other tropical countries

  5. Recent Transmission of a Novel Alphacoronavirus, Bat Coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's Rousettes to Pomona Leaf-Nosed Bats: First Evidence of Interspecies Transmission of Coronavirus between Bats of Different Suborders (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Wang, Sylvia Y. H.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian


    Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in the suborder Microchiroptera) in Hong Kong. Although infected bats appeared to be healthy, Pomona leaf-nosed bats carrying Hi-BatCoV HKU10 had lower body weights than uninfected bats. To investigate possible interspecies transmission between the two bat species, the complete genomes of two Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and six Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains were sequenced. Genome and phylogenetic analyses showed that Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 represented a novel alphacoronavirus species, sharing highly similar genomes except in the genes encoding spike proteins, which had only 60.5% amino acid identities. Evolution of the spike protein was also rapid in Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains from 2005 to 2006 but stabilized thereafter. Molecular-clock analysis dated the most recent common ancestor of all BatCoV HKU10 strains to 1959 (highest posterior density regions at 95% [HPDs], 1886 to 2002) and that of Hi-BatCoV HKU10 to 1986 (HPDs, 1956 to 2004). The data suggested recent interspecies transmission from Leschenault's rousettes to Pomona leaf-nosed bats in southern China. Notably, the rapid adaptive genetic change in BatCoV HKU10 spike protein by ∼40% amino acid divergence after recent interspecies transmission was even greater than the ∼20% amino acid divergence between spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) in bats and civets. This study provided the first evidence for interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of

  6. The Adamello-Brenta Natural Park bat community (Mammalia, Chiroptera: distribution and population status

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    Roberta Chirichella


    Full Text Available Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites, over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded: of these, one (Myotis bechsteinii was known from a museum collection and 18 were recorded in the field (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, M. daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus nilssonii, E. serotinus, Vespertilio murinus, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus alpinus, P. auritus. Local distribution, habitat use and body size parameters of the species were studied, and selection of roosts and foraging sites by the bat community was analysed with logistic regression. The conservation status of the bat community is also discussed. We document the third record of breeding by Pipistrellus nathusii and the fourth Eptesicus (Amblyotus nilssonii nursery in Italy, as well as the first roosting sites of the recently described Plecotus alpinus. Riassunto Comunità di Chirotteri e status delle popolazioni nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Trentino-Alto Adige Vengono presentati i risultati di una serie di monitoraggi, effettuati con tecniche differenti (principalmente catture con reti mist-net ed esplorazione dei siti di rifugio dal 1999 al 2000. Tali indagini hanno permesso di raccogliere dati originali

  7. The Italian bat roost project: a preliminary inventory of sites and conservation perspectives

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    Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca sui Chirotter GIRC


    Full Text Available Abstract The Italian bat roost project, launched by the Italian Chiroptera Research Group (GIRC, aims to develop a constantly updated national database of bat roosts. Short-term objectives are to inventory roosts and identify the most important ones from a conservation perspective, in order to set priorities for management actions. Published records and field data from 1990 onwards are filed. To date, the database contains 1243 records from 750 roosts, covering 352 10x10 km UTM grid-cells. Among roosts, 167 were used for hibernation (S roosts, 244 for breeding (R roosts and 431 as either temporary roosts or for unknown needs, not verified or not considered in the survey (X roosts. Roosting sites occurred in buildings (45.1%, caves (35.3%, artificial underground sites (10.3%, trees (5.5%, bridges (2.1%, bat boxes (1.3% and rocky cliffs (0.4%. At least 29 species were found, and the number of roosts per species ranged between 1 and 261. S and/or R roosts fulfilling certain combinations of number of species and individuals or having at least 50 individuals of species cited in Annex II of the 92/43/EEC Directive (excluding Miniopterus schreibersii, adding Myotis punicus were classified as sites of special conservation interest. When meeting at least one such conditions, type X roosts that were not classified as either S or R, were considered potential sites of special conservation interest, for which further data collection is recommended. In all, 97 roosts of special conservation interest were identified: 30 S roosts, 60 R roosts and 7 roosts selected for both hibernation and breeding. 20 X roosts were identified as potential sites of special conservation interest. For at least 93.7% of roosts, factors potentially harming the bats were documented, particularly people access to the roost, and renovation of buildings used as a roost. In almost two thirds of such cases it was judged that conservation was not ensured

  8. Primi dati sulla chirotterofauna del Parco Nazionale del Circeo (Lazio

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    Giovanni Mastrobuoni


    Full Text Available Il Parco Nazionale del Circeo è situato sulla costa del Lazio meridionale, nella provincia di Latina, ed ha un?estensione di circa 8.400 ha. Il territorio è caratterizzato da una notevole complessità di ambienti rappresentati principalmente dalla foresta planiziale, da quattro laghi costieri (Fogliano, Monaci, Caprolace, Sabaudia con gli acquitrini circostanti, dalla duna litoranea, dal Promontorio del Circeo (Picco di Circe 541 m s.l.m. e dall?Isola di Zannone. Grazie alla sua elevata diversità ambientale ed all?ampia disponibilità di habitat acquatici importanti per il foraggiamento, il Parco è, potenzialmente, un?area di notevole interesse per i Chirotteri. Il livello di conoscenza scientifica di molti gruppi di Vertebrati terrestri del territorio dell?area protetta si presenta ancora molto scarno e lacunoso; in particolare i Chirotteri costituiscono molto probabilmente il gruppo in assoluto meno conosciuto. Dal febbraio 2002 gli autori hanno avviato una ricerca sulla composizione in specie e sulla distribuzione della chirotterofauna del Parco. Nell?ambito della ricerca sono state utilizzate tecniche di rilievo diretto, quali l?ispezione di cavità naturali ed artificiali, edifici, resti archeologici, ponti, con cattura e successivo rilascio di alcuni individui; con l?ausilio di un bat detector, nelle modalità ?divisione di frequenza? ed ?eterodina?, sono state effettuate perlustrazioni del territorio dell?area protetta per individuare quei siti caratterizzati da una notevole attività di volo e di foraggiamento e quindi predisporre, per la stagione di campo 2003, un protocollo di catture con mist nets. L?indagine ha permesso, fino ad oggi, di ottenere una prima serie di dati; è stata rilevata la presenza di: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis myotis, Myotis daubentonii, Pipistrellus kuhli, Tadarida teniotis. A queste vanno aggiunte tre

  9. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.


    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  10. Bat species richness and activity over an elevation gradient in mediterranean shrublands of Crete

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    Panagiotis Georgiakakis


    Full Text Available Abstract
    The effect of elevation on bat species richness and activity was investigated in shrublands of central Crete (Greece using broad-band acoustic surveys. Recordings of echolocation calls were made in 15 transects equally distributed in three distinct elevation zones (500, 1000 and 1500 m a.s.l. during spring and autumn 2007-2008. Time-expanded calls were subsequently identified with the use of quadratic discriminant functions.
    Out of 13 species recorded, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Tadarida teniotis were the most common and abundant. Many Rhinolophus hipposideros were also recorded in all elevation zones. Thirteen species were recorded in the lower elevation zone, 7 species in the mid one and 8 species in the 1500 m a.s.l. sites. Species richness, the number of bat passes of the most abundant species, as well as the total number of bat passes were not significantly affected by elevation. In spring both species richness and bat activity were higher than in autumn, although the corresponding difference in temperature was not significant.
    The high variability in both bat activity and the number of species found per transect in each elevation zone probably depended on the presence of other habitat types in the close vicinity, while roost availability and location might also have played an important role.
    We suggest that the ability of bats to perform regular movements along the elevational gradient has to be taken in account when assessing elevational patterns in bat diversity and activity. The geology of the study area is also of considerable importance through its effect on foraging and roosting opportunities for bats.

    Ricchezza specifica e attività dei chirotteri lungo un gradiente altitudinale nella macchia mediterranea di Creta
    L’effetto della quota su ricchezza in specie e