Sample records for schrader bluff pool

  1. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  2. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, December 1, 1992--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D.


    The shallow Cretaceous sands of the Schrader Bluff Reservoir occur between depths of 4,000 and 4,800 feet below surface and are estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. Initial production indicated that primary recovery will fall short of earlier estimates and waterflooding will have to be employed much earlier than expected. A large portion of the oil-in-place thus would still be left behind in this reservoir after primary and secondary recovery methods have been applied. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be needed to recover the additional portion of remaining oil in this huge reservoir and to add significant additional reserves. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader Bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Such studies are essential because the API gravity of the crude in Schrader Bluff reservoir varies significantly from well to well. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the oil recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This report contains the following: reservoir description; slim tube displacement studies; and coreflood experiments.

  3. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (United States)


    ... Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation 56.5..., Fla., and subject to such conditions as he may specify. (b) When, in the opinion of the District...

  4. Johann Gottlieb Schrader and the construction of telescopes in Lilienthal. (German Title: Johann Gottlieb Schrader und der Lilienthaler Fernrohrbau) (United States)

    Leue, Hans-Joachim

    More than 200 years ago, the first large reflectors on the European continent were built at Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's observatory in Lilienthal near Bremen. Johann Gottlieb Friedrich Schrader, professor of physics and chemistry at Kiel University, developed a white reflecting metal alloy during his 10-month stay with Schroeter, and used it for the production of numerous telescope mirrors. The period of telescope making at Lilienthal started with Schrader. This paper describes the cooperation of the two astronomers and reports about the results of an optical and chemical analysis of three Herschel telescope mirrors.

  5. Bluff Body Fuel Mixer (United States)

    Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); McKinney, Randal G. (Inventor)


    A combustor is provided. The combustor may include an axial fuel injection system, and a radial fuel injection system aft of the axial fuel injection system. The axial fuel injection system includes a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer, and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer. A fuel and air mixer is also provided and comprises an outer housing with an exit port and a bluff body. The bluff body extends across the exit port of the outer housing. A fuel injection system is also provided. The systems comprise a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer.

  6. Franz Schrader face à Gavarnie, ou le géographe peintre de paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Berdoulay


    Full Text Available La série de peintures que le géographe Franz Schrader a faites de Gavarnie permet d'étudier certaines relations qui existent entre art et science à propos du paysage. L'évolution de son approche montre une recherche constante de complémentarités.

  7. Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt


    The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this stud...

  8. Tactical bluff: Cunning in the hearing of the defendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feješ Ištvan


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the so-called 'Tactical bluff' one of the wiles of Criminal Justice for a hearing regarding the suspect / defendant. The main problems that the work involved, the conceptual definition of 'tactical bluff' and delineation of permissible ruses, including 'tactical bluff' of deception prohibited.

  9. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.


    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  10. Design of Low Drag Bluff Road Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Raemdonck, G.M.R.


    Low drag bluff road vehicle design can be obtained effectively and efficiently with a three phase approach that uses numerical simulations, scaled wind tunnel experiments and full-scale road testing. By applying this generalised method, SideWings were developed for an improved trailer underbody flow

  11. Particle Methods in Bluff Body Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj

    is important. This dissertation focuses on the use of vortex particle methods and computational efficiency. The work is divided into three parts. A novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics is presented. The method involves a model for describing oncoming...

  12. How Long Can One Bluff in the Domination Game?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brešar Boštan


    Full Text Available The domination game is played on an arbitrary graph G by two players, Dominator and Staller. The game is called Game 1 when Dominator starts it, and Game 2 otherwise. In this paper bluff graphs are introduced as the graphs in which every vertex is an optimal start vertex in Game 1 as well as in Game 2. It is proved that every minus graph (a graph in which Game 2 finishes faster than Game 1 is a bluff graph. A non-trivial infinite family of minus (and hence bluff graphs is established. minus graphs with game domination number equal to 3 are characterized. Double bluff graphs are also introduced and it is proved that Kneser graphs K(n, 2, n ≥ 6, are double bluff. The domination game is also studied on generalized Petersen graphs and on Hamming graphs. Several generalized Petersen graphs that are bluff graphs but not vertex-transitive are found. It is proved that Hamming graphs are not double bluff.

  13. Preliminary Fishery Management Report Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge 1953 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brief report from a fisheries biologist regarding the quality of fish populations at Loess Bluffs NWR. This report was used to draft a fishery management plan for...

  14. Christmas Bird Counts from Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historical bird data set comprised of bird counts conducted at Loess Bluffs NWR around the Christmas season. Weather data was collected in conjunction with these...

  15. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.


    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  16. Inside interrogation: the lie, the bluff, and false confessions. (United States)

    Perillo, Jennifer T; Kassin, Saul M


    Using a less deceptive variant of the false evidence ploy, interrogators often use the bluff tactic, whereby they pretend to have evidence to be tested without further claiming that it necessarily implicates the suspect. Three experiments were conducted to assess the impact of the bluff on confession rates. Using the Kassin and Kiechel (Psychol Sci 7:125-128, 1996) computer crash paradigm, Experiment 1 indicated that bluffing increases false confessions comparable to the effect produced by the presentation of false evidence. Experiment 2 replicated the bluff effect and provided self-reports indicating that innocent participants saw the bluff as a promise of future exoneration which, paradoxically, made it easier to confess. Using a variant of the Russano et al. (Psychol Sci 16:481-486, 2005) cheating paradigm, Experiment 3 replicated the bluff effect on innocent suspects once again, though a ceiling effect was obtained in the guilty condition. Results suggest that the phenomenology of innocence can lead innocents to confess even in response to relatively benign interrogation tactics.

  17. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)


    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  18. Beaches and Bluffs of Puget Sound and the Northern Straits (United States)


    all of which shape the health of salmon populations. Puget Sound and the Northern Straits encompass the cen- tral feature in the Puget Lowland...low-tide terrace (Figure 1). Lag deposits derived from bluff recession are often found in the low-tide terrace. Lag deposits are the largest clasts ...Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound area beaches are shaped by wind-generated waves. Wave energy is controlled by fetch: the open water distance

  19. Suspension flows past bluff bodies: Investigation in a microfluidic environment


    Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab; Morris, Jeffrey F.


    This sequence of fluid dynamics videos illustrates the behavior of a suspension of noncolloidal particles flowing past various bluff body obstacles within a microfluidic device. The polystyrene particles, of 7 {\\mu}m diameter and volume fraction of 8.4%, are carefully made neutrally buoyant with the suspending liquid composed of a mixture of water and a small fraction of glycerol. The channel depth is 60 {\\mu}m and the typical length of the obstacles normal to the flow direction is 200 {\\mu}m...

  20. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.


    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  1. Vernal Pools (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaman Altaf


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:This paper presents a review of the techniques used to reduce aerodynamic drag over bluff bodies such as cylinders, spheres, 2D bodies with blunt backs and their application to commercial road vehicles.  The recent research carried out on the drag reduction is presented and categorised. A new classification of the techniques is introduced and major contributions under them are shown. It can be concluded that there is not much work done with realistic 3D bluff bodies, especially using passive methods.ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan kaji selidik semula teknik yang digunakan untuk mengurangkan seret aerodinamik ke atas jasad tubir seperti silinder, sfera, jasad 2D dengan belakang tumpul dan aplikasinya terhadap kenderaan jalan raya komersial. Pengurangan seretan dibentangkan dan dikategorikan dengan kajian terkini. Klasifikasi teknik terkini diperkenalkan dan sumbangan utamanya diperbentangkan.  Secara kesimpulannya terdapat banyak tugasan yang tidak yang dapat dijalankan dengan menggunakan jasad tubir 3D sebenar, terutamanya dengan penggunaan kaedah pasif.

  3. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirao K.


    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  4. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Hardy


    Full Text Available We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym: Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller, comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt, comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt, comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis. We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculata Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  5. Coastal Permafrost Bluff Response to Summer Warming, Barter Island, NE Alaska (United States)

    Richmond, B. M.; Gibbs, A.; Johnson, C. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Oberle, F. J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Lorenson, T. D.


    Observations of warming air and sea temperatures in the Arctic are leading to longer periods of permafrost thaw and ice-free conditions during summer, which lead to increased exposure to coastal storm surge, wave impacts, and heightened erosion. Recently collected air and soil (bluff) temperatures, atmospheric pressure, water levels, time-lapse photography, aerial photography and satellite imagery, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys were used to document coastal bluff morphological response to seasonal warming. Data collection instruments and time-lapse cameras installed overlooking a bluff face on the exposed open ocean coast and within an erosional gully were used to create an archive of hourly air temperature, pressure, bluff morphology, and sea-state conditions allowing for documentation of individual bluff failure events and coincident meteorology. Permafrost boreholes as deep as 6 m from the upper bluff tundra surface were fitted with thermistor arrays to record a high resolution temperature record that spanned an initial frozen state, a summer thaw cycle, and subsequent re-freezing. Late summer ERT surveys were used to link temperature observations to subsurface electrical resistivities and active-layer dynamics. Preliminary observations suggest surface warming and active layer growth are responsible for a significant amount of bluff face failures that are exacerbated in the shore perpendicular gullies and along the exposed ocean coast. Electrical resistivity surveys and geochemical data reveal concentrated brines at depth, which likely contribute to enhanced, localized erosion in weakened strata.

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.


    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  7. Coastal bluffs, dunes and the future of New York's ocean shoreline (United States)

    Huang, H.; Bokuniewicz, H.


    The ocean coast of New York is protected naturally by dunes, bluffs and beaches. The distribution and combination of these natural protect features (NPFs) control the response of the shoreline to both extreme storms and rising sea level. Hurricane Sandy recently impacted this coast in October 2012, and sea level may rise over a meter by 2100. Geometries of NPFs were analyzed at 750 cross-shore transects along 36 km of the New York's easternmost ocean shoreline. Profile data was compiled from NOAA Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys between November, 2011 and April, 2012 by NOAA. Low relief beaches are only found as the seawardmost NPF only in front of coastal ponds covering less than one percent of the shoreline. Steep bluffs of unconsolidated, or semi consolidated, sediment, without dunes, comprised 33% of the shoreline. Dunes, often multiple dune lines, constitute the most seaward NPF in 66% of the study area, but were often found in combination with bluffs. In some places a dune has formed on top of a bluff (8%), in others a dune is found in front of a bluff (10%). The average elevation of bluff crest was 11.6 m; dunes formed in front of the bluff face reaching average dune-crest elevations of 6.8 m. Where the overlap exists, the dune would provide the first line of protection against erosion and flooding during storms. Numerical modeling with CSHORE showed that the storm of record (Hurricane Sandy) excavated about 71m3/m of the dune. With rising sea level, dunes that have formed in front of the bluff at the present time would be displaced onto the bluff crest. Whereas the bluff crest above sea level would necessarily decrease as sea level rises, the elevation of the dune above sea should be expected to remain the same, being controlled by the site-specific nature of aeolian transport. The excavation of the bluff is likely to be the controlling factor in the face of a long-term rise in sea level. Further recession of the shoreline would then require the

  8. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National Fish...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Efimov


    Full Text Available Justification of possibility of application of an OpenFOAM package for obtaining aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies and studying of their dependence on geometrical parameters.

  10. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.


    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  11. The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Direct numerical simulation of bluff-body-stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Arias, Paul G.


    To enable high fidelity simulation of combustion phenomena in realistic devices, an embedded boundary method is implemented into direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting flows. One of the additional numerical issues associated with reacting flows is the stable treatment of the embedded boundaries in the presence of multicomponent species and reactions. The implemented method is validated in two test con gurations: a pre-mixed hydrogen/air flame stabilized in a backward-facing step configuration, and reactive flows around a square prism. The former is of interest in practical gas turbine combustor applications in which the thermo-acoustic instabilities are a strong concern, and the latter serves as a good model problem to capture the vortex shedding behind a bluff body. In addition, a reacting flow behind the square prism serves as a model for the study of flame stabilization in a micro-channel combustor. The present study utilizes fluid-cell reconstruction methods in order to capture important flame-to-solid wall interactions that are important in confined multicomponent reacting flows. Results show that the DNS with embedded boundaries can be extended to more complex geometries without loss of accuracy and the high fidelity simulation data can be used to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for the design of practical combustion devices.

  13. Manipulation of flow around bluff bodies by flexible slender filaments (United States)

    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad; Pinelli, Alfredo


    Manipulation of bluff bodies wakes to control the intensity of fluid forces and the induced solid vibrations is of paramount importance. A biomimetic passive control based on the use of flexible slender appendages protruding from the body into the separated region has shown promising achievements in drag reduction and moderating force fluctuations. The present research aimed at understating and optimizing the physical properties and the arrangement of elongated flexible filaments to delay the 3D transition of the wake in terms of Reynolds number, mean drag reduction, and mitigation of the force fluctuations. The numerical campaign unveiled the role of flexural stiffness of the filaments: matching the natural frequency with the vortex shedding frequency enhances the mixing at the lee side. However, softer filaments (i.e. larger time scales) lock-in on either side of mid plane breaking the symmetry of the flow field (inducing a net lift force). In addition to 2D effects, the presence of filaments can interfere with the 3D bifurcation process resulting in a delay of the spanwise destabilization of the wake. The most effective parameter for this transitional interference is the spacing between filaments that should be smaller than the wavelength of the dominant 3D unstable mode.

  14. Experimental Study on Bluff-Body Stabilized Premixed Flame with a Central Air/Fuel Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiheng Tong


    Full Text Available Bluff-body flame holders are commonly employed in many industrial applications. A bluff-body is usually adopted to enhance the downstream mixing of the combustion products and the fresh fuel-air mixtures, thus to improve the flame stability and to control the combustion process. In the present paper, flames stabilized by a conical-shape bluff-body flame holder with a central air/fuel jet were studied. Effects of both a central air jet and a central fuel jet on the structures and lean blowout limits of the premixed annular flames, and on the temperature on the upper surface of the bluff-body were investigated and presented. It was revealed that a central jet led to a considerable reduction of the temperature on the upper surface of the bluff-body. It was proposed to be caused by the alternation of flow structures (in the case with a central air jet altogether with the flame lifting from the burner (in the case with a central fuel jet. Thus, it might be used to solve the problem of the bluff-body with high heat loads in practical applications. The flame stability characteristics, for example the unstable flame dynamics and the lean blowout limits, varied with the injection of an air or fuel jet through the central pipe. Different blowout behaviors, being with or without the occurrence of flame split and flashing, caused by a central air jet were presented in the paper. In addition, when a small amount of central fuel jet (i.e., Uf/Ua = 0.045 was injected into the flow fields, an unsteady circular motion of the flame tip along the outer edge of the bluff-body was observed as well. Whereas, with an increase in the amount of the central fuel jet, the flame detached from the outer edge of the bluff-body and then became much more unstable. With a central air or fuel jet injecting into the flow field, premixed flames stabilized by the bluff-body became more unstable and easier to blowout.

  15. The bluff body stabilized premixed flame in an acoustically resonating tube: combustion CFD and measured pressure field.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Matarazzo, Salvatore; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; M. Pawelczyk, D. Bismor


    The resulting limit cycle amplitude and frequency spectrum of a flame placed in a combustor of rectangular cross section is investigated. The partially premixed flame is stabilized on a bluff body placed in the upstream half of the combustor. The bluff body is an equilateral triangular wedge with

  16. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. (United States)


    ... and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and... may be designated by the District Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Fla., at each...

  17. DNS of turbulent flow past a bluff body with a compliant tensegrity surface (United States)

    Karandikar, Anish; Bewley, Thomas


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study turbulent incompressible flow past a bluff body with a compliant surface. We use a 3D time-dependent coordinate transformation to account for the motion of the bluff body surface. Spatially, the flow domain is discretized using a dealiased pseudospectral method in the axial and azimuthal directions, while the radial (wall-normal) direction is discretized using a finite difference scheme. The grid is stretched in the azimuthal direction, which is handled spectrally. This leads to a unique challenge when solving the Poisson equation in the fractional step method for the time march, which we address with both multigrid and preconditioned BiCGStab algorithms. We are presently extending this flow code with a model for the compliant bluff body surface based on the ``tensegrity fabric'' paradigm which combines compressive members (bars) and tensile members (tendons) in a stable, flexible network.

  18. National Assessment of Historical Shoreline Change: A Pilot Study of Historical Coastal Bluff Retreat in the Great Lakes, Erie, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Malone, Shamus; Kratzmann, Meredith G.


    Coastal bluff retreat is a chronic problem along many high-relief coastlines in the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regard-ing trends and rates of bluff retreat. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To address these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project, conducted a pilot study of bluff retreat along the Lake Erie, Pa., coastline to assess the feasibility of undertaking a larger, multi-state analysis in the Great Lakes region. This report provides an overview of the pilot-study location and bluff geomorphology, the data sources and methodology, results of the analysis, and a discussion of the feasibility of undertaking a similar analysis along eroding bluffs in other Great Lakes states. This pilot study is part of an ongoing effort by the USGS to provide a comprehensive analysis of historical shoreline change and cliff and bluff retreat along open-ocean coastlines of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of the work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing coastal change so that systematic and consistent periodic updates of coastal erosion can be made nationally. Bluff-retreat evaluations are conducted by comparing the location of a historical bluff edge digitized from aerial photographs with those of recent bluff edges interpreted from both aerial photographs and lidar topographic surveys. The historical bluff edge is from 1938, whereas the more recent bluff edges are from 1998 and 2006 lidar data. Long-term (68-year) rates of retreat are calculated using the available bluff-edge data. The rates of retreat presented in this report represent conditions from the 1930s to 1998/2006, and are not intended for

  19. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani


    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  20. Wall effect on fluid–structure interactions of a tethered bluff body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank, E-mail:; Komerath, Narayanan, E-mail:; Smith, Marilyn


    Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid–structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.

  1. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  2. Evaluation of LES models for flow over bluff body from engineering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Results are also discussed keeping in view limitations of LES methodology of modelling for practical problems and current developments. It is concluded that a one-equation model for subgrid kinetic energy is the best choice. Keywords. Subgrid scale stress models; engineering flows; flow over bluff body. 1. Introduction.

  3. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental data on acoustic pressure measurements obtained over a wide range of conditions is reported for two simple geometries that are commonly studied for their combustion dynamics behaviour. These geometries are the confined bluff-body and the confined backward-facing steps. The data indicate regimes of ...

  4. Site investigation of Bluff, May 24-26, 1983: Trip report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the site visit were to 1) familiarize ourselves with Bluff in relation to present and future proposals to mine by dredge, near-shore sed5ments for...

  5. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    studied for their combustion dynamics behaviour. These geometries are the confined bluff-body and the confined backward-facing steps. The data indicate regimes of flow-acoustic lock-on that signifies the onset of combustion instability, marked by the excitation of high-amplitude discrete tones of sound in the combustor.

  6. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H. L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Abdelkefi, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  7. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamics leading to blow-off of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on a confined bluff-body using high fidelity numerical simulations. We used unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. The flame-wall interaction between the hot reactants and the heat conducting bluff-body was accurately captured by incorporating the conjugate heat exchange between them. Simulations showed a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. The flame was negatively stretched along its entire length, primarily dominated by the normal component of the strain. Blow-off was approached by decreasing the mixture equivalence ratio, at a fixed Reynolds number, of the incoming flow. A flame is stable (does not undergo blow-off) when (1) flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed and (2) the gradient of the flame displacement speed normal to its surface is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction. As the equivalence ratio is reduced, the difference between the former and the latter shrinks until the dynamic stability condition (2) is violated, leading to blow-off. Blow-off initiates at a location where this is first violated along the flame. Our results showed that this location was far downstream from the flame anchoring zone, near the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range of operating conditions investigated, the conjugate heat exchange with the bluff-body had no impact on the flame blow-off.

  8. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized lean premixed syngas flames in a meso-scale channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik


    Direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized by a bluff-body in a meso-scale channel at near blow-off conditions, in order to provide fundamental insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the critical phenomena. Flames in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with a square flame holder are adopted as the model configuration, and a syngas mixture at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the CO:H ratio of 1 is considered. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blow-off limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to the blow-off limit, the recovery mode fails to occur but the flame survives as a short kernel attached to the base of the bluff-body, until it is completely extinguished as the attached flames are gradually shrunk towards the bluff-body. The results are systematically compared with the hydrogen flame results reported in our earlier study. Examination of the characteristic time scales of relevant processes provided understanding of key mechanisms responsible for the observed differences, thereby allowing improved description of the local extinction and re-ignition dynamics that are critical to flame stabilization.

  9. Drag of a D-shaped bluff body under small amplitude harmonic actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqing Li


    Full Text Available Open-loop flow control method was used to affect the development of a turbulent wake behind a D-shaped bluff body. Loud speakers were embedded inside the bluff body to produce two zero-net-mass-flux jets through 2 mm-wide span-wise slots located along the upper and lower edges on the rear wall. The drag forces for different actuation amplitudes (Cμ, the ratio between the momentum of the actuating jets and the moment deficit caused by the bluff body and frequencies (StA were examined. The effects of the phase difference in the two jets (0 and π were also studied. It was found that when Cμ was 0.1%, a drag reduction up to 5% was achieved when the velocities of the two jets varied in phase at a frequency of StA=0.16. When the velocities of the two jets varied π out of phase, significant drag increase was observed.

  10. Swimming Pool Safety (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  11. The science of pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.


    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  12. Decade-scale coastal bluff retreat from LiDAR data: Lake Erie coast of Pennsylvania, USA (United States)

    Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.


    Bluff retreat is a significant problem along many parts of the southern Great Lakes coastline of the United States. On the Pennsylvania coast of Lake Erie, where semi-consolidated clay-rich glacial till sequences overlie bedrock, erosion of the bluffs results in a permanent loss of fine-grained sediment from the coastal zone. Bluff retreat is of concern to coastal property owners and regulators because evaluating landslide hazards and developing regulations on coastal development must account for spatial and temporal variability in coastal retreat. Bluff retreat also contributes to temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this pilot study is to evaluate medium-term spatial variability in bluff retreat magnitudes and rates along a sector of the Pennsylvania coast. Newly available high resolution LiDAR data cover a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) and permit mapping of the bluff-crest position on two comparable, high-quality data sets. In contrast, long-term coastal change analyses typically involve comparison of a recent LiDAR data set with an older, lower-resolution data set developed from either field measurements, T-sheets, or aerial photography. While the older data can have much larger inherent errors than the LiDAR data, they become less significant over the longer time frames involved. The 6 km, geologically homogeneous, coastal bluff site is characterized by ~20 m of unlithified Pleistocene glacial tills and lake plain sediments overlying a 3-4 m ledge of near-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone bedrock. Bluff slopes range from 35-90 degrees, beaches are narrow to non-existent, and the coast is frequently protected by ground-freeze and a lake ice shelf during winter. DEMs, hillshades, and slope and contour maps were generated from the bare-earth 1998 and 2007 LiDAR data, and checked against 2005 aerial ortho-photography. Maps were analyzed at a scale of 1:120 in ArcGIS and the bluff crest was identified primarily by the visual

  13. The response of a harmonically forced premixed flame stabilized on a heat-conducting bluff-body

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the unsteady response of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame to harmonic inlet velocity excitation. A time series analysis was performed to analyze the physical sequence of events at a fixed longitudinal forcing frequency of 100 Hz for cases with (1) two different equivalence ratios and (2) two different thermal properties of the stabilizing bluff-body. It was observed that conjugate heat exchange between the heat conducting bluff-body and the surrounding reacting flow has a crucial impact on the dynamic response. The flame area and anchoring location, the net conjugate heat transfer and the total heat release underwent significant oscillations. The latter was mean shifted and had multiple frequencies. The burning velocity varied significantly along the flame length and the recirculation zone underwent complex changes in its shape and size during an unsteady cycle. The lower equivalence ratio case exhibited vortex shedding after an initial symmetric response with periodic flame extinction and re-ignition along its surface, unlike the higher equivalence ratio case. The metal/ceramic bluff-body showed a net heat transfer directed from/to the bluff-body, to/from the reacting flow during an unsteady cycle, resulting in a significantly different flame response for the two otherwise equivalent cases.

  14. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling. (United States)


    ... Loans eligible for Pooling. (a) General Pool Loan eligibility requirements. For a First Lien Position... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation. SBA...

  15. Guide to Surficial Geology and River-Bluff Exposures, Noatak National Preserve, Northwestern Alaska (United States)

    Hamilton, Thomas D.


    From its origin in rugged granitic highlands of the central Brooks Range, the Noatak River flows westward between the De Long Mountains and the Baird Mountains before turning south to enter Kotzebue Sound. Glaciers of middle and late Pleistocene age entered the Noatak River valley from the east, north, and south. Glaciers flowed down the upper Noatak River valley from the rugged peaks at its head, merging with tributary glaciers that issued from cirque-headed valleys along its south flank. Farther downvalley, small glaciers flowed northward from the Baird Mountains and much larger glaciers issued from the De Long Mountains. The De Long Mountains glaciers expanded southward to cover parts of the Noatak valley floor; they dammed the Noatak River during successive advances, creating a series of glacial lakes. The more extensive glacial advances dammed huge lakes that filled the Aniuk Lowland to overflowing. At various times, overflow waters spilled northward through Howard Pass, southward via Hunt River into the Kobuk River system, and westward down a series of channelways that skirted south of the glacier margins. Prominent bluffs along the Noatak River and its principal tributaries reveal glacial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial, and eolian sediments. More than 120 measured bluff exposures are described and illustrated in this report. These are dated by 92 radiocarbon age determinations and by the presence of the old Crow tephra, which was deposited about 130,000-140,000 years ago. Six geologic base maps, which cover sections of the Noatak River valley from east to west, show the locations of the river bluffs in relation to the glacial, glaciolacustrine, and fluvial deposits that cover the valley floor. The upper Noatak River valley is dominated by a bulky end moraine near Douglas Creek that was deposited during the last glacial maximum about 25,000-15,000 14C yr BP (termed the Itkillik II phase in the central Brooks Range glacial succession). Bluffs along this section of

  16. The instability characteristics of lean premixed hydrogen and syngas flames stabilized on meso-scale bluff-body

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Yu Jeong


    Bluff-body flame stabilization has been used as one of main flame stabilization schemes to improve combustion stability in both large and small scale premixed combustion systems. The detailed investigation of instability characteristics is needed to understand flame stability mechanism. Direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate flame dynamics on the instability of lean premixed hydrogen/air and syngas/air flames stabilized on a meso-scale bluff-body. A two-dimensional channel of 10 mm height and 10 mm length with a square bluff-body stabilizer of 0.5 mm is considered. The height of domain is chosen as an unconfined condition to minimize the effect of the blockage ratio. Flame/flow dynamics are observed by increasing the mean inflow velocity from a steady stable to unsteady asymmetrical instability, followed by blowoff. Detailed observations between hydrogen and syngas flames with a time scale analysis are presented.

  17. Map showing recent and historic landslide activity on coastal bluffs of Puget Sound between Shilshole Bay and Everett, Washington (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Harp, E.L.; Hultman, W.A.


    Many landslides occurred on the coastal bluffs between Seattle and Everett, Washington during the winters of 1996 and 1997. Shallow earth slides and debris flows were the most common, but a few deep-seated rotational earth slides also occurred. The landslides caused significant property damage and interfered with rail traffic; future landslides in the area pose significant hazards to property and public safety. Field observations indicate that ground-water seepage, runoff concentration, and dumping at the tops of the bluffs all contributed to instability of the bluffs. Most landslides in the study area occurred in colluvium, residuum, and landslide deposits derived from the Vashon Drift, particularly the advance outwash. In the northern part of the area, colluvium derived from the Pleistocene Whidbey Formation was also involved in shallow landslides. Comparison of recent activity with historic records in the southern part of the map area indicates that landslides tend to occur in many of the same areas as previous landslides.

  18. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized premixed hydrogen/air flames in a narrow channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik


    Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted for bluff-body stabilized flames of a lean hydrogen/air mixture at near-blowoff conditions in a meso-scale channel. Parametric simulations were conducted by incrementally varying the inflow velocity in the vicinity of the blowoff limit, and the corresponding flame response was monitored. The present study is a showcase of combustion DNS with embedded boundary representation, and full demonstration of the detailed visualization of the near-blowoff flame characteristics. As the inflow velocity approaches blowoff limit, the flame dynamics exhibit a complex sequence of events, such as periodic local extinction and recovery, and regrowth of the bulk flame by the flame segments attached behind the bluff-body. The total extinction is observed as the attached flames shrink down and are no longer able to regrow the bulk flames. Despite the disparity in the physical scale under study, the observed sequence of the extinction pathway shows a strong similarity with experimental observations at larger scale combustion systems. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  19. Reducing the pressure drag of a D-shaped bluff body using linear feedback control (United States)

    Dalla Longa, L.; Morgans, A. S.; Dahan, J. A.


    The pressure drag of blunt bluff bodies is highly relevant in many practical applications, including to the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles. This paper presents theory revealing that a mean drag reduction can be achieved by manipulating wake flow fluctuations. A linear feedback control strategy then exploits this idea, targeting attenuation of the spatially integrated base (back face) pressure fluctuations. Large-eddy simulations of the flow over a D-shaped blunt bluff body are used as a test-bed for this control strategy. The flow response to synthetic jet actuation is characterised using system identification, and controller design is via shaping of the frequency response to achieve fluctuation attenuation. The designed controller successfully attenuates integrated base pressure fluctuations, increasing the time-averaged pressure on the body base by 38%. The effect on the flow field is to push the roll-up of vortices further downstream and increase the extent of the recirculation bubble. This control approach uses only body-mounted sensing/actuation and input-output model identification, meaning that it could be applied experimentally.

  20. Seasonal electrical resistivity surveys of a coastal bluff, Barter Island, North Slope Alaska (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Johnson, Cordell; Lorenson, Thomas; Conaway, Christopher; Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li; Richmond, Bruce M.; Waldrop, Mark P.


    Select coastal regions of the North Slope of Alaska are experiencing high erosion rates that can be attributed in part to recent warming trends and associated increased storm intensity and frequency. The upper sediment column of the coastal North Slope of Alaska can be described as continuous permafrost underlying a thin (typically less than 1–2 m) active layer that responds variably to seasonal thaw cycles. Assessing the temporal and spatial variability of the active layer and underlying permafrost is essential to better constrain how heightened erosion may impact material fluxes to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean, and how enhanced thaw cycles may impact the stability of the coastal bluffs. In this study, multi-channel electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to image shallow subsurface features of a coastal bluff west of Kaktovik, on Barter Island, northeast Alaska. A comparison of a suite of paired resistivity surveys conducted in early and late summer 2014 provided detailed information on how the active layer and permafrost are impacted during the short Arctic summer. Such results are useful in the development of coastal resilience models that tie together fluvial, terrestrial, climatic, geologic, and oceanographic forcings on shoreline stability.

  1. Results of hydrologic monitoring on landslide-prone coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington (United States)

    Smith, Joel B.; Baum, Rex L.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Michel, Abigail R.; Stark, Ben


    A hydrologic monitoring network was installed to investigate landslide hazards affecting the railway corridor along the eastern shore of Puget Sound between Seattle and Everett, near Mukilteo, Washington. During the summer of 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring equipment at four sites equipped with instrumentation to measure rainfall and air temperature every 15 minutes. Two of the four sites are installed on contrasting coastal bluffs, one landslide scarred and one vegetated. At these two sites, in addition to rainfall and air temperature, volumetric water content, pore pressure, soil suction, soil temperature, and barometric pressure were measured every 15 minutes. The instrumentation was designed to supplement landslide-rainfall thresholds developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with a long-term goal of advancing the understanding of the relationship between landslide potential and hydrologic forcing along the coastal bluffs. Additionally, the system was designed to function as a prototype monitoring system to evaluate criteria for site selection, instrument selection, and placement of instruments. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system, present the data collected since installation, and describe significant events represented within the dataset, which is published as a separate data release. The findings provide insight for building and configuring larger, modular monitoring networks.

  2. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at

  3. Error analysis of large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed sydney bluff-body flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, A.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Oefelein, J.C.


    A computational error analysis is applied to the large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed Sydney bluff-body flame, where the error is defined with respect to experimental data. The errorlandscape approach is extended to heterogeneous compressible turbulence, which is coupled to combustion

  4. The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban. (United States)

    Stone, Sally F.

    The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

  5. Joint Scalar versus Joint Velocity-Scalar PDF Simulations of Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames with REDIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merci, B.; Naud, B.; Roekaerts, D.; Maas, U.


    Two transported PDF strategies, joint velocity-scalar PDF (JVSPDF) and joint scalar PDF (JSPDF), are investigated for bluff-body stabilized jet-type turbulent diffusion flames with a variable degree of turbulence–chemistry interaction. Chemistry is modeled by means of the novel reaction-diffusion

  6. Human and Climate Amplified Rapid River Bluff Erosion: an Application of Terrestrial-Based Structure-from-Motion and Time-Lapse Photogrammetry in the Midwestern USA (United States)

    Kelly, S. A.; Belmont, P.


    The Minnesota River Basin (MRB), south central Minnesota, is an extraordinary natural laboratory, and is currently impaired for excess sediments and nutrients. Tributaries of the Minnesota River have been actively incising and meandering into glacial tills for the last 13,400 years in response to a catastrophic base level drop. It is this geologic history combined with modern agricultural intensification and hydrologic change that provide a unique opportunity to study remarkably rapid bluff erosion using photogrammetry. Here we seek to understand the dominant mechanisms (fluvial toe erosion, freeze-thaw, groundwater sapping, tree throw, positive pore water pressures) and magnitude of bluff erosion using daily time-lapse photographs, repeat photo surveys, Structure-from-Motion (SfM), and calculations of bluff volumetric change through time. We expect for increased precipitation and streamflows in the basin to have accelerated bluff erosion via channel widening and migration. In general, we find that bluff failures occur during or immediately following (1-2 days) heavy rainfall events, especially during spring thaw, and the removal, or transport of the failed material out of the reach coincides with hydrograph flood peaks. Through the combined use of time-lapse and SfM photogrammetry we are able to identify the precipitation and flow events which occur with a frequency and magnitude large enough to effectively dominate bluff erosion. Identifying this `effective discharge' of bluff erosion is regionally important for sediment reduction strategies in the MRB.

  7. Vitamin D Pooling Project (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  8. Swimming pool granuloma (United States)

    Aquarium granuloma; Fish tank granuloma; Mycobacterium marinum infection ... A swimming pool granuloma occurs when water containing Mycobacterium marinum bacteria enter a break in the skin. Signs of a skin infection appear ...

  9. Combustion heat release effects on asymmetric vortex shedding from bluff bodies (United States)

    Cross, Caleb Nathaniel


    This thesis describes an investigation of oscillatory combustion processes due to vortex shedding from bluff body flame holders. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of combustion process heat release upon the Benard-von Karman (BVK) instability in reacting bluff body wakes. For this purpose, spatial and temporal heat release distributions in bluff body-stabilized combustion of liquid Jet-A fuel with high-temperature, vitiated air were characterized over a wide range of operating conditions. Two methods of fuel injection were investigated. In the first method, referred to as close-coupled fuel injection, the fuel was supplied via discrete liquid jets injected perpendicular to the cross-flowing air stream just upstream of the bluff body trailing edge, thereby limiting fuel and air mixing prior to burning. The fuel was introduced well upstream (˜0.5 m) of the bluff body in the second fuel injection mode, resulting in a well-evaporated and mixed reactants stream. The resulting BVK heat release dynamics were compared between these fuel injection modes in order to investigate their dependence upon the spatial distributions of fuel-air ratio and heat release in the reacting wake. When close-coupled fuel injection was used, the BVK heat release dynamics increased in amplitude with increasing global equivalence ratio, reaching a maximum just before globally rich blow out of the combustion process occurred. This was due to a decrease in fuel entrainment into the near-wake as the fuel spray penetrated further into the cross-flow, which reduced the local heat release and equivalence ratio (indicated by CH* and C2*/CH* chemiluminescence, respectively). As a result, the density gradient across the near-wake reaction zone decreased, resulting in less damping of vorticity due to dilatation. In addition, unburned reactants were entrained into the recirculation zone due to the injection of discrete liquid fuel jets in close proximity to the wake. This

  10. A quasi-steady 3 degree-of-freedom model for the determination of the onset of bluff body galloping instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, H.; Georgakis, Christos


    In this paper, a quasi-steady three degree-of-freedom (3-dof) flow-induced galloping instability model for bluff-bodies is proposed. The proposed model can be applied generally for the prediction of onset of galloping instability due to negative aerodynamic damping of any prismatic compact bluff...... body in a fluidic medium. The three degrees of freedom refer to the bluff body’s two orthogonal displacements perpendicular to its length axis and the rotation about its length axis. The model incorporates inertial coupling between the three degrees of freedom and is capable of estimating the onset...

  11. Drag reduction of a 3D bluff body using coherent streamwise streaks (United States)

    Pujals, G.; Depardon, S.; Cossu, C.


    Separation on the rear-end of an Ahmed body is suppressed by means of large-scale coherent streaks forced on the roof of the model. These streaks originate from an array of suitably shaped cylindrical roughness elements and are amplified by the mean shear through the lift-up effect. Interacting with the mean velocity field at leading order, they induce a strong controlled spanwise modulation. The resulting streaky base flow is observed to sustain the adverse pressure gradient since PIV measurements as well as static wall pressure distributions show that the re-circulation bubble completely vanishes. These modifications of the topology of the flow are associated with a substantial drag reduction, which can be of about 10% when the roughness array is optimally placed on the roof of the bluff body.

  12. Experimental investigation on longitudinal vortex control over a dihedral bluff body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehugeur, Benjamin; Gillieron, Patrick [Renault, Groupe Aerodynamique et Mecanique des Fluides, Technocentre, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Institut PRISME, Polytech' Orleans-Site Vinci, Orleans (France)


    The present paper addresses an experimental investigation of the dynamic and the control of a longitudinal vortex emanating from the front pillar of a dihedral bluff body corresponding to a simplified geometry of an automotive vehicle. The control system is based on a thin rectangular slot located along the lateral edge of the windscreen and provides steady suction or blowing normal to the lateral face of the geometry. Qualitative results obtained with dye visualizations and Schlieren photos provide an overview of the impact of the control on the topology of the vortex flow. Quantitative Stereo-PIV measurements and unsteady forces measurements are used to characterize the interaction between the control and the longitudinal vortex. Controls that change significantly the topology of the vortex core and reduce aerodynamic drag are identified. (orig.)

  13. An embedding method for bluff body flows: Interactions of two side-by-side cylinder wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravoux, J.F. [Center for BioDynamics, Boston University, 02215, Boston, MA (United States); Nadim, A. [Keck Graduate Institute and Claremont Graduate University, 91711, Claremont, CA (United States); Haj-Hariri, H. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 22903, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    We introduce a simple method for the numerical simulation of bluff body flows where the solid object is represented by a distributed body force in the Navier-Stokes equations. The body force density is found at every time step to reduce the velocity within the computational cells occupied by the rigid body to a prescribed value. The method combines certain ideas from the immersed boundary method which was developed to treat biofluid mechanical flows and the volume-of-fluid method for simulating flows with fluid-fluid interfaces. The main advantage of this embedding method is that the computations can be effected on a regular Cartesian grid, without the need to fit the grid to the bluff body surfaces. Thus, flow past several complex bodies can be treated as easily as flow past a single body. The method is validated by reproducing well-established results for vortex shedding from a stationary cylinder. The flow past two side-by-side cylinders is then investigated. When the distance between the cylinders is small, they are seen to shed vortices in-phase, whereas for larger distances, the shedding occurs in anti-phase. For intermediate distances, various shedding patterns are observed, including quasi-periodic, asymmetric and chaotic regimes. Mean values and phase portraits associated with the cylinder lift and drag coefficients, as well as spectral analysis of the same data, are used to describe the flow. A transition diagram that can be compared with experiments or models outlines the various dynamical regimes as a function of the distance between the cylinders and the Reynolds number. (orig.)

  14. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...... of resources reflects individual preferences, the distribution of power, and pre-marital experiences. The analyses show that most Danish households use some type of income pooling and that the likelihood of income pooling varies considerably according to individual characteristics (age, education, occupation......, past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  15. Paleoenvironmental and geomorphic significance of bluff-top dunes along the Au Sable River in Northeastern Lower Michigan, USA (United States)

    Arbogast, Alan F.; Luehmann, Michael D.; William Monaghan, G.; Lovis, William A.; Wang, Hong


    We report on the age and evolution of five well-developed parabolic dunes that are perched on high ( 40 m) bluffs along the southern lip of the Au Sable River valley in northeastern Lower Michigan, U.S.A. These dunes are located on west/northwest-facing exposures and mantle the Jackpines Delta, which formed when the glacial Au Sable River system deposited sands and gravels into glacial Lake Warren in the Huron basin sometime between 15.1 and 14.7 ka. Lake level subsequently fell > 35 m as the ice margin retreated northward during the Twocreekan Interstadial. This regression resulted in abandonment of the Jackpines Delta and incision of the associated surface by the ancestral Au Sable River. Lake level subsequently rose 50 m during the Algonquin transgression, which likely promoted valley widening through channel migration. Eight samples were collected for OSL age determination of the dunes and yielded ages that suggest dune formation occurred mostly between 13.5 ka and 13 ka. This result, coupled with the landscape position of the dunes (i.e., south side of river; west/northwest-facing bluffs) suggests that the dunes largely formed: 1) during the Algonquin transgression when bluffs were eroded by stream-channel migration, and 2) by west-northwesterly winds that transported eolian sands from exposed bluff faces to the adjacent valley edge. This study contributes to the understanding of perched-dune formation in the Great Lakes region and further supports models indicating that westerly winds prevailed within 150 km of the ice margin during the late Pleistocene. It also demonstrates that interior dunes in this region formed in similar environmental settings to interior dunes in northern Europe and suggests that local factors, rather than specific climate intervals, should also be considered as they relate to dune evolution.

  16. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Coastal Bluff Erosion near Barrow Alaska over the Past Decade (United States)

    Kofoed, K. B.; Lopez, A. F.; Aguirre, A.; Aiken, Q.; Cody, R. P.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Green, E.; Nelson, L.; Lougheed, V.; Velasco, A. A.; Tweedie, C. E.


    Arctic coastal systems are recognized as being one of the most climate change - vulnerable ecosystems on Earth and represent a complex nexus for examining change at the interface between marine, terrestrial, atmospheric, cryospheric and social systems. Although coastal erosion has received increased attention in the Arctic, few studies have examined the fine scale spatiotemporal dynamics and variability in erosion rates relative to the range of factors that act concomitantly to control erosion (e.g. duration of ice free seas, bathymetry, wave action, sea and air temperature, landscape morphology). This study reports on the spatiotemporal dynamics of annual DGPS surveys of eroding coastal bluffs in northern Alaska near the city of Barrow. Surveys along ca. 11km of the Elson Lagoon coast have been conducted since 2002 and additional surveys along ca. 120km of Elson Lagoon and Chuckhi Sea coast have been conducted since 2013. There has been strong inter-annual spatiotemporal variability in erosion rates with no indication of a long term change in erosion rates over time. Factors controlling wave intensity (e.g. wind run, off shore bathymetry, aspect of the coast relative to prevailing winds) explain most variability in erosion rates over time but during relatively calm periods, landscape history and morphology become more important. These findings highlight the extreme fine scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in erosion rates along the Arctic Coast, and the importance of incorporating both storm-related climatic events and landscape characteristics when forecasting future environmental states in Arctic coastal landscapes. Case studies outlining new remote sensing technologies and future directions of study will also be outlined including terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, and Kite, UAV, and satellite imagery that is being used to derive and monitor topographic and hydrological change near eroding coastal bluffs; a wireless sensor network of micrometeorological and optical

  17. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  18. Stochastic Pooling Networks


    McDonnell, Mark D; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Stocks, Nigel G.


    We introduce and define the concept of a stochastic pooling network (SPN), as a model for sensor systems where redundancy and two forms of 'noise' -- lossy compression and randomness -- interact in surprising ways. Our approach to analyzing SPNs is information theoretic. We define an SPN as a network with multiple nodes that each produce noisy and compressed measurements of the same information. An SPN must combine all these measurements into a single further compressed network output, in a w...

  19. Fracture Scale-Invariance in Antarctic Shelf Ice: Wing and Comb Crevasses along Shear Faults within the Minna Bluff Region (United States)

    Arcone, S. A.


    Wing and comb crevasses at the 0.1-10 km scale are associated with three of five large rifts presently off Minna Bluff on the western side of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Their similarity to millimeter-scale parent-wing structures that grow from random fractures in biaxially compressed polycrystalline ice specimens demonstrates fracture scale-invariance for these phenomena, as previously shown for sea ice at multi-km scale. Historical WorldView and Landsat images show that these rifts, at least partially filled with marine ice, initiate in a small parent-double wing structure near the Bluff. The tip of the east wing then grows to multi-km lengths eastward into the shelf as it is wedged open by sea water and marine ice to form a rift. The northern edge of each rift is now a right lateral transform fault, with motion caused by expansion rather than by compression in the crystallographic case. RADARSAT imagery differentiates these shear faults from true crevasses. Because of this shear the north edge becomes a new parent. On its relatively faster north side, these new parents have acutely angled stick-slip crevasses. 25 m of movement along the fault relative to the south side occurred over a 20 month period from 2010 to 2011. On the relatively slower south side, as in the crystallographic case the shear has generated multi-km-long curvilinear wings starting at the fault tips, curvilinear wing mouth crevasses that eventually converge far to the east, and comb crevasses (known as teeth) that parallel the wings, all starting more nearly orthogonally to the fault direction. Wings and combs can be as long as parents. Wings are also characterized by a shear fault from which new combs grow. Such evidence for shear along wings has not been seen in SEM crystallographic images, so that the Minna Bluff scale appears to have revealed this new phenomenon. By late 2015 shear crevasses beneath the north parent edge of this one particular rift had virtually closed, which reflects

  20. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... forth in the Program Guide, each Pool must have: (1) A minimum number of guaranteed portions of loans...

  1. ECS DAAC Data Pools (United States)

    Kiebuzinski, A. B.; Bories, C. M.; Kalluri, S.


    As part of its Earth Observing System (EOS), NASA supports operations for several satellites including Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. ECS (EOSDIS Core System) is a vast archival and distribution system and includes several Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located around the United States. EOSDIS reached a milestone in February when its data holdings exceeded one petabyte (1,000 terabytes) in size. It has been operational since 1999 and originally was intended to serve a large community of Earth Science researchers studying global climate change. The Synergy Program was initiated in 2000 with the purpose of exploring and expanding the use of remote sensing data beyond the traditional research community to the applications community including natural resource managers, disaster/emergency managers, urban planners and others. This included facilitating data access at the DAACs to enable non-researchers to exploit the data for their specific applications. The combined volume of data archived daily across the DAACs is of the order of three terabytes. These archived data are made available to the research community and to general users of ECS data. Currently, the average data volume distributed daily is two terabytes, which combined with an ever-increasing need for timely access to these data, taxes the ECS processing and archival resources for more real-time use than was previously intended for research purposes. As a result, the delivery of data sets to users was being delayed in many cases, to unacceptable limits. Raytheon, under the auspices of the Synergy Program, investigated methods at making data more accessible at a lower cost of resources (processing and archival) at the DAACs. Large on-line caches (as big as 70 Terabytes) of data were determined to be a solution that would allow users who require contemporary data to access them without having to pull it from the archive. These on-line caches are referred to as "Data Pools." In the Data Pool concept

  2. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  3. Research on Performance of H2 Rich Blowout Limit in Bluff-Body Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zheng


    Full Text Available In order to investigate H2 rich blowout limit at different blockage ratios and flow velocities, a CFD software FLUENT was used to simulate H2 burning flow field in bluff-body burner, and the software CHEMKIN was adopted to analyze the sensitivity of each elementary reaction. Composition Probability Density Function (C-PDF model was adopted to simulate H2 combustion field in turbulence flame. The numerical results show that reactions R2 and R9 possess the largest positive and negative temperature sensitivity. Temperature has a very important influence on these two reactions. When equivalence ratio is 1, the mixture is most ignitable, and the critical ignition temperature is 1550 K. There should be an optimal blockage ratio which can stabilize the flame best. When the blockage ratio remains unchanged, the relationship between H2 RBL and flow velocity is a logarithmic function. When the flow velocity remains unchanged, the relationship between H2 RBL and blockage ratio is a parabolic function. A complete extinction requires three phases: the temperature sudden decline in the main stream, the energy dissipation from the recirculation zone to the main stream, and the complete extinction of the flame.

  4. Core Spreading Vortex Method for Simulating 3D Flows Around Bluff Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavi R. Zuhal


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of core spreading vortex element method, which is a mesh-free method, for simulating 3D viscous flow over bluff bodies. The developed method simulates external flow around complex geometry by tracking local velocities and vorticities of particles introduced within the fluid domain. The viscous effect is modeled using core spreading method coupled with the splitting spatial adaption scheme, and a smoothing interpolation scheme for overlapping issue and population control, respectively. The particle’s velocity is calculated using Biot-Savart formulation. To accelerate computation, Fast Multipole Method (FMM is employed. The solver is validated, for both unbounded and bounded flows at low Reynolds numbers, using a number of benchmark problems. For unbounded case, simulation of the collision of two vortex rings was performed. To test the performance of the method in simulating bounded flow problem, simulation of flow around a sphere was carried out. The results are found to be in good agreement with those reported in literatures and also simulations using other diffusion model.

  5. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xiao


    Full Text Available Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transducers. A high speed camera with CH∗ bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state gradually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  6. The Productive Ligurian Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, E; Couvelard, X; Caldeira, R M A


    In contrast with the behavior of the eddies in the open-ocean, the sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the constricted Ligurian Basin (NW Mediterranean), are unproductive but their combined effect, arranged in a rim-like fashion, contributes to the containment of a Productive Ligurian Pool (PLP). Data de- rived from MODIS satellite sensor showed persistent higher chlorophyll con- centrations in the centre of the basin, concurrent with high EKE values in its surroundings, derived from AVISO altimetry merged products. This sug- gested that this 'productive pool' is maintained by the intense (sub)mesoscale eddy activity in the rim. Numerical realistic experiments, using a Regional Ocean Model System, forced by MERCATOR and by a high-resolution COSMO- l7 atmospheric model, also showed that most of the sub-mesoscale eddies, during 2009 and 2010, are concentrated in the rim surrounding the basin, contributing to the formation of a basin-scale cyclonic gyre. We hypothesized that the interaction between eddies in the r...

  7. Convection in arc weld pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oreper, G.M.; Eagar, T.W.; Szekely, J.


    A mathematical model was developed to account for convection and temperature distributions in stationary arc weld pools driven by buoyancy, electromagnetic and surface tension forces. It is shown that the electromagnetic and surface tension forces dominate the flow behavior. In some cases, these forces produce double circulation loops, which are indirectly confirmed by experimental measurements of segregation in the weld pool. It is also shown that the surface tension driven flows are very effective in dissipating the incident energy flux on the pool surface which, in turn, reduces the vaporization from the weld pool.


    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik


    The flame stability is known to be significantly enhanced when the flame is attached to a bluff-body. The main interest of this study is on the stability of the flame in a meso-scale channel, considering applications such as combustion-based micro power generators. We investigate the dynamics of lean premixed hydrogen/air flames stabilized behind a square box in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with high-fidelity numerical simulations. Characteristics of both non-reacting flows and reacting flows over the bluff-body are studied for a range of the mean inflow velocity. The flame stability in reacting flows is investigated by ramping up the mean inflow velocity step by step. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blowoff limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to blowoff limit, the local extinction and recovery becomes highly transient and a failure of recovery leads blowoff and extinction of the flame kernel.

  9. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat


    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  10. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  12. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo


    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  13. Optimal streaks in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body and their influence on vortex shedding (United States)

    Marant, Mathieu; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Grégory


    We compute the optimal perturbations of azimuthal wavenumber m THAT maximize the spatial energy growth in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body. Optimal perturbations with m ≠ 0 lead to the amplification of streamwise streaks in the wake. When forced with finite amplitude m ≠ 1, optimal perturbations have a stabilizing effect on large-scale unsteady vortex shedding in the wake. We show that m ≥ 2 modes, which are forced with zero mass flux, can significantly reduce the amplitude of the unsteady lift force exerted on the body. When combined with low levels of base bleed, these perturbations can completely suppress the unsteadiness in the wake with reduced levels of mass injection in the flow.

  14. Simulation of bluff-body flows using iterative penalization in a multiresolution particle-mesh vortex method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore

    The ability to predict aerodynamic forces, due to the interaction of a fluid flow with a solid body, is central in many fields of engineering and is necessary to identify error-prone structural designs. In bluff-body flows the aerodynamic forces oscillate due to vortex shedding and variations...... in the oncoming flow. This may lead to structural instability e.g. when the shedding frequency aligns with the natural frequency of the structure. Fluid structure interaction must especially be considered when designing long span bridges. A three dimensional vortex-in-cell method is applied for the direct...... numerical simulation of the flow past a bodies of arbitrary shape. Vortex methods use a simple formulation where only the trajectories of discrete vortex particles are simulated. The Lagrangian formulation eliminates the CFL type condition that Eulerian methods have to satisfy. This allows vortex methods...

  15. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker. (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael


    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  16. Vortex dynamics and scalar transport in the wake of a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    The air ventilation system in wide-body aircraft cabins provides passengers with a healthy breathing environment. In recent years, the increase in global air traffic has amplified contamination risks by airborne flu-like diseases and terrorist threats involving the onboard release of noxious materials. In particular, passengers moving through a ventilated cabin may transport infectious pathogens in their wake. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow. Data were obtained in a water facility using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. Ventilation attenuated the downward convection of counter-rotating vortices produced near the free-end corners of the body and decoupled the downwash mechanism from forward entrainment, creating stagnant contaminant regions.

  17. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" – Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael


    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars—a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players. PMID:27383472

  18. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  19. On the Role of Chemical Kinetics Modeling in the LES of Premixed Bluff Body and Backward-Facing Step Combustors

    KAUST Repository

    Chakroun, Nadim W.


    Recirculating flows in the wake of a bluff body, behind a sudden expansion or down-stream of a swirler, are pivotal for anchoring a flame and expanding the stability range. The size and structure of these recirculation zones and the accurate prediction of the length of these zones is a very important characteristic that computational simulations should have. Large eddy simulation (LES) techniques with an appropriate combustion model and reaction mechanism afford a balance between computational complexity and predictive accuracy. In this study, propane/air mixtures were simulated in a bluff-body stabilized combustor based on the Volvo test case and also in a backward-facing step combustor. The main goal is to investigate the role of the chemical mechanism and the accuracy of estimating the extinction strain rate on the prediction of important ow features such as recirculation zones. Two 2-step mechanisms were employed, one which gave reasonable extinction strain rates and another modi ed 2-step mechanism where it grossly over-predicted the values. This modified mechanism under-predicted recirculation zone lengths compared to the original mechanism and had worse agreement with experiments in both geometries. While the recirculation zone lengths predicted by both reduced mechanisms in the step combustor scale linearly with the extinction strain rate, the scaling curves do not match experimental results as none of the simpli ed mechanisms produce extinction strain rates that are consistent with those predicted by the comprehensive mechanisms. We conclude that it is very important that a chemical mechanism is able to correctly predict extinction strain rates if it is to be used in CFD simulations.

  20. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.


    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  1. Swimming Pools. Managing School Facilities, Guide 2. (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide for schools with swimming pools offers advice concerning appropriate training for pool managers, the importance of water quality and testing, safety in the handling of chemicals, maintenance and cleaning requirements, pool security, and health concerns. The guide covers both indoor and outdoor pools, explains some technical terms,…

  2. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of questions...

  3. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times the...

  4. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.


    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  5. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.


    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  6. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  7. Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool (United States)

    Childers, Gina; Wolfe, Kim; Dupree, Alan; Young, Sheila; Caver, Jessica; Quintanilla, Ruby; Thornton, Laura


    Project-based learning (PBL) takes student engagement to a higher level through reflective collaboration, inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and personal relevance. This article explains how six high school teachers developed an interconnected, interdisciplinary STEM-focused PBL called "Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool." The…

  8. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, B.; Gavves, E.; Oramas M., J.; Ghodrati, A.; Tuytelaars, T.

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation.

  9. Metal vaporization from weld pools (United States)

    Block-Bolten, A.; Eagar, T. W.


    Experimental studies of alloy vaporization from aluminum and stainless steel weld pools have been made in order to test a vaporization model based on thermodynamic data and the kinetic theory of gases. It is shown that the model can correctly predict the dominant metal vapors that form but that the absolute rate of vaporization is not known due to insufficient knowledge of the surface temperature distribution and subsequent condensation of the vapor in the cooler regions of the metal. Values of the net evaporation rates for different alloys have been measured and are found to vary by two orders of magnitude. Estimated maximum weld pool temperatures based upon the model are in good agreement with previous experimental measurements of electron beam welds.

  10. Experimental investigations into the nature of airflows near Bluff bodies with aspiration, with implications to aerosol sampling (United States)

    Sreenath, Avula; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Vincent, James H.

    The research described in this paper was stimulated by the need to understand better the nature of air flow around aerosol samplers of the type widely used in environmental and industrial hygiene. It deals with the application of visualisation techniques to determine the location of stagnation points for air flow about simple two- and three-dimensional bluff bodies (cylinder and sphere, respectively) for the case where there is aspiration of air (i.e. suction) from a point on the body surface. The effect of orientation of the sampling orifice (or sink) with respect to the free stream on the location of stagnation points was compared with theoretical predictions using potential flow models. Good agreement was obtained, even for large angles with respect to the wind. For the two-dimensional cylindrical body, we also experimentally investigated the frequency of the vortex shedding in its near wake and how that is influenced by the aspiration. As represented by the dimensionless Strouhal number, this was found to be strongly dependent on the aspiration flow rate and the slot orientation. The results may be explained qualitatively in terms of the effect of aspiration on the development of the boundary layer over the cylinder surface.

  11. Characterizing meteorological and hydrologic conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation in the coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey (United States)

    Ashland, Francis; Fiore, Alex R.; Reilly, Pamela A.; De Graff, Jerome V.; Shakoor, Abdul


    Meteorological and hydrologic conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation in the coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey remain undocumented despite a history of damaging slope movement extending back to at least 1903. This study applies an empirical approach to quantify the rainfall conditions leading to shallow landsliding based on analysis of overlapping historical precipitation data and records of landslide occurrence, and uses continuous monitoring to quantify antecedent soil moisture and hydrologic response to rainfall events at two failure-prone hillslopes. Analysis of historical rainfall data reveals that both extended duration and cumulative rainfall amounts are critical characteristics of many landslide-inducing storms, and is consistent with current monitoring results that show notable increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure in continuous rainfall periods. Monitoring results show that shallow groundwater levels and soil moisture increase from annual lows in late summer-early fall to annual highs in late winter-early spring, and historical data indicate that shallow landslides occur most commonly from tropical cyclones in late summer through fall and nor’easters in spring. Based on this seasonality, we derived two provisional rainfall thresholds using a limited dataset of documented landslides and rainfall conditions for each season and storm type. A lower threshold for landslide initiation in spring corresponds with high antecedent moisture conditions, and higher rainfall amounts are required to induce shallow landslides during the drier soil moisture conditions in late summer-early fall.

  12. A topological study of gravity free-surface waves generated by bluff bodies using the method of steepest descents (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe H.


    The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel.

  13. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis


    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  14. Shape optimization of active and passive drag-reducing devices on a D-shaped bluff body

    CERN Document Server

    Semaan, Richard


    Shape optimization of an active and a passive drag-reducing device on a two-dimensional D-shaped bluff body is performed. The two devices are: Coanda actuator, and randomly-shaped trailing-edge flap. The optimization sequence is performed by coupling the genetic algorithm software DAKOTA to the mesh generator Pointwise and to the CFD solver OpenFOAM. For the the active device the cost functional is the power ratio, whereas for the passive device it is the drag coefficient. The optimization leads to total power savings of $\\approx 70\\%$ for the optimal Coanda actuator, and a 40\\% drag reduction for the optimal flap. This reduction is mainly achieved through streamlining the base flow and suppressing the vortex shedding. The addition of either an active or a passive device creates two additional smaller recirculation regions in the base cavity that shifts the larger recirculation region away from the body and increases the base pressure. The results are validated against more refined URANS simulations for selec...

  15. Enhancement of Energy Harvesting Performance by a Coupled Bluff Splitter Body and PVEH Plate through Vortex Induced Vibration near Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ken Chin


    Full Text Available Inspired by vortex induced vibration energy harvesting development as a new source of renewable energy, a T-shaped design vibration energy harvester is introduced with the aim of enhancing its performance through vortex induced vibration at near resonance conditions. The T-shaped structural model designed consists of a fixed boundary aluminum bluff splitter body coupled with a cantilever piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEH plate model which is a piezoelectric bimorph plate made of a brass plate sandwiched between 2 lead zirconate titanate (PZT plates. A 3-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation analysis is carried out with Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model under wind speed of 7, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22.5, and 25 m/s. The results showed that with 19 m/s wind speed, the model generates 75.758 Hz of vortex frequency near to the structural model’s natural frequency of 76.9 Hz. Resonance lock-in therefore occurred, generating a maximum displacement amplitude of 2.09 mm or a 49.76% increment relatively in vibrational amplitude. Under the effect of resonance at the PVEH plate’s fundamental natural frequency, it is able to generate the largest normalized power of 13.44 mW/cm3g2.

  16. An interdepartmental, standardized equipment pool. (United States)

    Fahlstrøm, Elisabeth; Grimnes, Sverre; Johannejen, Nann Helene


    To solve problems concerning patient equipment with emphasis on patient care, nursing quality and better nursing management. A monitoring system, designed to follow the patient around in the hospital was discovered. Based on this concept a special, standardized pool system managed by the Clinical Engineering Department was developed. An all-department standardization of monitors and pumps was tried. With pumps it was a success. With monitors, two of 21 departments preferred non-standardized equipment. The equipment pool has successfully been run for 5 years. An evaluation showed that nursing care is better and that only 2% of those asked disapproved of the system. The pool eliminated problems like lack of equipment when needed, the wrong type of equipment found, lack of fitting disposables, the items that could be found being out of order or too dirty to be used. Nurses no longer waste time searching for equipment ready for use. Bedside equipment in working order can always be found in one of the storerooms. As a result, patient safety was greatly enhanced. We also show that this is economically a good system.

  17. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of this...

  19. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this section...

  20. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  1. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h) of...

  3. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of this...

  5. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in...

  6. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h) of...

  7. 48 CFR 9.703 - Contracting with individual pool members. (United States)


    ... individual pool members. 9.703 Section 9.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Development Pools 9.703 Contracting with individual pool members. (a) Pool members may submit individual... by a pool member if that pool member participates in a competing offer submitted by the pool. (b) If...

  8. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas


    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  9. Renewal of the separate type pool gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohhashi, Nobuyoshi; Izumo, Hironobu; Kameyama, Iwao; Isaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Monden, Yoshihiro; Tazura, Akio


    As a part of the modification of JRR-4, the pool gate was renewed. The pool gate is separated into two parts with packing on the both contact faces, and holds the pool water by the pressure caused by a difference of the water levels. The structure and the principle are so simple that treatment of the pool gate is easy. However, it is very difficult to secure the watertight performance of this gate type. Because the uneven and meandering easily occurred in the surface of the packing, in the former pool gate leakage of the pool water from the separate parts of the gate often occurred. Besides, the selection width of rubber material to conform was very small. In renewal of the pool gate, the mock-up experiment of the packing parts was performed. Based on the results, the new pool gate was designed and installed. The new seal structure developed for the new gate was confirmed to have a high watertight performance even under the condition of very low pool water level. And the loads which hung on the packing is decreased in the new developed packing structure. High watertight performance of the new pool gate was confirmed by the leak tests after installation. This report gives the development of the new pool gate with high watertight performance and the construction of it. (author)

  10. Pool fencing for preventing drowning in children. (United States)

    Thompson, D C; Rivara, F P


    In most industrialized countries, drowning ranks second or third behind motor vehicles and fires as a cause of unintentional injury deaths to children under the age of 15. Death rates from drowning are highest in children less than five years old. Pool fencing is a passive environmental intervention designed to reduce unintended access to swimming pools and thus prevent drowning in the preschool age group. Because of the magnitude of the problem and the potential effectiveness of fencing we decided to evaluate the effect of pool fencing as a drowning prevention strategy for young children. To determine if pool fencing prevents drowning in young children. We used Cochrane Collaboration search strategy of electronic databases, searched reference lists of past reviews and review articles, Cochrane International Register of RCT's, studies from government agencies in the United States and Australia, and contacted colleagues from International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, World Injury Network, and CDC funded Injury Control and Research Centers. In order to be selected a study had to be designed to evaluate pool fencing in a defined population and provide relevant and interpretable data which objectively measured the risk of drowning or near drowning or provided rates of these outcomes in fenced and unfenced pools. The completed studies meeting selection criteria employed a case-control design. No randomized controlled studies have been identified. Three published studies met selection criteria. Data were extracted by two reviewers using standard abstract form. Odds ratios with 95% CI, and incidence rates, were calculated for drowning and near-drowning. Attributable Risk percent (AR%) was calculated to report the reduction in drowning due to pool fencing. Case control studies which evaluate pool fencing interventions indicate that pool fencing significantly reduces the risk of drowning. Odds ratio for the risk of drowning or near drowning in a

  11. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.


    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.





    In this study,it was investigated the situation related to the safety and management of swimming pools belongs to municipality This study was planned to determine the present situation related to the safety and management of open,half-olympic and closed swimming pools which are especially used for sports activities,to find out the deficiencies in practise and to overcome these.Our study included totally 80 open,closed,olympic, half-olympic public swimming pools(the pools that belongs to munic...

  13. Aerodynamics of the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi: how a bluff body cross-sectional shape contributes to gliding performance. (United States)

    Holden, Daniel; Socha, John J; Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P


    A prominent feature of gliding flight in snakes of the genus Chrysopelea is the unique cross-sectional shape of the body, which acts as the lifting surface in the absence of wings. When gliding, the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi morphs its circular cross-section into a triangular shape by splaying its ribs and flattening its body in the dorsoventral axis, forming a geometry with fore-aft symmetry and a thick profile. Here, we aimed to understand the aerodynamic properties of the snake's cross-sectional shape to determine its contribution to gliding at low Reynolds numbers. We used a straight physical model in a water tunnel to isolate the effects of 2D shape, analogously to studying the profile of an airfoil of a more typical flyer. Force measurements and time-resolved (TR) digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) were used to determine lift and drag coefficients, wake dynamics and vortex-shedding characteristics of the shape across a behaviorally relevant range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The snake's cross-sectional shape produced a maximum lift coefficient of 1.9 and maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 2.7, maintained increases in lift up to 35 deg, and exhibited two distinctly different vortex-shedding modes. Within the measured Reynolds number regime (Re=3000-15,000), this geometry generated significantly larger maximum lift coefficients than many other shapes including bluff bodies, thick airfoils, symmetric airfoils and circular arc airfoils. In addition, the snake's shape exhibited a gentle stall region that maintained relatively high lift production even up to the highest angle of attack tested (60 deg). Overall, the cross-sectional geometry of the flying snake demonstrated robust aerodynamic behavior by maintaining significant lift production and near-maximum lift-to-drag ratios over a wide range of parameters. These aerodynamic characteristics help to explain how the snake can glide at steep angles and over a wide range of angles of attack

  14. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S

    is larger and warmer, a peculiarity of the pool in the Indian Ocean is its seasonal variation. The surface area of the pool changes from 24 x 106 km2 in April to 8 x 106 km2 in September due to interaction with the southwest monsoon. The annual cycles of sea...

  15. Shedding Light on Dark Liquidity Pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.


    This article reviews the recent developments on dark liquidity pools starting from the theoretical and empirical academic literature. The number of dark liquidity pools as well as their trading volume has grown substantially in the last couple of years. We highlight the incentives of providers as

  16. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina


    Full Text Available tidal pool water was compared to South African and other marine water quality guidelines. The microbial quality of a marine tidal pool on South Africa's Atlantic coast was found to be inferior to that of the adjoining seawater (the latter Complying...

  17. The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance (United States)

    Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L.


    The study of chemistry involved in the maintenance of a swimming pool provides a lot of chemical education to the students, including the demonstration of the importance of pH in water chemistry. The various chemical aspects hidden in the maintenance of the pool are being described.

  18. Sulfur cycling in two Dutch moorland pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marnette, E.C.L.


    Due to atmospheric acid deposition, the chemistry of many moorland pools has changed, resulting in changes in their fauna and flora. Most moorland pools are sensitive to acid loading because underlying and surrounding soils are low in chemical buffering capacity. Biological processes in the

  19. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708 Section 120.1708 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment... amount of a Pool Certificate cannot be less than a minimum amount as specified in the Guide, and the...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Peatland Pools (United States)

    Turner, E.; Baird, A. J.; Billett, M. F.; Chapman, P. J.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Holden, J.


    Peatlands contain around one third of the global soil carbon (C) stock. Understanding the processes in peatland C cycling, and in particular those involved in the release of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, is a current research priority. Natural open-water pools are a common feature of many peatlands, and previous research suggests pools can be strong sources of atmospheric GHGs, particularly CH4, and thus have the potential to play an important role in global radiative forcing. The area of open-water in peatlands is rapidly expanding in a warming Arctic (e.g. Walter et al., 2007) while artificially created pools are becoming more commonplace in the recent drive to restore the hydrological functioning of drained peatlands by blocking ditches. We present the results of >2 years of comprehensive field monitoring from pool complexes in the Flow Country of northern Scotland, the largest expanse (c.4000 km2) of blanket bog in Europe. Concentrations and fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are presented from 12 intensively monitored pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. We examined both natural (n = 6) and artificial (n = 6) pools, which allowed us to quantify how pools created during restoration compare to undisturbed sites. C and hydrology budgets were determined for the study pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. Dissolved concentrations of GHGs ranged from 0.08-4.68 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.01-731 µg CH4-C L-1 in natural pools, and 0.29-10.38 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.04-239 µg CH4-C L-1 in artificial pools. GHG fluxes from natural pool surfaces ranged between -2.47-653 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -31.7-14.8 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Artificial pool GHG fluxes were -8.19-581 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -7.66-34.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1. We provide more accurate GHG budgets for peatlands with natural pool complexes by considering their relative importance at the landscape-scale, and outline the potential effect on GHG fluxes when creating artificial pools during peatland restoration

  1. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E


    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  2. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)


    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  3. Loess Bluffs NWR ROCSTAR (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  4. Talent - for bluff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne


    »Talentet er blevet senkapitalismens alkymist,« skriver Susanne Ekman, der netop selv har modtaget en forskertalentpris.......»Talentet er blevet senkapitalismens alkymist,« skriver Susanne Ekman, der netop selv har modtaget en forskertalentpris....

  5. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.


    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  6. [Chlorine concentrations in the air of indoor swimming pools and their effects on swimming pool workers]. (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor; Tamaral, Francisco Manuel


    To describe chlorine levels in the air of indoor swimming pools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and relate them to other chemical parameters in the installation and to the health problems perceived by swimming pool workers. We analyzed 21 pools with chlorine as chemical treatment in Castilla-La Mancha. The iodometry method was applied to measure chlorine concentrations in the air. The concentrations of free and combined chlorine in water, pH and temperature were also evaluated. Health problems were surveyed in 230 swimming pool workers in these facilities. The mean chlorine level in the air of swimming pools was 4.3 ± 2.3mg/m(3). The pH values were within the legal limits. The temperature parameters did not comply with regulations in 17 of the 21 pools analyzed. In the pools where chlorine values in the air were above the legal regulations, a significantly higher percentage of swimming pool workers perceived eye irritation, dryness and irritation of skin, and ear problems. Chlorine values in the air of indoor swimming pools were higher than those reported in similar studies. Most of the facilities (85%) exceeded the concentration of 1.5mg/m(3) established as the limit for the risk of irritating effects. The concentration of chlorine in indoor swimming pool air has a direct effect on the self-perceived health problems of swimming pool workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  8. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Causes of Changes in Vegetation in the Vicinity of the Spring Bluff Nature Preserve, Lake County, Illinois, May 2007-August 2008 (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Miner, James J.; Maurer, Debbie A.; Knight, Charles W.


    Agriculture and urbanization have altered the hydrology and water quality of the coastal wetland complex along the shore of Lake Michigan at the Spring Bluff Nature Preserve and Illinois Beach State Park in northeastern Lake County, Ill., and the adjacent Chiwaukee Prairie State Natural Area in southeastern Wisconsin. Culverts, roads, ditches, and berms installed within the wetland complex have altered the natural directions of surface-water flow and likely have increased the natural hydroperiod in the Spring Bluff Nature Preserve and decreased it in the northern part of the Illinois Beach State Park. Relative to presettlement conditions, surface-water runoff into the wetlands likely is greater in quantity and higher in concentrations of several constituents, including chloride, nitrate, phosphorous, and suspended sediment. These constituent concentrations are affected by a variety of factors, including the amount of agricultural and urban land use in the watersheds. Hydrologic, chemical, and biologic processes within the wetland communities reduce the concentrations of these constituents in surface water before the water discharges to Lake Michigan by as much as 75 percent for chloride, 85 percent for nitrate, 66 percent for phosphorous, and more than an order of magnitude for suspended sediment. However, concentrations of phosphorous and suspended sediment in surface water increased within parts of the wetland complex. Given these changes, the floristic quality of these wetlands has been altered from the historic condition. Specifically, Typha spp. and Phragmites australis occur in greater numbers and over a larger area than in the past. The spread of Typha spp. and Phragmites australis appears to be enhanced by anthropogenic alterations within the wetland complex, such as increased water levels and duration of inundation and, possibly, increases in the total concentration of dissolved constituents in water.

  9. Southeastern superpave center pooled-fund activities. (United States)


    Much has been learned about materials characteristics, testing procedures, new equipment, mix design, and pavement performance through the many studies conducted as a part of the Southeastern Superpave Center (SSC) pooled-fund program. Lessons learne...

  10. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  11. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology. (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  12. Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems


    Rosenfeld, Meni


    In this paper we describe the various scoring systems used to calculate rewards of participants in Bitcoin pooled mining, explain the problems each were designed to solve and analyze their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  13. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  14. Virulent Naegleria fowleri in indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Kadlec, V; Skvárová, J; Cerva, L; Nebáznivá, D


    Naegleria fowleri was isolated from water during a hygienic inspection of a swimming pool in December 1977. This swimming pool was identified as a source of the infectious agent in the years 1962-1965, when a large outbreak of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) occurred. First two strains of N. fowleri, pathogenic for white mice after intracerebral and intranasal inoculation, were isolated from water of outlet troughs, additional strains were then isolated from various places; particularly from a cavity in the damaged wall of the pool. The incubation temperature did not inhibit a simultaneous growth of amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba, Flabellula, Hartmannella and Vahlkampfia in the primocultures. Epidemiological investigations did not reveal any new case of PAME in relation with the occurrence of pathogenic N. fowleri in the swimming pool.

  15. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor


    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...... the benefit of coordination among networks of different operators, study the impact of beamforming at both base stations and user terminals, and analyze the pooling performance at different frequency carriers. We also discuss the enabling spectrum mechanisms, architectures, and protocols required to make...... spectrum pooling work in real networks. Our initial results show that, from a technical perspective, spectrum pooling at mmWave has the potential to use the resources more efficiently than traditional exclusive spectrum allocation to a single operator. However, further studies are needed in order to reach...

  16. AE/VCE Confirmed Vernal Pools (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  17. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers


    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon


    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  18. A readily retrievable pool of synaptic vesicles


    Hua, Y; Sinha, R.; Thiel, C.; Schmidt, R.; Hueve, J.; Martens, H.; Hell, S.; Egner, A.; Klingauf, J.


    Abstract Although clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is thought to be the predominant mechanism of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling, it seems to be too slow for fast recycling. Therefore, it was suggested that a pre-sorted and pre-assembled pool of SV proteins on the presynaptic membrane might support a first wave of fast CME. In this study we monitored the temporal dynamics of such a 'readily retrievable pool' of SV proteins in rat hippocampal neurons using a novel probe. Applying...

  19. Pooled genomic indexing of rhesus macaque


    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Harris, Ronald A.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Ken J.; Hodgson, Anne; Cree, Andrew; Dai, Weilie; Csuros, Miklos; Zhu, Baoli; de Jong, Pieter J.; Weinstock, George M; Gibbs, Richard A.


    Pooled genomic indexing (PGI) is a method for mapping collections of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones between species by using a combination of clone pooling and DNA sequencing. PGI has been used to map a total of 3858 BAC clones covering ∼24% of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) genome onto 4178 homologous loci in the human genome. A number of intrachromosomal rearrangements were detected by mapping multiple segments within the individual rhesus BACs onto multiple disjoined loc...

  20. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi


    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  1. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger


    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  2. Disentangling pooled triad genotypes for association studies. (United States)

    Shi, Min; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R


    Association studies that genotype affected offspring and their parents (triads) offer robustness to genetic population structure while enabling assessments of maternal effects, parent-of-origin effects, and gene-by-environment interaction. We propose case-parents designs that use pooled DNA specimens to make economical use of limited available specimens. One can markedly reduce the number of genotyping assays required by randomly partitioning the case-parent triads into pooling sets of h triads each and creating three pools from every pooling set, one pool each for mothers, fathers, and offspring. Maximum-likelihood estimation of relative risk parameters proceeds via log-linear modeling using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The approach can assess offspring and maternal genetic effects and accommodate genotyping errors and missing genotypes. We compare the power of our proposed analysis for testing offspring and maternal genetic effects to that based on a difference approach and that of the gold standard based on individual genotypes, under a range of allele frequencies, missing parent proportions, and genotyping error rates. Power calculations show that the pooling strategies cause only modest reductions in power if genotyping errors are low, while reducing genotyping costs and conserving limited specimens. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  4. Swimming Pool Electrical Injuries: Steps Toward Prevention. (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Burnweit, Cathy A


    Electrical injuries in swimming pools are an important pediatric public health concern. We sought to (1) improve our understanding of the clinical presentation and outcomes following and (2) describe the epidemiology of swimming pool electrical injuries in the United States. We reviewed 4 cases of pediatric (public (23.9%) and sports facilities (19.1%). Electrical outlets or receptacles (39.8%) were most commonly implicated, followed by electrical system doors (18.2%), electric wiring systems (17.0%), thermostats (16.3%), hair dryers (4.6%), and radios (4.1%). Pediatric cases represented 48.4% of swimming pool-related electrical injuries reported to NEISS. Electrical injuries occurring in and around swimming pools remain an important source of morbidity and mortality. Although NEISS monitors sentinel events, current efforts at preventing such cases are less than adequate. All electrical outlets near swimming pools should be properly wired with ground fault circuit interrupter devices. Possible approaches to increasing safe electrical device installation are through strengthening public awareness and education of the potential for injury, as well as changes to current inspection regulations.

  5. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L


    total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk...... disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  6. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein


    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  7. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.


    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  8. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter or...

  9. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.


    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  10. (Teleostei; Clinidae) in intertidal rock pools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting species richness and abundance of clinid fish(Fam. Clinidae)in 19 intertidal rock pools near Muizenberg, South Africa, were investigated. Some measure of cover is the most important predictor of clinid species richness, abundance and biomass. Intraspecific partitioning of habitat by Clinus superciliosus ...

  11. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools (United States)

    ... swimming pools, water parks, hot tubs, interactive fountains, water play areas, lakes, rivers, or oceans. To view the report, please visit CDC recommends that all swimmers take the ... out of the water. Do not swim when you have diarrhea. Shower ...

  12. Blood pool images of soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Seiichi; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Manabe, Jun; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Shimoji, Takashi; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)


    From January 1986 through August 1992, three-phase bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or Tc-99m hydroxy methylene diphosphonate (HMDP) was performed on consecutive 152 patients with pathologically proven soft tissue tumors. The ability of blood pool scintigraphy to delineate tumors was examined in evaluable 149 patients. According to tumor histology, it showed hot spots in 28/29 for malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 16/16 for liposarcoma, 8/8 for periosteal sarcoma, 42/43 for other sarcomas, 10/11 for neurilemoma, 12/14 for desmoid, 1/4 for myxoma, 5/5 for pigmented villonodullar synovitis or giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, 7/7 for angiomas, and 9/12 for other benign tumors. Malignant tumors were shown as hot spots in 98% (94/96) and the entire tumors, including benign ones, in 93% (138/149). Blood pool scintigraphy was inferior in detecting mucous tumors and small nodules. It could not differentiate between degeneration or necrosis and cytoma that were detectable on MRI. Blood pool scintigraphy was superior in determining the outcome of preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In conclusion, blood pool scintigraphy is an essential preoperative method for providing useful information on soft tissue tumors. (N.K.).

  13. Measurements of fluid flow in weld pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.


    Understanding the fluid flow in weld pools contributes significantly toward controlling the heat distribution in the base material and the mass distribution of molten base and additive materials. Currently, most investigations focus primarily on numerical models, due to the experimental difficulties

  14. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  15. Pool boiling inversion through bubble induced macroconvection (United States)

    Jaikumar, A.; Kandlikar, S. G.


    While numerous surface geometries have been explored to achieve enhancements in pool boiling critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), their mechanistic contributions towards the characteristics of the pool boiling curve are not clear. Recently reported pool boiling curves in literature have shown a trend where an increase in heat flux leads to a decrease in wall superheat. Consequently, a negative slope in the pool boiling curve accompanied by a sharp increase in HTC, termed here as boiling inversion, is observed. We demonstrate that this inversion is due to vapor stream induced reinforcement of an impinging liquid jet over the non-boiling regions. This behavior is characteristic of surfaces developed using separate liquid-vapor pathways and macroconvection enhancement mechanism resulting in a highly efficient self-sustained boiling configuration. The increased jet impingement velocities lead to higher HTCs with lower wall superheats. The analytical models available in literature are employed to quantitatively explain this trend. Furthermore, a self-adjusting boiling mechanism is seen at play wherein a reduction in nucleation activity due to lowering of wall superheat counters the increase in HTC induced by the macroconvective currents.

  16. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools. (United States)


    ... magazines and newspapers; and (4) All media in the local community where the institution is located. If no... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  17. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu


    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage repr...

  18. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C


    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  19. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.


    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  20. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-


    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  1. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci


    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  2. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.


    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  3. Closed-Loop Flow Control of the Coupled Wake Dynamics and Aerodynamic Loads of a Freely-Pivoting 3-DOF Bluff Body (United States)

    Lambert, T.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.


    The motion of an axisymmetric bluff body model that is free to pivot in pitch, yaw, and roll in a uniform stream in response to flow-induced aerodynamic loads is controlled in wind tunnel experiments using fluidic actuation. The model is attached to an upstream, wire-supported short streamwise sting through a low-friction hinge, and each of the support wires is individually-controlled by a servo actuator through an in-line load cell. The aerodynamic loads on the body, and thereby its motion, are controlled through fluidic modification of its aerodynamic coupling to its near wake using four independent aft mounted synthetic jet actuators that effect azimuthally-segmented flow attachment over the model's tail end. The effects of actuation-induced, transitory changes in the model's aerodynamic loads are measured by its motion response using motion tracking, while the coupled evolution of the near-wake is captured by high-speed stereo PIV. Flow control authority is demonstrated by feedback-controlled manipulation of the model's dynamic response, and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of the wake is used to characterize changes in the wake structure and stability. It is shown that this flow control approach can modify the stability and damping of the model's motion (e.g., suppression or amplification of its natural oscillations), and impose desired directional attitude. Supported by the ARO.

  4. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.


    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  5. Platelet storage pool deficiency in Jacobsen syndrome. (United States)

    White, James G


    Jacobsen syndrome and Paris-Trousseau Syndrome share similar congenital anomalies, thrombocytopenia, giant platelet alpha granules resulting from fusion of smaller organelles, and an 11q terminal deletion at 11q23.3. Similarities in the two cohorts have suggested that the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome is a variant of Jacobsen syndrome, or the same disorder. The present study has pointed out a significant difference between the two syndromes. Platelets from six patients with Jacobsen syndrome were markedly diminished in serotonin adenine nucleotide rich dense bodies, indicating the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency. Since platelet dense bodies are reported to be normal in size, number and distribution in the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome, the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency in six patients evaluated in the present study may distinguish the two disorders.

  6. Unveiling the Black Markets of Pooled Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Atapattu


    Full Text Available Presence of black markets is not common for every industry but is a unique phenomenon in the industries such as asset pooling and leasing services. The unique business models and the asset flows that we see in such industries are susceptible for such threats and reveals the nature and extent of extent of industry-specific threats. This paper employs agility lens (Overby et al. 2006; Roberts and Grover 2012 to understand how such firms could address the issue of black market threats with the help of network structure. Through a case study of a global asset pooling and leasing company, we reveal the criticality of network structures, the difficulties, inadequacies and impracticalities of current tracking technologies that challenge firms in minimizing such threats.

  7. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... avoided. Hair and skin cells are precursors for DBPs so good filtration with fast removal of particles could also be an option to obtain lower DBPs formation. Another way to remove precursors is to ozonate the pool water, since ozonation of the precursors leads to organic compound which is less reactive...... affected the investigated groups of DBPs differently. An analogue consisting of the main component in urine and sweat and particles consisting of skin cells and hair were used as precursor material and in both cases the formation of THMs decreased with decreasing pH while HAN formation increased...

  8. Poole-frenkel piezoconductive element and sensor (United States)

    Habermehl, Scott D.


    A new class of highly sensitive piezoconductive strain sensor elements and sensors has been invented. The new elements function under conditions such that electrical conductivity is dominated by Poole-Frenkel transport. A substantial piezoconductive effect appears in this regime, allowing the new sensors to exhibit sensitivity to applied strain as much as two orders of magnitude in excess of prior art sensors based on doped silicon.

  9. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Stevens


    Full Text Available The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP and a slowly releasable (SRP pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles.

  10. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.


    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  11. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 18 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  12. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 8 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  13. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 4 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  14. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 13 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  15. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 6 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  16. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 20 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  17. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 21 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  18. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 19 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  19. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 24 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  20. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 26 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  1. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 14 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  2. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling. (United States)


    ... 52.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers, except... implemented and in accordance with the national thousands-block number pooling framework and implementation...

  3. [Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole'] / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-


    Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole : Eesti 20. sajandi kirjandusest Euroopa modernismi taustal' (1993, nr. 10 - 1997, nr. 10/11).Vastukaja: Hüpped modernismi poole: kajad ja vastukajad // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 6, lk. 99-111

  4. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  5. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 09 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  6. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 3 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  7. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 25 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  8. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 7 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  9. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 5 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  10. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 10 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  11. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 22 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  12. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 5a (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  13. Hydrology of vernal pools at three sites, southern Sacramento Valley (United States)


    The subsurface hydrology of vernal pools at three vernal pool complexes was investigated during three wet seasons in 2002- : 2004. The complexes were at Gridley Ranch, Valensin Ranch, and the Mather Field in northern California. The selected : comple...

  14. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 12 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  15. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq


    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes......Testing large quantities of samples in order to detect one or more test-positive sample(s) is expensive and time-consuming. It is possible to optimize this process by pooling samples. Two frameworks to produce different hierarchical and non-hierarchical pooling schemes were tested and compared...... to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test...

  16. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the impact that swimming pools have on domestic water demand. The results support the contention that properties with swimming pools use significantly more water than those without. This study estimated the additional demand resulting from swimming pools at between 2.2–2.4 kℓ/month or 7–8% of total water demand.

  17. Using "residual depths" to monitor pool depths independently of discharge (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle


    As vital components of habitat for stream fishes, pools are often monitored to follow the effects of enhancement projects and natural stream processes. Variations of water depth with discharge, however, can complicate monitoring changes in the depth and volume of pools. To subtract the effect of discharge on depth in pools, residual depths can be measured. Residual...

  18. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary S.


    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  19. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants. (United States)


    ..., the financial statements are not required to include consolidated information for all series. (7) For... event that the International Financial Reporting Standards require consolidated financial statements for... reporting pool's consolidated financial statements. (ii) The commodity pool operator of a pool that meets...

  20. Measurements in large JP-4 pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.; Schneider, M.E.


    Over the past four years, Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a number of large pool fire tests to evaluate the design of radioactive material (RAM) shipping containers. Some of these tests have been designed to define the thermal environment and some have been used for certification testing. In each test there have been a number of fire diagnostic measurements. The simplest sets of diagnostics have involved measurements of temperature at several elevations on arrays of towers, measurements of hot wall heat flux with small calorimeters suspended from the towers, the average fuel recession rate, and the wind speed and direction. The most complex sets of diagnostics have included the above and in various tests added radiometers in the lower flame zone, centerline velocity measurements at a number of elevations, radiometers and calorimeters at the fuel surface, large cylindrical and flat plate calorimeters, infrared imaging, time resolved fuel recession rates, and a variety of soot particle concentration and size measurements made in the plume with a tethered balloon and an instrumented airplane. All of the large fires have been conducted in a 9.1 m by 18.3 m pool using JP-4 as the fuel. Typical duration is one-half hour. Covering all of the results is beyond the scope of a single paper. Conditionally sampled temperature and velocity measurements from one fire will be presented; for this fire, a 20 cm layer of fuel was floated on 61 cm of water. Pool surface heat flux, fuel recession rate data, and smoke emission data from a second fire are given. Because the wind has a strong effect on the temperature and velocity measurements, conditional sampling has been used to try to obtain data during periods of low winds. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  2. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben


    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  3. Reduction of the pool-top radiation level in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Heonil; Park, Yong-Chul; Choi, Young-San [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor. Pool water is the only shielding to minimize the pool top radiation level. During the power ascension test of HANARO, the measured pool top radiation level was higher than the design value because some of the activation products in the coolant reached the pool surface. In order to suppress this rising coolant, the hot water layer system (HWL) was designed and installed to maintain l.2 meter-deep hot water layer whose temperature is 5degC higher than that of the underneath pool surface. After the installation of the HWL system, however, the radiation level of the pool-top did not satisfy the design value. The operation modes of the hot water layer system and the other systems in the reactor pool, which had an effect on the formation of the hot water layer, were changed to reduce pool-top radiation level. After the above efforts, the temperature and the radioactivity distribution in the pool was measured to confirm whether this system blocked the rising coolant. The radiation level at the pool-top was significantly reduced below one tenth of that before installing the HWL and satisfied the design value. It was also confirmed by calculation that this hot water layer system would significantly reduce the release of fission gases to the reactor hall and the environment during the hypothetical accident as well. (author)

  4. Plant diversity associated with pools in natural and restored peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fontaine


    Full Text Available This study describes plant assemblages associated with the edges of peatland pools. We conducted inventories in six natural peatlands in the province of Québec (Canada in order to measure the contribution of pools to species diversity in climatic regions where peatlands are used for peat extraction. We also carried out vegetation surveys in a peatland that has been restored after peat extraction/harvesting to determine whether pool vegetation establishes along the edges of created pools when dry surface restoration techniques only are used. Pools enhanced plant species richness in natural peatlands. Around created pools, species associated with natural pools were still absent, and non-bog species were present, six years after restoration. On this basis, we emphasise the importance of preserving natural peatlands with pools. In order to restore fully the plant diversity associated with peatlands at harvested sites, it may be necessary to modify pool excavation techniques so that created pools resemble more closely those in natural peatlands. Active introduction of the plant species or communities associated with natural pools may also be needed; candidate species for North America include Andromeda glaucophylla, Cladopodiella fluitans, Carex limosa, Eriophorum virginicum, Rhynchospora alba and Sphagnum cuspidatum.

  5. Investigation of segmentation based pooling for image quantification (United States)

    Porter, Reid; Harvey, Neal; Ruggiero, Christy


    A key step in many image quantification solutions is feature pooling, where subsets of lower-level features are combined so that higher-level, more invariant predictions can be made. The pooling region, which defines the subsets, often has a fixed spatial size and geometry, but data-adaptive pooling regions have also been used. In this paper we investigate pooling strategies for the data-adaptive case and suggest a new framework for pooling that uses multiple sub-regions instead of a single region. We show that this framework can help represent the shape of the pooling region and also produce useful pairwise features for adjacent pooling regions. We demonstrate the utility of the framework in a number of classification tasks relevant to image quantification in digital microscopy.

  6. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.


    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  7. Design of inventory pools in spare part support operation systems (United States)

    Mo, Daniel Y.; Tseng, Mitchell M.; Cheung, Raymond K.


    The objective of a spare part support operation is to fulfill the part request order with different service contracts in the agreed response time. With this objective to achieve different service targets for multiple service contracts and the considerations of inventory investment, it is not only important to determine the inventory policy but also to design the structure of inventory pools and the order fulfilment strategies. In this research, we focused on two types of inventory pools: multiple inventory pool (MIP) and consolidated inventory pool (CIP). The idea of MIP is to maintain separated inventory pools based on the types of service contract, while CIP solely maintains a single inventory pool regardless of service contract. Our research aims to design the inventory pool analytically and propose reserve strategies to manage the order fulfilment risks in CIP. Mathematical models and simulation experiments would be applied for analysis and evaluation.

  8. The La Hague pools; Les piscines de La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbib, Jean-Claude; Quetel, Ghislain; Guillemette, Andre


    As the Fukushima accident highlighted the possibility of an unforeseen event, and the difficulties to manage at the same time the cooling of the core cooling and of the pool in which used fuel is stored during one or two years, this report addresses the safety issues for storage pools such as those present on the AREVA site in La Hague. The authors recall and discuss some design aspects, notably those regarding seismic resistance and the existence of a breach. They describe and comment how these pools are managed as far as fuel assembly downloading, pool water contamination, thermal exchange between irradiated fuels and pool waters, and pool content evolution are concerned. Then, they focus on pool seismic resistance, on water supply capacities, on other safety criteria, and on risk management. They finally draw some lessons from the Fukushima accident

  9. Realization of standard synergy in the pool; Regelsynergie im Pool verwirklicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The supply of balancing energy can be profitable for operators of biogas plants. The necessary know-how for the marketing at the stock market and the technical interconnection to a virtual power plant pool is a challenge that can be implemented with a service provider.

  10. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs. (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios


    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  11. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration (United States)

    Smith, Jacob


    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  12. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.


    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  13. The readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G


    Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP. We conclude that many RRP vesicles are docked, that some docked vesicles may not be part of the RRP, and that undocked vesicles can contribute to the RRP by rapid recruitment to unoccupied, molecularly activated ready-to-release sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  15. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  16. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi


    in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....

  17. Statistical implications of pooling RNA samples for microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landfield Philip W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has become a very important tool for studying gene expression profiles under various conditions. Biologists often pool RNA samples extracted from different subjects onto a single microarray chip to help defray the cost of microarray experiments as well as to correct for the technical difficulty in getting sufficient RNA from a single subject. However, the statistical, technical and financial implications of pooling have not been explicitly investigated. Results Modeling the resulting gene expression from sample pooling as a mixture of individual responses, we derived expressions for the experimental error and provided both upper and lower bounds for its value in terms of the variability among individuals and the number of RNA samples pooled. Using "virtual" pooling of data from real experiments and computer simulations, we investigated the statistical properties of RNA sample pooling. Our study reveals that pooling biological samples appropriately is statistically valid and efficient for microarray experiments. Furthermore, optimal pooling design(s can be found to meet statistical requirements while minimizing total cost. Conclusions Appropriate RNA pooling can provide equivalent power and improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness for microarray experiments with a modest increase in total number of subjects. Pooling schemes in terms of replicates of subjects and arrays can be compared before experiments are conducted.

  18. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry


    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  19. Amino acid pool composition of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. (United States)

    Ulrich, Cynthia E; Gathman, Allen C; Lilly, Walt W


    The leaf-litter fungus Coprinus cinereus maintains a pool of free amino acid in its mycelium. When the organism is grown under conditions of high nitrogen availability with 13.2 mmol.L-1 L-asparagine as the nitrogen source, the primary constituents of this pool are glutamine, alanine, and glutamic acid. Together these 3 amino acids comprise approximately 70% of the pool. Nitrogen deprivation reduces the size of the free amino acid pool by 75%, and neither a high concentration of ammonium nor a protein nitrogen source support a similar pool size as L-asparagine. Nitrogen deprivation also reduces the concentration of glutamine to the pool while increasing glutamate. Concomitant with this shift is a marked increase in mycelial ammonium.

  20. Dehumidification by heat pump in indoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eymery, J.C. (Electricite de France, 75 - Paris)


    The values of the quantity of water evaporated in an indoor swimming pool are determined and technical alternatives for dehumidification are discussed; standard process by air replacement; new process by heat pump, with recovery of the latent heat of the moist air in the swimming pool hall. The author offers an example of the dimensioning of the heat pump and gives energy balances (fuel and electricity comsumption) of existing swimming pools equipped subsequently.

  1. A Double Evolutionary Pool Memetic Algorithm for Examination Timetabling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei


    Full Text Available A double evolutionary pool memetic algorithm is proposed to solve the examination timetabling problem. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm, two evolutionary pools, that is, the main evolutionary pool and the secondary evolutionary pool, are employed. The genetic operators have been specially designed to fit the examination timetabling problem. A simplified version of the simulated annealing strategy is designed to speed the convergence of the algorithm. A clonal mechanism is introduced to preserve population diversity. Extensive experiments carried out on 12 benchmark examination timetabling instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to produce promising results for the uncapacitated examination timetabling problem.

  2. Automated management of engineering infrastructure of pools of different purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich


    Full Text Available Pools play an important role in people’s life. They answer people’s demand in rest and improve their health. At the same time pools are rather important for industrial use, for example in construction industry. In order to solve different construction problems it is essential to investigate the influence of microclimatic parameters on construction materials and structures. For this aim pools are in demand as special test sites for construction materials and structures in different environmental conditions including the case of a direct water impact. The efficient use of pools presupposes the necessity of constant hydroclimatic contro: air humidity and temperature, water temperature, chemical composition of water and air. Classification of pools of different purposes is presented in the article. The author considers the main problems of operation of pools as objects with complicated air-and-water environment. The questions of maintaining optimal microclimatic parameters in a pool are considered. The necessity of use of the control system of a microclimate, its efficiency, profitability and social effect of its implementation is described. A mathematical model of the thermal mode of a pool area is constructed. The process of indoor temperature regulation in the pool is considered.

  3. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling. (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C


    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  4. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act...

  5. The Solitude of Relevant Documents in the Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipani, A.; Lupu, M.; Kanoulas, E.; Hanbury, A.


    Pool bias is a well understood problem of test-collection based benchmarking in information retrieval. The pooling method itself is designed to identify all relevant documents. In practice, 'all' translates to `as many as possible given some budgetary constraints' and the problem persists, albeit

  6. Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet Nam. This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. The project will take place on two sites. Tam Giang ...

  7. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.


    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  8. 48 CFR 9.702 - Contracting with pools. (United States)


    ... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.702... of a power of attorney identifying the agent authorized to sign the offer or contract on that member's behalf. The contracting officer shall attach a copy of each power of attorney to each signed copy...

  9. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates. 120.1709 Section 120.1709 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... reflect the transfer on its records. (c) Contents of letter of transmittal for Pool Certificate. A letter...

  10. Towards the car-pooling; Le covoiturage a la cle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet, published by the french ministry of the environment and the national development, gives the advantages of the car-pooling and proposes examples to help the communities to install and succeed a car-pooling policy: the context, the tools of information, the national development, the strategy bonded to the public. (A.L.B.)

  11. Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet Nam. This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  12. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan


    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  13. Branchipodopsis species — specialists of ephemeral rock pools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anostracan Branchipodopsis genus is widespread throughout southern Africa and is the second most speciose anostracan taxon in this sub-continent. Branchipodopsis species are particularly dominant in small short-lived and clear rock pools, to the vagaries of which they are extremely well adapted. Such rock pools ...

  14. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah


    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  15. Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems (United States)

    R. Pouyat; P. Groffman; I Yesilonis; L. Hernandez


    The transformation of landscapes from non-urban to urban land use has the potential to greatly modify soil carbon (C) pools and fluxes. For urban ecosystems, very little data exists to assess whether urbanization leads to an increase or decrease in soil C pools. We analyzed three data sets to assess the potential for urbanization to affect soil organic C. These...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.109-2 - Equipment pools. (United States)


    .... Pooling operations should begin expeditiously, within 120 days, if feasible, following decisions regarding... transportation and handling costs, limited personnel resources, or limited space, pooling may be accomplished by means of equipment listings. Consideration should be given to the establishment of a laboratory advisory...

  17. A highly efficient design strategy for regression with outcome pooling. (United States)

    Mitchell, Emily M; Lyles, Robert H; Manatunga, Amita K; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F


    The potential for research involving biospecimens can be hindered by the prohibitive cost of performing laboratory assays on individual samples. To mitigate this cost, strategies such as randomly selecting a portion of specimens for analysis or randomly pooling specimens prior to performing laboratory assays may be employed. These techniques, while effective in reducing cost, are often accompanied by a considerable loss of statistical efficiency. We propose a novel pooling strategy based on the k-means clustering algorithm to reduce laboratory costs while maintaining a high level of statistical efficiency when predictor variables are measured on all subjects, but the outcome of interest is assessed in pools. We perform simulations motivated by the BioCycle study to compare this k-means pooling strategy with current pooling and selection techniques under simple and multiple linear regression models. While all of the methods considered produce unbiased estimates and confidence intervals with appropriate coverage, pooling under k-means clustering provides the most precise estimates, closely approximating results from the full data and losing minimal precision as the total number of pools decreases. The benefits of k-means clustering evident in the simulation study are then applied to an analysis of the BioCycle dataset. In conclusion, when the number of lab tests is limited by budget, pooling specimens based on k-means clustering prior to performing lab assays can be an effective way to save money with minimal information loss in a regression setting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Microscopic bubble behaviour in suppression pool during wetwell venting (United States)

    Zablackaite, G.; Nagasaka, H.; Kikura, H.


    During a severe accident PCV failure should be avoided and fission products inside PCV should be confined as much as possible. In order to minimize FPs release, Wetwell venting is conducted by releasing steam-non-condensable gas mixture carrying FPs from the Drywell to Suppression Pool. Steam is condensed by subcooled water in the pool, and most of FPs are retained into water. The removal of FP in the water pool is referred to as “Pool Scrubbing effect”. Hydrodynamic parameters of bubbles have impact on pool scrubbing effect. However, there is only few data available to evaluate quantitatively the bubble behaviour under depressurization and/or thermal stratification conditions. Series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of temperature distribution, non-condensable gas content and pressure in the Wetwell on bubble behaviour. Bubbles were visualized using High Speed Camera and adopting shadowgraphy technique. Applying Particle Tracking Velocimetry, bubble velocity and size distribution were obtained from recorded images. Experimental results show that with increasing suppression pool temperature, bubbles reaching the pool surface decreased in size and traveling velocity became slower. In pressurized wetwell, bubble behaviour was similar to that in the heated up suppression pool case, although bubble parameters were similar to the low temperature case. Higher air content induced water surface movement and bubbles were smaller due to break up.

  19. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples. (United States)

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R


    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented.

  20. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool. ...

  1. The Ineffectiveness of Manual Treatment of Swimming Pools NNAJI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Swimmers are usually endangered when they swallow contaminated pool water, inhale toxic disinfection by products such as trihalomethane (Nickmilder and Bernard, 2007) or by skin adsorption (Villanueva et al, 2007). The chance of infection through swallowing of pool water increases with the amount of water swallowed ...

  2. Estimating species pools for a single ecological assemblage. (United States)

    Shen, Tsung-Jen; Chen, Youhua; Chen, You-Fang


    The species pool concept was formulated over the past several decades and has since played an important role in explaining multi-scale ecological patterns. Previous statistical methods were developed to identify species pools based on broad-scale species range maps or community similarity computed from data collected from many areas. No statistical method is available for estimating species pools for a single local community (sampling area size may be very small as ≤ 1 km2). In this study, based on limited local abundance information, we developed a simple method to estimate the area size and richness of a species pool for a local ecological community. The method involves two steps. In the first step, parameters from a truncated negative trinomial model characterizing the distributional aggregation of all species (i.e., non-random species distribution) in the local community were estimated. In the second step, we assume that the unseen species in the local community are most likely the rare species, only found in the remaining part of the species pool, and vice versa, if the remaining portion of the pool was surveyed and was contrasted with the sampled area. Therefore, we can estimate the area size of the pool, as long as an abundance threshold for defining rare species is given. Since the size of the pool is dependent on the rarity threshold, to unanimously determine the pool size, we developed an optimal method to delineate the rarity threshold based on the balance of the changing rates of species absence probabilities in the sampled and unsampled areas of the pool. For a 50 ha (0.5 km2) forest plot in the Barro Colorado Island of central Panama, our model predicted that the local, if not regional, species pool for the 0.5 km2 forest plot was nearly the entire island. Accordingly, tree species richness in this pool was estimated as around 360. When the sampling size was smaller, the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval could reach 418, which was very

  3. Irrigation systems as common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo


    Full Text Available Les ressources communes sont des ressources naturelles ou artificielles partagées par différents utilisateurs ; l’exploitation de ces ressources crée une rivalité, souvent (mais pas nécessairement à l’origine de leur dégradation, voire de leur destruction. Cet article présente brièvement la théorie des ressources communes développée ces vingt dernières années par Elinor Ostrom et ses collègues, et l’illustre par plusieurs études de cas de systèmes d’irrigation du nord de l’Italie (Lombardie et Vallée d’Aoste. Il démontre que différents mécanismes sociaux, tels que les valeurs partagées et le réseau social existant au sein de la communauté d’utilisateurs, influent sensiblement sur l’efficacité des systèmes institutionnels de gestion des ressources communes.Common-pool resources are natural or man-made resources shared among different users, a condition that produces a competition for their utilization leading often (although not necessarily to their degradation or even to their destruction. This paper shortly discusses the "theory of the commons", as developed in the last 20 years by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues, and illustrates it by mean of case studies regarding a number of irrigation systems in Northern Italy (Lombardy and Aosta Valley. We show that that different social mechanisms, like the shared values e the social network existing inside the community of users, play a significant role in influencing the outcomes of the institutional schemes for the commons management.

  4. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.


    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  5. Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water (United States)

    Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.


    land irrigated for agriculture, has been identified as being susceptible. Biological data were used to evaluate the reliability of the map. In 12 of DOI's 26 study areas, concentrations of selenium measured in bird eggs were elevated sufficiently to significantly reduce hatchability of the eggs. The GIS map identifies 9 of those 12 areas. Deformed bird embryos having classic symptoms of selenium toxicosis were found in four of the study areas, and the map identifies all four as susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. The report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of the Dutch Flats area in Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebr. The area comprises about 60 square miles and consists predominantly of relatively flat-lying terraces. Farming is the principal occupation in the area. The farm lands are irrigated largely from surface water; ground water is used only as a supplementary supply during drought periods. The climate in the area is semiarid, and the mean annual precipitation is about 16 inches. The rocks exposed in the Dutch Flats area are of Tertiary sad Quaternary age. A map showing the areas of outcrop of the rock formations is included in the report. Sufficient unconfined ground water for irrigation supplies is contained in the deposits of the .third terrace, and wells that yield 1,000 to 2,000 gallons a minute probably could be developed. The depth to water in the area ranges from a few feet to about 80 feet sad averages about 30 feet. The depth to water varies throughout the year; it is least in the late summer when the recharge from irrigation is greatest, sad it is greatest in the early spring before irrigation is begun. A map showing the depth to water in September 1949 is included in the report. The ground-water reservoir is recharged by seepage from irrigation canals and laterals, by seepage from irrigation water applied to the farms, and, to a much lesser extent, by precipitation. In the area b

  6. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten


    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael


    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  8. poolHiTS: A Shifted Transversal Design based pooling strategy for high-throughput drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Peter J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key goal of drug discovery is to increase the throughput of small molecule screens without sacrificing screening accuracy. High-throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery involves testing a large number of compounds in a biological assay to identify active compounds. Normally, molecules from a large compound library are tested individually to identify the activity of each molecule. Usually a small number of compounds are found to be active, however the presence of false positive and negative testing errors suggests that this one-drug one-assay screening strategy can be significantly improved. Pooling designs are testing schemes that test mixtures of compounds in each assay, thereby generating a screen of the whole compound library in fewer tests. By repeatedly testing compounds in different combinations, pooling designs also allow for error-correction. These pooled designs, for specific experiment parameters, can be simply and efficiently created using the Shifted Transversal Design (STD pooling algorithm. However, drug screening contains a number of key constraints that require specific modifications if this pooling approach is to be useful for practical screen designs. Results In this paper, we introduce a pooling strategy called poolHiTS (Pooled High-Throughput Screening which is based on the STD algorithm. In poolHiTS, we implement a limit on the number of compounds that can be mixed in a single assay. In addition, we show that the STD-based pooling strategy is limited in the error-correction that it can achieve. Due to the mixing constraint, we show that it is more efficient to split a large library into smaller blocks of compounds, which are then tested using an optimized strategy repeated for each block. We package the optimal block selection algorithm into poolHiTS. The MATLAB codes for the poolHiTS algorithm and the corresponding decoding strategy are also provided. Conclusion We have produced a practical version

  9. Swimming pool deck as environmental reservoir of Fusarium. (United States)

    Buot, G; Toutous-Trellu, L; Hennequin, C


    While investigations on fungal contamination of swimming pools usually focus on dermatophytes, data on other potentially pathogenic molds are scarce. Here, we report the investigation of fungal colonization of the deck surrounding a hospital physical therapy swimming pool. Five series of samples from 8 sites were collected over one year from the pool surroundings. Concomitantly, 58 patients using the swimming pool were examined and samples obtained from those with suspected onychomycosis. All surface samples were positive for fungi, with Fusarium the most frequently recovered from 22 of 27 samples of sites surrounding the pool. Among the outpatients evaluated, two presented with a mixed onychomycosis from which Fusarium and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated. The questions of possible acquisition from the swimming pool area must be considered in both cases as the ungual lesions had developed within the previous three months. This warrants further studies to better understand the epidemiology of potentially pathogenic molds in areas surrounding pools in order to adopt appropriate measures to avoid contamination. This is of particular importance within medical institutions, considering the potential role of Fusarium onychomycosis as a starting point for disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients.

  10. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeźnik Ilona


    Full Text Available The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C. According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  11. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools (United States)

    Rzeźnik, Ilona


    The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C) and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C). According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  12. Adenine nucleotide pool variations in intact Nitrobacter winogradskyi cells. (United States)

    Eigener, U


    1. The ATP pool in Nitrobacter winogradskyi cells was determined by means of the luciferin-luciferase enzyme system and the ADP and AMP pools were measured after enzymatic conversion into ATP. 2. In the first 10 min after addition of nitrite to endogenously respiring cells, which had stood for 5--16 days after completion of the nitrite oxidation, the ATP pool dropped about 60%. 3. During the log phase the ATP pool was approx. 20--40 pmoles/5 mug cell-N. During growth it increased exponentially by 3--4 times the amount until the nitrite had been used up. Subsquently the ATP pool decreased at first rapidly and then more slowly without sinking to 0 in the first 2 months after nitrification. 4. Nitrite oxidizing cells had an energy charge of 0.37 during the log-phase. After approx. 90% of the substrate had been used up the energy charge had reached 0.57. 5. If the CO2 assimilation was inhibited in growing cultures by increased oxygen partial pressure, nitrite oxidation continued but the ATP pool increased. 6. The ATP pool and the activity of the endogenous respiration decreased by more than 50% during the first hours after the substrate had been used up.

  13. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning (United States)

    Freeman, Robert C.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Loftin, Cyndy


    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  14. Characterization of microbial populations associated with natural swimming pools. (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R


    Natural swimming pools are artificially created bodies of water that are intended for human recreational bathing and have no chemical disinfection treatment. The microbial populations in four private natural swimming pools were analysed to assess the typical microbiological parameters, establish the origin of faecal contamination in the water, and predict the behaviour of larger systems that are open to the public. For this purpose, faecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were enumerated in summer and winter. Moreover, faecal coliforms and enterococci populations were biochemically phenotyped with the Phene-Plate System, the diversity and similarity indexes were calculated and the isolates were identified. Three of the four natural pools exceeded the E. coli or enterococci limits stated in the recommendations for natural swimming pools. The concentrations of P. aeruginosa and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were acceptable. The results suggest that wildlife was an important source of faecal pollution in the pools. Since there is a lack of regulations on these systems, and the health risks are higher than in conventional swimming pools, further research is needed to establish the parameters for ensuring safe bathing in private and public natural swimming pools. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Pooled DNA genotyping on Affymetrix SNP genotyping arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping technology has advanced such that genome-wide association studies of complex diseases based upon dense marker maps are now technically feasible. However, the cost of such projects remains high. Pooled DNA genotyping offers the possibility of applying the same technologies at a fraction of the cost, and there is some evidence that certain ultra-high throughput platforms also perform with an acceptable accuracy. However, thus far, this conclusion is based upon published data concerning only a small number of SNPs. Results In the current study we prepared DNA pools from the parents and from the offspring of 30 parent-child trios that have been extensively genotyped by the HapMap project. We analysed the two pools with Affymetrix 10 K Xba 142 2.0 Arrays. The availability of the HapMap data allowed us to validate the performance of 6843 SNPs for which we had both complete individual and pooled genotyping data. Pooled analyses averaged over 5–6 microarrays resulted in highly reproducible results. Moreover, the accuracy of estimating differences in allele frequency between pools using this ultra-high throughput system was comparable with previous reports of pooling based upon lower throughput platforms, with an average error for the predicted allelic frequencies differences between the two pools of 1.37% and with 95% of SNPs showing an error of Conclusion Genotyping thousands of SNPs with DNA pooling using Affymetrix microarrays produces highly accurate results and can be used for genome-wide association studies.

  16. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A.


    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  17. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.


    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  18. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail:; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph


    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  19. Energy conservation in outdoor swimming pools. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, F.


    Part two of the report discusses the energy characteristics of three more BMFT/EC-supported demonstration plants (outdoor and indoor swimming pools) intended to investigate into low-cost energy supplies. Photographs, schematic sketches, tables, and figures facilitate access to the solar systems (collector surfaces, heat exchangers, water supply), the coverings (plastic foils), heat recovery systems recovering heat from the outgoing air (indoor swimming pools) and from filter backwash water as well as to other important aspects (swimming pool structures, site selection, climatic conditions). Water treatment and water heating systems are shown in a function diagram. (HWJ).

  20. Reducing political risk in EU pooling and sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, D.; Faleg (ed), G.


    Can states share political accountability by allowing common defence capability development, training of troops, or procurement of military equipment? Is the defence industry ready for Pooling and Sharing (PS)?

  1. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  2. Pool Onistarist kuulub kütusefirma omanikele / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-


    Alkoholikontserni Onistar kiiret tõusu Eesti alkoholiturul toetavad Vene rahvusest ärimeestele kuuluvate kütusefirmade Infast Oil ja Saurix Petroleum omanikud, kellele kuulub pool Eesti viinaturu liidri aktsiatest

  3. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements. (United States)


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE... commercial trade practices. The Committee shall designate a Committee employee as reserve pool manager. (b...

  4. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  5. schwimmbad: A uniform interface to parallel processing pools in Python (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel


    Many scientific and computing problems require doing some calculation on all elements of some data set. If the calculations can be executed in parallel (i.e. without any communication between calculations), these problems are said to be perfectly parallel. On computers with multiple processing cores, these tasks can be distributed and executed in parallel to greatly improve performance. A common paradigm for handling these distributed computing problems is to use a processing "pool": the "tasks" (the data) are passed in bulk to the pool, and the pool handles distributing the tasks to a number of worker processes when available. schwimmbad provides a uniform interface to parallel processing pools and enables switching easily between local development (e.g., serial processing or with multiprocessing) and deployment on a cluster or supercomputer (via, e.g., MPI or JobLib).

  6. Waterfowl Count over Pool 9 Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1970 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presents the observations of waterfowl flying over Pool 9 at Erie National Wildlife Refuge from late-August through early October, 1970.

  7. vipR: variant identification in pooled DNA using R

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altmann, Andre; Weber, Peter; Quast, Carina; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Binder, Elisabeth B; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram


    .... Thus, recently, screens for rare sequence variants were carried out in samples of pooled DNA, in which equimolar amounts of DNA from multiple individuals are mixed prior to sequencing with HTS...

  8. LCG Persistency Framework (POOL, CORAL, COOL) - Status and Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. The COOL package provides specific software components and tools for the h...

  9. Virulent Naegleria fowleri in an indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Kadlec, V; Cerva, L; Skvárová, J


    A reservoir of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri has been located in the cracked wall of a swimming pool where repeated outbreaks of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis were observed between 1962 and 1965.

  10. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  11. Cumulative Permitted Vernal Pool Losses - Mitigation Sites [ds652 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile represents mitigation areas included in the Vernal Pool Clean Water Act Permit Database, developed by AECOM for the Placer Land Trust. The permit...

  12. Stable hyper-pooling and query expansion for event detection


    Douze, Matthijs; Revaud, Jerome; Schmid, Cordelia; Jegou, Herve


    International audience; This paper makes two complementary contributions to event retrieval in large collections of videos. First, we propose hyper-pooling strategies that encode the frame descriptors into a representation of the video sequence in a stable manner. Our best choices compare favorably with regular pooling techniques based on k-means quantization. Second, we introduce a technique to improve the ranking. It can be interpreted either as a query expansion method or as a similarity a...

  13. Learnable pooling with Context Gating for video classification


    Miech, Antoine; Laptev, Ivan; Sivic, Josef


    Common video representations often deploy an average or maximum pooling of pre-extracted frame features over time. Such an approach provides a simple means to encode feature distributions, but is likely to be suboptimal. As an alternative, we here explore combinations of learnable pooling techniques such as Soft Bag-of-words, Fisher Vectors , NetVLAD, GRU and LSTM to aggregate video features over time. We also introduce a learnable non-linear network unit, named Context Gating, aiming at mode...

  14. A Highly Efficient Design Strategy for Regression with Outcome Pooling


    Mitchell, Emily M.; Lyles, Robert H.; Manatunga, Amita K.; Perkins, Neil J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.


    The potential for research involving biospecimens can be hindered by the prohibitive cost of performing laboratory assays on individual samples. To mitigate this cost, strategies such as randomly selecting a portion of specimens for analysis or randomly pooling specimens prior to performing laboratory assays may be employed. These techniques, while effective in reducing cost, are often accompanied by a considerable loss of statistical efficiency. We propose a novel pooling stra...

  15. Improved Energy Pooling Efficiency Through Inhibited Spontaneous Emission


    LaCount, Michael D.; Lusk, Mark T.


    The radiative lifetime of molecules or atoms can be increased by placing them within a tuned conductive cavity that inhibits spontaneous emission. This was examined as a possible means of enhancing three-body, singlet-based upconversion, known as energy pooling. Achieving efficient upconversion of light has potential applications in the fields of photovoltaics, biofuels, and medicine. The affect of the photonically constrained environment on pooling efficiency was quantified using a kinetic m...

  16. Accuracy of allele frequency estimation using pooled RNA-Seq. (United States)

    Konczal, M; Koteja, P; Stuglik, M T; Radwan, J; Babik, W


    For nonmodel organisms, genome-wide information that describes functionally relevant variation may be obtained by RNA-Seq following de novo transcriptome assembly. While sequencing has become relatively inexpensive, the preparation of a large number of sequencing libraries remains prohibitively expensive for population genetic analyses of nonmodel species. Pooling samples may be then an attractive alternative. To test whether pooled RNA-Seq accurately predicts true allele frequencies, we analysed the liver transcriptomes of 10 bank voles. Each sample was sequenced both as an individually barcoded library and as a part of a pool. Equal amounts of total RNA from each vole were pooled prior to mRNA selection and library construction. Reads were mapped onto the de novo assembled reference transcriptome. High-quality genotypes for individual voles, determined for 23,682 SNPs, provided information on 'true' allele frequencies; allele frequencies estimated from the pool were then compared with these values. 'True' frequencies and those estimated from the pool were highly correlated. Mean relative estimation error was 21% and did not depend on expression level. However, we also observed a minor effect of interindividual variation in gene expression and allele-specific gene expression influencing allele frequency estimation accuracy. Moreover, we observed strong negative relationship between minor allele frequency and relative estimation error. Our results indicate that pooled RNA-Seq exhibits accuracy comparable with pooled genome resequencing, but variation in expression level between individuals should be assessed and accounted for. This should help in taking account the difference in accuracy between conservatively expressed transcripts and these which are variable in expression level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Egan


    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  18. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  19. Swimming pools and health-related behaviours: results of an Italian multicentre study on showering habits among pool users. (United States)

    Pasquarella, C; Veronesi, L; Napoli, C; Castaldi, S; Pasquarella, M L; Saccani, E; Colucci, M E; Auxilia, F; Gallè, F; Di Onofrio, V; Tafuri, S; Signorelli, C; Liguori, G


    Showering before entering a swimming pool is highly recommended to reduce the risk of biological and chemical contamination. This study evaluated the behaviour of indoor swimming pool users; analysed the variables associated with lack of showering; and assessed awareness of the importance of showering. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about users of swimming pools located in five different Italian cities. The association between specific variables and the lack of showering was assessed. P swim showering was 'to wash oneself' (50.5%); or 'to get used to the temperature of the water' (44.3%); and 5.2% answered 'for both reasons'. Risk factors significantly associated with lack of showering were: female sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.59), age 14-17 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 3.40-7.64); not reading the swimming pool rules (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41); living in Central Italy (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.65-4.1) or Southern Italy (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.55); and previous/current attendance of a swimming course (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.48-1.97). The results revealed low compliance with the rule of showering before entering a swimming pool, and little awareness of the preventive role of showering in the hygienic management of swimming pools. There is a need for targeted educational interventions to inform swimming pool users of the reasons for the importance of showering before entering a pool. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability and Expansion of the Tropical Ocean Warm Pool (United States)

    Hoyos, C. D.; Webster, P. J.


    The tropical warm pool plays a determining role in the global climate since it acts as a sorce of thermodynamic forcing for the atmospheric general circulation. The warm pools (SST>28°C) extend from the Indian Ocean, across the Indonesian Archipelago into the western Pacific with a secondary area crossing Central America into the Caribbean and the central Atlantic ocean. The heating in the atmosphere above the warm pool influences climate over wide ranges of the planet. As there are zonal asymmetries in the extent of the warm pool, and hence variations in the locations of total heating of the atmospheric column, the warm pools also create centers of diabatic heating along the equator which set up the position and strength of the east-west Circulations which play integral roles in the coupled ocean-atmosphere tropical climate. In fact, almost all of the global vertically integrated heating resides over waters >27°C. The tropical warm pool is characterized by large-scale variations of SST on time scales that range from intraseasonal to interdecadal, considerably altering the forcing to the atmosphere. In addition to the existence of the large variability of the tropical warm pool SST, there is an upward trend in the tropical warm pool area, which is evident in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans with the area encompassed by the 28C isotherm groewing by 67% since 1920. Changes in the zonal and meridional circulation associated with the variability and expansion of the warm pool are studied using NCEP-NCAR and ERA40 reanalsysis. It is found that the impacts extend around the tropics and are associated with a slowing down of the Asian monsoon circulation and modulation of the of the equatorial Walker cells. Analysis of the IPCC-CMIP3 models for the 20th century show similar changes in the warm pool extent suggesting that changes that occur under different future emission scenarios may poossess credence. With greenhouse warming it is found that the warm pool

  1. UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Daniel WH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS, for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS. Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy.

  2. Reverse energy pooling in a K-Na mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, G.; Guldberg-Kjaer, S.; Milosevic, S.; Pedersen, J.O. [Niels Bohr Institute, O/rsted Laboratory, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen O/ (Denmark); Allegrini, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Piazza Torricelli 2, I-56126, Pisa (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166, SantAgata-Messina (Italy)


    We report experimental rate coefficients for the reverse heteronuclear energy-pooling collisions K(5D)+Na(3S){r_arrow}K(4P)+Na(3P) and K(7S)+Na(3S){r_arrow}K(4P)+Na(3P) at thermal energies. Both reactions are exothermic and very high rates were observed showing that reverse exothermic energy-pooling is an order of magnitude more efficient than the corresponding forward endothermic energy-pooling reactions. This is in accordance with the general behavior of the exothermic and endothermic energy-pooling rate coefficients in alkali-metal atoms. In the experiment the potassium atoms were excited in two steps to either the 5D or 7S state via the 4P level using two broadband cw dye lasers. A double-modulation technique has been used to select the fluorescence contributions at the Na(3P{sub J}) exit channels due only to the above reactions. The ground-state sodium and potassium atom densities were measured by the absorption of lines from a K-Na hollow-cathode lamp. The measured densities and fluorescence intensities have been used to obtain absolute reverse energy-pooling rate coefficients. The contribution to the rate coefficients from other processes are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.


    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  4. [ATP pool and bioluminescence in psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum]. (United States)

    Alekserova, L É; Alenina, K A; Efremenko, E N; Mazhul', M M; Piskunova, N F; Ismailov, A D


    Bioluminescence activity and ATP pool were investigated in the culture of psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum collected-from the exponential and stationary growth phases, as well as immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. In liquid culture, ATP pool remained at an almost a constant level throughout the luminescence cycle (over 100 h). The ATP pool in the stationary-phase and PVA-immobilizedl cells remained constant throughout their incubation in the medium (over 200 h) and in 3% NaCl solution (over 100 h): Quantitative assessment of integral photon yield and ATP pool indicated that bioluminescence decay in growing or stationary cells was not caused by limitation by the energy substrates of the luciferase reaction. Kinetic and quantitative parameters of emission activity and ATP pool excluded the possibility of formation of the aldehyde substrate for luciferase via reduction of the relevant fatty acids in NADPH and ATP-dependent reductase reaction and its oxidation in the monooxygenase reaction. Our results indicate that the aliphatic aldehyde is not utilized in the process of light emission.

  5. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva


    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  6. A petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (O, H, C and Sr) investigation of secondary minerals in volcaniclastic rocks at Minna Bluff, Antarctica: Petrogenesis of alteration and implications for paleoenvironmental conditions (United States)

    Antibus, J. V.; Panter, K. S.; Wilch, T. I.; Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.; Blusztajn, J.; Tripati, A. K.; Bindeman, I. N.


    The alteration of volcanic deposits is a function of eruptive style, environment of deposition and post-depositional processes. In this study we use petrographic and geochemical data on secondary minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45-km-long volcanic peninsula in the southern Ross Sea active between 12 and 4 Ma, to unravel their history and study the environmental conditions responsible for their alteration. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits, including lapilli tuff, hyaloclastite breccia and volcanic sediments, have been altered to contain secondary minerals zeolite, carbonate and rare chalcedony and clay (dickite). Carbonates include calcite, Mg-calcite (MgCO3> 4 to magnesite, siderite and rhodochrosite. Zeolites include phillipsite and chabazite and have high and variable alkali contents (Na+K/Ca up to 154) relative to fresh lavas (glass-rich volcaniclastics during or soon after the formation of each deposit. Changing conditions between anoxic and oxic environments are indicated by variations in the intensity of luminescence and Fe2+/Mn ratios measured in zoned carbonates. Secondary minerals were formed at elevated temperatures based on the stability of the zeolites (10°-99°C) and refined further using estimates from carbonate 13C-18O paleothermometry (5°-43°C). Evaporative distillation, possibly from steam vents, can explain enriched 18O compositions of some Mg-rich carbonates and chalcedony. The results may provide a record of climate variability during the growth of Minna Bluff. Using the estimated temperatures of formation and published fractionation factors, the δ18O of meteoric water in equilibrium with carbonates is calculated. In conjunction with estimates for the timing of alteration constrained by lavas dated above and below each deposit, these data reveal a broad shift from lighter (-24‰) to heavier (-16‰) values between ~11 and ~8.5 Ma, consistent with a period of climate warming. These findings are independently corroborated

  7. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi


    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  8. Safety analysis of a pool Genesis II irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica


    The Genesis II Irradiator manufactured by GRAT{sup *}STAR Inc. (USA) is a category III gamma irradiator in which the sealed source is contained in a water filled storage pool and is shielded permanently, i.e. the material has to move down to the source. Even though the pool is 5.6 m deep, what would happen if the water level lowered? There are a series of safety devices that will avoid this situation and calculations show that the water level has to be very low in order to deliver a significant dose; moreover, only in case a person remains at the border of the pool for a long time this would be risky. In conclusion, it is practically impossible for someone to be exposed to radiation from a Genesis II Irradiator source. (author)

  9. Nanoparticle Deposition During Cu-Water Nanofluid Pool Boiling (United States)

    Doretti, L.; Longo, G. A.; Mancin, S.; Righetti, G.; Weibel, J. A.


    The present research activity aims to rigorously investigate nanofluid pool boiling in order to definitively assess this as a technique for controlled nanoparticle coating of surfaces, which can enhance the nucleate boiling performance. This paper presents preliminary nanoparticle deposition results obtained during Cu-water (0.13 wt%) nanofluid pool boiling on a smooth copper surface. The tests were run in an experimental setup designed expressly to study water and nanofluid pool boiling. The square test sample block (27.2 mm × 27.2 mm) is equipped with a rake of four calibrated T-type thermocouples each located in a 13.6-mm deep holes drilled every 5 mm from 1 mm below the top surface. The imposed heat flux and wall superheat can be estimated from measurement of the temperature gradient along the four thermocouples. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the morphological characteristics of the obtained thin, Cu nanoparticle coating.

  10. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.


    studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many......Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...

  11. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.


    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  12. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich


    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  13. The spatial variability of water chemistry and DOC in bog pools: the importance of slope position, diurnal turnover and pool type (United States)

    Holden, Joseph; Turner, Ed; Baird, Andy; Beadle, Jeannie; Billett, Mike; Brown, Lee; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Dooling, Gemma; Grayson, Richard; Moody, Catherine; Gee, Clare


    We have previously shown that marine influence is an important factor controlling regional variability of pool water chemistry in blanket peatlands. Here we examine within-site controls on pool water chemistry. We surveyed natural and artificial (restoration sites) bog pools at blanket peatland sites in northern Scotland and Sweden. DOC, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, cations, anions and absorbance spectra from 220-750nm were sampled. We sampled changes over time but also conducted intensive spatial surveys within individual pools and between pools on the same sampling days at individual study sites. Artificial pools had significantly greater DOC concentrations and different spectral absorbance characteristics when compared to natural pools at all sites studied. Within-pool variability in water chemistry tended to be small, even for very large pools ( 400 m2), except where pools had a layer of loose, mobile detritus on their beds. In these instances rapid changes took place between the overlying water column and the mobile sediment layer wherein dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped from values of around 12-10 mg/L to values less than 0.5 mg/L over just 2-3 cm of the depth profile. Such strong contrasts were not observed for pools which had a hard peat floor and which lacked a significant detritus layer. Strong diurnal turnover occurred within the pools on summer days, including within small, shallow pools (e.g. control on several pool water chemistry variables including pH and DOC concentration with accumulation (higher concentrations) in pools that were located further downslope in both natural and artificial pool systems. These processes have important implications for our interpretation of water chemistry and gas flux data from pool systems, how we design our sampling strategies and how we upscale results.

  14. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A


    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  15. The central equipment pool, an opportunity for improved technology management. (United States)

    Gentles, W M


    A model for a central equipment pool managed by a clinical engineering department has been presented. The advantages to patient care and to the clinical engineering department are many. The distribution of portable technology that has been traditionally managed by the materials management function is a logical match to the expanding role of clinical engineering departments in technology management. Accurate asset management tools have allowed us to provide reliable measures of infusion pump utilization, permitting us to predict future needs as programs expand. Thus we are more actively involved in strategic technology planning. The central equipment pool is an excellent opportunity for the clinical engineering department to increase its technology management activities.

  16. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department


    After 32 years in Building 4 R‐050, the CERN Electronics Pool will re‐open in Building 13 R009 on Monday 13 December at 10:00 As of this date, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation, etc. Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us any input you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool operates on a self-service basis (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  18. Pool sajandit geenilugu, pikk tee veel käia / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-


    Vt. ka Koit 22. apr., lk. 7 pealkirja all: Tänavu täitub pool sajandit geenilugu. Võrumaa Teataja 26. apr., lk. 7 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geeniuuringuid. Inimese genoom on lõplikult järjestatud. Vooremaa 29. apr., lk. 5 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geenilugu. Virumaa Teataja 23. juuli, lk. 7 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geenilugu

  19. Pool sizes of precursors for phosphatidylcholine formation in adult rat lung type II cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posta, M.; Batenburg, J.J.; Smith, B.T.; Golde, L.M.G. van


    1. 1. The pool sizes of the choline intermediates and cofactors involved in the CDPcholine pathway were studied in alveolar type II cells from adult rat lung. 2. 2. The choline phosphate pool was much larger than both the choline and CDPcholine pools. 3. 3. Kinetic analysis of the pool sizes

  20. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.


    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  1. 76 FR 7975 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations (United States)


    ... financial regulators tasked with overseeing the financial integrity of the economy. Through the collection... implications. Finally, the Commission is proposing to collect information regarding a pool's subscriptions and...-level information, pool performance, pool subscriptions and redemptions, and the market value of pool...

  2. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)


    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  3. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.


    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  4. The impact of urbanization on water and sediment chemistry of ephemeral forest pools (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Suzanne D. Miller; John Newsted


    We compared the water and sediment composition of two ephemeral pools located in forested settings in a developed suburban area with two similar pools located in extensive forest in Massachusetts. We also compared the macroinvertebrate communities. The sediments of the forest pools were 100% organic material, while those of the urban pools were predominantly silt. The...

  5. Examination of homogeneity of selected Irish pooling groups (United States)

    Das, S.; Cunnane, C.


    In regional flood frequency estimation, a homogeneous pooling group of sites leads to a reduction in the error of quantile estimators which is the main aim of a regional flood frequency analysis. Examination of the homogeneity of regions/pooling groups is usually based on a statistic that relates to the formulation of a frequency distribution model, e.g. the coefficient of variation (Wiltshire, 1986; Fill and Stedinger, 1995) and/or skew coefficient, their L-moment equivalents (Chowdhury et al., 1991; Hosking and Wallis, 1997) or of dimensionless quantiles such as the 10-yr event (Dalrymple, 1960; Lu and Stedinger, 1992). Hosking andWallis (1993, 1997) proposed homogeneity tests based on L-moment ratios such as L-CV alone (H1) and L-CV & L-skewness jointly (H2) which were also recently investigated by Viglione et al. (2007). In this paper a study, based on annual maximum series obtained from 85 Irish gauging stations, examines how successful a common method of identifying pooling group membership is in selecting groups that actually are homogeneous. Each station has its own unique pooling group selected by use of a Euclidean distance measure in catchment descriptor space, commonly denoted dij and with a minimum of 500 station years of data in the pooling group, which satisfies the 5T rule (FEH, 1999, 3, p. 169) for the 100 yr quantile. It was found that dij could be effectively defined in terms of catchment area, mean rainfall and baseflow index. The sampling distribution of L-CV (t2) in each pooling group and the 95% confidence limits about the pooled estimate of t2 are obtained by simulation. The t2 values of the selected group members are compared with these confidence limits both graphically and numerically. Of the 85 stations, only 1 station's pooling group members have all their t2 values within the confidence limits, while 7, 33 and 44 of them have 1, 2 or 3 or more, t2 values outside the confidence limits. The outcomes are also compared with the

  6. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the vorticity of melt motion in the keyhole and weld pool has been evaluated in case of high power CO2 laser beam welding. The circulation of vorticity is obtained as a function of Reynolds number for a given keyhole volume which is linked to Mach number variation. The shear stress and thermal fluxes ...

  7. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present study, the vorticity of melt motion in the keyhole and weld pool has been evaluated in case of high power CO2 laser beam welding. The circulation of vorticity is obtained as a function of Reynolds number for a given keyhole volume which is linked to Mach number variation. The shear stress and ther-.

  8. Managing multiple fishery pools: property right regimes and market structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, A.N.


    Well-defined and enforceable property rights are usually seen as a prerequisite for optimal resource management. However, the interaction effects between different renewable resource pools with different ownership structures are often not well recognized. In this paper we introduce these interaction

  9. How to improve hygienic behaviour in holiday park swimming pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, I.; Keuten, M.G.A.


    Previous studies on contamination of swimming pool water showed that the hygienic behaviour of swimmers is the most important factor. The suggested hygienic behaviour is; having a pre-swim shower and using the toilet when nature calls. Knowing the importance of hygienic behaviour is one thing,

  10. Imported malaria in pregnant women: A retrospective pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia


    Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done using data from 1991 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. National malaria reference centres as well as

  11. Pronksist Theodor Pool ilmestab kooli aulat / Silvia Paluoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paluoja, Silvia, 1956-


    Pärnu Kuninga Tänava Põhikooli aulas avasid põllumajandusteadlase ja Eesti esimese põllutööministri tütar Mall Pool ja põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo Theodor Pooli pronksbüsti, mille autoriks on skulptor Mare Mikof

  12. Poole-Frenkel (PF) effect high field saturation


    Ongaro, R.; Pillonnet, A.


    An improved Poole Frenkel (PF) effect, based upon a rigorous methodological approach, is proposed. The chosen model is stated precisely, emphasis being made explicitly on the subtending hypotheses. A systematic reference to Fermi-Dirac function, allows to establish quantitatively the concept of PF saturation. The resulting general theory integrates, as particular applications, the previous one-dimensional PF theories.

  13. The Redox Potential of the Plastoquinone Pool of the Cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, R.M.; Schuurmans, J.M.; Bekker, M.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.


    A method is presented for rapid extraction of the total plastoquinone (PQ) pool from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 cells that preserves the in vivo plastoquinol (PQH(2)) to -PQ ratio. Cells were rapidly transferred into ice-cold organic solvent for instantaneous extraction of the cellular PQ

  14. Delinquent mortgages, neglected swimming pools, and West Nile virus, California. (United States)

    Reisen, William K; Takahashi, Richard M; Carroll, Brian D; Quiring, Rob


    Adjustable rate mortgages and the downturn in the California housing market caused a 300% increase in notices of delinquency in Bakersfield, Kern County. This led to large numbers of neglected swimming pools, which were associated with a 276% increase in the number of human West Nile virus cases during the summer of 2007.

  15. Sourcing and maintaining a pool of suitably skilled interpreters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a relatively small campus, given the low numbers of simultaneous interpreters generally available, establishing and maintaining an interpreting service of this magnitude posed a serious challenge. This article (in a case study format) describes, firstly, the recruitment and selection, and secondly, the training of a pool of ...

  16. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutant release in swimming pools (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.C.F.M.; Keuten, M.G.A.; Daanen, H.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Dijk, H.


    The amount of pollutants brought into the swimming pool water by swimmers is called anthropogenic pollutant release. The continual pollutant release is the amount of pollutants which is released during the submerged swimming period. The actual level of the continual pollutant release has not been

  17. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students? (United States)

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia


    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  18. On some aspects of Indian Ocean warm pool

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saji, P.K.; Balchand, A.N; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Annual and interannual variation of Indian Ocean Warm Pool (IOWP) was studied using satellite and in situ ocean temperature data IOWP surface area undergoes a strong annual cycle attaining a maximum of 24x106km2 during April...

  19. Vene maagaasi hind kerkis poole võrra / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. juuli lk. 4. Venemaa Euroopasse müüdava maagaasi hind tõuseb sel aastal 2007. aastaga võrreldes ligi poole võrra, 410 dollarini tuhande kuupmeetri eest. Kommenteerib Sirje Riivald

  20. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) plays a critical role in the design of pool type reactors and becomes an increasingly popular tool, thanks to the advancements in computing technology. In this paper, thermal hydraulic characteristics of a fast breeder reactor, design limits and challenging thermal hydraulic investigations ...

  1. Machine learning approach for pooled DNA sample calibration. (United States)

    Hellicar, Andrew D; Rahman, Ashfaqur; Smith, Daniel V; Henshall, John M


    Despite ongoing reduction in genotyping costs, genomic studies involving large numbers of species with low economic value (such as Black Tiger prawns) remain cost prohibitive. In this scenario DNA pooling is an attractive option to reduce genotyping costs. However, genotyping of pooled samples comprising DNA from many individuals is challenging due to the presence of errors that exceed the allele frequency quantisation size and therefore cannot be simply corrected by clustering techniques. The solution to the calibration problem is a correction to the allele frequency to mitigate errors incurred in the measurement process. We highlight the limitations of the existing calibration solutions such as the fact they impose assumptions on the variation between allele frequencies 0, 0.5, and 1.0, and address a limited set of error types. We propose a novel machine learning method to address the limitations identified. The approach is tested on SNPs genotyped with the Sequenom iPLEX platform and compared to existing state of the art calibration methods. The new method is capable of reducing the mean square error in allele frequency to half that achievable with existing approaches. Furthermore for the first time we demonstrate the importance of carefully considering the choice of training data when using calibration approaches built from pooled data. This paper demonstrates that improvements in pooled allele frequency estimates result if the genotyping platform is characterised at allele frequencies other than the homozygous and heterozygous cases. Techniques capable of incorporating such information are described along with aspects of implementation.

  2. Afterlife of a Drop Impacting a Liquid Pool (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Wei, Yanju; Tang, Xiaoyu; Law, Chung K.


    Drop impact on liquid pool is ubiquitous in industrial processes, such as inkjet printing and spray coating. While merging of drop with the impacted liquid surface is essential to facilitate the printing and coating processes, it is the afterlife of this merged drop and associated mixing which control the quality of the printed or coated surface. In this talk we will report an experimental study on the structural evolution of the merged droplet inside the liquid pool. First, we will analyze the depth of the crater created on the pool surface by the impacted drop for a range of impact inertia, and we will derive a scaling relation and the associated characteristic time-scale. Next, we will focus on the toroidal vortex formed by the moving drop inside the liquid pool and assess the characteristic time and length scales of the penetration process. The geometry of the vortex structure which qualitatively indicates the degree of mixedness will also be discussed. Finally, we will present the results from experiments with various viscosities to demonstrate the role of viscous dissipation on the geometry and structure formed by the drop. This work is supported by the Army Research Office and the Xerox Corporation.

  3. Orographic control of the Bay of Bengal cold pool rainfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8. Orographic control of the Bay of Bengal cold pool ... More interestingly in the absence of WG mountains, the BoB-CP shows a rainfall maxima in the boreal summer similar to that over its surrounding oceans. The WG also impacts the climate over the ...

  4. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool information. 229.1105 Section 229.1105 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...

  5. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools. (United States)

    Commons, Harriet V.


    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  6. Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken


    possible risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors (including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and mixed glioma). Data from 7 case-control studies (5 US and 2 Scandinavian) were pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals...

  7. Common-pool resources: Theoretical approaches for the analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Trujillo Cabrera


    Full Text Available This article presents a bibliographic review of the main trends of thought that have proposed models for the management of common-pool resources – CPR. It describes three generations of researchers; first, the conservative ideas of Garret Hardin, Mancur Olson and Albert W. Tucker, referring to the application of state regulation and privatization of property rights as the only solutions for the management of common pool resources; second, the liberal proposal of Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues, which call for the strengthening of local capacities and self-management, to reach successful models of common pool resources use; and finally, as a research agenda of third generation, the article presents the questioning of Eduardo Araral to the generalization of the policy prescriptions proposed by both currents. The usefulness of these theoretical approaches is visible for regions like the Colombian Amazon, where collective (public and private property rights prevail, and there is a current debate about the way as common pool resources should be administrated to guarantee the welfare of present and future generations. The analysis of these theoretical approaches is important, because it allows to improve the understanding of the dilemmas faced by local citizens and policy makers. In this sense, the comprehension of these approaches contributes to the regional debate about the models of natural resource management that should be adopted, in order to achieve their sustainable, efficient and equitable use.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Demmer


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  9. Solidification microstructures in single-crystal stainless steel melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipf, J.B.; Boatner, L.A.; David, S.A.


    Development of microstructure of stationary melt pools of oriented stainless steel single crystals (70%Fe-15%Ni-15%Cr was analyzed. Stationary melt pools were formed by electron-beam and gas-tungsten-arc heating on (001), (011), and (111) oriented planes of the austenitic, fcc-alloy crystals. Characterization and analysis of resulting microstructure was carried out for each crystallographic plane and welding method. Results showed that crystallography which favors ``easy growth`` along the <100> family of directions is a controlling factor in the microstructural formation along with the melt-pool shape. The microstructure was found to depend on the melting method, since each method forms a unique melt-pool shape. These results are used in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure for each plane and melting method employed. This investigation also suggests avenues for future research into the microstructural properties of electron-beam welds as well as providing an experimental basis for mathematical models for the prediction of solidification microstructures.

  10. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: urban water management, swimming pools, water demand management ... need to implement desalination schemes by ensuring water is ... significant saving of potable water and delay the need to invest in further water supply infrastructure such as dams and desali- nation plants. Such a ban would need to be ...

  11. Theoretical assessment of particle generation from sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M., E-mail: [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kissane, M.P., E-mail: [Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 46 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (France)


    Highlights: • Development of particle generation model for sodium-oxides aerosol formation. • Development of partially validated numerical simulations to build up maps of saturation ratio. • Nucleation of supersaturated vapours as relevant source of aerosols over sodium pools. • Prediction of high concentrations of primary particles in the combustion zone. - Abstract: Potential sodium discharge in the containment during postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) would have major consequences for accident development in terms of energetics and source term. In the containment, sodium vaporization and subsequent oxidation would result in supersaturated oxide vapours that would undergo rapid nucleation creating toxic aerosols. Therefore, modelling this vapour nucleation is essential to proper source term assessment in SFRs. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during an in-containment sodium pool fire has been developed. Based on a suite of individual models for sodium vaporization, oxygen natural circulation (3D modelling), sodium-oxygen chemical reactions, sodium-oxides-vapour nucleation and condensation, its consistency has been partially validated by comparing with available experimental data. As an outcome, large temperature and vapour concentration gradients set over the sodium pool have been found which result in large particle concentrations in the close vicinity of the pool.

  12. Transportation library connectivity and development pooled fund study, final report. (United States)


    This report is a record of the major activities and accomplishments of the Transportation Library : Connectivity and Development pooled fund study, TPF-5(237), from its approval by FHWA in : 2010 through its fifth and final annual meeting in August 2...

  13. Transportation library connectivity pooled fund study, TPF-5(105). (United States)


    This report is a record of the formation, major activities and accomplishments of the Transportation Library Connectivity : pooled fund study, TPF-5(105), from its approval by FHWA in 2005 through its fifth and final annual meeting in September : 201...

  14. Isolation of Fungi in Swimming pools in Enugu, Nigeria | Mbata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The most common fungi recovered were as follows: Cladosporium spp 74%, Penicillium spp 38%, Aspergillus spp 35%, Rhizopus spp 6% and ... have with the water and aerosol, there should be proper monitoring and sanitation for successful control and management of swimming pool related fungal infections.

  15. 75 FR 76975 - 2015 Resource Pool-Sierra Nevada Region (United States)


    ... (Western), a Federal power marketing administration of DOE, announces the Final 2015 Resource Pool allocations pursuant to its 2004 Power Marketing Plan (Marketing Plan) for the Sierra Nevada Customer Service... effective on January 10, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Sonja Anderson, Power Marketing Manager...

  16. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Herrawy


    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  17. Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an adaptation finance measure. Climate change-related insurance products have been commonly used to manage the risks from climate hazards over the last few years. However, traditional insurance has not been effective for low-frequency, high-severity events.

  18. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division


    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the

  19. ALOS2-Indonesia REDD+ Experiment (AIREX): Soil Pool Carbon Application (United States)

    Raimadoya, M.; Kristijono, A.; Sudiana, N.; Sumawinata, B.; Suwardi; Santoso, E.; Mahargo, D.; Sudarman, S.; Mattikainen, M.


    The bilateral REDD+ agreement between Indonesia and Norway [1] has scheduled that performance based result phase will be started in 2014. Therefore, a transparent and reliable Monitoring, Reporting and V erification (MRV) system for the following carbon pools: (1) biomass, (2) dead organic matter (DOM), and (3) soil, is required to be ready prior to the performance based phase. While the biomass pool could be acquired by space-borne radar (SAR) application i.e. SAR Interferometry (In-SAR) and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (Pol-InSAR), the method for soil pool is still needed to be developed.A study was implemented in a test site located in the pulp plantation concession of Teluk Meranti Estate, Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP), Pelalawan District, Riau Province, Indonesia. The study was intended to evaluate the possibility to estimate soil pool carbon with radar technology. For this purpose, a combination of spaceborne SAR (ALOS/PALSAR) and Ground Penetrating Radar (200 MHz IDS 200 MHz IDS GPR) were used in this exercise.The initial result this study provides a promising outcome for improved soil pool carbon estimation in tropical peat forest condition. The volume estimation of peat soil could be measured from the combination of spaceborne SAR and GPR. Based on this volume, total carbon content can be generated. However, the application of this approach has several limitation such as: (1) GPR survey can only be implemented during the dry season, (2) Rugged Terrain Antenna (RTA) type of GPR should be used for smooth GPR survey in the surface of peat soil which covered by DOM, and (3) the map of peat soil extent by spaceborne SAR need to be improved.

  20. Physician Assistant Applicant Pool: The First 50 Years. (United States)

    McDaniel, M Jane; Ruback, Ted J


    The physician assistant (PA) profession's first attempt to characterize the applicant pool for PA education began with publication of the first Annual Report on Physician Assistant Educational Programs in the United States in 1985. The methodology used in the report was limited, however, in identifying the number of unique applicants to PA programs. Collecting accurate and reliable data on the profession's applicant pool was the primary motivator leading to initiation of the Central Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA) in 2001. In the past 15 years, CASPA has provided increasingly valuable data on the profession's applicant pool, allowing for accurate tracking and analysis of trends in the growth and changing demographics of those applying to PA educational programs. This special report presents a unique analysis of CASPA data that relates the competitiveness of entry into PA programs with that experienced by our colleagues in medicine, for both Doctor of Medicine (MD) and Doctor or Osteopathic Medicine (DO) schools. We present data reflecting the most notable changing demographics of the profession's applicant and matriculant pools in sex, age, grade point average, and health care experience. We use aggregate data of self-identified race descriptors to compare the contributions of PA, medical, and osteopathic medicine schools to the improvement of diversity within the health professions. To date, the applicant pool of PA programs seems to have kept pace with the expansion of existing programs and the development of new programs. This article poses serious questions for the profession to ponder, as the demographics of those entering PA education change and the number of PA graduates continues to grow.

  1. Energy Pooling Upconversion in Free Space and Optical Cavities (United States)

    LaCount, Michael D.

    The ability to efficiently convert the wavelength of light has value in a wide range of disciplines that include the fields of photovoltaics, plant growth, optics and medicine. The processes by which such transformations are carried out are known as upconversions and downconversions. There are several ways to up/down convert light, each with its own attributes, issues, and competing mechanisms. Most are associated with one-body or two-body processes. Three-body dynamics are also possible though, going by the names of quantum cutting (downconversion) and energy pooling (upconversion). These use virtual excited electronic states to mediate conversions as has been experimentally realized using lanthanide ions embedded in wide bandgap materials. The use of lanthanides to convert light is not ideal due to their relative scarcity, toxicity, and the limited range of light frequencies that can be absorbed and emitted. Organic molecules, on the other hand, are typically non-toxic, are made up of abundant elements, and can be designed with tailored spectral properties. At issue is whether or not they can be used to carry out efficient energy pooling, the central question to be answered in this thesis. The research presented here draws on a perturbative quantum electrodynamics framework previously established for generic energy pooling. It was used to develop a computational methodology for determining the rate of energy pooling and its competing processes. This, in turn, draws on a combination of time-dependent density functional theory, quantum electrodynamics, and perturbation theory to generate the requisite material property data. This computational model was applied to two test systems consisting of stilbene-fluorescein and hexabenzocoronene-oligothiophene. The stilbene-fluorescein system was found to have a maximum energy pooling rate efficiency (as compared to competing processes) of 17% and the hexabenzocoronene-oligothiophene system was found to have a maximum

  2. Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Ritz, J.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Bernstein, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cho, E.; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Shore, R.; Virtanen, M.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Hunter, D.J.


    With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within

  3. Dynamically Induced Displacements of a Persistent Cold-Air Pool (United States)

    Lareau, Neil P.; Horel, John D.


    We examine the influence of a passing weather system on a persistent cold-air pool (CAP) during the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, USA. The CAP experiences a sequence of along-valley displacements that temporarily and partially remove the cold air in response to increasing along-valley winds aloft. The displacements are due to the formation of a mountain wave over the upstream topography as well as adjustments to the regional horizontal pressure gradient and wind-stress divergence acting on the CAP. These processes appear to help establish a balance wherein the depth of the CAP increases to the north. When that balance is disrupted, the CAP tilt collapses, which sends a gravity current of cold air travelling upstream and thereby restores CAP conditions throughout the valley. Intra-valley mixing of momentum, heat, and pollution within the CAP by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and seiching is also examined.

  4. The depletion of the human resources pool in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Du Preez


    Full Text Available The brain drain has become one of the dominant realities within the South African economy. The official emigration statistics from South African sources inadvertently minimizes the seriousness of the threat, but emigration figures received from foreign countries are indicative of the size of the problem. Emigration, however, is not the only cause for the depletion of the human resource pool. Internal migration, pseudo-emigration and the influx of unskilled workers also negatively effect the composition of the human resource provision in the country. Murder, HIV/AIDS and related diseases severely impact industry and will increasingly contribute to the brain drain. A radical reduction of the skilled work force and a dramatic shift in the composition of the human resource pool towards unskilled labour negatively impact on industry and inhibits South Africa's ability to compete effectively in an increasingly global market.

  5. Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; van der Velde, G.


    Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition...... and diversity in urban water systems are limited by the regional species pool and local environmental conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis of the macrophyte species composition revealed that urban and semi-natural water systems differed and differences could be related to local abiotic variables...... such as pH and iron concentrations. Macrophytes in the semi-natural area were typical for slightly acid and oligotrophic conditions. In urban water systems, exotic species characteristic of eutrophic conditions were present. In the semi-natural areas, the number of macrophyte species exceeded the number...

  6. Biofouling on austenitic stainless steels in spent nuclear fuel pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarro, M.I.; Moreno, D.A.; Chicote, E.; Lorenzo, P.I.; Garcia, A.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Montero, F. [Iberdrola Generacion, S.A., y C.M.D.S., Centro de Tecnologia de Materiales, Paseo de la Virgen del Puerto, 53, E-28005 Madrid (Spain)


    The objective of this study was to investigate the biofilm formation on three different types of austenitic stainless steel (UNS S30400, S30466 and S31600) submerged in a spent nuclear fuel pool. The presence of microorganisms in coupons was characterised using standard culture microbiological methods, microscopic techniques (epifluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy), and molecular biology techniques (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing fragments of 16S rDNA). The microscopy techniques showed signs of colonisation of stainless steels in spite of these extreme conditions. Based on sequencing of cultured microorganisms, different bacteria belonging to {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}-Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria classes have been identified. The biofilm radioactivity was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry and, according to the data gathered, the radionuclides present in the water pool were entrapped in the biofilm increasing the amount of radiation at the surface of the different materials. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Conjugative plasmids: Vessels of the communal gene pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes


    Comparative whole-genome analyses have demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) provides a significant contribution to prokaryotic genome innovation. The evolution of specific prokaryotes is therefore tightly linked to the environment in which they live and the communal pool of genes...... available within that environment. Here we use the term supergenome to describe the set of all genes that a prokaryotic ‘individual' can draw on within a particular environmental setting. Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful entities within the communal pool, which have enabled HGT...... over large taxonomic distances. These plasmids are collections of discrete regions of genes that function as ‘backbone modules' to undertake different aspects of overall plasmid maintenance and propagation. Conjugative plasmids often carry suites of ‘accessory elements' that contribute adaptive traits...

  8. A common-pool resource experiment in acequia communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejem Raheem


    Full Text Available Farmers and rural advocates in New Mexico assert that traditional irrigators are better adapted to water scarcity and variability than other communities. Data to actually test this are often scarce, but such information could be useful for planning the state’s water future, especially as climate change predictions tend toward less reliable supplies. This paper reports results from a common pool resource (CPR experiment that simulates irrigating behavior using two groups: rural irrigators and undergraduate students. Despite predictions to the opposite, there was no significant difference between mean withdrawals or predictions of other players’ behavior. On average, both groups withdrew above the social optimum but below the Nash equilibrium. This work appears to be the first example of a common pool resource experiment conducted with traditional New Mexican irrigators.

  9. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  10. Energy conservation in outdoor swimming pools. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, F.


    The paper reports about several EC- and BMFT-supported demonstration programs aiming at reducing the operating costs of outdoor and indoor swimming pools with the help of solar energy and additional measures such as energy conservation and heat recovery. Presenting a number of relevant characteristics an illustrated survey sums up the results available after an operating period of several years. Apart from referring to the basic findings the paper informs about organizational aspects. The measures and systems applied comprise solar water heating systems, coverings to reduce heat losses, and heat recovery systems recovering heat from filter backwash water, showers and the outgoing air. Details are given on how the different systems were realized in three demonstration swimming pools. (HWJ).

  11. The POOL Data Storage, Cache and Conversion Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Markus


    The POOL data storage mechanism is intended to satisfy the needs of the LHC experiments to store and analyze the data from the detector response of particle collisions at the LHC proton-proton collider. Both the data rate and the data volumes will largely differ from the past experience. The POOL data storage mechanism is intended to be able to cope with the experiment’s requirements applying a flexible multi technology data persistency mechanism. The developed technology independent approach is flexible enough to adopt new technologies, take advantage of existing schema evolution mechanisms and allows users to access data in a technology independent way. The framework consists of several components, which can be individually adopted and integrated into existing experiment frameworks.

  12. Mangrove litter production and organic carbon pools in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pools of organic carbon were identified and measured in non-harvested areas of the forest so that the effect of future (mangrove) harvesting on organic carbon production could be determined. Litter production was higher in summer (2.4 ± 0.2gm–2 d–1) than in winter (0.3 ± 0.1gm–2 d–1). Leaf litter on the forest floor was ...

  13. Detecting information pooling : evidence from earnings forecasts after brokerage mergers


    Ng, Serena; Shum, Matt


    Forecast improvements can be expected if the two partners involved in a brokerage merger pool information and expertise. We examine four large mergers of brokerage firms in the last decade to study the incidence of and explanations for forecast improvements after the mergers. At the brokerage-level, we find that for two of the four mergers, forecast improvements appear more pronounced in subsamples of stocks for which both of the pre-merger analysts were retained in the merged brokerage. At t...

  14. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin


    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  15. Large pool LMFBR design. Final report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wett, J. F.; Churchill, J. R.


    The design effort reported is an extension on past design effort and continuous concentration on those parts of the nuclear island unique to a commercial size pool type LMFBR. In particular, the work covers the reactor vessel, deck, rotating plugs, upper and lower internals, internal plenum separator system, IHX, pumps, cold traps, intermediate system layout, containment/confinement system, plot plan, and residual heat removal systems. Preliminary thermal, hydraulic, stress, and system analyses are also presented.

  16. Flexible automation and the loss of pooling synergy


    Slomp, Jannes; Zee, Durk-Jouke van der


    This paper focuses on the effects of flexible automation on the performance of a job shop. Flexible automated machines may significantly improve the delivery performance and the flow time of jobs. The insertion of a flexible automated system in a job shop, however, also has a counter effect on the manufacturing performance. This is caused by the reduction of pooling synergy due to the dedication implied by flexible automated machines. This paper investigates by means of a simulation study to ...

  17. A Simple Hierarchical Pooling Data Structure for Loop Closure (United States)


    quantized SIFT descriptors using a 1M vocabulary . INRIA Holidays 3 contains 500 image groups (1491 total), each of which represents a distinct scene...There are no filters, and no learning other than the trivial pooling of local descriptors. Motivated by this intuition, we propose a new hierarchical...and then use an inverted index. FAB-MAP [6] extends the basic setup by learning a generative model of the visual words using a Chow-Liu tree to model

  18. A high-fidelity approach towards simulation of pool boiling (United States)

    Yazdani, Miad; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios; Alahyari, Abbas A.


    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change. The particular focus is to develop a simulation technique that is capable of predicting the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of nucleate boiling and the transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution addressing a critical need to design enhanced boiling heat transfer surfaces. The macro-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The micro-scale of the microlayer, which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation near the wall, is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the sub-grid surface roughness is represented stochastically through probabilistic density functions and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is then represented based on the thermodynamics of nucleation process. This combination of deterministic CFD, local approximation, and stochastic representation allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against experimental measurements as well as reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface orientations. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement feature design on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  19. Direct Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Subcooled Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kunugi


    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation of the boiling phenomena is one of the promising approaches in order to clarify their heat transfer characteristics and discuss the mechanism. During these decades, many DNS procedures have been developed according to the recent high performance computers and computational technologies. In this paper, the state of the art of direct numerical simulation of the pool boiling phenomena during mostly two decades is briefly summarized at first, and then the nonempirical boiling and condensation model proposed by the authors is introduced into the MARS (MultiInterface Advection and Reconstruction Solver developed by the authors. On the other hand, in order to clarify the boiling bubble behaviors under the subcooled conditions, the subcooled pool boiling experiments are also performed by using a high speed and high spatial resolution camera with a highly magnified telescope. Resulting from the numerical simulations of the subcooled pool boiling phenomena, the numerical results obtained by the MARS are validated by being compared to the experimental ones and the existing analytical solutions. The numerical results regarding the time evolution of the boiling bubble departure process under the subcooled conditions show a very good agreement with the experimental results. In conclusion, it can be said that the proposed nonempirical boiling and condensation model combined with the MARS has been validated.

  20. Genotyping common and rare variation using overlapping pool sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasaniuc Bogdan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies set the stage for large, population based studies, in which the ANA or RNA of thousands of individuals will be sequenced. Currently, however, such studies are still infeasible using a straightforward sequencing approach; as a result, recently a few multiplexing schemes have been suggested, in which a small number of ANA pools are sequenced, and the results are then deconvoluted using compressed sensing or similar approaches. These methods, however, are limited to the detection of rare variants. Results In this paper we provide a new algorithm for the deconvolution of DNA pools multiplexing schemes. The presented algorithm utilizes a likelihood model and linear programming. The approach allows for the addition of external data, particularly imputation data, resulting in a flexible environment that is suitable for different applications. Conclusions Particularly, we demonstrate that both low and high allele frequency SNPs can be accurately genotyped when the DNA pooling scheme is performed in conjunction with microarray genotyping and imputation. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of our framework for the detection of cancer fusion genes from RNA sequences.

  1. Silicon pools in human impacted soils of temperate zones (United States)

    Vandevenne, F. I.; Barão, L.; Ronchi, B.; Govers, G.; Meire, P.; Kelly, E. F.; Struyf, E.


    Besides well-known effects of climate and parent material on silicate weathering the role of land use change as a driver in the global silicon cycle is not well known. Changes in vegetation cover have altered reservoirs of silicon and carbon in plants and soils. This has potential consequences for plant-Si availability, agricultural yields, and coastal eutrophication, as Si is a beneficial element for many crop plants and an essential nutrient for diatom growth. We here examined the role of sustained and intensive land use and human disturbance on silicon (Si) pool distribution in soils with similar climatological and bulk mineralogical characteristics. We show that land use impacts both biogenic and nonbiogenic Si pools. While biogenic Si strongly decreases along the land use change gradient (from forest to croplands), pedogenic silica fractions (e.g. pedogenic clays) increase in topsoils with a long duration of cultivation and soil disturbance. Our results suggest that nonbiogenic Si pools might compensate for the loss of reactive biogenic silicon in temperate zones.

  2. High-resolution optimal quantization for stochastic pooling networks (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark D.; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Stocks, Nigel G.; Zozor, Steeve; Abbott, Derek


    Pooling networks of noisy threshold devices are good models for natural networks (e.g. neural networks in some parts of sensory pathways in vertebrates, networks of mossy fibers in the hippothalamus, . . . ) as well as for artificial networks (e.g. digital beamformers for sonar arrays, flash analog-to-digital converters, rate-constrained distributed sensor networks, . . . ). Such pooling networks exhibit the curious effect of suprathreshold stochastic resonance, which means that an optimal stochastic control of the network exists. Recently, some progress has been made in understanding pooling networks of identical, but independently noisy, threshold devices. One aspect concerns the behavior of information processing in the asymptotic limit of large networks, which is a limit of high relevance for neuroscience applications. The mutual information between the input and the output of the network has been evaluated, and its extremization has been performed. The aim of the present work is to extend these asymptotic results to study the more general case when the threshold values are no longer identical. In this situation, the values of thresholds can be described by a density, rather than by exact locations. We present a derivation of Shannon's mutual information between the input and output of these networks. The result is an approximation that relies a weak version of the law of large numbers, and a version of the central limit theorem. Optimization of the mutual information is then discussed.

  3. An Approach to Quantum State Pooling from Quantum Conditional Independence (United States)

    Leifer, Matthew


    In approaches to quantum theory in which the quantum state is taken to represent an agent's belief, knowledge or information about a physical system, it is legitimate for different agents to assign different states to one and the same physical system. The question then arises of what state they should assign if they get together and share their information about the system. This is the problem of quantum state pooling. The classical counterpart of this problem for probability distributions only has a unique solution under additional assumptions about how the data are collected, such as conditional independence constraints. Recently, Spekkens and Wiseman found a quantum pooling rule analogous to the classical one, which is valid if the differing state assignments arise from making indirect measurements on special classes of tripartite quantum state. We show that this pooling rule applies to a much wider class of tripartite states, and that its validity rests on quantum analogs of conditional independence recently studied by one of the authors, as well as a generalization of the notion of a sufficient statistic to the quantum case. Work done in collaboration with Robert Spekkens, University of Cambridge.

  4. Vortical structures in pool fires: Observation, speculation, and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holen, J.K. [SINTEF/NTH, Trondheim (Norway). Div. Thermodynamics; Murray, D. [Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States)


    While all fires are complex and involve many phenomena, this report is limited to large, turbulent liquid-hydrocarbon pool fires. Large, liquid-hydrocarbon pool fires present a risk in petrochemical storage and processing facilities and transportation systems that contain large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons. This report describes observations, speculations, and numerical simulations of vortical structures in pool fires. Vortical structures are observed in fires with length scales ranging from those that bend millimeter-thick flame zones to those that entrain air many meters from the edge of the fire to its centerline. The authors propose that baroclinic vorticity generation is primarily responsible for production of rotational motion at small scale and that amalgamation is responsible for the production of large-scale rotational structures from the myriad of small-scale structures. Numerical simulations show that vortical structures having time-mean definitions can be resolved with a Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. However, for vortical structures without time-mean definition, RANS is inappropriate, and another technique, such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), should be employed. 39 refs., 52 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Pedestrian Detection with Spatially Pooled Features and Structured Ensemble Learning. (United States)

    Paisitkriangkrai, Sakrapee; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den


    Many typical applications of object detection operate within a prescribed false-positive range. In this situation the performance of a detector should be assessed on the basis of the area under the ROC curve over that range, rather than over the full curve, as the performance outside the prescribed range is irrelevant. This measure is labelled as the partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC). We propose a novel ensemble learning method which achieves a maximal detection rate at a user-defined range of false positive rates by directly optimizing the partial AUC using structured learning. In addition, in order to achieve high object detection performance, we propose a new approach to extracting low-level visual features based on spatial pooling. Incorporating spatial pooling improves the translational invariance and thus the robustness of the detection process. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, and we show that it is possible to train state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors using the proposed structured ensemble learning method with spatially pooled features. The result is the current best reported performance on the Caltech-USA pedestrian detection dataset.

  6. Free-Form Region Description with Second-Order Pooling. (United States)

    Carreira, João; Caseiro, Rui; Batista, Jorge; Sminchisescu, Cristian


    Semantic segmentation and object detection are nowadays dominated by methods operating on regions obtained as a result of a bottom-up grouping process (segmentation) but use feature extractors developed for recognition on fixed-form (e.g. rectangular) patches, with full images as a special case. This is most likely suboptimal. In this paper we focus on feature extraction and description over free-form regions and study the relationship with their fixed-form counterparts. Our main contributions are novel pooling techniques that capture the second-order statistics of local descriptors inside such free-form regions. We introduce second-order generalizations of average and max-pooling that together with appropriate non-linearities, derived from the mathematical structure of their embedding space, lead to state-of-the-art recognition performance in semantic segmentation experiments without any type of local feature coding. In contrast, we show that codebook-based local feature coding is more important when feature extraction is constrained to operate over regions that include both foreground and large portions of the background, as typical in image classification settings, whereas for high-accuracy localization setups, second-order pooling over free-form regions produces results superior to those of the winning systems in the contemporary semantic segmentation challenges, with models that are much faster in both training and testing.

  7. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi


    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  8. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational swimmers. (United States)

    Dufour, A P; Behymer, T D; Cantú, R; Magnuson, M; Wymer, L J


    The volume of water ingested by swimmers while swimming is of great interest to individuals who develop risk assessments using quantitative microbial risk assessment or epidemiological approaches. We have used chloroisocyanurate disinfected swimming pool waters to determine the amount of water swallowed by swimmers during swimming activity. The chloroisocyanurate, which is in equilibrium with chlorine and cyanuric acid in the pool water, provides a biomarker, cyanuric acid, that once swallowed passes through the body into the urine unchanged. The concentration of cyanuric acid in a 24 hour urine specimen and the concentration in pool water can be used to calculate the amount of water swallowed. Our study population of 549 participants, which was about evenly divided by gender, and young and adult swimmers, indicated that swimmers ingest about 32 mL per hour (arithmetic mean) and that children swallowed about four times as much water as adults during swimming activities. It was also observed that males had a tendency to swallow more water than females during swimming activity and that children spent about twice as much time in the water than adults.

  9. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  10. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  11. Path dependency and collective action in common pool governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Heinmiller


    Full Text Available Collective action among resource users has long been identified as a basic element of successful common pool governance, and one of the main concerns of common pool research is the identification of factors that affect collective action. Among the most commonly identified factors are trust, social capital, common preferences, shared knowledge, collaborative experiences, focusing events and expectations of future interactions. Thus far, however, relatively little attention has been paid to the historical-institutional context of collective action and the constraining effects of path dependency. Path dependency suggests that investments and adaptations in early resource management institutions can make it difficult for actors to abandon these institutions, thereby influencing and shaping subsequent collective action efforts. This article examines the impact that path dependency can have on collective action in common pools, by examining transboundary water management in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia, the Colorado Basin of the US and the Saskatchewan-Nelson Basin of Canada. In all three cases, early transboundary water apportionment institutions have proven strongly path dependent, significantly shaping subsequent collective action efforts at transboundary water conservation.

  12. Regeneration of interspecific somatic hybrids between Helianthus annuus L. and Helianthus maximiliani (Schrader) via protoplast electrofusion. (United States)

    Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Vasic, Dragana; Nagl, Nevena


    Helianthus maximiliani is one of the wild Helianthus species with the genes for resistance to many pathogens including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Unfortunately, a transfer of disease resistance genes from this species into the cultivated sunflower is limited by its poor crossability with the cultivated sunflower and sterility of interspecific hybrids. To overcome this problem, mesophyll protoplasts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-resistant clone of H. maximiliani were electrically fused with etiolated hypocotyl protoplasts of the cultivated sunflower inbred line PH-BC1-91A. Fusion products were embedded in agarose droplets and subjected to different regeneration protocols. Developed microcalluses were released from the agarose and transferred into solid media. Shoot regeneration was achieved by culture of calluses on regeneration medium containing 2.2 mg l(-1) BAP and 0.01 mg l(-1) NAA after the treatment with a high concentration of 2,4 D for a limited period of time. A morphological and RAPD analysis confirmed a hybrid nature of the regenerated plants.

  13. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.


    Full Text Available Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming pool building. The mathematical model of the swimming pool is used with the created multi-zone building model in TRNSYS software to determine pool hall energy demand and pool losses. Energy loss for pool water and pool hall heating and ventilation are analyzed for different target pool water and air temperatures. The simulation showed that pool water heating accounts for around 22%, whereas heating and ventilation of the pool hall for around 60% of the total pool hall heat demand. With a change of preset controller air and water temperatures in simulations, evaporation loss was in the range 46-54% of the total pool losses. A solar thermal sanitary hot water system was modelled and simulated to analyze it's potential for energy savings of the presented demand side model. The simulation showed that up to 87% of water heating demands could be met by the solar thermal system, while avoiding stagnation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  14. Identification of disinfection by-products in freshwater and seawater swimming pools and evaluation of genotoxicity. (United States)

    Manasfi, Tarek; De Méo, Michel; Coulomb, Bruno; Di Giorgio, Carole; Boudenne, Jean-Luc


    Exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects. Numerous DBPs that occur in swimming pools are genotoxic and carcinogenic. This toxicity is of a greater concern in the case of brominated DBPs that have been shown to have substantially greater toxicities than their chlorinated analogs. In chlorinated seawater swimming pools, brominated DBPs are formed due to the high content of bromide. Nevertheless, very little data is reported about DBP occurrence and mutagenicity of water in these pools. In the present study, three seawater and one freshwater swimming pools located in Southeastern France were investigated to determine qualitatively and quantitatively their DBP contents. An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of water samples of the freshwater pool and a seawater pool was conducted through the Salmonella assay (Ames test). The predominant DBPs identified in the freshwater pool were chlorinated species and included trichloroacetic acid, chloral hydrate, dichloroacetonitrile, 1,1,1-trichloropropanone and chloroform. In the seawater pools, brominated DBPs were the predominant species and included dibromoacetic acid, bromoform and dibromoacetonitile. Bromal hydrate levels were also reported. In both types of pools, haloacetic acids were the most prevalent chemical class among the analyzed DBP classes. The distribution of other DBP classes varied depending on the type of pool. As to genotoxicity, the results of Ames test showed higher mutagenicity in the freshwater pool as a consequence of its considerably higher DBP contents in comparison to the tested seawater pool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  16. Removal of volatile iodine from gas bubbles rising in water pools: review and assessment of pool scrubbing codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo, J.; Herranz, L.E.; Peyres, V.; Escudero, M. [CIEMAT, Nuclear Technology Institute, Madrid (Spain)


    During a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident with core damage the fission products released from the degrading fuel bundles often pass through aqueous beds before entering the containment, mitigating in part the source term. Several computer codes have been developed for predicting the fission product and aerosols removal in pool scrubbing scenarios. In addition to particle removal, these codes simulate the retention of some volatile iodine compounds. In this work a review of volatile iodine removal models included in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Besides, the results and discussions of a validation of both codes against the available experimental data are summarized. SPARC and BUSCA codes model the diffusion of iodine toward the bubble interface by using the film penetration theory, which assumes a double layer gas-liquid at the interface. However, there are some differences between the two models, mainly related to the boundary conditions in the aqueous volume for the diffusion of molecular iodine. In SPARC, a set of fast reactions in the liquid phase control both the molecular iodine concentration in the pool and the partition coefficient of iodine at the interface. Thus, the aqueous chemistry plays an important role in the boundary conditions for the diffusion process. On the contrary, the BUSCA model has no chemical considerations at all, and assumes a null iodine concentration in the water bulk. Several sensitivity studies have been made in order to weight the effect of these differences. The variables examined in these studies were the pool temperature and the incoming iodine concentration in the pool. Additionally, sensitivity studies focused on the steam mass fraction of the injected gas were performed to study the effect of the different approach of both models for the condensation process. The results showed a different sensitivity of SPARC and BUSCA to the incoming concentration. (author) 5 tabs., 26 refs.

  17. Leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity and mortality: a large pooled cohort analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Steven C; Patel, Alpa V; Matthews, Charles E; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Park, Yikyung; Katki, Hormuzd A; Linet, Martha S; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Visvanathan, Kala; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Thun, Michael; Gapstur, Susan M; Hartge, Patricia; Lee, I-Min


    ...) groups, in a large pooled analysis. We examined the association of leisure time physical activity with mortality during follow-up in pooled data from six prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium...

  18. Relationship between lipid distribution and geochemical environment within Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, G.; Mountain, B.W.; Hopmans, E.C.; Pancost, R.D.


    The lipid biomarkers associated with various geothermal facies within Champagne Pool were investigated and compared with previous microbiological characterisation. Biomarker analysis revealed two distinct microbial communities spanning the margin of Champagne Pool: the first in the subaqueous domal

  19. Evaluation of biological and physico-chemical quality of public swimming pools, Hamadan (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Hoseinzadeh


    Conclusion: As results showed the residual chlorine in pools water was lower than standard level and as regard to microbial contamination in pool water, it can be concluded that the disinfection system has been impaired.

  20. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.


    Objectives: To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. Methods: Respiratory health and pool

  1. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Illinois River LaGrange Pool (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  2. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Illinois River Alton Pool (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  3. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Illinois River Starved Rock Pool (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  4. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Illinois River Marseillies Pool (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  5. Analysis and Prospective in Management of Pool 9 at Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1983 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study is to prepare a bathometric map of Pool 9 at Erie National Wildlife refuge. Pool 9 is the refuge’s largest impoundment, covering...

  6. Hydraulics, morphology, and energy dissipation in an alpine step-pool channel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew C. Wilcox; Ellen E. Wohl; Francesco Comiti; Luca Mao


    ...; ponded steps result in slow pools To investigate the relationship between hydraulics and channel morphology in step-pool channels, we combined three-dimensional velocity measurements with an acoustic...

  7. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Illinois River Peoria Pool (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  8. Effects of Drawdown and Structures on Bed-Load Transport in Pool 8 Navigation Channel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abraham, David; Hendrickson, Jon


    ... of a pool drawdown and structures on bed-load transport in the Pool 8 navigation channel. Work was conducted as part of the Monitoring of Completed Navigation Projects (MCNP) program. BACKGROUND...

  9. Presence of virulent strains of amphizoic amoebae in swimming pools of the city of Szczecin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Górnik, Katarzyna; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda


    .... No pathogenic strains were detected in the water sampled in the indoor swimming pools, and the virulent strains, AD 16, AD 148, AD 166, AM 17, and AM 148, were found only in the open-air swimming pools...

  10. The Water's Not Fine: U.S. Pool-Linked Infection Doubles in 2 Years (United States)

    ... The Water's Not Fine: U.S. Pool-Linked Infection Doubles in ... doubled in recent years at swimming pools and water playgrounds in the United States, health officials warn. ...

  11. Chemical Safety Alert: Safe Storage and Handling of Swimming Pool Chemicals (United States)

    Hazards of pool water treatment and maintenance chemicals (e.g., chlorine), and the protective measures pool owners should take to prevent fires, toxic vapor releases, and injuries. Triggered by improper wetting, mixing, or self-reactivity over time.

  12. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren: HITEA Catalonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, L.; Villanueva, C.M.; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Kogevinas, M.; Zock, J.P.


    Background: Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory

  13. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.


    OBJECTIVES To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. METHODS Respiratory health and pool

  14. Survey of bacterial contamination of environment of swimming pools in Yazd city, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian


    Full Text Available Background: Infections are readily transmitted as a result of bacterial contamination of swimming pools. Therefore, hygiene and preventing the contamination of swimming pools is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of bacterial contamination in indoor pools of Yazd in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, all indoor swimming pools of Yazd (12 pools were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2013, in terms of bacterial contamination. In order to determine contamination, a sterile cotton swab was used for sampling. On average, 45 samples were taken from different surfaces in each pool (shower, dressing room, sitting places in sauna, platforms and around the pool. In total, about 540 samples from all pools were tested for bacterial contamination. Results: The results show that from 540 samples, bacterial contamination was observed in about 93 samples (17.22%; and was seen more in showers, edges of the pool and jacuzzis, and the slippers used in swimming pools. The most important isolated bacteria types were E. coli, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of bacterial contamination on the surface of these places. It is recommended that health authorities should pay more attention to cleaning and disinfecting surfaces around the pool, showers, dressing rooms etc, to prevent infectious disease transfer as a result of contact with contaminated swimming pool surfaces.

  15. 16 CFR 1633.5 - Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prototype pooling and confirmation testing... Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements. (a) Prototype pooling. One or more manufacturers may rely on a qualified prototype produced by another manufacturer or prototype developer provided...

  16. Laboratory studies on the effect of ozonation on THM formation in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram


    Water samples from indoor swimming pool were ozonated at different pH values to evaluate the effect of pH on decomposition of ozone in swimming pool water. Furthermore, drinking and pool water were repeatedly ozonated followed by chlorination to evaluate THM formation. Decomposition of ozone was ...

  17. Controls on the size and occurrence of pools in coarse-grained forest rivers (United States)

    John M. Buffington; Thomas E. Lisle; Richard D. Woodsmith; Sue Hilton


    Controls on pool formation are examined in gravel- and cobble-bed rivers in forest mountain drainage basins of northern California, southern Oregon, and southeastern Alaska. We demonstrate that the majority of pools at our study sites are formed by flow obstructions and that pool geometry and frequency largely depend on obstruction characteristics (size, type, and...

  18. A two-dimensional pooling strategy for rare variant detection on next-generation sequencing platforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Zuzarte

    Full Text Available We describe a method for pooling and sequencing DNA from a large number of individual samples while preserving information regarding sample identity. DNA from 576 individuals was arranged into four 12 row by 12 column matrices and then pooled by row and by column resulting in 96 total pools with 12 individuals in each pool. Pooling of DNA was carried out in a two-dimensional fashion, such that DNA from each individual is present in exactly one row pool and exactly one column pool. By considering the variants observed in the rows and columns of a matrix we are able to trace rare variants back to the specific individuals that carry them. The pooled DNA samples were enriched over a 250 kb region previously identified by GWAS to significantly predispose individuals to lung cancer. All 96 pools (12 row and 12 column pools from 4 matrices were barcoded and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument with an average depth of coverage greater than 4,000×. Verification based on Ion PGM sequencing confirmed the presence of 91.4% of confidently classified SNVs assayed. In this way, each individual sample is sequenced in multiple pools providing more accurate variant calling than a single pool or a multiplexed approach. This provides a powerful method for rare variant detection in regions of interest at a reduced cost to the researcher.

  19. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable... ``unblockable drain'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act (``VGB Act'').\\1\\ \\1\\ The... pools and spas be in compliance with the VGB Act, which became effective December 19, 2008. Any public...

  20. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain (United States)


    ... Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... interpretation of the term ``unblockable drain,'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... document does not alter the current requirement that public pools and spas be in compliance with the VGBA...

  1. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test (United States)

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.


    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  2. Forest and pasture carbon pools and soil respiration in the southern Appalachian mountains (United States)

    Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose


    Our ability to estimate the changes in carbon (C) pools and fluxes due to forest conversion is hampered by a lack of comparative studies. We measured above- and belowground C pools and soil respiration flux at four forested and four pasture sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Above- and belowground C pools were significantly larger (P

  3. Impacts of exotic mangroves and mangrove control on tide pool fish assemblages (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Cailtin L. Kryss


    Fish were sampled from tide pools in Hawaii to determine how exotic mangroves Rhizophora mangle and the use of herbicides to chemically eradicate them are impacting tide pool fish assemblages. Ecological parameters were compared among mangrove-invaded, native vegetated, and non-vegetated tide pools before and after mangroves had been chemically...

  4. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY... ``public accommodation'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES: Written...; [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety...

  5. Evaluation and Treatment of Swimming Pool Avoidance Exhibited by an Adolescent Girl with Autism (United States)

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.


    We evaluated and treated swimming pool avoidance that was exhibited by a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism. In part, treatment involved blocking for flopping (dropping to the ground) and elopement (running away from the pool) and access to food for movements toward a swimming pool. Treatment also involved reinforcement for exposure to various…

  6. Microlayer formation characteristics in pool isolated bubble boiling of water (United States)

    Yabuki, Tomohide; Nakabeppu, Osamu


    Investigation of microlayer formation characteristics is important for developing a reliable nucleate boiling heat transfer model based on accurate physical mechanisms. Although formation mechanisms of the thin liquid film in two-phase flow of confined spaces, such as micro-tubes and closely positioned parallel plates, have been thoroughly studied, microlayer formation mechanisms of pool boiling have been sparsely studied. In a previous study (Yabuki and Nakabeppu in Int J Heat Mass Transf 76:286-297, 2014; Int J Heat Mass Transf 100:851-860, 2016), the spatial distribution of initial microlayer thickness under pool boiling bubbles was calculated by transient heat conduction analysis using the local wall temperature measured with a MEMS sensor. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of microlayer formation in pool boiling were investigated using the relationship between derived initial microlayer thickness and microlayer formation velocity determined by transient local heat flux data. The trend of microlayer thickness was found to change depending on the thickness of the velocity boundary layer outside the bubble foot. When the boundary layer thickness was thin, the initial microlayer thickness was determined by the boundary layer thickness, and the initial microlayer thickness proportionally increased with increasing boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, when the boundary layer was thick, the initial microlayer thickness decreased with increasing boundary layer thickness. In this thick boundary layer region, the momentum balance in the dynamic meniscus region became important, in addition to the boundary layer thickness, and the microlayer thickness, made dimensionless using boundary layer thickness, correlated with the Bond number.

  7. Cross-Convolutional-Layer Pooling for Image Recognition. (United States)

    Liu, Lingqiao; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den


    Recent studies have shown that a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) trained on a large image dataset can be used as a universal image descriptor and that doing so leads to impressive performance for a variety of image recognition tasks. Most of these studies adopt activations from a single DCNN layer, usually a fully-connected layer, as the image representation. In this paper, we proposed a novel way to extract image representations from two consecutive convolutional layers: one layer is used for local feature extraction and the other serves as guidance to pool the extracted features. By taking different viewpoints of convolutional layers, we further develop two schemes to realize this idea. The first directly uses convolutional layers from a DCNN. The second applies the pre-trained CNN on densely sampled image regions and treats the fully-connected activations of each image region as a convolutional layer's feature activations. We then train another convolutional layer on top of that as the pooling-guidance convolutional layer. By applying our method to three popular visual classification tasks, we find that our first scheme tends to perform better on applications which demand strong discrimination on lower-level visual patterns while the latter excels in cases that require discrimination on category-level patterns. Overall, the proposed method achieves superior performance over existing approaches for extracting image representations from a DCNN. In addition, we apply cross-layer pooling to the problem of image retrieval and propose schemes to reduce the computational cost. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method achieves promising results for the image retrieval task.

  8. A Fundamental Study of Nucleate Pool Boiling Under Microgravity (United States)

    Ervin, Jamie S.; Merte, Herman, Jr.


    An experimental study of incipient boiling in short-term microgravity and with a/g = +/- 1 for pool boiling was performed. Calibrated thin gold films sputtered on a smoothly polished quartz surface were used simultaneously for thermal-resistance measurements and heating of the boiling surface. The gold films were used for both transient and quasi-steady heating surface temperature measurements. Two test vessels were constructed for precise measurement and control of fluid temperature and pressure: a laboratory pool boiling vessel for the a/g = +/- 1 experiments and a pool boiling vessel designed for the 131 m free-fall in the NASA Lewis Research Center Microgravity Research Facility for the microgravity tests. Measurements included the heater surface temperature, the pressure near the heating surface, the bulk liquid temperatures. High speed photography (up to 1,000 frames per second) was used in the experiments. With high quality microgravity and the measured initial temperature of the quiescent test fluid, R113, the temperature distribution in the liquid at the moment of boiling inception resulting from an imposed step in heat flux is known with a certainty not possible previously. The types of boiling propagation across the large flat heating surface, some observed here for the first time, are categorized; the conditions necessary for their occurrence are described. Explosive boiling propagation with a striking pattern of small scale protuberances over the entire vapor mass periphery not observed previously at low heat flux levels (on the order of 5 W/cm(exp 2)) is described. For the heater surface with a/g = -1, a step in the heater surface temperature of short duration was imposed. The resulting liquid temperature distribution at the moment of boiling inception was different from that obtained with a step in heat flux.

  9. On tropical cyclone frequency and the warm pool area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Benestad


    Full Text Available The proposition that the rate of tropical cyclogenesis increases with the size of the "warm pool" is tested by comparing the seasonal variation of the warm pool area with the seasonality of the number of tropical cyclones. An analysis based on empirical data from the Northern Hemisphere is presented, where the warm pool associated with tropical cyclone activity is defined as the area, A, enclosed by the 26.5°C SST isotherm. Similar analysis was applied to the temperature weighted area AT with similar results.

    An intriguing non-linear relationship of high statistical significance was found between the temperature weighted area in the North Atlantic and the North-West Pacific on the one hand and the number of cyclones, N, in the same ocean basin on the other, but this pattern was not found over the North Indian Ocean. A simple statistical model was developed, based on the historical relationship between N and A. The simple model was then validated against independent inter-annual variations in the seasonal cyclone counts in the North Atlantic, but the correlation was not statistically significant in the North-West Pacific. No correlation, however, was found between N and A in the North Indian Ocean.

    A non-linear relationship between the cyclone number and temperature weighted area may in some ocean basins explain both why there has not been any linear trend in the number of cyclones over time as well as the recent upturn in the number of Atlantic hurricanes. The results also suggest that the notion of the number of tropical cyclones being insensitive to the area A is a misconception.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi


    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  11. Poole-Frenkel Effect in Terahertz Electromagnetic Fields


    Ganichev, Sergey; Diener, J.; Yassievich, Irina; Prettl, Wilhelm


    The ionisation of deep impurity centres in germanium has been observed with radiation in the terahertz range where the photon energy is much less than the binding energy of the impurities. It is shown that for not too high radiation intensities the ionisation is caused by the Poole-Frenkel effect. As in the well-known case of d.c. fields, the electric field of the high-frequency radiation lowers the Coulomb potential barrier and enhances the thermal emission of carriers.

  12. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutants released in swimming pools. (United States)

    Keuten, M G A; Peters, M C F M; Daanen, H A M; de Kreuk, M K; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C


    Disinfection in swimming pools is often performed by chlorination, However, anthropogenic pollutants from swimmers will react with chlorine and form disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs are unwanted from a health point of view, because some are irritating, while others might be carcinogenic. The reduction of anthropogenic pollutants will lead to a reduction in DBPs. This paper investigates the continual release of anthropogenic pollutants by means of controlled sweat experiments in a pool tank during laboratory time-series experiments (LTS experiments) and also during on-site experiments (OS experiments) in a swimming pool. The sweat released during the OS and LTS experiments was very similar. The sweat rate found was 0.1-0.2 L/m(2)/h at water temperatures below 29 °C and increased linearly with increasing water temperatures to 0.8 L/m(2)/h at 35 °C. The continual anthropogenic pollutant release (CAPR) not only consisted of sweat, particles (mainly skin fragments and hair) and micro-organisms, but also sebum (skin lipids) has to be considered. The release of most components can be explained by the composition of sweat. The average release during 30 min of exercise is 250 mg/bather non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC), 77.3 mg/bather total nitrogen (TN), 37.1 mg/bather urea and 10.1 mg/bather ammonium. The release of NPOC cannot be explained by the composition of sweat and is most probably a result of sebum release. The average release of other components was 1.31 × 10(9) # particles/bather (2-50 μm), 5.2 μg/bather intracellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) and 9.3 × 10(6) intact cell count/bather (iCC). The pool water temperature was the main parameter to restrain the CAPR. This study showed that a significant amount of the total anthropogenic pollutants release is due to unhygienic behaviour of bathers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cloud clusters and superclusters over the oceanic warm pool (United States)

    Mapes, Brian E.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.


    A study aimed at examining the size distributions of cloud clusters and the temperature distributions within them as functions of location, year, phase of the ISV, and time of day is considered. IR satellite images of tropical convection over the oceanic warm pool were processed to reveal cloud clusters, connected areas with cloud-top temperatures lower than a given threshold value. Results were obtained for a very cold threshold (208 K), corresponding roughly to the radar echo area within Australian monsoon cloud clusters, and for a moderately cold threshold (235 K) frequently used in climatic rainfall estimation.

  14. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department


      Please note that we will be closed for two weeks from 29 November to 13 December 2010 Please anticipate your needs. As soon as opened again in Building 13 R-009, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want to rent: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation … Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us all the inputs you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool is opened in self service (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  15. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department


    Please note that we will be closed for two weeks from 29 November to 13 December 2010. Please anticipate your needs. As soon as we re-open again in Building 13 R009, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want to rent: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation, etc. Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us any input you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool operates on a self-service basis (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  16. Arabian Sea mini warm pool and the monsoon onset vortex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shankar, D.; Kurian, J.; Durand, F.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    and S. S. C. Shenoi2 1Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India 2National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India 3IRD, LEGOS, UMR5566 CNRS-CNES-IRD-UPS, 14 Edouard Belin...: INDIAN MONSOON CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 93, NO. 2, 25 JULY 2007 203 *For correspondence. (e-mail: Arabian Sea mini warm pool and the monsoon onset vortex P. N. Vinayachandran1,*, D. Shankar2, J. Kurian1, F. Durand2,3...

  17. Phytolith-Occluded Carbon Pools and Fluxes: New Estimates (United States)

    Reyerson, P. E.; Alexandre, A. E.; Santos, G.


    Phytoliths are microscopic grains of silica (SiO2•nH2O) formed within plants. The biomineralization process typically encapsulates small quantities of carbon termed phytC. Upon decomposition, phytoliths are released from biomass and into soils. Recent research has suggested that phytC may be a large sink of atmospheric CO2 in soils. Important steps, therefore, are to quantify phytC cycling across ecosystems and to measure it's importance relative to the organic C cycle as a whole. Thus, information regarding phytC pool sizes and flux rates are needed. To an extent this has been performed. PhytC quantities can be easily estimated as long as 1) phytolith quantities and 2) the amount of C present in phytoliths are known. The quantity of C within phytoliths is still a subject of debate, but recent work has found quantities of less than 0.22%. Older studies, which rely on extraction methods which are now known to incompletely remove surface organic residues, have found phytC quantities from 1% to 20%. Hence, studies of phytC cycling using outdated methods may lead to overestimates. In order to re-estimate phytC dynamics, we compiled an extensive list of published works which document phytolith pools in above-ground biomass and soils, as well as flux rates. From these data phytC quantities were calculated using revised estimates of phytolith C percentages. PhytC quantities were also compared to total organic C (TOC) pools and fluxes. These calculations were then extrapolated to biome and global scales. At the biome scale, our results indicate that phytC within living biomass and soil pools as well as fluxes are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than previously estimated. PhytC is generally less than 0.01% of biomass TOC, and less than 1% of soil TOC. Annual phytC fluxes are less than 0.01% of TOC fluxes. At the global scale, annual phytC production is approximately 0.01% to 0.10% of gross C production. The findings of the present study suggest that direct C

  18. The Deep Permafrost Carbon Pool of Siberia and Alaska (Invited) (United States)

    Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Grosse, G.; Ulrich, M.; Wetterich, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Hubberten, H. W.


    Estimating the amount of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost and its biogeochemical characteristics are important topics in today's permafrost research. While the uppermost cryosoil horizons are reasonably studied and recorded in the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), there are large uncertainties concerning the quantity and distribution of permafrost deep organic carbon. We studied the organic carbon content of the Yedoma region of unglaciated Siberia and Alaska. This region is unique because of its long-term accumulation of organic carbon, which was deeply incorporated into permafrost during the late Quaternary. Inclusion of labile organic matter into permafrost halted decomposition and resulted in a deep long-term carbon sink. Organic carbon in the Yedoma region occurs mainly as peat inclusions, twigs and root fragments, other solid and fine detrital plant remains, fossil remains of mammals, insects, aquatic plankton and soil microorganisms, and finally their decompositional and metabolic products in terms of particulate and dissolved organic matter. With our study we show that two major sub-reservoirs compose the Yedoma region deep frozen organic carbon; Yedoma deposits (late Pleistocene ice- and organic-rich silty sediments) and deposits formed in thaw-lake basins (generalised as thermokarst deposits). Thaw-lake basins result when lake formation degrades Yedoma deposits, then the lakes drain and deposits refreeze. Therefore, the deep Yedoma region organic carbon pool is far from homogeneous and strongly linked to depositional and permafrost dynamics as well as the ecological and climatic history. Using of approximately 1000 frozen samples from 23 Siberian and Alaskan study sites and a new approach for upscaling, we find significant differences to former estimates of the Yedoma coverage area, thickness of the relevant frozen deposits, ground ice content and finally in organic carbon content that lead to a reassessment of the deep

  19. Presence and select determinants of organophosphate flame retardants in public swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, Tiffany L.L., E-mail: [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington NSW 2052 (Australia); Coleman, Heather M., E-mail: [Nanotechnology and Integrated BioEngineering Centre, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, County Antrim BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Khan, Stuart J., E-mail: [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington NSW 2052 (Australia)


    The occurrence of five organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) consisting of tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in swimming pools were investigated. Fifteen chlorinated public swimming pools were sampled, including indoor pools, outdoor pools and spa pools. The analyses were carried out using isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All five PFRs were detected in swimming pool waters with concentrations ranging from 5–27 ng/L (TNBP), 7–293 ng/L (TCEP), 62–1180 ng/L (TCIPP), 10–670 ng/L (TDCIPP) and 8–132 ng/L (TPHP). The concentrations of PFRs were generally higher in indoor swimming pools compared to outdoor swimming pools. In municipal water supplies, used to fill the swimming pools in three of the sampling locations, the five PFRs were all below the limit of quantifications, eliminating this as the source. Potential leaching of PFRs from commonly used swimming equipment, including newly purchased kickboards and swimsuits was investigated. These experiments revealed that PFRs leached from swimsuits, and may be a source of PFRs in swimming pools. A quantitative risk assessment revealed that the health risk to PFRs via swimming pools was generally low and below commonly applied health risk benchmarks. - Highlights: • TNBP, TCEP, TCIPP, TDCIPP and TPHP were detected in chlorinated swimming pools. • PFRs were below the LOQ in fill water samples collected from 3 locations. • TCIPP was observed to have the highest concentrations in swimming pools. • PFRs are leaching from swimsuits and may be a source in swimming pools. • Health risks through oral and dermal exposure to PFRs in swimming pools were low.

  20. An Effective Method for Detecting Potential Woodland Vernal Pools Using High-Resolution LiDAR Data and Aerial Imagery (United States)

    Effective conservation of woodland vernal pools – important components of regional amphibian diversity and ecosystem services – depends on locating and mapping these pools accurately. Current methods for identifying potential vernal pools are primarily based on visual interpretat...

  1. Fatal Clostridium perfringens sepsis from a pooled platelet transfusion. (United States)

    McDonald, C P; Hartley, S; Orchard, K; Hughes, G; Brett, M M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A


    A male patient with acute myeloid leukaemia received a pooled platelet preparation prepared by Optipress system on the last day of its shelf life. The patient collapsed after two-thirds of the contents had been transfused. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from the platelet bag within 18 h of the acute event. Metronidazole, gentamicin and Clostridium antiserum were then administered in addition to the broad spectrum antibiotics started previously. However, the patient died 4 days after the platelets were transfused. The cause of death was given as cardiovascular shock, entirely compatible with an overwhelming bacteraemic and septic episode. A coroner's verdict of accidental death due to transfusion of a contaminated unit of platelets was recorded. On subsequent investigation Cl. perfringens type A serotype PS68,PS80 (identical to that found in the platelet bag) was cultured from the venepuncture site of the arm of one of the donors who contributed towards the platelet pool. The donor had two young children and frequently changed nappies. Faecal contamination of the venepuncture site was the suspected source for the transmission of Cl. perfringens, an organism commonly found in the soil and intestinal tract of humans. This case dramatically highlights the consequences of transfusing a bacterially contaminated unit. It is vital that such incidents are investigated and reported so that the extent of transfusion-associated bacterial transmission can be monitored and preventative measures taken if possible.

  2. Unitization of a common oil pool: Theory and evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deilami, I.


    When heterogeneous firms gain access to the same oil pool, they drill and drain the pool based on their own preferences. The anticipated result is over-capitalization and rent dissipation: the tragedy of the commons. Given the notion of rationality based upon self interest, the rational behavior of these firms might instead be to unitize, acting in a manner efficient to the group. Failure to do so can be attributed to prohibitive bargaining costs required to coordinate many firms; this is supported by studies of the oil industry in the 1930s. In contrast, if the oil industry in the 1950s to 1980s is studied, very different conclusions are reached. Today, joint operations on oil and gas are found in all phases of petroleum-production process. Why did there occur such a drastic change in the degree of success in unitization In the early 1930s to the late 1940s, both the drilling cost of oil extraction and the price of oil were low, so the gains from unitization were not large enough to be profitable. However, by the late 1950s the real price of oil and the cost of drilling had doubled from what they were in the early 1930s. This made the loss from rent dissipation significant and forced the firms to reevaluate their noncooperative behavior.

  3. Heat transfer research on enhanced heating surfaces in pool boiling (United States)

    Kalawa, Wojciech; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.; Piasecka, Magdalena

    The paper focuses on the analysis of the enhanced surfaces in such applications as boiling heat transfer. The testing measurement module with enhanced heating surfaces was used for pool boiling research. Pool boiling experiments were conducted with distilled water at atmospheric pressure in the vessel using an enhanced sample as the bottom heating surface. The samples are soldered to a copper heating block of the round cross-section .They were placed: in the fluid (saturation temperature measurement), under the sample for temperature determination. A vessel made of four flat glass panes was used for visualization. The heated surfaces in contact with the fluid differed in roughness were smooth or enhanced. This paper analyzes the effects of the microstructured heated surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux and as boiling curves. The experimental data obtained for the two types of enhanced heated surfaces was compared with the results recorded for the smooth heated surface. The highest local values of the heat transfer coefficient were reported for the enhanced surfaces.

  4. Pooling score: an endoscopic model for evaluating severity of dysphagia. (United States)

    Farneti, D


    The finding of secretions and bolus pooling is of great diagnostic interest in the evaluation of subjects with swallowing disorders. Bedside evaluation alone, in subjects at risk for aspiration, can underestimate this parameter. The usefulness of endoscopic investigation for the evaluation of subjects with swallowing disorders is stressed, in order to plan treatment and follow-up. Based on endoscopic evaluation of material pooling we devised a score expressing the severity of dysphagia. This value takes into account endoscopic landmarks and other parameters of bedside evaluation. Endoscopic and bedside data were collected from a heterogeneous population of 520 consecutive patients seen in our Service over a 6-year period. By means of the test of equality of group means and logistic regression, parameters able to significantly predict aspiration in the series were identified. An ordinal number was attributed to each parameter in order to obtain scores expressing three degrees of severity of dysphagia: mild, moderate, severe. The scores can be used to guide the management of patients in a simple way, providing indications for targeted referral to the speech pathologist and for tracking the disorder over time. This investigation represents the basis for future research aimed at validating the scores in a larger case series.

  5. Resource pools: an abstraction for configurable computing codesign (United States)

    Peterson, James B.; Athanas, Peter M.


    The utility of configurable computing platforms has been demonstrated and documented for a wide variety of applications. Retargeting an application to custom computing machines (CCMs) has been shown to accelerate execution speeds with respect to execution on a sequential, general- purpose processor. Unfortunately, these platforms have proven to be rather difficult to program when compared to contemporary general-purpose platforms. Retargeting applications is non-trivial, due to the lack of design tools which work at a high level and consider all available computational units in the target architecture. To make configurable computing accessible to a wide user base, high- level entry tools -- preferably targeted toward familiar programming environments -- are needed. Also, in order to target a wide variety of custom computing machines, such tools cannot depend on a particular, fixed, architectural configuration. This paper introduces resource pools as an abstraction of general computing devices which provides a homogeneous description of FPGAs, ASICs, CPUs, or even an entire network of workstations. Also presented is an architecture-independent design tool which accepts a target architecture's description as a collection of resource pools, and partitions a program written in a high-level language onto that architecture, effectively synthesizing a hardware description for the FPGA portions of A CCM, and a software description for any attached CPUs.

  6. Experiments on melt droplets falling into a water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety


    This paper presents experimental data and analysis related to melt droplets falling into a water pool. A binary CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt mixture is used to study the influence of melt superheat and water subcooling on droplet deformation and fragmentation. For the conditions studied (We {<=} 1000), the surface tension of the melt droplet and the film boiling stability greatly affect the fragmentation behaviour. If the melt temperature is between the liquidus and solidus point (mushy zone) or if the film boiling is stable due to a relatively low subcooling, the droplet deformation and fragmentation are mitigated. This behaviour can be related to the effective Weber number (We) of the melt droplet upon entry into the water pool. Similar phenomena can be expected also for interactions of corium (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) and water, which are characterized by a potentially fast transformation of melt into the mushy zone and by particularly stable film boiling. (author)

  7. Pool Boiling Enhancement of R-123 Using Perforated Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae-Hyun [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon(Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we investigate the pool boiling enhancement caused by perforated plates on top of a smooth surface. We conduct tests using R-123 at atmospheric pressure. It was shown that perforated plates significantly enhanced the pool boiling of the smooth surface. The reason may be attributed to the increased bubble contact area between the plates. The results showed that the enhancement ratio was dependent on the heat flux. At high heat flux, the enhancement ratio increased as the porosity increased. However, at low heat flux, the enhancement ratio decreased as the porosity increased. For the present investigation, the optimum configuration had a pore diameter of 2.0 mm, pore pitch of 2.5 mm×5.0 mm or 5.0 mm×5.0 mm, and a gap width of 0.5 mm, which yielded heat-transfer coefficients that are close to those of GEWA-T. The optimum porosity for R-123 was significantly larger than that of water or ethanol. The reason for this may be the large liquid-to-vapor density ratio along with the small latent heat of vaporization of R-123. The perforated plates yielded smaller boiling hysteresis compared with that of the smooth surface.

  8. Gene pool conservation and tree improvement in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isajev Vasilije


    Full Text Available This paper presents the concepts applied in the gene pool conservation and tree improvement in Serbia. Gene pool conservation of tree species in Serbia includes a series of activities aiming at the sustainability and protection of genetic and species variability. This implies the investigation of genetic resources and their identification through the research of the genetic structure and the breeding system of individual species. Paper also includes the study of intra- and inter-population variability in experiments - provenance tests, progeny tests, half- and full-sib lines, etc. The increased use of the genetic potential in tree improvement in Serbia should be intensified by the following activities: improvement of production of normal forest seed, application of the concept of new selections directed primarily to the improvement of only one character, because in that case the result would be certain, establishment and management of seed orchards as specialized plantations for long-term production of genetically good-quality forest seeds, and the shortening of the improvement process by introducing new techniques and methods (molecular markers, somaclonal variation, genetic engineering, protoplast fusion, micropropagation, etc..

  9. Colors of thermal pools at Yellowstone National Park. (United States)

    Nugent, Paul W; Shaw, Joseph A; Vollmer, Michael


    The brilliant visible colors of various hot springs and pools in Yellowstone National Park are explained with a combination of scattering from the water and from microbial mats that coat the bottoms of these thermal features. A simple 1D radiative transfer model was used to simulate the colors recorded in visible photographs and the spectrum of light making up these colors. The model includes attenuation in water by absorption and molecular scattering as well as reflection characteristics of the microbial mats and surface reflection of the water. Pool geometries are simulated as simple rough cones scaled to have depths and widths that match published data. Thermal images are also used to record the spatial distribution of water skin temperature. The measurements and simulations confirm that colors observed from shallow-water features arise primarily from the spectral properties of the microbial mat, which is related to the water temperature, while colors observed from deeper water arise primarily from the wavelength-dependent absorption and scattering in the water.

  10. Estimations of Soil organic carbons pools in Southern Greenland (United States)

    Ogric, Mateja; Chellasamy, Menaka; Knadel, Maria; Greve, Mogens H.; Adhikari, Kabindra; Jakobsen, Bjarne H.; Kristiansen, Søren M.


    Terrestrial areas hold large pools of soil organic carbon (SOC), which is a fundamental soil feature. It is known that SOC can be destabilized due to climate changes and land use, what can lead to accelerated emissions of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. Arctic soil, which is strongly sensitive to climate changes, stores about 14% of the Earth's organic carbon (Elberling et al., 2004). Therefore, the high-latitude soils are an important factor for investigation and determination of carbon pools. Recent advances in analytical methods offer various improvements regarding data acquisition. For example, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses of soils is often cost-effective and faster as compared to traditional wet-chemical methods for C and N determination, while it also gives reliable results. The aim of this study is i) to estimate the SOC pool in a remote area with poor soil data, i.e. Southern Greenland, and ii) to compare estimation techniques based on two independent SOC analytical approaches. The study area comprises approx. 17,500 km2 large non-glaciated land in south Greenland, from the Labrador Sea coast line to the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet (46° 47'W-44° 16'W and 60° 07'N-61° 24'N). A large number of the abandoned Norse Viking Age settlements, i.e. Gardar, Hvalsø and Igaliku, are found here. A soil resource database was compiled from existing sources and recently collected soil samples to improve the data density for the area. The majority of the dataset represents 233 soil samples, which were collected in summer 2013 following specifications (Ogric et al., 2014). The focus of the investigation was on the top soil (down to 25 cm depth). These samples were analyzed for total soil carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur contents. The NIRS method was used on the same soil samples in an attempt to improve the data interpretation. Chemometric methods of NIRS data were applied with The Unscrambler X (Camo, 2014). Next, all known

  11. Hospital hydrotherapy pools treated with ultra violet light: bad bacteriological quality and presence of thermophilic Naegleria. (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J. F.


    The microbiological quality of eight halogenated and two u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools in hospitals was investigated. The microbiological quality of halogenated hydrotherapy pools was comparable to halogenated public swimming pools, although in some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and faecal pollution indicators were more frequent due to bad management. On the other hand u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools had very bad microbiological quality. Apart from faecal pollution indicators, P. aeruginosa was present in very high numbers. Halogenated hydrotherapy pools were not highly contaminated with amoebae, and Naegleria spp. were never detected. On the other hand u.v.-treated pools contained very high numbers of thermophilic Naegleria. The Naegleria isolated were identified as N. lovaniensis, a species commonly found in association with N. fowleri. Isoenzyme analysis showed a different type of N. lovaniensis was present in each of two u.v.-treated pools. Images Plate 1 PMID:7061835

  12. A New Theory of Nucleate Pool Boiling in Arbitrary Gravity (United States)

    Buyevich, Y. A.; Webbon, Bruce W.


    Heat transfer rates specific to nucleate pool boiling under various conditions are determined by the dynamics of vapour bubbles that are originated and grow at nucleation sites of a superheated surface. A new dynamic theory of these bubbles has been recently developed on the basis of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. In contrast to other existing models based on empirically postulated equations for bubble growth and motion, this theory does not contain unwarrantable assumptions, and both the equations are rigorously derived within the framework of a unified approach. The conclusions of the theory are drastically different from those of the conventional models. The bubbles are shown to detach themselves under combined action of buoyancy and a surface tension force that is proven to add to buoyancy in bubble detachment, but not the other way round as is commonly presumed. The theory ensures a sound understanding of a number of so far unexplained phenomena, such as effect caused by gravity level and surface tension on the bubble growth rate and dependence of the bubble characteristics at detachment on the liquid thermophysical parameters and relevant temperature differences. The theoretical predictions are shown to be in a satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement with observations. When being applied to heat transfer at nucleate pool boiling, this bubble dynamic theory offers an opportunity to considerably improve the main formulae that are generally used to correlate experimental findings and to design boiling heat removal in various industrial applications. Moreover, the theory makes possible to pose and study a great deal of new problems of essential impact in practice. Two such problems are considered in detail. One problem concerns the development of a principally novel physical model for the first crisis of boiling. This model allows for evaluating critical boiling heat fluxes under various conditions, and in particular at different

  13. Spikes and memory in (Nord Pool) electricity price spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tomasso; Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar

    Electricity spot prices are subject to transitory sharp movements commonly referred to as spikes. The paper aims at assessing their effects on model based inferences and predictions, with reference to the Nord Pool power exchange. We identify a spike as a price value which deviates substantially...... the spikes, i.e. shrinking an observation deviating substantially from the normal price towards the one-step-ahead prediction. Our empirical application illustrates the effects of the spikes on the estimates of the parameters governing the persistence of the series; moreover, a real time rolling forecasting...... from the normal price, where the latter is defined as the expectation arising from a model accounting for long memory at the zero and at the weekly seasonal frequencies, given the knowledge of the past realizations. Hence, a spike is associated to a time series innovation with size larger than...

  14. Pöördumine riigikogus esindatud erakondade poole

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal, 21. märts 2007, lk. 3; Sakala, 21. märts 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 21. märts 2007, lk. 2; Lõunaleht, 22. märts 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 24. märts 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 26. apr. 2007, lk. 11; Nädaline, 26. apr. 2007, lk. 4; Vooremaa, 26. apr. 2007, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 26. apr. 2007, lk. 15; Õpetajate Leht, 27. apr. 2007, lk. 17; Võrumaa Teataja, 12. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 16. juuni 2007, lk. 6. Pöördumine erakondade poole võtta koalitsioonikõnelustel päevakorda abinõude väljatöötamine eesti rahva säilimise tagamiseks

  15. Elspot: Nord Pool Spot Integration in MASCEM Electricity Market Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Santos, Gabriel; Praca, Isabel


    models and player types as possible. This paper presents a new negotiation model implemented in MASCEM based on the negotiation model used in day-ahead market (Elspot) of Nord Pool. This is a key module to study competitive electricity markets, as it presents well defined and distinct characteristics......The energy sector in industrialized countries has been restructured in the last years, with the purpose of decreasing electricity prices through the increase in competition, and facilitating the integration of distributed energy resources. However, the restructuring process increased the complexity...... (Multi-Agent Simulator of Competitive Electricity Markets), a multi-agent based simulator that models real electricity markets. To reinforce MASCEM with the capability of recreating the elect ricity markets reality in the fullest possible extent, it is crucial to make it able to simulate as many market...

  16. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi


    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. © 2012 Hsu et al.

  17. Bacteria from Animals as a Pool of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (United States)

    Argudín, Maria Angeles; Deplano, Ariane; Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Dodémont, Magali; Heinrichs, Amelie; Denis, Olivier; Nonhoff, Claire; Roisin, Sandrine


    Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria. This review focused in relevant examples within the ESC(K)APE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile (Klebsiella pneumoniae), Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae) group of bacterial pathogens that are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. PMID:28587316

  18. Bacteria from Animals as a Pool of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Argudín


    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria. This review focused in relevant examples within the ESC(KAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae group of bacterial pathogens that are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world.

  19. Source pool geometry and the assembly of continental avifaunas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R; Rahbek, Carsten


    on the assembly of avian communities with an analysis of assemblage dispersion fields, which can be visualized by overlaying the geographic ranges of all species that occur in an assemblage. Contours of species richness surrounding focal quadrats illustrate the decay rate of assemblage similarity with distance...... of magnitude across the continent. Because abundance generally correlates with geographic range size within taxonomic groups, the number of individuals per species in avifaunal source pools must also vary by an order of magnitude. Most significantly, dispersion field geometry was surprisingly asymmetrical......Classical niche-assembly models propose that the composition of biotic communities in continental landscapes is determined chiefly by the autecology of species, interspecific competition, and the diversity of resources and habitats within a region. In contrast, stochastic models propose...

  20. Los petroglifos de Pool Balam, Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Barrera Rubio


    Full Text Available Las labores de rescate arqueológico en una carretera del nororiente de Yucatán permitieron el hallazgo de una cueva denominada Pool Balam en maya yucateco. En una de las cámaras se encontraron una serie de petroglifos esculpidos en una estalagmita. El análisis de estos motivos indica una vinculación de estas representaciones con la cosmovisión maya, particularmente con el agua y el jaguar en su advocación del sol en su recorrido nocturno y como guardián, protector, ser sobrenatural del monte y de las cuevas. De acuerdo a los datos cerámicos, existen evidencias de ocupación desde el Preclásico Tardío hasta el Posclásico.

  1. Short Communication: Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, F.M. Jr.; Carneiro, R.F.V.; Leite, L.F.C.; Araujo, A.S.F.


    The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality. (Author)

  2. Experimental investigation on the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Tashiro, Shinichi; Van Hanh, Bui; Tanaka, Manabu


    This paper seeks to clarify the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding (PKAW). We adopted, for the first time, the measurement of the 3D convection inside the weld pool in PKAW by stereo synchronous imaging of tungsten tracer particles using two sets of x-ray transmission systems. The 2D convection on the weld pool surface was also measured using zirconia tracer particles. Through these measurements, the convection in a wide range of weld pools from the vicinity of the keyhole to the rear region was successfully visualized. In order to discuss the heat transport process in a weld pool, the 2D temperature distribution on the weld pool surface was also measured by two-color pyrometry. The results of the comprehensive experimental measurement indicate that the shear force due to plasma flow is found to be the dominant driving force in the weld pool formation process in PKAW. Thus, heat transport in a weld pool is considered to be governed by two large convective patterns near the keyhole: (1) eddy pairs on the surface (perpendicular to the torch axis), and (2) eddy pairs on the bulk of the weld pool (on the plane of the torch). They are formed with an equal velocity of approximately 0.35 m s‑1 and are mainly driven by shear force. Furthermore, the flow velocity of the weld pool convection becomes considerably higher than that of other welding processes, such as TIG welding and GMA welding, due to larger plasma flow velocity.

  3. Health effects associated with indoor swimming pools: a suspected toxic chloramine exposure. (United States)

    Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Beach, Michael J; Shwe, Thein; Magri, Julie; Bixler, Danae


    A cohort and environmental study tested the hypothesis that suspected exposure to chloramines (by-products of chlorine for disinfection and ammonia from human sources) from a hotel's indoor swimming pool was associated with an outbreak among children who had attended a party at the pool. Retrospective cohort study. A case was defined as any hotel guest/visitor on 5-6 October 2002 who experienced three or more symptoms typical of chloramine exposure on either day after visiting the hotel. A cohort study and an environmental assessment were performed to determine the association between pool exposure and illness. Of 128 individuals interviewed, 32 met the case definition. Common symptoms among case patients were cough (84%), eye irritation (78%) and rash (34%). Illness was associated with entering the pool area [odds ratio (OR) 19.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-172], but more strongly with swimming (OR 72.0; 95% CI 9.1-568). Pool chloramine levels on 6 October 2002 were > or = 0.7ppm (optimal level=0ppm; state maximum=0.5ppm). The pool operator lacked formal training in pool maintenance. High chloramine levels may have caused illness in individuals who were either in or near the pool. This outbreak underscores the need for regular pool maintenance, improved air quality, education and certification for all operators of public and semipublic pools, and education about healthy swimming practices.

  4. Laboratory investigation and simulation of breakthrough curves in karst conduits with pools (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoer; Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Peng, Fu


    A series of laboratory experiments are performed under various hydrological conditions to analyze the effect of pools in pipes on breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs are generated after instantaneous injections of NaCl tracer solution. In order to test the feasibility of reproducing the BTCs and obtain transport parameters, three modeling approaches have been applied: the equilibrium model, the linear graphical method and the two-region nonequilibrium model. The investigation results show that pools induce tailing of the BTCs, and the shapes of BTCs depend on pool geometries and hydrological conditions. The simulations reveal that the two-region nonequilibrium model yields the best fits to experimental BTCs because the model can describe the transient storage in pools by the partition coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. The model parameters indicate that pools produce high dispersion. The increased tailing occurs mainly because the partition coefficient decreases, as the number of pools increases. When comparing the tracer BTCs obtained using the two types of pools with the same size, the more appreciable BTC tails that occur for symmetrical pools likely result mainly from the less intense exchange between the water in the pools and the water in the pipe, because the partition coefficients for the two types of pools are virtually identical. Dispersivity values decrease as flow rates increase; however, the trend in dispersion is not clear. The reduced tailing is attributed to a decrease in immobile water with increasing flow rate. It provides evidence for hydrodynamically controlled tailing effects.

  5. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.


    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  6. Genome Pool Strategy for Structural Coverage of Protein Families (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Slabinski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian. A.; Godzik, Adam


    As noticed by generations of structural biologists, closely homologous proteins may have substantially different crystallization properties and propensities. These observations can be used to systematically introduce additional dimensionality into crystallization trials by targeting homologous proteins from multiple genomes in a “genome pool” strategy. Through extensive use of our recently introduced “crystallization feasibility score” (Slabinski et al., 2007a), we can explain that the genome pool strategy works well because the crystallization feasibility scores are surprisingly broad within families of homologous proteins, with most families containing a range of optimal to very difficult targets. We also show that some families can be regarded as relatively “easy”, where a significant number of proteins are predicted to have optimal crystallization features, and others are “very difficult”, where almost none are predicted to result in a crystal structure. Thus, the outcome of such variable distributions of such crystallizability' preferences leads to uneven structural coverage of known families, with “easier” or “optimal” families having several times more solved structures than “very difficult” ones. Nevertheless, this latter category can be successfully targeted by increasing the number of genomes that are used to select targets from a given family. On average, adding 10 new genomes to the “genome pool” provides more promising targets for 7 “very difficult” families. In contrast, our crystallization feasibility score does not indicate that any specific microbial genomes can be readily classified as “easier” or “very difficult” with respect to providing suitable candidates for crystallization and structure determination. Finally, our analyses show that specific physicochemical properties of the protein sequence favor successful outcomes for structure determination and, hence, the group of proteins with known 3D

  7. Determinants of chlorination by-products in indoor swimming pools. (United States)

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Derbez, Mickaël; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier


    Water and air quality of fifteen swimming pools using chlorine disinfection was measured during eight sampling campaigns in Rennes, France. Concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and trichloramine (NCl(3)) in air as well as concentrations of parameters, including total organic carbon (TOC), chlorine (free, combined and total), pH, Kjeldhal nitrogen (KN), chloride ions and THMs in water and air temperature, were measured. Water and air samples were collected during 3h in the morning and afternoon, during high and low attendance days, in summer and winter. Data analysis was perfomed by multivariate ordinary least square (OLS) and quantile (QR) regressions, from both data quality and other parameters such as the ratio between the number of visitors and the volume of water available V/W, the proportion of air re-circulated and the number of swimmers during sampling. The geometric means (GM±95% CIs) of the sum of THMs (TTHM) and NCl(3) in air were 74.9±6.7 μg/m(3) and 190±10 μg/m(3), respectively. As expected, concentrations of TTHM in air were correlated to concentrations of TTHM in water. Concentrations of TTHM and NCl(3) in air measured in winter were significantly higher than in summer, depicting that low air exchange rate in winter lead to accumulation of pollutants. NCl(3) (especially at higher quantiles) and TTHM concentrations in air were associated to the number of swimmers. NCl(3) was also linked to air temperature and pH. Moreover TTHM and NCl(3) in air seemed to be affected by additional determinants including the volume of hall and the ratio V/W. In a process of reducing exposure, the OLS regression provides useful information on key parameters influencing concentrations of THMs and NCl(3) in indoor swimming pools. In addition, QR allows identifying factors associated to elevated levels of contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Joint spatial-depth feature pooling for RGB-D object classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping


    RGB-D camera can provide effective support with additional depth cue for many RGB-D perception tasks beyond traditional RGB information. However, current feature representations based on RGB-D camera utilize depth information only to extract local features, without considering...... it for the improvement of robustness and discriminability of the feature representation by merging depth cues into feature pooling. Spatial pyramid model (SPM) has become the standard protocol to split 2D image plane into sub-regions for feature pooling in RGB-D object classification. We argue that SPM may...... not be the optimal pooling scheme for RGB-D images, as it only pools features spatially and completely discards the depth topological information. Instead, we propose a novel joint spatial-depth pooling scheme (JSDP) which further partitions SPM using the depth cue and pools features simultaneous in 2D image plane...

  9. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.


    pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...... a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure...... of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution...

  10. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor (United States)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.


    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  11. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... inspections per year under the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. Investigators typically...

  12. Groundwater dependent pools in seasonal and permanent streams in the Clare Valley of South Australia


    Bestland, Erick; George, Amy; Green, Graham; Olifent, Vanessa; Mackay, Duncan; Whalen, Molly


    1. Study region The Clare Valley region of South Australia. 2. Study focus Continuing extraction of groundwater threatens pools in seasonal and permanent streams. In order to determine this groundwater dependence, the pools and groundwater from corresponding fractured rock aquifers were investigated using environmental tracers (δD, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr, and major and minor elements). For the 11 paired pool-groundwater sites in the four different catchments, groundwater dependence was eval...

  13. Traffic Re-engineering: Extending Resource Pooling Through the Application of Re-feedback


    Taveira Araújo, J.


    Parallelism pervades the Internet, yet efficiently pooling this increasing path diversity has remained elusive. With no holistic solution for resource pooling, each layer of the Internet architecture attempts to balance traffic according to its own needs, potentially at the expense of others. From the edges, traffic is implicitly pooled over multiple paths by retrieving content from different sources. Within the network, traffic is explicitly balanced across multiple links through the use of ...

  14. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (United States)

    Mamidi, S; Rossi, M; Moghaddam, S M; Annam, D; Lee, R; Papa, R; McClean, P E


    Wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is distributed throughout the Americas from Mexico to northern Argentina. Within this range, the species is divided into two gene pools (Andean and Middle American) along a latitudinal gradient. The diversity of 24 wild common bean genotypes from throughout the geographic range of the species was described by using sequence data from 13 loci. An isolation–migration model was evaluated using a coalescent analysis to estimate multiple demographic parameters. Using a Bayesian approach, Andean and Middle American subpopulations with high percentage of parentages were observed. Over all loci, the Middle American gene pool was more diverse than the Andean gene pool (πsil=0.0089 vs 0.0068). The two subpopulations were strongly genetically differentiated over all loci (Fst=0.29). It is estimated that the two current wild gene pools diverged from a common ancestor ∼111 000 years ago. Subsequently, each gene pool underwent a bottleneck immediately after divergence and lasted ∼40 000 years. The Middle American bottleneck population size was ∼46% of the ancestral population size, whereas the Andean was 26%. Continuous asymmetric gene flow was detected between the two gene pools with a larger number of migrants entering Middle American gene pool from the Andean gene pool. These results suggest that because of the complex population structure associated with the ancestral divergence, subsequent bottlenecks in each gene pool, gene pool-specific domestication and intense selection within each gene pool by breeders; association mapping would best be practised within each common bean gene pool. PMID:23169559

  15. Molten pool-lower head integrity. Heat transfer models including advanced numerical simulations (DNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L. [CEA Grenoble (France)


    Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)

  16. Price and Product Pooling: Impact on Development and Operation of Differentiated Value Chains


    Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A. (William Alexander)


    Price pooling has long been used as a means to deal with risk in the marketing of agricultural commodities. For commodities, product pooling may also generate potential benefits through economies of scale or the provision of market power. Yet there has also been a growing interest in product differentiation and the development of value chains as a means to increase returns to farmers. This article explores the question of whether price or product pooling is compatible with a strategy of pro-a...

  17. Occurrence, origin, and toxicity of disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools: An overview. (United States)

    Manasfi, Tarek; Coulomb, Bruno; Boudenne, Jean-Luc


    Disinfection treatments are critical to conserve the microbiological quality of swimming pool water and to prevent water-borne infections. The formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools is an undesirable consequence resulting from reactions of disinfectants (e.g. chlorine) with organic and inorganic matter present in pool water, mainly brought by bathers. A considerable body of occurrence studies has identified several classes of DBPs in swimming pools with more than 100 compounds detected, mainly in chlorinated freshwater pools. Trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are among the major DBPs in swimming pools. Other DBPs such as haloacetonitriles (HAN), haloamines, nitrosamines, and halobenzoquinones have also been detected. Researchers have been interested in identifying the precursors responsible for the formation of DBPs. In swimming pools, anthropogenic organic loads brought by swimmers increase the complexity of pool water chemistry. When human inputs (e.g. sweat, urine, hair, skin and personal care products) containing very diverse organic compounds are introduced to pools by swimmers, they react with chlorine resulting in the formation of complex mixtures of DBPs. The overwhelming majority of the total organic halide (TOX) content is still unknown in swimming pools. Exposure of swimmers to DBPs can take place through multiple routes, depending on the chemical properties of each DBP. Toxicological studies have shown that swimming pool water can be mutagenic with different potencies reported in different studies. Many DBPs have been shown to be genotoxic and carcinogenic. DBPs were also shown to induce reproductive and neurotoxic adverse effects in animal studies. Epidemiologic studies in humans have shown that exposure to DBPs increases the risk of respiratory adverse effects and bladder cancer. Association between DBPs and other health effects are still inconclusive. Data gathered in the present review

  18. Occurrence and human exposure of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in swimming pools. (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi


    As an emerging group of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, parabens have attracted growing attention due to their potential effects on human health. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of eight parabens, four chlorinated parabens, and their common hydrolysis product, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), were investigated in 39 swimming pools in Beijing, China. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben were the predominant compounds in swimming pools, accounting for 91.2 % of the total parabens. It is noteworthy that octyl paraben, a paraben with longer chain, was firstly detected in this study. There were several factors affecting the levels of parabens among the 39 swimming pools. The concentrations of parabens and chlorinated derivatives detected in indoor pools (144 ng L(-1)) were roughly 20-fold higher than those in outdoor pools (6.78 ng L(-1)). Hotel pools appear to present higher level of target compounds (361 ng L(-1)) than that in health club (228 ng L(-1)), municipal (130 ng L(-1)), school (75.6 ng L(-1)), and community pools (63.0 ng L(-1)). Moreover, the level of these compounds in pools during weekends (174 ng L(-1)) was much higher than that during weekdays (52.3 ng L(-1)). The dynamics of target compounds were also investigated to provide a general trend of the level of parabens in a school indoor swimming pool during a 14-week period. Human exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the potential risk of exposure to parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in swimming pools. Considering the total exposure dose of multiple parabens, human exposure to parabens from the water of swimming pools is negligible. However, the threat of these parabens to children in swimming pool should be concerned.

  19. Anthropogenic impact on amorphous silica pools in temperate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Clymans


    Full Text Available Human land use changes perturb biogeochemical silica (Si cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. This directly affects Si mobilisation and Si storage and influences Si export from the continents, although the magnitude of the impact is unknown. A major reason for our lack of understanding is that very little information exists on how land use affects amorphous silica (ASi storage in soils. We have quantified and compared total alkali-extracted (PSia and easily soluble (PSie Si pools at four sites along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance in southern Sweden. Land use clearly affects ASi pools and their distribution. Total PSia and PSie for a continuous forested site at Siggaboda Nature Reserve (66 900 ± 22 800 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 952 ± 16 kg SiO2 ha−1 are significantly higher than disturbed land use types from the Råshult Culture Reserve including arable land (28 800 ± 7200 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 239 ± 91 kg SiO2 ha−1, pasture sites (27 300 ± 5980 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 370 ± 129 kg SiO2 ha−1 and grazed forest (23 600 ± 6370 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 346 ± 123 kg SiO2 ha−1. Vertical PSia and PSie profiles show significant (p < 0.05 variation among the sites. These differences in size and distribution are interpreted as the long-term effect of reduced ASi replenishment, as well as changes in ecosystem specific pedogenic processes and increased mobilisation of the PSia in disturbed soils. We have also made a first, though rough, estimate of the magnitude of change in temperate continental ASi pools due to human disturbance. Assuming that our data are representative, we estimate that total ASi storage in soils has declined by ca. 10 % since the onset of agricultural development (3000 BCE

  20. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Amaranth M Pool, Waskada Field, southwest Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasinski, D.R.; Last, W.M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Geological Science; Martiniuk, C.D. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch


    The major hydrocarbon producer of Manitoba's Waskada Field is the Lower Amaranth Member of the Jurassic Amaranth, the oldest Mesozoic unit in the northeastern portion of the Williston Basin. Reservoir facies occur as sandy intervals on logs, and are complexly interbedded intertidal sandstones and siltstones. Thickness of the Lower Member is controlled by the paleotopography of the underlying Paleozoic erosional surface. Hydrocarbon production in the Waskada Amaranth began in 1980 with the recompletion of a former Mississippian producer. In the mid-1990s, the Waskada Field expanded eastward into the Goodlands area, with the development of the Lower Amaranth M pool. Developed original oil in place (OOIP) is calculated to be 9.8 million bbl, with 6.7 per cent primary recovery. However, net pay data from the M pool shows that the current pool boundaries do not accurately represent the absolute pool limits. Extent of the pool is defined by a diagenetically controlled permeability pinchout, where reduced permeability allows water migration, while simultaneously retarding oil migration. Total potential of the M pool has yet to be reached. Two development targets have been identified adjacent to the current M pool boundaries based on reservoir facies thickness, net pay, and production data. Development of these areas would expand the pool boundaries by 632 ha, increasing M pool total OOIP to 28.5 million bbl, leaving an undeveloped 18.7 million bbl.

  1. Simulated behaviour of field-assisted ionisation in the theory of Synthetic Poole Frenkel effect


    Pillonnet, A.; Ongaro, R.


    A simulation is made of the behaviour of dc-current versus electric field when use is made of a new approach of Poole and Poole-Frenkel (PF) theories, we designated as Synthetic Poole Frenkel (SPF) effect (Ongaro and Pillonnet, in IEE Proc. PtA 138, 127-37). Quantitative illustration shows that our SPF approach succeeds fairly well in joining in a unique formulation the early Poole and PF approaches, which appear then as limiting cases. However, it is stressed that difficulties can be expecte...

  2. Ichthyofaunal diversity and ecology of intertidal rock pools of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tsering, L.; Pawar, H.B.; Sreepada, R.A.; Sanaye, S.V.; Suryavanshi, U.; Tanu

    of the length axis and average depth was considered by mean depth of 10 pools (Zanata, 1990). Volume of the water was taken as the product of surface area and the depth of the pool. During low tide sample collection was done, initially excess amount of water... was siphoned out from the rock pool and removed with the bucket until fishes were visible from the top. Rock pool was then treated with clove oil anesthesia (1:9 ratio of clove oil and ethanol) (Griffiths, 2003). Anesthesia was added according to the volume...

  3. An evaluation of different target enrichment methods in pooled sequencing designs for complex disease association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron G Day-Williams

    Full Text Available Pooled sequencing can be a cost-effective approach to disease variant discovery, but its applicability in association studies remains unclear. We compare sequence enrichment methods coupled to next-generation sequencing in non-indexed pools of 1, 2, 10, 20 and 50 individuals and assess their ability to discover variants and to estimate their allele frequencies. We find that pooled resequencing is most usefully applied as a variant discovery tool due to limitations in estimating allele frequency with high enough accuracy for association studies, and that in-solution hybrid-capture performs best among the enrichment methods examined regardless of pool size.

  4. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man


    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  5. Microbial diversity in acidic thermal pools in the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. (United States)

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Gumerov, Vadim M; Beletsky, Alexey V; Ravin, Nikolai V


    Microbial communities of four acidic thermal pools in the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia, were studied using amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The sites differed in temperature and pH: 1805 (60 °C, pH 3.7), 1810 (90 °C, pH 4.1), 1818 (80 °C, pH 3.5), and 1807 (86 °C, pH 5.6). Archaea of the order Sulfolobales were present among the dominant groups in all four pools. Acidilobales dominated in pool 1818 but were a minor fraction at the higher temperature in pool 1810. Uncultivated Archaea of the Hot Thaumarchaeota-related clade were present in significant quantities in pools 1805 and 1807, but they were not abundant in pools 1810 and 1818, where high temperatures were combined with low pH. Nanoarchaeota were present in all pools, but were more abundant in pools 1810 and 1818. A similar abundance pattern was observed for Halobacteriales. Thermophilic Bacteria were less diverse and were mostly represented by aerobic hydrogen- and sulfur-oxidizers of the phylum Aquificae and sulfur-oxidising Proteobacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus. Thus we showed that extremely acidic hot pools contain diverse microbial communities comprising different metabolic groups of prokaryotes, including putative lithoautotrophs using energy sources of volcanic origin, and various facultative and obligate heterotrophs.

  6. Childhood drownings and fencing of outdoor pools in the United States, 1994. (United States)

    Logan, P; Branche, C M; Sacks, J J; Ryan, G; Peddicord, J


    To determine the prevalence of proper fencing around outdoor swimming pools among US households and to describe this fencing in relation to demographic and other household factors. To estimate the number of drownings among children fencing around all residential pools in the United States. A 1994, randomly dialed national telephone survey contacted 5238 adults who reported demographic information and household characteristics including whether the household had an outdoor swimming pool and the fencing around the pool. Data were weighted to obtain national estimates and percentages. The number of preventable drownings was estimated with a population-attributable risk equation. Approximately 18.5 million American households owned or had access to an outdoor swimming pool in 1994, and 76% (13.9 million) of them appeared to have had adequate fencing. Adequate fencing was associated with household income and type of home. We estimate that 19% of pool-related drownings among children fenced. Adequate pool fencing prevents a child from having access to a swimming pool if a responsible adult is not present and has been promoted as a method to prevent drowning. Our research suggests that even if all residential pools in the United States were properly fenced, most drownings among children <5 years of age would not be prevented. Thus, additional strategies to prevent drowning will be needed.

  7. Phase Diagram of Collective Motion of Bacterial Cells in a Shallow Circular Pool


    Wakita, Jun-ichi; Tsukamoto, Shota; Yamamoto, Ken; Katori, Makoto; Yamada, Yasuyuki


    The collective motion of bacterial cells in a shallow circular pool is systematically studied using the bacterial species $Bacillus$ $subtilis$. The ratio of cell length to pool diameter (i.e., the reduced cell length) ranges from 0.06 to 0.43 in our experiments. Bacterial cells in a circular pool show various types of collective motion depending on the cell density in the pool and the reduced cell length. The motion is classified into six types, which we call random motion, turbulent motion,...

  8. Baltisaksa ja eesti kultuuriruumid 19. sajandi teise poole Eesti- ja Liivimaal : kooriseltsid ja identiteedikujundus / Toomas Siitan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siitan, Toomas, 1958-


    Paljusid Euroopa piirkondi iseloomustab 19. sajandil erinevate kultuuriruumide kooseksistents. Artiklis vaadeltakse baltisaksa, eesti ja vene huvide pingekolmnurka 19. sajandi teise poole muusikaelu taustal.

  9. Pollen pool heterogeneity in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.): a problem for estimating outcrossing rates? (United States)

    Fu, Y B; Knowles, P; Perry, D J


    Pollen pool heterogeneity, which violates an assumption of the mixed-mating model, is a major potential problem in measuring plant mating systems. In this study, isozyme markers were used to examine pollen pool heterogeneity in two natural populations of jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Population multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate ranged from 0.83 to 0.95 and differed significantly between populations. Single-tree multilocus outcrossing rates were found to be homogeneous among trees in both populations. Computer simulation studies indicated that a consanguineous pollen pool (pollen gametes related to the mother tree) was capable of biasing population outcrossing estimates downward. Random pollen pool heterogeneity (uncorrelated with maternal genotypes) did not appear to affect population outcrossing estimates in the simulations. Heterogeneity G-tests and Spearman rank tests showed that pollen pool heterogeneity existed in the two natural populations examined; however, it did not have a major effect on population outcrossing estimates, since the consanguineous pollen pool detected was probably a relatively minor component of the outcross pollen pool in both populations. In addition, heterogeneity G-tests were found to be not sensitive in detecting pollen pool heterogeneity caused by consanguineous pollen pool.

  10. Plasma actuators for bluff body flow control (United States)

    Kozlov, Alexey V.

    The aerodynamic plasma actuators have shown to be efficient flow control devices in various applications. In this study the results of flow control experiments utilizing single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to control flow separation and unsteady vortex shedding from a circular cylinder in cross-flow are reported. This work is motivated by the need to reduce landing gear noise for commercial transport aircraft via an effective streamlining created by the actuators. The experiments are performed at Re D = 20,000...164,000. Circular cylinders in cross-flow are chosen for study since they represent a generic flow geometry that is similar in all essential aspects to a landing gear oleo or strut. The minimization of the unsteady flow separation from the models and associated large-scale wake vorticity by using actuators reduces the radiated aerodynamic noise. Using either steady or unsteady actuation at ReD = 25,000, Karman shedding is totally eliminated, turbulence levels in the wake decrease significantly and near-field sound pressure levels are reduced by 13.3 dB. Unsteady actuation at an excitation frequency of St D = 1 is found to be most effective. The unsteady actuation also has the advantage that total suppression of shedding is achieved for a duty cycle of only 25%. However, since unsteady actuation is associated with an unsteady body force and produces a tone at the actuation frequency, steady actuation is more suitable for noise control applications. Two actuation strategies are used at ReD = 82,000: spanwise and streamwise oriented actuators. Near field microphone measurements in an anechoic wind tunnel and detailed study of the near wake using LDA are presented in the study. Both spanwise and streamwise actuators give nearly the same noise reduction level of 11.2 dB and 14.2 dB, respectively, and similar changes in the wake velocity profiles. The contribution of the actuator induced noise is found to be small compared to the natural shedding noise. A tandem cylinder configuration with the plasma actuation on the upstream cylinder is investigated using surface dynamic pressure sensors. As a result of the plasma actuation, the surface pressure fluctuations on the downstream cylinder are reduced by about two times at the free-stream velocity of 40 m/s (ReD = 164,000). In addition, this study presents the results of a parametric experimental investigation aimed at optimizing the body force produced by single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators used for aerodynamic flow control. A primary goal of the study is the improvement of actuator authority for flow control applications at higher Reynolds number than previously possible. The study examines the effects of dielectric material and thickness, applied voltage amplitude and frequency, voltage waveform, exposed electrode geometry, covered electrode width and multiple actuator arrays. The metric used to evaluate the performance of the actuator in each case is the measured actuator-induced thrust which is proportional to the total body force. It is demonstrated that actuators constructed with thick dielectric material of low dielectric constant and operated at low frequency AC voltage produce a body force that is an order of magnitude larger than that obtained by the Kapton-based actuators used in many previous plasma flow control studies. These actuators allow operation at much higher applied voltages without the formation of discrete streamers which lead to body force saturation.

  11. The urbanistic discourse between professionalism and bluff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos


    Full Text Available In the first part the text presents the basic methodological disposition of the discoursive analysis and its applicability in processing urbanistic problems. It can help to understand why there is a lot of permanent communication problems in the field, but it can also help to reveal the structure of interests which in urbanism quite often is not transparent enough. In the second part the theoretical discoursive typology is presented and discussed. The third part presents the results of the qualitative context analysis of the expert discourse in texts dealing with Ljubljana urbanism.

  12. 1998 Annual Status Report: Submersed and Floating-Leaf Vegetation in Pools 4, 8, 13, and 26 and La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Yao


    Aquatic vegetation was investigated in five navigation pools in the Upper Mississippi River System using a new protocol named 'stratified random sampling' or SRS protocol for the first time in 1998...

  13. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.


    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  14. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich


    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  15. Analysis of Particulate and Dissolved Metabolite Pools at Station ALOHA (United States)

    Boysen, A.; Carlson, L.; Hmelo, L.; Ingalls, A. E.


    Metabolomic studies focus on identifying and quantifying the small organic molecules that are the currency by which an organism lives and dies. Metabolite profiles of microorganisms have the potential to elucidate mechanisms of chemically mediated interactions that influence the success of microbial groups living in a complex environment. However, the chemical diversity of metabolites makes resolving a wide range of compounds analytically challenging. As such, metabolomics has lagged behind other genomic analyses. Here we conduct targeted analysis of over 200 primary and secondary metabolites present in the intracellular and extracellular metabolite pools at Station ALOHA using both reverse phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We selected the metabolites in our method due to their known importance in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism, and interactions between marine microorganisms such as nutrient exchange, growth promotion, and cell signaling. Through these analyses we obtain a snapshot of microbial community status that, blended with other forms of genomic data, can further our understanding of microbial dynamics. We hypothesize that monitoring a large suite of important metabolites across environmental gradients and diurnal cycles can elucidate factors controlling the distribution and activity of important microbial groups.

  16. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Warrier

    Full Text Available Asperger Syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC, which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448 were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448 lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision.

  17. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome. (United States)

    Warrier, Varun; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Murphy, Laura; Chan, Allen; Craig, Ian; Mallya, Uma; Lakatošová, Silvia; Rehnstrom, Karola; Peltonen, Leena; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Fisher, Simon E; Baron-Cohen, Simon


    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls) of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448) were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448) lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision.

  18. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  19. Aspects of DNA repair and nucleotide pool imbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R.


    Evidence that optimum repair depends on adequate pools of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) comes from the study of pyrimidine auxotrophs of Ustilago maydis. These strains are sensitive to UV light and X-rays, and for pyr1-1 it has been shown that the intracellular concentration of dTTP is reduced about 7-fold. The survival curve of pyr1-1 after UV-treatment, and split dose experiments with wild-type cells, provide evidence for an inducible repair mechanism, which probably depends on genetic recombination. Although inducible repair saves cellular resources, it has the disadvantage of becoming ineffective at doses which are high enough to inactivate the repressed structural gene(s) for repair enzymes. It is clear that a wide variety of repair mechanisms have evolved to remove lesions which arise either spontaneously or as a result of damage from external agents. Nevertheless, it would be incorrect to assume that all species require all possible pathways of repair. It is now well established that the accuracy of DNA and protein synthesis depends on proof-reading or editing mechanisms. Optimum accuracy levels will evolve from the balance between error avoidance in macromolecular synthesis and physiological efficiency in growth and propagation.

  20. Experimental Study on Boiling Crisis in Pool Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    They postulated that failure in re-wetting of a dry patch by a cooling liquid is governed by microhydrodynamics near the wall. Chu et al. commonly observed that active coalescence of newly generated bubbles with preexisting bubbles results in a residual dry patch and prevents the complete rewetting of the dry patch, leading to CHF. In this work, to reveal the key physical mechanism of CHF during the rewetting process of a dry patch, dynamics of dry patches and thermal pattern of a boiling surface are simultaneously observed using TR and IR thermometry techniques. Local dynamics of dry patch and thermal pattern on a boiling surface in synchronized manner for both space and time using TR and IR thermometry were measured during pool boiling of water. Observation and quantitative examination of CHF was performed. - The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of irreversible dry patch were observed. The dry patches coalesce into a large dry patch and it locally dried out. Due to the failure of liquid rewetting, the dry patch is not completely rewetted, resulting in the burn out at which temperature is -140°C. - When temperature of a dry patch rises beyond the instantaneous nucleation temperature, several bubbles nucleate at the head of the advancing liquid meniscus and prevents the liquid front, and eventually the overheated dry patch remains alive after the departure of the massive bubble.