This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…
balancing refers to a state's strategies or diplomatic efforts aiming to undermine a rival's power. By contrast, positive balancing means to strengthen a state's own power in world politics. I argue that a state's balancing strategies are shaped by the level of threat perception regarding its rival....... The higher the threat perception, the more likely it is for a state to choose positive balancing. The lower the threat perception, the more likely it is for a state to choose negative balancing. I suggest that the hegemon provides security as a public good to the international system in a unipolar world...... in which the relatively low-threat propensity of the system renders positive balancing strategies incompatible with state interests after the Cold War. Instead, states have employed various negative balancing strategies to undermine each other's power, especially when dealing with us primacy. China...
Theoharis, George; Haddix, Marcelle
This article reports on six White urban principals who came to administration with a commitment to create more equitable and excellent schools for students from marginalized communities. These leaders made strides in raising student achievement, creating a climate of belonging for students, staff, and families, and increasing access to learning…
Full Text Available Background: Humans are hard-wired to pay attention to violent and sexual cues. Because humans have limited attention capacity, attention allocated to violent and sexual cues decreases attention that can be allocated to encoding important information in school. This study examined the effects of exposure to violent and sexual media on general school performance and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL scores in Turkish youth. Methods: The relationship between exposure to violent and sexual media on school performance was assessed in a sample of 1545 Turkish adolescents. Then, we compared the TOEFL scores of 143 Turkish boys aged 14 to 18 divided in 71 living in dormitories in which consumption of media was strictly regulated and 72 living at home. Results: A significant negative relationship was found between exposure to violent/sexual media and school success. The effects remained significant even after controlling for the total amount of media exposure. In addition, boys living in the dormitory in which consumption of media was strictly regulated outscored those living at home on the TOEFL post-test immediately after the end of the study, and on a delayed post-test one week later. Conclusions: Because there was no difference between boys living at home and those living in a dormitory on the pre-test, the post-test and delayed post-test differences cannot be attributed to initial differences in English language proficiency. These results suggest that exposure to violent and sexual media impairs adolescent school performance and foreign language memory.
McDonnell, Lorraine M.
In the face of fiscal crisis, today's education reform measures must be both cost-efficient and classroom effective. Experience shows that successful measures incorporate lessons gained from the growth years of the 1970's. New teaching practices, for example, can be transferred from site to site; schools can use to their advantage past efforts of…
This two-part "Implementation Guide" will help to deepen your understanding and sharpen your ability to implement each of the strategies discussed in "Leading School Change: Nine Strategies to Bring Everybody on Board" (ED509821). Part One offers discussion questions and activities which focus on each of the nine strategies. They can be completed…
Despite comprehensive school reform (CSR) model developers' best intentions to make school stakeholders adhere strictly to the implementation of model components, school stakeholders implementing CSR models inevitably make adaptations to the CSR model. Adaptations are made to CSR models because school stakeholders internalize CSR model practices…
Michael B. McCullough
Full Text Available Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls—a “vertical garden,” or “living wall” interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate and a water delivery system—provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to “outdoor nature” within the indoor environment. Hands-on “project-based” learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.
McCullough, Michael B; Martin, Michael D; Sajady, Mollika A
Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls-a "vertical garden," or "living wall" interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate) and a water delivery system-provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to "outdoor nature" within the indoor environment. Hands-on "project-based" learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.
Describing implementation procedures for an open educational approach in a rural English middle school (Necton Middle School located 25 miles outside Norwich, England), this paper presents the philosophies of the school's Head Mistress as she reflects upon the first year of operation. Emphasizing community involvement and sensitivity to the human…
This "Informed Educator" examines research-proven strategies for implementing and sustaining school improvement by looking at the key elements of the process, enabling conditions for improvement, issues of school culture, and implementation. It also looks at school turnarounds and how to sustain school improvement once reforms are implemented.
Parents, school faculty and staff, school administrators, and pest management professionals all have important roles in planning and implementing school IPM. Find out about these roles and resources available to help.
This study is designed to determine the level of E-learning Implementation in Jordan schools management. The study also investigated the Implementation of secondary School management towards the use of e-learning. A survey research design was used. A questionnaire was adopted and sent to secondary School management (N = 250) in Jordan schools in…
Hammer, Patricia Cahape
"Catalyst schools" were 28 elementary and secondary schools selected to participate in a pilot project begun in July 2014, which explored how best to support teacher professional learning through decentralization of decision making and implementation of the Learning School approach. The pilot project was the first phase in a statewide…
Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary
The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement
The present dissertation concerns the implementation of cooperative learning in Dutch primary schools. The focus was on the process of implementation in four experimental schools and on the outcomes at the levels of the school, the teacher and the student. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 constitute the
The purpose of this study is to survey school counselors to determine their knowledge and perceived preparedness to implement wellness strategies in school counseling programs. Wellness plans are a requirement for thousands of public school districts in the United States. There are no established standards for the training of school counselors in…
Hager, Erin R.; Rubio, Diana S.; Eidel, G. Stewart; Penniston, Erin S.; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I.; Fox, Renee E.; Black, Maureen M.
Background: Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and…
Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the competence of primary school teachers in implementing the 2013 curriculum. The 2013 curriculum has been implemented in almost all schools and there are still many unsuccessful implementations in several Indonesian schools. Therefore it is important to study the teachers’ competence in implementing the 2013 curriculum. A qualitative research design was carried out in this study by utilizing argumentative descriptive analysis. The data was collected by carrying out in depth interviews to the primary schools teachers who were selected by random sampling techniques. The results of this study indicated that primary school teachers have insufficient competence in implementing the 2013 curriculum especially in designing lesson plan, lesson plan implementation and assessment practices. Consequently, it is recommended that further intensive training and focus group discussion should be held to improve the teachers’ competence in implementing the 2013 curriculum.
Veloo, Arsaythamby; Krishnasamy, Hariharan N.; Md-Ali, Ruzlan
School-Based Assessment (SBA) was implemented in Malaysian secondary schools in 2012. Since its implementation, teachers have faced several challenges to meet the aims and objectives of the School-Based Assessment. Based on these challenges this study aims to find the level of teachers' knowledge and readiness towards the implementation of…
Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A
Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bogue, Heidi; Marrs, Heath; Little, Suzanne
Responsiveness to intervention has been an important change in models of service delivery within school systems in the recent past. However, there are a significant number of challenges to implementing the paradigm shift that these changes entail (Reschly 2008). Therefore, implementation of RTI varies among states, districts, and schools and some…
Kwarteng, E. Fredua
This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…
Boot, N. M. W. M.; de Vries, N. K.
Purpose: This case study aimed to examine the factors influencing the implementation of health promotion (HP) policies and programs in secondary schools and the consequences for professional assistance. Design/methodology/approach: Group interviews were held in two schools that represented the best and worst case of implementation of a health…
Yesildere-Imre, Sibel; Basturk-Sahin, Burcu Nur
This research examines middle school mathematics teachers' views regarding implementation of mathematical tasks and their enactments. We compare their views on tasks and their implementation, and determine the causes of difference between the two using qualitative research methods. We interview sixteen middle school mathematics teachers based on…
Hoyme, Derek B; Atkins, Dianne L
To understand perceived barriers to providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education, implementation processes, and practices in high schools. Iowa has required CPR as a graduation requirement since 2011 as an unfunded mandate. A cross-sectional study was performed through multiple choice surveys sent to Iowa high schools to collect data about school demographics, details of CPR programs, cost, logistics, and barriers to implementation, as well as automated external defibrillator training and availability. Eighty-four schools responded (26%), with the most frequently reported school size of 100-500 students and faculty size of 25-50. When the law took effect, 51% of schools had training programs already in place; at the time of the study, 96% had successfully implemented CPR training. Perceived barriers to implementation were staffing, time commitment, equipment availability, and cost. The average estimated startup cost was $1000 US, and the yearly maintenance cost was <$500 with funds typically allocated from existing school resources. The facilitator was a school official or volunteer for 81% of schools. Average estimated training time commitment per student was <2 hours. Automated external defibrillators are available in 98% of schools, and 61% include automated external defibrillator training in their curriculum. Despite perceived barriers, school CPR training programs can be implemented with reasonable resource and time allocations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zaenuri, Z.; Sudarmin, S.; Utomo, Y.
is designed using a qualitative approach. This study is focused on the implementation of environmental education in primary schools. Data collection uses observation sheet instrument (observation), focused interview, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The research data were analyzed descriptively. The results......The purpose of this study is to analyze the implementation of environmental education in Elementary School. The study was conducted at SDN 1 Kota Banda Aceh. The research subjects are school residents (students, teachers, education personnel, principals, and school committees). This research...... show that the implementation of environmental education can be realized in habituation to maintain personal hygiene, class cleanliness, and worship together according to his beliefs and sports....
Neal, Richard G.
This book examines school-based management and provides strategies to implement management changes. The 14 chapters examine the components of good schools, including clarity of purpose, leadership, professionalism, lack of bureaucratic control, competition, and choice. The text describes the components of school-based management and the need for…
Prill, R.; Blake, D.; Hales, D.
This paper describes the effectiveness of a three-step indoor air quality (IAQ) program implemented by 156 schools in the states of Washington and Idaho during the 2000-2001 school year. An experienced IAQ/building science specialist conducted walk-through assessments at each school. These assessments documented deficiencies and served as an…
Fornari, Alice; Murray, Thomas S.; Menzin, Andrew W.; Woo, Vivian A.; Clifton, Maurice; Lombardi, Marion; Shelov, Steven
Purpose Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established. PMID:24962112
Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.
Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…
Full Text Available Most Christians inIndonesia, when asked about the term "school" or "Sunday school", they always think that those terms are addressed to children's education. Even the term "Adult Sunday School", which is a very familiar sound in the ears of Christians inAmerica, is not heard of among the churches inIndonesia. Why? According to the Christians inIndonesia, Sunday School is always intended for children. It is also carried in general education. That is why the term education is always directed to the education of the children or young persons rather than to adult education.It is time that theological schools inIndonesiaunderstand the importance of andragogy for adult Christian education. InIndonesia, adults do not like the idea of Sunday school or school because they think Sunday school or school is for children and it is beneath their dignity. However, utilizing the andragogical methods described in this paper, adult can learn in a dignified manner. Instead of being lectured what to know as children would be, adults should realize that each one is an integral part of the learning process. Through respectful participation, each adult can learn through discovery as well as contribute insight to others.
Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille
prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...
The health and education departments of government share a responsibility for promoting the health of children through policies in the school setting. These policies can be enhanced through the involvement of such stakeholders as school personnel, students, parents or caregivers, health professionals, the non-profit sector and industry. Although there is little evidence-based literature on the roles of stakeholders in school policy development and implementation, stakeholder involvement appears to be critical throughout the policy process. This article discusses stakeholder involvement in the development and implementation of school policies that promote and support healthy eating and physical activity. Canadian examples illustrate stakeholder engagement in this context.
Febriana, Beta Wulan; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina
This study aims to find out how the implementation of the curriculum at three schools in Yogyakarta. The selection of these three schools is based on the use of different curriculum in each school. The analysis was done by distributing questionnaire analysis of eight national education standards (NES). The purpose of this questionnaire is to find out how the curriculum implemented in the schools. In addition, to find out whether or not the implementation was done in accordance with the expectations of the curriculum. The questionnaire distributed in the form of indicators on each NES. These indicators include, Content Standards, Process Standards, Graduates Competency Standards, Teacher and Education Staff Standards, Facility and Infrastructure Standards, Management Standards, Financing Standards and Assessment Standards. Results of the observation indicate that there is a discrepancy between the expectations and the reality of the three schools observed.
Harimu, D. A. J.; Tumanduk, M. S. S. S.
This research aims at investigating the green building implementation at schools in North Sulawesi, Indonesia; and to analysis the relationship between implementation of green building concept at school with students’ green behaviour. This research is Survey Research with quantitative descriptive method. The analysis unit is taken purposively, that is school that had been implemented the green building concept, Manado’s 3rd Public Vocational High School, Lokon High School at Tomohon, Manado Independent School at North Minahasa, and Tondano’s 3rd Public Vocational High School. Data collecting is acquired by observation and questionnaire. The Assessment Criteria of green building on Analysis Unit, is taken from Greenship Existing Building ver 1. There are 4 main points that being assessed, which are Energy Conservation and Efficiency; Water Conservation; Indoor Health and Comfort; Waste Managerial. The Analysis technique used in this research is the simple regression analysis. The result of the research shows that there is a significant relation between green building implementation at school and students’ green behavior. The result is accordance with the Gesalts Psychologist theories, that architecture can change the user’s behaviour.
Although South Africa accepted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1996 thereby committing itself to prioritisation of children, the implementation of school health services in South Africa has deteriorated to levels that contravene these rights. The promotion of health in schools requires a strong political ...
Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard
Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…
Education For All (EFA) by 2015, we need the services of school counsellors in order to be ... Primary science has been replaced by Basic Science and Technology for Junior and Senior .... UBE covers both formal and informal education of ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership strategies utilized by superintendents, district administrators and school principals and the impact of these identified strategies on implementing STEM initiatives specifically for lower-income students. This study set out to determine (a) What role does district leadership play in the implementation of STEM initiatives in lower income secondary schools; (b) What internal systems of accountability exist in successful lower income secondary schools' STEM programs; (c) What leadership strategies are used to implement STEM curriculum initiatives; (d) How do school and district leadership support staff in order to achieve student engagement in STEM Initiative curriculum. This study used a mixed-methods approach to determine the impact of leadership strategies utilized by superintendents, district administrators and school principals on implementing STEM initiatives. Quantitative data analyzed survey questionnaires to determine the degree of correlation between the school districts that have demonstrated the successful implementation of STEM initiatives at the school and district levels. Qualitative data was collected using highly structured participant interviews and purposeful sampling of four district superintendents, one district-level administrator and five school leaders to capture the key strategies in implementing STEM initiatives in lower income secondary schools. Through the process of triangulation, the results of the study revealed that superintendents and principals should consider the characteristics of effective STEM initiatives that have shown a considerable degree of correlation with positive outcomes for lower income students. These included the leadership strategies of personnel's making decisions about the district's and school's instructional direction and an emphasis on the conceptual development of scientific principles using the Next Generation Science Standards coupled with the Common Core
Tabak, Rachel G; Moreland-Russell, Sarah
Explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of the new National School Lunch Program (NSLP) policy guidelines. Interviews with eight food service directors using an interview guide informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Food service personnel; parents, teachers, school staff; and students were important stakeholders. Characteristics of the new NSLP policy guidelines were reported to create increased demands; resources alleviated some barriers. Directors reported increased food and labor costs, food sourcing challenges, decreased student participation, and organizational constraints as barriers to implementation. Creativity in menu planning facilitated success. Factors within the food service department, characteristics of implementing individuals and the new NSLP policy guidelines, and stakeholder involvement in the implementation process relate to successful implementation.
Full Text Available School gardens have beneficial effects on children’s dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10–13 years old in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium. We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden, but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves. In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children’s health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.
Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Chang, Fong-Ching; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Shih, Shu-Fang; Chang, Tzu-Chau; Chou, Hsin-Pei
In 2011, the Taiwan government expanded its support of school-district/university partnership programs that promote the implementation of the evidenced-based Health Promoting Schools (HPS) program. This study examined whether expanding the support for this initiative was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived…
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of multicultural education at Krida Nusantara integrated high school. The study focuses on four main points; the school policy, the implementation and the dominant factors that influence the policy, and the implementation results. A descriptive qualitative approach is taken in the study and the data is collected through interviews and case studies. The study concludes that the school's multicultural education policy is applied based on the school founding fathers’ philosophy, which emphasizes on merging nationalist and religious values. Those values are then implemented in form of academic and non-academic programs. Apart from that, students' plurality values that are embedded in their school life serve as the most influential factor in implementing the multicultural education policy.
Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…
Roberts, Erica; McLeod, Nicole; Montemurro, Genevieve; Veugelers, Paul J; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate E
Comprehensive School Health (CSH) is an internationally recognized framework that moves beyond the individual to holistically address school health, leading to the development of health-enhancing behaviors while also improving educational outcomes. Previous research has suggested that principal support for CSH implementation is essential, but this role has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the role of the principal in the implementation of a CSH project aimed at creating a healthy school culture. This research was guided by the grounded ethnography method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with APPLE School principals (n = 29) to qualitatively explore their role in creating a healthy school culture. A model consisting of five major themes emerged, suggesting that the principal played a fluid role throughout the CSH implementation process. Principals (i) primed the cultural change; (ii) communicated the project's importance to others; (iii) negotiated concerns and collaboratively planned; (iv) held others accountable to the change, while enabling them to take ownership and (v) played an underlying supportive role, providing positive recognition and establishing ongoing commitment. This research provides recommendations to help establish effective leadership practices in schools, conducive to creating a healthy school culture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Hager, Erin R; Rubio, Diana S; Eidel, G Stewart; Penniston, Erin S; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I; Fox, Renee E; Black, Maureen M
Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and having a school-level wellness team/school health council (SHC), with stronger associations among schools without disparity enrollment (majority African-American/Hispanic or low-income students). Online surveys were administered: 24 systems (support), 1349 schools (LWP implementation, perceived system support, SHC). The state provided school demographics. Analyses included multilevel multinomial logistic regression. Response rates were 100% (systems)/55.2% (schools). Among schools, 44.0% had SHCs, 22.6% majority (≥75%) African-American/Hispanic students, and 25.5% majority (≥75%) low-income (receiving free/reduced-price meals). LWP implementation (17-items) categorized as none = 36.3%, low (1-5 items) = 36.3%, high (6+ items) = 27.4%. In adjusted models, greater likelihood of LWP implementation was observed among schools with perceived system support (high versus none relative risk ratio, RRR = 1.63, CI: 1.49, 1.78; low versus none RRR = 1.26, CI: 1.18, 1.36) and SHCs (high versus none RRR = 6.8, CI: 4.07, 11.37; low versus none RRR = 2.24, CI: 1.48, 3.39). Disparity enrollment did not moderate associations (p > .05). Schools with perceived system support and SHCs had greater likelihood of LWP implementation, with no moderating effect of disparity enrollment. SHCs/support may overcome LWP implementation obstacles related to disparities. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Mohamad, Mariam; Woollard, John
This study describes the issues and challenges in implementing mobile learning via mobile phones to support English Language learning in Malaysian schools. The findings are drawn from interviews of English subject leaders, ICT subject leaders, head teachers and deputy head teachers from 4 schools in the United Kingdom. In addition, the study also describes the perspectives from the experts in education in Malaysia. They are English subject leaders, ICT subject leaders, head teachers, deputy h...
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Full Text Available The paper highlights the violations of students’ human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School’s Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods. Black girls claimed they were discriminated against and the protest serves as an example to demonstrate students’ human rights violations when schools implement school uniform policies. Inequality in schools is rife in South Africa. School uniform policies with regard to dress codes are expected to reduce school violence, prevent discipline issues, and improve in school safety. Students have rights and their rights can include issues regarding cultural, economic, and political freedoms. Students, especially adolescents, respond very negatively to school uniforms.
Full Text Available The success or failures of educational institutions in the implementation of character education in boarding schools or madrasah is determined by its leaders. The school principal as a leader and educator should be a good model to all teachers and learners in the school. In other words, he or she will create a healthy school life, conducive and supportive school performance. There are seven principal’s roles in implementing character building the school. He or she should has a clear vision, rely on more collaborative approach, responsive and proactive in responding to what is happening outside of school, be consistent in enforcing the rules, be active, give many social rewards, and create a variety of rides or activities that can develop pro-social skills and devotion of students.
Kennedy, Katheryn B.
Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards requires developing elementary teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge of science and engineering concepts. Teacher preparation for this undertaking appears inadequate with little known about how in-service Mid-Atlantic urban elementary science teachers approach this task. The purpose of this basic qualitative interview study was to explore the research questions related to perceived learning needs of 8 elementary science teachers and 5 of their administrators serving as instructional leaders. Strategies needed for professional growth to support learning and barriers that hamper it at both building and district levels were included. These questions were considered through the lens of Schon's reflective learning and Weick's sensemaking theories. Analysis with provisional and open coding strategies identified informal and formal supports and barriers to teachers' learning. Results indicated that informal supports, primarily internet usage, emerged as most valuable to the teachers' learning. Formal structures, including professional learning communities and grade level meetings, arose as both supportive and restrictive at the building and district levels. Existing formal supports emerged as the least useful because of the dominance of other priorities competing for time and resources. Addressing weaknesses within formal supports through more effective planning in professional development can promote positive change. Improvement to professional development approaches using the internet and increased hands on activities can be integrated into formal supports. Explicit attention to these strategies can strengthen teacher effectiveness bringing positive social change.
This study was conducted to assess how the Nigerian secondary school vocational and technical education curriculum was implemented with a view to ascertain the extent to which it has empowered students for self-employment. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample comprised 380 ...
Rogers, John D.; Glesner, Talia J.; Meyers, Herman W.
This article describes the implementation of an initiative to encourage voluntary school district mergers in Vermont. The law was intended to increase educational opportunities for Vermont students while reducing costs. Three research activities were conducted to understand how districts and supervisory unions around the state responded to the new…
Buchs, Céline; Filippou, Dimitra; Pulfrey, Caroline; Volpé, Yann
Despite the well-established benefits of cooperative learning, implementation remains a challenge. This research aims to document these challenges at the elementary school level, drawing on teachers' beliefs regarding learning as well as the difficulties teachers report. Results indicate that the most frequent instructional strategies reported are…
Bean, David; Glick, Paul
In June 1999, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) issued its statement on the structure of the basic financial reporting model for state and local governments. Explains the new financial reporting model and reviews the implementation issues that school districts will need to address. (MLF)
Kristiansson, Michael Rene
The session aims to bring together a group of researchers and educators within the iSchool community interested in implementing entrepreneurial thinking in curriculum (teaching and research). Entrepreneurship is a contemporary social and cultural movement extending beyond its starting point...
Hammer, Patricia Cahape
West Virginia's Regional Education Service Agency 6 (RESA 6) serves five districts in the northern panhandle of the state--Brooke, Hancock, Marshall, Ohio, and Wetzel--which together are home to 51 schools. RESA 6 joined the pilot implementation of the Learning School approach in the summer of 2015, as part of the second cohort. RESA 6's group…
Hammer, Patricia Cahape
West Virginia's Regional Education Service Agency 2 (RESA 2) serves six districts in the southwestern part of the state--Cabell, Lincoln, Logan, Mason, Mingo, Wayne--which together have 95 schools. RESA 2 was one of two RESAs to pilot implementation of the Learning School approach, beginning in the summer of 2014. RESA 2's first cohort included…
Yon, Bethany A.; Amin, Sarah A.; Taylor, Jennifer C.; Johnson, Rachel K.
Purpose/Objectives: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) new school meals regulations went into effect in July 2012. The purpose of this research was to explore school nutrition director's (SNDs) perspectives and attitudes about the new regulations and to identify strategies used to prepare for and subsequently implement the regulations.…
Full Text Available This study aims to describe and interpret the implementation of school-based lesson study in SDN I Kretek. This study uses the qualitative research. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, field notes, and documentation. The data validity was determined through sources and techniques triangulation. The data were analyzed using the Interactive Analysis Model from Miles and Huberman. The results show: (1 the planning of school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek has been implemented from the beginning of the school year 2014/2015 by establishing school-based lesson study team. This team is responsible for planning, managing, and evaluating school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek, (2 school-based lesson study at SDN 1 Kretek is implemented in three phases, namely planning, implementation, and reflection, and (3 The evaluation of lesson study is conducted by each teacher who has conducted the open class and conducted thoroughly with a meeting by a team of school-based lesson study SDN 1 Kretek at the end of the school year.
Miller, Kim H.; Bice, Matthew R.
Child health is a complex issue that requires a comprehensive approach to address the many factors that influence it and are influenced by it. In light of the complexity of children's health, the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) was developed as a framework for a systems approach to planning and implementing school-based children's health…
Tyre, Ashli D.; Feuerborn, Laura L.; Woods, Leslie
Understanding staff concerns about a systemic change effort allows leadership teams to better anticipate and address staff needs for professional development and support. In this study, staff concerns in nine schools planning for or implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) were explored using the…
Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner
To test the hypothesis that viewing depictions of smoking in movies makes adolescents less responsive to parenting factors that prevent smoking. Cross-sectional survey of 4807 students (grades 5-8) through which we ascertained exposure to smoking in movies, parent smoking, and adolescents' perception of parental responsiveness (support), and parental demandingness (behavioral control). Adolescents attending randomly selected middle schools in the Northeastern U.S. ever tried smoking a cigarette. Exposure to movie smoking was ascertained by counting occurrences of tobacco use in 601 recent popular motion pictures; surveying students to identify films they had seen from a random subset of 50 films; and summing tobacco use occurrences for the films each adolescent reported seeing. We also measured adolescents' perceptions of parent smoking, parental responsiveness and demandingness. The overall prevalence of adolescent smoking was 17.4 percent. The prevalence of smoking increased with exposure to movie smoking (low vs. high exposure 8.8 vs. 25.8%, p Parenting factors associated with lower rates of adolescent smoking were parent non smoking status (11.0% vs. 27.7% for parents who smoke, p parental responsiveness (12.4% vs. 23.1% for low parental responsiveness, p Parenting factors were not strongly associated with exposure to movie smoking. For adolescents with low exposure to movie smoking the adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of smoking were 0.31 (0.23, 0.42) if parents did not smoke, 0.57 (0.42, 0.78) if parents exerted high demandingness, and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) if parents were highly responsive. Parents had significantly less influence for adolescents with high exposure to movie smoking, for whom the adjusted odds of smoking were only 0.50 if parents did not smoke (p = 0.014 for the interaction effect), 0.97 if parents exerted high demandingness (p = 0.007 for the interaction effect) and 0.73 if parents were highly responsive (p = 0.045 for the interaction
Many authors argue that school leadership determines how Information Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented and its subsequent impact on teaching and learning. This involves Principal as a school leader to lead in implementation. A positive attitude of school leader towards implementation of ICT will encourage the school community to be…
Pomeranz, Jennifer L
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act revised the law related to workplace wellness programs, which have become part of the nation's broader health strategy. Health-contingent programs are required to be reasonably designed. However, the regulatory requirements are lax and might undermine program efficacy in terms of both health gains and financial return. I propose a method for the government to support a best-practices approach by considering an accreditation or certification process. Additionally I discuss the need for program evaluation and the potential for employers to be subject to litigation if programs are not carefully implemented.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the character education program of Junior and Senior High School Victory Plus School using the national curriculum and International Baccalaureate. The research method used is mix method. The result of data analysis showed that the average self-concept score was 2.65 (less good; self-management is 2.73 (good; and social services is 2.73 (good in the implementation of courageous, honest, active, mindful, innovative, open minded, and nobel (champion value. The value of champion is relevant to the value of the national curriculum character but the value of hard work, religion, democracy, the spirit of nationality, and the love of the homeland have not yet appeared. The balanced and reflective values in the learner profile are not yet visible.
Young, Kathleen D.; Snelling, Anastasia; Maroto, Maya; Young, Katherine A.
Purpose/Objectives: In 2010, a large urban school district implemented a district-wide school wellness policy that addressed childhood obesity by requiring schools to increase health and physical education contact hours for students and to improve the nutritional standards of school meals. Schools were required to serve a different fruit and…
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the implementation of character education at Senior High School in Sumedang Regency, West Java, Indonesia. A content analysis method was employed to collect the data with interviews with six teachers from six different senior high schools, which represent the rural, transitional, and urban areas. The findings revealed that: (1 not all teachers understand the concept of character education; (2 the character education has not been done systematically or has not had the specific design/model for the teaching and learning process. Most teachers embedded the character values during the teaching and learning process as a form of character education. For example, through Qur’an recitation, learning tasks, group discussion, lecture, socio-drama, observation and admonition, and even through teachers’ model. Meanwhile, outside the class, character education was implemented through competition and extracurricular activities; (3 the evaluation of character education was relatively varied, such as an observation followed by admonition, group guidance, and also focusing on behavior and affective assessment in the classroom learning process. This research implied that it is needed to make a policy on a program development through the Bureau of Education to improve Senior High School teachers’ knowledge and skills in implementing the character education.
Full Text Available In view of the existing research into the implementation of CLIL in Lithuania, it can be claimed that this wellestablished and globally applied teaching and learning methodology has already had some due appreciation in Lithuanian secondary schools. Nevertheless, there still exist numerous obstacles to the broader and more intensive application of CLIL which is strongly lagging behind in comparison to many other countries in Europe and world-wide. The present study aims at exploring the rich experience in CLIL implementation accumulated by Šiauliai Didždvario gymnasium and examining their multifaceted CLIL module which could be an important source of knowledge and practical know-how for other Lithuanian secondary education institutions planning to start implementing CLIL. The research follows a synthesis of qualitative and quantitative methodology including interviews with CLIL teachers, students and school administration. The study results in a SWOT analysis of implementing CLIL in Lithuania on the basis of CLIL practices at Šiauliai Didždvario gymnasium and sets forth some guidelines for its further advancement.
Garn, Gregg A.
Analyzes how Arizona charter school policymakers succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions of the state's charter school program. Identifies four key features of policy implementation that created the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. (SLD)
Clarke, Brandy L; Sheridan, Susan M; Woods, Kathryn E
An ecological perspective to school readiness focuses on child and family readiness by enhancing the developmental contexts and relationships within which children reside (e.g., home environment, parent-child relationship, home-school relationships). The Getting Ready intervention is an ecological, relationally based, tiered intervention providing both universal and intensive services to children and families to promote child and family school readiness. Intensive level consultation services were provided via Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC; Sheridan & Kratochwill, 1992 , 2008 ). The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation and effects of CBC within the Getting Ready intervention to promote child and family school readiness. Keys to successful implementation of the CBC intervention and issues needing further investigation are discussed.
Bice, Matthew R; Brown, Stephen L; Parry, Thomas
Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) is a school health program implemented in southern Illinois that focuses on physical activity and nutrition and consists of a classroom curriculum, physical education framework, and cafeteria guidelines. Though many schools agreed to implement CATCH, some schools implemented it better than others. This study examined implementation practices of classroom and physical education teachers and cafeteria supervisors. We surveyed 284 school employees at 36 elementary schools located in southern Illinois. Attention focused on organizational readiness, commitment to change, school leadership, implementation barriers, and innovation perceptions concerning degree of implementation of CATCH. Organizational readiness and implementation barriers were significant predictors of degree of implementation for school employees. Additionally, organizational readiness was reported a significant predictor of classroom teacher degree of implementation whereas leadership was a significant predictor of degree of implementation by physical education teachers. Data from this study can be used to enhance implementation of CATCH as well as other school health programs. This study provides educators evidence of why school employees have different implementation practices, evidence of what constructs influence degree of implementation most, and some explanation of school employee degree of implementation. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Bast, Lotus S; Due, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette K; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Andersen, Anette
Assessment of implementation is essential for the evaluation of school-based preventive activities. Interventions are more easily implemented in schools if detailed instructional manuals, lesson plans, and materials are provided; however, implementation may also be affected by other factors than the intervention itself-for example, school-level characteristics, such as principal support and organizational capacity. We examined school-level characteristics of schools in groups of high, medium, and low implementation of a smoking prevention intervention. The X:IT study is a school-randomized trial testing a multicomponent intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents. Our data came from electronic questionnaires completed by school coordinators at 96.1% of participating intervention schools (N = 49) at first follow -up. Schools that implemented the X:IT intervention to a medium or high degree had higher levels of administrative leadership (77.3% and 83.3% vs 42.9%), school climate/organizational health (95.5% and 91.7% vs 66.7%), mission-policy alignment (90.9% and 100.0% vs 71.4%), personnel expertise (81.8% and 75.0% vs 46.7%), school culture (77.3% and 91.7% vs 53.3%), positive classroom climate (91.4% and 96.2% vs 82.9%) compared with low implementation schools. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the school context in future health prevention initiatives. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Long, Anna C. J.; Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Lark, Catherine R.; Connolly, Jennifer J. G.
Students who demonstrate the most challenging behaviors are at risk of school failure and are often placed in alternative schools, in which a primary goal is remediating behavioral and academic concerns to facilitate students' return to their community school. Consistently implemented evidence-based classroom management is necessary toward this…
Bast, Lotus S.; Due, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Andersen, Anette
Background: Assessment of implementation is essential for the evaluation of school-based preventive activities. Interventions are more easily implemented in schools if detailed instructional manuals, lesson plans, and materials are provided; however, implementation may also be affected by other factors than the intervention itself--for example,…
Maier, Michael John
The purposes of this study were to assess staff perceptions of desirability and level of implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE)/Secondary Schooling in four high schools implementing programs similar to IGE and to identify factors enhancing or impeding implementation of these programs. Theoretical foundations of the study included…
This paper critically reviews and evaluates the implementation of School Accreditation Program for the period of 2013 with a particular reference to Central Java Schools, consisting of Kindergarten (TK) Elementary School (SD), Junior High School (SMP) and Senior High School (SMA) (Note 1). The aim of the review is to see to what extent they can…
LaFountain, Rebecca M.; Garner, Nadine E.
This book explains how counselors can integrate the theories of solution focused and Adlerian counseling into a comprehensive developmental counseling curriculum. Following an introduction in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 explains how support needs to be developed among the staff to implement a comprehensive school program. The comprehensive developmental…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa
We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.
Cabardo, Jimmy Rey Opong
This study aimed to evaluate the levels of participation of the school stakeholders to the different school-initiated activities and the implementation of school-based management (SBM) in selected schools in the Division of Davao del Sur for the school year 2014-2015 using a descriptive-correlational survey research design. A…
Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III
This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated
Park, Kwi Hwa; Kim, Tae-Hee; Chung, Wook-Jin
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the medical research curriculum on the students' satisfaction and the research self-efficacy. The curriculum was implemented to 79 graduate medical school students who entered in 2007 and 2008. This curriculum is implemented through 3 years consisting of 5 different sub-courses: Research design, Research ethics, Medical statistics, Writing medical paper, and Presentation. The effect of this program was measured with 2 self-administered surveys to students: the course satisfaction survey and the self-efficacy inventories. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of 18 items from 4 categories: Research design, Research ethics, Data analysis, and Result presentation. The descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were implemented. The average point of satisfaction of the course was 2.74 out of 4, which told us that students generally satisfied with the course. The frequencies of tutoring for research course were 2 or 3 times on average and each session of tutorial lasted 1.5 to 2 hours. The research self-efficacy in three categories (Research design, Research ethics, and Result presentation) increased significantly (presearch paper writing at undergraduate level. The curriculum showed positive results in cultivating research self-efficacy of students. There is a need for improvement of the class of Statistical analysis as students reported that it was difficult.
Duffy, Helen; Scala, Jenny
The National High School Center continues to receive inquiries about how to support high school implementation of response to intervention (RTI). Given the National High School Center's previous work on the topic, the authors wanted to better understand the conditions that contribute to or inhibit implementation of tiered frameworks in high…
Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin
This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…
Gay, Ronald Lynn
This study examined factors related to the implementation of a School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (SWPBIS) program at a large middle school in the United States. Parent Teacher Student Association volunteers at the school reported that teacher fidelity to implementation of SWPBIS activities was inconsistent, threatening the…
Turri, Mary G.; Mercer, Sterett H.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Hoselton, Robert
The purpose of this study was to determine if an experimental 5-item measure of barriers to implementing and sustaining school-wide prevention practices, the "Assessment of Barriers to Implementation and Sustainability in Schools" (ABISS), would relate to objective measures of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports…
Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T
School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bartholomew, Mitch; De Jong, David
Despite the successful implementation of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework in many elementary schools, there is little evidence of successful implementation in high school settings. Several themes emerged from the interviews of nine secondary principals, including a lack of knowledge and training for successful implementation, the…
Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine M; Miller, Michelle; Lohrmann, David; Gregory, Patricia
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI), a guide for completing a coordinated school-based program needs assessment relative to healthy eating, physical activity, a tobacco-free lifestyle, and prevention of other health risk behaviors and conditions, was used to assess current programming at 3 midwestern middle schools. Employing somewhat different procedures, data were collected from focus groups comprising school administrators, teachers, parents, community members, and students. Participants responded to SHI module questions and provided comments based on their perceptions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were recorded for each module, after which participants answered 3 planning questions intended to guide prioritization of actions to improve policies and programs based on importance, cost, time, commitment, and feasibility. Each school developed recommendations and strategies based on highest priority needs related to community involvement, professional development, health screenings, and health education materials in classrooms. The experience of completing the SHI in 3 different schools provided important insights about the data collection process as well as assessment results that have implications for the design and implementation of prevention programs.
Anggraini, Purwati; Kusniarti, Tuti
This study aimed at constructing character education model implemented in primary school. The research method was qualitative with five samples in total, comprising primary schools in Malang city/regency and one school as a pilot model. The pilot model was instructed by theatre coach teacher, parents, and school society. The result showed that…
Anderson, Eleanor Robinson
Mounting public concern about a school-to-prison pipeline has put schools and districts under increasing pressure to reduce their use of suspensions, expulsions and arrests. Many are turning to restorative justice practices (RJP) as a promising alternative for addressing school discipline and improving school climate. However, implementing RJP in…
Schroeder, Krista; Smaldone, Arlene
A recent evaluation of a school nurse-led obesity intervention demonstrated a 5% implementation rate. The purpose of this study was to explore school nurses' perceived barriers to and facilitators of the intervention in order to understand reasons for the low implementation rate. Methods included semi-structured individual interviews with school nurses. Data were analyzed using content analysis and heat mapping. Nineteen nurses participated and eight themes were identified. Parental and administrative gatekeeping, heavy nurse workload, obesogenic environments, and concerns about obesity stigma were barriers to implementation. Teamwork with parents and school staff was a key facilitator of implementation. Nurses also noted the importance of cultural considerations and highlighted the need to tailor the intervention to the unique needs of their school environment and student population. These findings suggest that for school nurses to play a key role in school-based obesity interventions, barriers must be identified and addressed prior to program implementation.
Full Text Available Raihan Mohammed, Jamil Shah Foridi, Innocent OgunmwonyiFaculty of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAs clinical medical students, we read with great interest the perspective by Malik et al.1 Although medical schools excel at educating students on the pathology and treatment of diseases, we agree on the severe deficiency in teaching health policy (HP in the medical curriculum. However, the authors fail to include challenges facing this implementation, which is an important aspect of the analysis. Thus, here we outline 3 key barriers that must be considered when including HP teaching in the medical curricula.First, as the authors mention, the medical curriculum is already saturated and there is insufficient space to add obligatory HP learning in timetables. The UK curriculum is so packed that lecturers resort to teaching facts, which students then rote-learn and commit to memory. This leaves little time for students to develop a deep understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases and subsequent management, and they also fail to develop core lifelong skills, including problem solving and critical thinking.2 It is well acknowledged that the medical course is extremely rigorous, and up to 90% of students have admitted to suffering from stress and up to 75% have complained of burnout.3 With mental health issues among students reaching epidemic levels, adding HP lectures to the timetable would put undue strain on both the medical school curricula and the students.View the original article by Malik et al.
Christine M.W. Totura
Conclusion: Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place.
Full Text Available The objectives of developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 were ; 1 to study present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 and 2 to develop an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25. There were 68 samples ; administrators, deputy administrators, head of quality management systems, and academic teachers by purposive sampling. The tools used to collect the data were the five level scale questionnaire and structured interviews. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and descriptive analysis. The researcher set the research by 2 phase. The first phase educated present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25. The research was assessed feasibility of developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 by 5 experts. The research results were: 1. The present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 found that the overall present were at the high level and each one was at the high level. The overall problem were at the low and each one was at the moderate 2 aspects ; The leadership and the focus on personnel. Then it was at the low level. 2. Developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 found that 1 the leadership had set with the vision, values, performance of the school’s senior leadership, including good governance of the school, implementation of the ethics law, and responsibility for the community, 2 strategic
Chuzaimah D. Diem
Full Text Available Information about Curriculum 2013 has seemed to make many EFL teachers feel anxious. This anxiety is assumed to happen due to the unwillingness of the teachers to implement the new curriculum because they have not yet even implemented the previous curriculum (KTSP in their classrooms optimally. This study was aimed primarily at investigating the implementation of KTSP covering three important components: preparation, application, and evaluation by 107 secondary school teachers of English. To collect the data, “KTSP Implementation Questionnaire” was used. The data collected based on the teachers’ own perceptions were analyzed in relation to their education level, teaching experience, certification status, and KTSP socialization involvement. The results showed that (1 62% teachers confessed that they had not yet optimally implemented KTSP although all of them had been involved in its dissemination program done by the government; (2 there was no correlation between either education level or teaching experience and the implementation of KTSP. However, (3 there was a significant correlation between teachers’ certification status and their (i KTSP preparation, (ii teaching experience, and (iii involvement in dissemination program activities.
Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.
Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…
Christian, Danielle; Todd, Charlotte; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Schools are repeatedly utilised as a key setting for health interventions. However, the translation of effective research findings to the school setting can be problematic. In order to improve effective translation of future interventions, it is imperative key challenges and facilitators of implementing health interventions be understood from a school's perspective. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in primary schools (headteachers n = 16, deputy headteacher n = 1, healthy school co-ordinator n = 2). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. The main challenges for schools in implementing health interventions were; government-led academic priorities, initiative overload, low autonomy for schools, lack of staff support, lack of facilities and resources, litigation risk and parental engagement. Recommendations to increase the application of interventions into the school setting included; better planning and organisation, greater collaboration with schools and external partners and elements addressing sustainability. Child-centred and cross-curricular approaches, inclusive whole school approaches and assurances to be supportive of the school ethos were also favoured for consideration. This work explores schools' perspectives regarding the implementation of health interventions and utilises these thoughts to create guidelines for developing future school-based interventions. Recommendations include the need to account for variability between school environments, staff and pupils. Interventions with an element of adaptability were preferred over the delivery of blanket fixed interventions. Involving schools in the developmental stage would add useful insights to ensure the interventions can be tailored to best suit each individual schools' needs and improve implementation.
Full Text Available This qualitative study focuses on primary schools' state of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. Adopting a multiple case study design, the article explores, through semi-structured interviews and documentation, school heads, teachers-in-charge and classroom teachers' perceptions of their respective schools' state of readiness for the installation and implementation of early childhood education. The study established that, while classroom teachers were adequately qualified to implement early childhood education, teachers-in-charge were not. Secondly, school heads received limited induction for the introduction and implementation of early childhood education. Additionally, inadequate teaching-learning resources and lack of on-going teacher support contributed to schools' lack of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. The study recommends interventions that curriculum planners and implementers can utilise in order to create conditions that enable primary schools to be ready for introducing and implementing early childhood education.
Browne, Tamara Kayali
Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex. Yet gender essentialism, a set of unfounded assumptions about the sexes which pervade society and underpin sexism, prevents parents from realising this freedom. In other words, unfounded assumptions about gender constrain not only a child's autonomy, but also the parent's. To date, reproductive autonomy in relation to sex selection has predominantly been regarded merely as the freedom to choose the sex of one's child. This paper points to at least two interpretations of reproductive autonomy and argues that sex selection, by being premised on gender essentialism and/or the social pressure on parents to ensure their children conform to gender norms, undermines reproductive autonomy on both accounts.
Armsworth, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C; Kareiva, Peter; Sanchirico, James N
The full or partial purchase of land has become a cornerstone of efforts to conserve biodiversity in countries with strong private property rights. Methods used to target areas for acquisition typically ignore land market dynamics. We show how conservation purchases affect land prices and generate feedbacks that can undermine conservation goals, either by displacing development toward biologically valuable areas or by accelerating its pace. The impact of these market feedbacks on the effectiveness of conservation depends on the ecological value of land outside nature reserves. Traditional, noneconomic approaches to site prioritization should perform adequately in places where land outside reserves supports little biodiversity. However, these approaches will perform poorly in locations where the countryside surrounding reserves is important for species' persistence. Conservation investments can sometimes even be counterproductive, condemning more species than they save. Conservation is most likely to be compromised in the absence of accurate information on species distributions, which provides a strong argument for improving inventories of biodiversity. Accounting for land market dynamics in conservation planning is crucial for making smart investment decisions.
Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Naylor, Patti-Jean
Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical...
Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg
Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rachel C. F. Sun
Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.
Schroeder, Krista; Smaldone, Arlene
A recent evaluation of a school nurse-led obesity intervention demonstrated a 5% implementation rate. The purpose of this study was to explore school nurses' perceived barriers to and facilitators of the intervention in order to understand reasons for the low implementation rate. Methods included semi-structured individual interviews with school…
Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Siraj, Saedah
Leadership is an important factor in the effective implementation of technology in schools. This study examines the transformational leadership role of principals to determine whether transformational leadership role of principals in ICT implementation in schools is influenced by the computer competence, level of computer use, and professional…
van Geel, Marieke Johanna Maria; Visscher, Arend J.; Teunis, B.
There is an increasing global emphasis on using data for decision making, with a growing body of research on interventions aimed at implementing and sustaining data-based decision making (DBDM) in schools. Yet, little is known about the school features that facilitate or hinder the implementation of
Lawlor, Molly Steward
Schools are considered one of the primary settings in which prevention and intervention initiatives can be implemented successfully, reaching a large number of young people. Especially when promoting social and emotional learning (SEL), many adolescents benefit from universal programs implemented in the school context. This chapter embeds…
Aug 14, 2009 ... Background: The level of development of a country is measured by the health status of its children. ... initiative and its interrelatedness to school health services ... children's health, knowledge and practices target schools.
Bastable, Eoin; Kittelman, Angus; McIntosh, Kent; Hoselton, Rob
School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) is a systems-level framework for improving social and academic outcomes for students in schools through the use of integrated evidence-based practices. Although the effects of SWPBIS are well-documented in elementary schools, there is increasing interest in implementing SWPBIS in…
Hansel, Troy; Phimmavong, Somvang; Phengsopha, Kaisone; Phompila, Chitana; Homduangpachan, Khiaosaphan
In this article, the authors examine the implementation and success of a mobile conservation education unit targeting primary schools in central Lao PDR (People's Democratic Republic). The mobile unit conducted 3-hour interactive programs for school children focused on the importance of wildlife and biodiversity around the primary schools in rural…
Marrs, Heath; Little, Suzanne
As Response to Intervention (RTI) models continue to be implemented, an important research question is how school psychologists are experiencing the transition to RTI practice. In order to better understand the experiences of school psychologists, interviews with seven practicing school psychologists regarding their perceptions of barriers and…
Hill, Laura; Ugo, Iwunze
Intended to accompany "Implementing California's School Funding Formula: Will High-Need Students Benefit?," this appendix examines the extent to which school shares of high-need students vary relative to their district concentrations by grouping approximately 950 school districts by their share of high-need students, arraying them into…
Keaveny, Stacy M.
Federal and state guidelines for school reform dominate the landscape of public education. Florida and its school districts, as a Race to the Top state, are in the process of fully implementing a value-added model of teacher evaluation. Effective school leaders are calling upon the theoretical framework of transformational, visionary and…
At first glance, the introduction of a national curriculum for Australian schools suggested a new era of revival for school geography. Since the late 1980s, the development and introduction of more integrated conceptions of curriculum design and implementation has seen the decline of Geography as a distinct subject in Australian schools, with…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
Glasheen, Kevin; McMahon, Mary; Campbell, Marilyn; Rickwood, Debra; Shochet, Ian
Today's young people have integrated the online world into their everyday reality and schools have generally accepted the importance of technology in the education process. However, there has been limited use in schools of technology to counsel young people, although early indications suggest that school counsellors may be prepared to offer…
Turnbull, Brenda J.; Arcaira, Erikson R.
There is some evidence to indicate that chronically low-performing schools, whether improving student performance or not, often report pursuing substantially similar policies, programs, and practices. However, while chronically low-performing schools may pursue similar school improvement strategies, there is some evidence that the level and…
Stallard, Charles K.
This paper describes the characteristics of "smart schools" and offers guidelines for developing such schools. Smart schools are defined as having three features: (1) they are computer networked via local area networks in order to share information through teleconferencing, databases, and electronic mail; (2) they are connected beyond…
Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.
Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…
Laksono, K.; Retnaningdyah, P.
Literacy Infrastructure and access to books are the foundation of literacy activity. Indonesia has regulations from the Ministry of Education and Culture requiring that 15 minutes should be used each day before the learning begins to read books other than textbooks. However, many schools are not yet obeying this requirement. The purposes of this study are to describe the literacy infrastructure in primary schools in Indonesia, to analyze access to books in primary schools, to explain the School Literacy Movement implementation, and to identify issues around the implementation of reading strategies in a context in which there is limited access to books. The questionnaire and interview study were conducted in 30 primary schools in East Java, Indonesia. The study concluded that the literacy infrastructure and access to books in 30 primary schools are below standard, but the school community enthusiastically implements the objectives of the School Literacy Movement. Many primary schools are already implementing good many reading strategies although there are some problems related to teacher competence.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools. This study was conducted among five high schools under an education foundation. The analysis models used in the study were correlation analysis and t-test. The respondents were used as the profession references are 86 teachers. The result of the study shows that knowledge management implementation has a positive and significant influence toward the quality of high schools.
Bartlett, Robin; Wright, Tiffany; Olarinde, Tia; Holmes, Tara; Beamon, Emily R; Wallace, Debra
Schools can be a valuable resource for recruitment of participants for research involving children, adolescents, and parents. Awareness of the benefits and challenges of working with schools can assist researchers in developing effective school partnerships. This article discusses the advantages of conducting research within the school system as well as the challenges that may also arise. Such challenges include developing key contacts, building relationships, logistical arrangements, and facilitating trust in the research topic and team. Suggestions for strategies to forge successful collaborative relationships with schools are provided.
Zinckernagel, Line; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rod, Morten Hulvej
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools is recommended to increase bystander CPR and thereby survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but despite mandating legislation, low rates of implementation have been observed in several countries, including Denmark. The purpose...... of the study was to explore barriers to implementation of CPR training in Danish secondary schools. DESIGN: A qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus groups with school leadership and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning both within and across...... the interviews. SETTING: 8 secondary schools in Denmark. Schools were selected using strategic sampling to reach maximum variation, including schools with/without recent experience in CPR training of students, public/private schools and schools near to and far from hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: The study population...
Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M
A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.
Christofferson, Remi Dabney; Callahan, Kathe
This research explores the implementation of a school-wide intervention program that was designed to foster and instill intrinsic values based on an external reward system. The Positive Behavior Support in Schools (PBSIS) is an intervention intended to improve the climate of schools using system-wide positive behavioral interventions to discourage…
Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad; Mohamed Iskandar Rahmad Sukor; Darwyan Syah; Eneng Muslihah
This study intends to assess the implementation of policies in high-performance schools (HPS). One hundred fifty-two administrators in 52 HPS were selected using full sampling. Only two factors serve as contributors in knowledge management model for high-performing schools in Malaysia, which were school culture and school strategy. Whereas the correlation indicated that all 10 factors, namely, mission and vision, schoo...
Adams, Mark Thomas
This qualitative study investigated the nature of the relationship between principal leadership and school culture within a school-wide implementation of Professional Crisis Management (PCM). PCM is a comprehensive and fully integrated system designed to manage crisis situations effectively, safely, and with dignity. While designed primarily to…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.
Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…
Lederer, Alyssa M.; King, Mindy H.; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung
Background: Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES)…
Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad
Full Text Available This study intends to assess the implementation of policies in high-performance schools (HPS. One hundred fifty-two administrators in 52 HPS were selected using full sampling. Only two factors serve as contributors in knowledge management model for high-performing schools in Malaysia, which were school culture and school strategy. Whereas the correlation indicated that all 10 factors, namely, mission and vision, school strategy, school culture, intellectual modal, learning organization, leadership management, teamwork and learning community, knowledge sharing, new knowledge generation, and digital advancement, have significant relationships with the understanding of knowledge management, at different levels.
Willging, Cathleen E; Green, Amy E; Ramos, Mary M
Reducing youth suicide in the United States (U.S.) is a national public health priority, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth are at elevated risk. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) endorses six evidence-based (EB) strategies that center on meeting the needs of LGBTQ youth in schools; however, fewer than 6 % of U.S. schools implement all of them. The proposed intervention model, "RLAS" (Implementing School Nursing Strategies to Reduce LGBTQ Adolescent Suicide), builds on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) conceptual framework and the Dynamic Adaptation Process (DAP) to implement EB strategies in U.S. high schools. The DAP accounts for the multilevel context of school settings and uses Implementation Resource Teams (IRTs) to facilitate appropriate expertise, advise on acceptable adaptations, and provide data feedback to make schools implementation ready and prepared to sustain changes. Mixed methods will be used to examine individual, school, and community factors influencing both implementation process and youth outcomes. A cluster randomized controlled trial will assess whether LGBTQ students and their peers in RLAS intervention schools (n = 20) report reductions in suicidality, depression, substance use, bullying, and truancy related to safety concerns compared to those in usual care schools (n = 20). Implementation progress and fidelity for each EB strategy in RLAS intervention schools will be examined using a modified version of the Stages of Implementation Completion checklist. During the implementation and sustainment phases, annual focus groups will be conducted with the 20 IRTs to document their experiences identifying and advancing adaptation supports to facilitate use of EB strategies and their perceptions of the DAP. The DAP represents a data-informed, collaborative, multiple stakeholder approach to progress from exploration to sustainment and obtain
Cathleen E. Willging
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing youth suicide in the United States (U.S. is a national public health priority, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ youth are at elevated risk. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC endorses six evidence-based (EB strategies that center on meeting the needs of LGBTQ youth in schools; however, fewer than 6 % of U.S. schools implement all of them. The proposed intervention model, “RLAS” (Implementing School Nursing Strategies to Reduce LGBTQ Adolescent Suicide, builds on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS conceptual framework and the Dynamic Adaptation Process (DAP to implement EB strategies in U.S. high schools. The DAP accounts for the multilevel context of school settings and uses Implementation Resource Teams (IRTs to facilitate appropriate expertise, advise on acceptable adaptations, and provide data feedback to make schools implementation ready and prepared to sustain changes. Methods/Design Mixed methods will be used to examine individual, school, and community factors influencing both implementation process and youth outcomes. A cluster randomized controlled trial will assess whether LGBTQ students and their peers in RLAS intervention schools (n = 20 report reductions in suicidality, depression, substance use, bullying, and truancy related to safety concerns compared to those in usual care schools (n = 20. Implementation progress and fidelity for each EB strategy in RLAS intervention schools will be examined using a modified version of the Stages of Implementation Completion checklist. During the implementation and sustainment phases, annual focus groups will be conducted with the 20 IRTs to document their experiences identifying and advancing adaptation supports to facilitate use of EB strategies and their perceptions of the DAP. Discussion The DAP represents a data-informed, collaborative, multiple stakeholder
Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard
schools. METHODS: We used data from 20 intervention schools involved in the school-based multicomponent Boost trial targeting 13-year-olds' FV consumption. The environmental components at school included daily provision of free FV and promotion of a pleasant eating environment. Questionnaire data......BACKGROUND: Access to fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with adolescents' FV consumption. However, little is known about implementation of strategies to increase access to FV at schools. We examined the implementation of two environmental components designed to increase access to FV at Danish...... was collected by the end of the nine-month intervention period among 1,121 pupils (95%), from all school principals (n = 20) and half way through the intervention period and by the end of the intervention among 114 teachers (44%). The implementation of the components was examined descriptively using...
Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Krølner, Rikke; Suldrup Jørgensen, Thea
Multi-component interventions which combine educational and environmental strategies appear to be most effective in increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in adolescents. However, multi-component interventions are complex to implement and often poorly implemented. Identification of barriers...
Chan, Camelina; Moy, Foong Ming; Lim, Jennifer N W; Dahlui, Maznah
To assess the awareness, facilitators, and barriers to policy implementation related to obesity prevention for primary school children. A cross-sectional study administered using an online questionnaire. Conducted in 447 primary schools in a state in Malaysia. One school administrator from each school served as a participant. The questionnaires consisted of 32 items on awareness, policy implementation, and facilitators and barriers to policy implementation. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the awareness, facilitators, and barriers of policies implementation. Association between schools' characteristics and policy implementation was assessed using logistic regression. The majority (90%) of school administrators were aware of the policies. However, only 50% to 70% of schools had implemented the policies fully. Reported barriers were lack of equipment, insufficient training, and limited time to complete implementation. Facilitators of policy implementation were commitment from the schools, staff members, students, and canteen operators. Policy implementation was comparable in all school types and locality; except the policy on "Food and Drinks sold at the school canteens" was implemented by more rural schools compared to urban schools (odds ratio: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.69). Majority of the school administrators were aware of the existing policies; however, the implementation was only satisfactory. The identified barriers to policy implementation were modifiable and thus, the stakeholders should consider restrategizing plans in overcoming them.
Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice
This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…
Otgaar, Henry; Cleere, Colleen; Merckelbach, Harald; Peters, Maarten; Jelicic, Marko; Lynn, Steven Jay
In three experiments, we examined the memory-undermining effects of daydreaming for (un)related stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, we tested whether daydreaming fosters forgetting of semantically interrelated material and hence, catalyzes false memory production. In Experiment 3, we examined the memory effects of different daydreaming instructions. In Experiment 1, daydreaming did not undermine correct recall of semantically interrelated words, nor did it affect false memories. In Experiment 2, we again failed to find that daydreaming exerted memory-undermining effects a. In Experiment 3, no memory effects were obtained using different daydreaming instructions. Together, our studies fail to show appreciable memory-undermining effects of daydreaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western ... chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. ... (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; ...
School librarians play numerous roles throughout a day. They are information specialists who keep up with the constant changes in information and technology. It is important for them to keep students up-to-date and teach them to use technology properly. Gaming and technology are both important concepts for 21st-century school librarians to…
Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.
Statement 34 is the most significant change in the history of governmental accounting. It is a dramatic change in the way school districts report and present financial information. This new reporting model affects every public-school organization that issues financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).…
A total of 450 physical education (PE) teachers in 34 secondary schools drawn from six districts in Tianjin participated in the study. ... schools in Tianjin met the official requirement for teaching sunshine sports, except during examination period in which 80% of PE classes were substituted by other 'academic' lessons. A total ...
Restorative justice models provide schools with the opportunity to improve school culture by addressing the disciplinary standards and creating a forum for peaceful resolution of conflict and misbehavior. These models seek to determine the impact of the incident and establish a mutual, prescriptive agreement for resolving and repairing the harm…
In the ongoing pursuit for creating safe, nurturing and relational school cultures, educators continue to turn to restorative justice (rj) principles and practice. Predominantly, schools begin to engage with rj in an effort to address harm done, causing its discourse to be situated in literature tied to classroom management and behaviour. However,…
... National School Nutrition Programme in low socio-economic primary schools in Nelson Mandela Bay. ... Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Special Edition. ... has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).
Schuler, Brittany R; Saksvig, Brit I; Nduka, Joy; Beckerman, Susannah; Jaspers, Lea; Black, Maureen M; Hager, Erin R
Local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated among school systems to enhance nutrition/physical activity opportunities in schools. Prior research notes disparities in LWP implementation. This study uses mixed methods to examine barriers/enablers to LWP implementation, comparing responses by student body income. Schools ( n = 744, 24 systems) completed an LWP implementation barriers/enablers survey. Semistructured interviews ( n = 20 random subsample) described barriers/enablers. Responses were compared by majority of lower (≥50% free/reduced-price meals; lower income [LI]) versus higher income (HI) student body. In surveys, LI and HI schools identified common barriers (parents/families, federal/state regulations, students, time, funding) and enablers (school system, teachers, food service, physical education curriculum/resources, and staff). Interviews further elucidated how staffing and funding served as enablers for all schools, and provide context for how and why barriers differed by income: time, food service (HI schools), and parents/families (LI schools). Findings support commonalities in barriers and enablers among all schools, suggesting that regardless of economic context, schools would benefit from additional supports, such as physical education and nutrition education resources integrated into existing curricula, additional funding, and personnel time dedicated to wellness programming. LI schools may benefit from additional funding to support parent and community involvement.
Domitrovich, Celene E; Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Becker, Kimberly D; Keperling, Jennifer P; Embry, Dennis D; Ialongo, Nicholas
Evidence-based interventions are being disseminated broadly in schools across the USA, but the implementation levels achieved in community settings vary considerably. The current study examined the extent to which teacher and school factors were associated with implementation dosage and quality of the PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention designed to improve student social-emotional competence and behavior. Specifically, dosage (i.e., number of games and duration of games) across the school year and quality (i.e., how well the game is delivered) of PAX GBG implementation across four time points in a school year were examined. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the association between teacher-level factors (e.g., demographics, self-reports of personal resources, attitudes toward the intervention, and workplace perceptions) and longitudinal implementation data. We also accounted for school-level factors, including demographic characteristics of the students and ratings of the schools' organizational health. Findings indicated that only a few teacher-level factors were significantly related to variation in implementation. Teacher perceptions (e.g., fit with teaching style, emotional exhaustion) were generally related to dosage, whereas demographic factors (e.g., teachers' age) were related to quality. These findings highlight the importance of school contextual and proximal teacher factors on the implementation of classroom-based programs.
Full Text Available In line with technological development, the computer-based national examination (CBNE has become an urgent matter as its implementation faces various challenges, especially in developing countries. Strategies in implementing CBNE are thus needed to face the challenges. The aim of this research was to analyse the challenges and strategies of Indonesian schools in implementing CBNE. This research was qualitative phenomenological in nature. The data were collected through a questionnaire and a focus group discussion. The research participants were teachers who were test supervisors and technicians at junior high schools and senior high schools (i.e. Level 1 and 2 and vocational high schools implementing CBNE in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The data were analysed using the Bogdan and Biklen model. The results indicate that (1 in implementing CBNE, the schools should initially make efforts to provide the electronic equipment supporting it; (2 the implementation of CBNE is challenged by problems concerning the Internet and the electricity supply; (3 the test supervisors have to learn their duties by themselves and (4 the students are not yet familiar with the beneficial use of information technology. To deal with such challenges, the schools employed strategies by making efforts to provide the standard electronic equipment through collaboration with the students’ parents and improving the curriculum content by adding information technology as a school subject.
Maksić Slavica B.
Full Text Available The Serbian school system is currently undergoing a transformation process, dealing with important issues of interest to society as a whole. One of the possible directions of this transformation is the development of a positive school as an institution in which value is placed not only on achievement but also on the wellbeing of all parties. This paper considers to what extent the professional potential of school psychologists could be utilized in this process. The analysis presented here aims to reassess the possibilities of applying the principles of positive psychology to defining and implementing the role of school psychologists, and to put forward along these lines certain suggestions for their practical work. For this purpose, we have reviewed the theoretical foundations of positive education and related research findings, analysed regulations and research findings regarding the work of school psychologists in Serbian schools, and discussed prospects for their further engagement from the standpoint of contemporary theories of organizational changes and development. The possibilities for creating a positive school have been corroborated through numerous studies. According to Serbian school regulations, the school psychologist is expected to be engaged in improving all aspects of work in a school, as well as relationships between all participants in that process. Research findings on building a positive school provide a stimulus, while the position of the school psychologist provides the basis for his or her engagement in the process of transforming Serbian schools into positive schools. The conclusion is that school psychologists could contribute to the development of the school as a positive institution provided their professional role is redefined in accordance with the principles of positive psychology.
Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514
Hamed Mubarak Al-Awidi
Findings\tTeachers are moderately ready for implementation of the digital curriculum in both components of readiness (technical and pedagogical. Teachers identified some factors that that hinder their readiness. These factors are related to time constraints, knowledge and skills, infrastructure, and technical support. Recommendations for Practitioners: This paper will guide curriculum decision makers to find the best ways to help and support teachers to effectively implement the digital. Future Research: Follow up studies may examine the effectiveness of teacher education pro-grams in preparing students teachers to implement the digital curriculum, and the role of education decision makers in facilitating the implementation of the digital curriculum.
Department of Educational Leadership and Management, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa email@example.com. ... primary school educators; South Africa; teacher unions ...... Science and Technology Education, 16(3):273–. 288.
Engr E. Egbochukwu
This study was conducted to assess how the Nigerian secondary school vocational and technical ... challenges of changing economic and social structure of modern society. (National Policy on ..... International Journal of. Educational Studies ...
May 19, 2017 ... Food and nutrition challenges in Southern Africa, Vol 2, 2017 .... salt and sugar available at tuck shops and ... school level. To this ... areas despite most menus requiring water ..... portion with a high glycaemic index and some.
... Programme in low socio-economic primary schools in Nelson Mandela Bay. ... Journal Home > Special Edition. ... This was identified as a serious problem, as 60% of the children in the study had one or more types of parasitic infection.
Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Butler, Michelle; Bell, Andrew Colin; Wyse, Rebecca; Campbell, Elizabeth; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
School-based vegetable and fruit programs can increase student consumption of vegetables and fruit and have been recommended for adoption by Australian schools since 2005. An understanding of the prevalence and predictors of and the barriers to the adoption of school-based vegetable and fruit programs is necessary to maximize their adoption by schools and ensure that the health benefits of such programs to children are realized. The aim of this study was to determine Australian primary school Principals' attitudes and barriers to the implementation of vegetable and fruit breaks; the prevalence of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools and the implementation strategies used and associated with their recommended adoption (daily in at least 80% of classes). A random sample of 384 school Principals completed a 20-min telephone interview. While Principals were highly supportive of vegetable and fruit breaks, only 44% were implementing these to a recommended level. When controlling for all school characteristics, recommended vegetable and fruit break adoption was 1.9 and 2.2 times greater, respectively, in schools that had parent communication strategies and teachers trained. A substantial opportunity exists to enhance the health of children through the adoption of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools.
Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally
Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. © 2015 The Author(s).
Hennessey, Angela; Dionigi, Rylee A.
To implement cooperative learning successfully in practice, teachers require knowledge of cooperative learning, its features and terms, and how it functions in classrooms. This qualitative study examined 12 Australian generalist primary teachers', understandings of cooperative learning and perceived factors affecting its implementation. Using…
Schroeder, Krista; Jia, Haomiao; Wang, Y Claire; Smaldone, Arlene
The Healthy Options and Physical Activity Program (HOP) is a school nurse-led intervention for children with severe obesity. HOP was developed by experts at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and implemented in New York City schools beginning in 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate HOP implementation with the goal of informing HOP refinement and potential future HOP dissemination. This study entailed a retrospective analysis of secondary data. Analytic methods included descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon rank sum and Chi square tests, and multivariate logistic regression. During the 2012-2013 school year, 20,518 children were eligible for HOP. Of these, 1054 (5.1%) were enrolled in the program. On average, enrolled children attended one HOP session during the school year. Parent participation was low (3.2% of HOP sessions). Low nurse workload, low school poverty, higher grade level, higher BMI percentile, and chronic illness diagnosis were associated with student enrollment in HOP. As currently delivered, HOP is not likely to be efficacious. Lessons learned from this evaluation are applicable to future nurse-led obesity interventions. Prior to implementing a school nurse-led obesity intervention, nursing workload and available support must be carefully considered. Interventions should be designed to facilitate (and possibly require) parent involvement. Nurses who deliver obesity interventions may require additional training in obesity treatment. With attention to these lessons learned, evidence-based school nurse-led obesity interventions can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chua, Yan Piaw; Tie, Fatt Hee; Don, Zuraidah Mohd
This study investigates the implementation of educational research among urban secondary schools in Malaysia. The respondents include school teachers and administrators, lecturers in education institutions, and committee members of the state education departments. Data collected from interviews were coded and analyzed using open, axial and…
The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to explore the Hong Kong teachers' intentions to implement school-based assessment (SBA) and the predictors of those intentions. A total of 280 teachers from Hong Kong secondary schools who had been involved in SBA were surveyed. Rasch-calibrated teacher measures were calculated for each of the 6…
Roskos, Katheen A.; Moe, Jennifer Randazzo; Rosemary, Catherine
From an improvement research perspective, this study explores strategies used to implement a school-wide vocabulary intervention into language arts instruction at an urban elementary school. Academic language time, an innovative change in the instructional delivery system, allots time and structure for deliberate teaching of cross-disciplinary…
This multi-site case study examined leadership strategies used during successful implementation of standards-based grading systems in three Wisconsin high schools. It found that leaders' reported commitment, patience, and persistence showed evidence of sustainable, high-functioning systems. It drew two main conclusions: first, school leaders need…
Walker, Elaine M.
This study examined issues faced during implementation of school-based management (SBM) in New Jersey's special needs or Abbott districts, using a literature review, surveys of K-12 schools, and focus groups with central office administrators. The study examined forms of SBM, team operations, local autonomy versus state power, skills required to…
Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary
Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…
Nansel, Tonja R.; Huang, Terry T.K.; Rovner, Alisha J.; Sanders-Butler, Yvonne
Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to examine secular trends in school performance indicators in relationship to the implementation of a program targeting the school food and physical activity environment. Design: Data on available school performance indicators were obtained; retrospective analyses were conducted to assess trends in indicators in association with program implementation; each outcome was regressed on year, beginning with the year prior to program implementation. Setting: The Healthy Kids, Smart Kids program was a grass-roots effort to enhance the school food and physical activity environment in the Browns Mill Elementary School in Georgia. Subjects: Data included publicly available school records from the years 1995 to 2006. Results: The number of nurse, counseling, and disciplinary referrals per 100 students demonstrated a downward trend, while standardized test scores demonstrated an upward trend beginning the year of program implementation. School year was a significant predictor of all indicators. Conclusions: Promoting nutrition and physical activity within the school environment may be a promising approach for enhancing both student health and educational outcomes. PMID:19454125
Cheng, Eric C. K.; Wu, S. W.; Hu, Jim
Teachers and school administrators in Hong Kong have had to cope with more work and performance pressure as they strive to implement educational reforms aimed at deepening students' life-long learning skills. Management systems, which save time and transfer ideas, experiences, and knowledge more efficiently could help schools meet reform goals and…
This article presents the findings from research conducted at nine schools (seven primary, two secondary) in England, which had previously implemented a peer mediation service for students experiencing interpersonal conflict. This analysis was informed by themes from a previous stage of research conducted at one additional primary school, where…
Rowling, Louise; Samdal, Oddrun
Purpose: Achieving organisational learning and greater specificity for implementation action for health-promoting schools requires detailed understanding of the necessary components. They include: preparing and planning for school development, policy and institutional anchoring, professional development and learning, leadership and management…
Lopez, Paul; Wise, Donald
Rural school districts across the nation, with their limited resources, face daunting challenges posed by the implementation of the Common Core State Standards. This article presents a recent study of 13 rural school districts in the Central Valley of California and how these districts are responding to those challenges. A total of 352 teachers…
Terrón-López, María-José; García-García, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; Ocampo, Jared; Vigil Montaño, María-Reyes; Gaya-López, María-Cruz
The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting in the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the…
Keane, Therese; Keane, William
This longitudinal study explores one secondary school's approach towards implementing a one computer to one student (1:1) program, which commenced in 2011. Prior to 2011, the school was not very technologically advanced, mainly due to financial constraints which impacted on infrastructure, procurement of hardware and software, the availability of…
Ackerman, Cheryl M.; Cooksy, Leslie J.; Murphy, Aideen; Rubright, Jonathan; Bear, George; Fifield, Steve
In Spring 2010, the Delaware Education Research and Development Center conducted an evaluation of Delaware's PBS project, an initiative focused on developing a school-wide system of strategies to reduce behavior problems and foster a positive school climate. The study focused on facilitators and barriers to PBS implementation, and also included…
Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Guo, Jun-Xiang; Yu Sen Hai; Jones, Jack
After successful pilot projects in 10 schools (four schools with tobacco control and six schools with nutrition interventions, plus 10 control schools), Health and Education officials in Zhejiang Province, China, decided to scale up Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) systematically over the entire province, starting with an initial cohort of 51 additional schools, reaching from primary to vocational schools. Interviews with school personnel during the first phase of scaling up illuminated the key pre-implementation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation activities. Pre-implementation activities included choosing an entry point, setting up a special HPS committee, and establishing a work plan. Implementation activities included conducting mobilization meetings, prioritizing health, popularizing the HPS concept, ensuring community cooperation and participation, acting as role models, offering training, and using new teaching and learning methods. Monitoring and evaluation activities included process, baseline, and final evaluations and changing standards of evaluation to a more holistic evaluation that schools go through to become Health-Promoting Schools. Schools also reported that they faced - and overcame - a number of challenges including understanding and integrating the HPS concept and lack of professional development and support. Results revealed that schools transitioned from a passive model of education to interactive pedagogy put priority on health and viewed it as a co-responsibility, reshaped assessment to a more holistic approach and called for more training and technical support. Participants mentioned that they gained knowledge and skills and developed a deeper understanding about health. Health impact was also demonstrated, for instance in reduced injuries and reduced smoking, and educational impact was demonstrated, for instance in improved relationships of children to parents and teachers, improved social qualities, and improved teacher
Purpose Public policies targeting the school setting are increasingly being used to address childhood obesity; however, their effectiveness depends on their implementation. This study explores the factors which impeded or facilitated the implementation of publicly mandated school-based physical activity and nutrition guidelines in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 school informants (17 principals - 33 teacher/school informants) to examine the factors associated with the implementation of the mandated Daily Physical Activity (DPA) and Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) guidelines. Coding used a constructivist grounded theory approach. The first five transcripts and every fifth transcript thereafter were coded by two independent coders with discrepancies reconciled by a third coder. Data was coded and analysed in the NVivo 9 software. Concept maps were developed and current theoretical perspectives were integrated in the later stages of analysis. Results The Diffusion of Innovations Model provided an organizing framework to present emergent themes. With the exception of triability (not relevant in the context of mandated guidelines/policies), the key attributes of the Diffusion of Innovations Model (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability) provided a robust framework for understanding themes associated with implementation of mandated guidelines. Specifically, implementation of the DPA and FBSS guidelines was facilitated by perceptions that they: were relatively advantageous compared to status quo; were compatible with school mandates and teaching philosophies; had observable positive impacts and impeded when perceived as complex to understand and implement. In addition, a number of contextual factors including availability of resources facilitated implementation. Conclusions The enactment of mandated policies/guidelines for schools is considered an essential step in
high-risk behaviour related to HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and various forms of crime. Peer supporters .... nator from the Gauteng Department of Education to implement the project in ..... and aggression, and being idealised by their peers.
Takahashi, Yoshiko; Isogai, Zenzo; Mizokami, Fumihiro; Furuta, Katsunori; Nemoto, Tetsuya; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Masahiko
We examined the location-specific properties of pressure ulcers, focusing on depth and undermining formation, which are often unfavorable factors for ulcer healing. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 2 independent databases on pressure ulcers. Databases from a 200-bed hospital (database A) and a 300-bed hospital (database B) were collected during different time periods. Relationships between ulcer location, ulcer depth, and undermining formation were analyzed. All pressure ulcers were accurately diagnosed and classified according to their locations. A total of 282 pressure ulcers in 189 patients from database A and 232 pressure ulcers in 154 patients from database B were analyzed. It was found that pressure ulcers primarily developed over the sacrum. Ratio of stages III and IV pressure ulcers was high in pressure ulcers of the foot, ankle, and crus on the lower leg. Among the deep pressure ulcers, undermining formation was frequently observed on the greater trochanter, ilium, and sacrum. In contrast, pressure ulcers of the foot, ankle, and crus did not exhibit undermining formation. Our results revealed marked differences in pressure ulcer properties depending on their location. Factors affecting depth and undermining of pressure ulcers appear to be related to anatomical and physical properties of the bone and subcutaneous tissue. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lake, Robin; Posamentier, Jordan; Denice, Patrick; Hill, Paul
The portfolio strategy is a change strategy for public education in a district or metropolitan area. It is founded on the idea of re-missioning government agencies from rigid bureaucratic entities that mostly manage compliance requirements and interest group politics to a new role: overseeing performance and a diverse range of school choices…
Morning, Karen Vanessa
Education has been under major reform since the passing of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Under the NCLB Act states have set benchmark goals to measure whether districts and schools are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) toward ensuring that all children are proficient in reading and math by 2014. Lack of progress in reading has…
Fiddyment, Gail E.
Enrichment clusters offer a way for schools to encourage a high level of learning as students and adults work together to develop a product, service, or performance by applying advanced knowledge and authentic processes to real-world problems. This study utilized a qualitative research design to examine the perceptions and experiences of two…
Hobson, Rana Dirice
The technology acceptance model (TAM) has been widely used to assess technology adoption in business, education, and health care. The New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) launched a web-based Individualized Educational Program (IEP) system for school psychologists to use in conducting evaluations and reviews. This quantitative study…
Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh
The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…
Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.
Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…
Hondrich, Annika Lena; Hertel, Silke; Adl-Amini, Katja; Klieme, Eckhard
The implementation of formative assessment strategies is challenging for teachers. We evaluated teachers' implementation fidelity of a curriculum-embedded formative assessment programme for primary school science education, investigating both material-supported, direct application and subsequent transfer. Furthermore, the relationship between…
Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Shamir-Inbal, Tamar
The Ministry of Education in Israel has, over the past two years, been running an education program designed to lead the implementation of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) in schools. Implementation of the program is accompanied by training and support of teachers selected to be ICT leaders. The role of the ICT leader is divided to…
Willis, Dahna R.
This paper describes the outcomes of a practicum that initiated site-based-management strategies to support the consistent implementation of a quality school-age child-care program. Implemented at a multisite child-care center, the program sought to enhance staff members' job satisfaction and maximize their opportunities for professional growth…
Castillo, Alexandra; Nettles, Mary Frances
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research study was to identify perceptions, practices, advantages, and barriers to implementation of branding concepts in school nutrition (SN) programs. Methods: Seven SN directors participated in an expert panel session to discuss trends and barriers to implementation of branding concepts in SN programs.…
Corcoran, Tim; Rowling, Louise; Wise, Marilyn
Questions persist regarding implementation of mental health promotion, prevention, and early intervention initiatives in schools. To date, attention has targeted the "Whats" and "Hows" in design and implementation. Ongoing clarification of "Who" the key proponents are working in this space receives less consideration.…
In Fall of 2014 for Fountain-Fort Carson School District #8 undertook a revamping of graduation and state-mandated ICAP requirements for implementation for the graduating class of 2021. This design and implementation process included numerous stakeholders and several years of planning from Fall of 2014 to Spring of 2017. The design and…
This qualitative case study explores the implementation of restorative justice within one Ontario Public School. Restorative justice is a philosophy and a process for dealing with harmful behaviour, viewing such behaviour as a violation of relationships, not rules. My research seeks to present how restorative justice has been implemented in one…
Saleem, Mohammed M.
This exploratory study of the implementation of computer technology in an American Islamic private school leveraged the case study methodology and ethnographic methods informed by symbolic interactionism and the framework of the Muslim Diaspora. The study focused on describing the implementation of computer technology and identifying the…
An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as…
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J.; Kirk, Sara F. L.
Objective: Health-promoting schools (HPS) constitute an internationally recognised approach that connects health and education in a planned, integrated and holistic way. There is considerable variability, however, in how HPS is implemented and recent research has attempted to clarify the key functions of implementation. A provincial HPS strategy…
The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) required all schools to develop and implement an asbestos management plan (AMP). The key component of the AMP is the operations and maintenance (O&M) program. A study was conducted to evaluate the implementation of O&M programs a...
Zinckernagel, Line; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Folke, Fredrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools is recommended to increase bystander CPR and thereby survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but despite mandating legislation, low rates of implementation have been observed in several countries, including Denmark. The purpose of the study was to explore barriers to implementation of CPR training in Danish secondary schools. A qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus groups with school leadership and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning both within and across the interviews. 8 secondary schools in Denmark. Schools were selected using strategic sampling to reach maximum variation, including schools with/without recent experience in CPR training of students, public/private schools and schools near to and far from hospitals. The study population comprised 25 participants, 9 school leadership members and 16 teachers. School leadership and teachers considered it important for implementation and sustainability of CPR training that teachers conduct CPR training of students. However, they preferred external instructors to train students, unless teachers acquired the CPR skills which they considered were needed. They considered CPR training to differ substantially from other teaching subjects because it is a matter of life and death, and they therefore believed extraordinary skills were required for conducting the training. This was mainly rooted in their insecurity about their own CPR skills. CPR training kits seemed to lower expectations of skill requirements to conduct CPR training, but only among those who were familiar with such kits. To facilitate implementation of CPR training in schools, it is necessary to have clear guidelines regarding the required proficiency level to train students in CPR, to provide teachers with these skills, and to underscore that extensive skills are not required to provide CPR. Further, it is important to familiarise
Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert
California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.
Ana Paula Dias Pereira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.
LILY HUI SING LAU
This thesis sought to inform the implementation of School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS) in Singapore preschools. Findings indicated that SWPBS implementation is likely to be perceived as needed by teachers, and that there is a need to focus on training teachers in SWPBS primary tier classroom management practices when SWPBS is implemented. Additionally, the Classroom Check-Up consultation model was shown to be a promising coaching model to be included in SWPBS training. A major cont...
Vovides, Yianna; Chale, Selamawit Bedada; Gadhula, Rumbidzayi; Kebaetse, Masego B; Nigussie, Netsanet Animut; Suleman, Fatima; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory Ramadhan; Ntabaye, Moshi; Frehywot, Seble; Nkomazana, Oathokwa
How should eLearning be implemented in resource-constrained settings? The introduction of eLearning at four African medical schools and one school of pharmacy, all part of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) eLearning Technical Working Group, highlighted the need for five factors essential for successful and sustainable implementation: institutional support; faculty engagement; student engagement; technical expertise; and infrastructure and support systems. All five MEPI schools reported strengthening technical expertise, infrastructure, and support systems; four schools indicated that they were also successful in developing student engagement; and three reported making good progress in building institutional support. Faculty engagement was the one core component that all five schools needed to enhance.
Choeda, Choeda; Kinley, Kinley
‘Teaching Skills’ and ‘Teaching Strategies’ are two core (professional) modules offered at the two colleges of education in Bhutan to develop pedagogical knowledge and skills of student teachers. However, a tracer study (in press) done by Samtse College of Education [SCE] revealed teacher graduates...... of teaching skills and strategies in the schools. Teacher graduates, both male and female having working experience of three years and above, teaching in Middle Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools, were selected as the participants in the study. Samples were drawn from the different parts of the country...... covering seventeen Dzongkhags. The study revealed adequate understanding of the concepts of professional modules. However, teachers were found to be grappling with the extra responsibilities affecting their planning to integrate skills and strategies into their teaching. Key words: Teaching skills...
Terrón-López, María-José; García-García, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; Ocampo, Jared; Vigil Montaño, María-Reyes; Gaya-López, María-Cruz
The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting in the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the contents and competencies of several courses. This paper presents the academic context under which this experience has been implemented, and a summary of the work done to design and implement the Project-Based Engineering School at the UEM. The steps followed, the structure used, some sample projects, as well as the difficulties and benefits of implementing the programme are discussed in this paper. The results are encouraging as students are more motivated and the initial set objectives were accomplished.
Roehrig, Gillian H.; Kruse, Rebecca A.; Kern, Anne
Reform-based curriculum materials have been suggested as a mechanism to make inquiry-based instruction more prevalent in secondary science classrooms, specifically when accompanied by comprehensive professional development (Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, ; Powell & Anderson, ). This research examines the implementation of a…
Norman, Alexis Cienfuegos
The purpose of this study was to understand the decisions elementary principals have made during the Common Core State Standards reform. Specifically, (a) what decisions principals have made to support Common Core implementation, (b) what strategies elementary principals have employed to communicate with stakeholders about Common Core State…
Ahmmed, Masud; Mullick, Jahirul
Continued discrimination towards, and exclusion of, children with special needs, combined with the high dropout rate of students from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds, creates considerable pressure on the inclusive education (IE) reform initiatives of developing countries. To minimise the challenges to implementing IE reform policies…
Roosmarijn M. C. Schelvis
Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of process evaluations in examining how and why interventions are (un successful is increasingly recognized. Process evaluations mainly studied the implementation process and the quality of the implementation (fidelity. However, in adopting this approach for participatory organizational level occupational health interventions, important aspects such as context and participants perceptions are missing. Our objective was to systematically describe the implementation process of a participatory organizational level occupational health intervention aimed at reducing work stress and increasing vitality in two schools by applying a framework that covers aspects of the intervention and its implementation as well as the context and participants perceptions. Methods A program theory was developed, describing the requirements for successful implementation. Each requirement was operationalized by making use of the framework, covering: initiation, communication, participation, fidelity, reach, communication, satisfaction, management support, targeting, delivery, exposure, culture, conditions, readiness for change and perceptions. The requirements were assessed by quantitative and qualitative data, collected at 12 and 24 months after baseline in both schools (questionnaire and interviews or continuously (logbooks. Results The intervention consisted of a needs assessment phase and a phase of implementing intervention activities. The needs assessment phase was implemented successfully in school A, but not in school B where participation and readiness for change were insufficient. In the second phase, several intervention activities were implemented at school A, whereas this was only partly the case in school B (delivery. In both schools, however, participants felt not involved in the choice of intervention activities (targeting, participation, support, resulting in a negative perception of and only partial exposure to the
Schelvis, Roosmarijn M C; Wiezer, Noortje M; Blatter, Birgitte M; van Genabeek, Joost A G M; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van der Beek, Allard J
The importance of process evaluations in examining how and why interventions are (un) successful is increasingly recognized. Process evaluations mainly studied the implementation process and the quality of the implementation (fidelity). However, in adopting this approach for participatory organizational level occupational health interventions, important aspects such as context and participants perceptions are missing. Our objective was to systematically describe the implementation process of a participatory organizational level occupational health intervention aimed at reducing work stress and increasing vitality in two schools by applying a framework that covers aspects of the intervention and its implementation as well as the context and participants perceptions. A program theory was developed, describing the requirements for successful implementation. Each requirement was operationalized by making use of the framework, covering: initiation, communication, participation, fidelity, reach, communication, satisfaction, management support, targeting, delivery, exposure, culture, conditions, readiness for change and perceptions. The requirements were assessed by quantitative and qualitative data, collected at 12 and 24 months after baseline in both schools (questionnaire and interviews) or continuously (logbooks). The intervention consisted of a needs assessment phase and a phase of implementing intervention activities. The needs assessment phase was implemented successfully in school A, but not in school B where participation and readiness for change were insufficient. In the second phase, several intervention activities were implemented at school A, whereas this was only partly the case in school B (delivery). In both schools, however, participants felt not involved in the choice of intervention activities (targeting, participation, support), resulting in a negative perception of and only partial exposure to the intervention activities. Conditions, culture and
Wells, Amy Stuart; Serna, Irene
A 3-year study of 10 racially mixed schools implementing detracking shows how elite parents undermine the reforms by threatening flight, co-opting those educators who have power and authority, obtaining support of the "not-quite elite," and using bribes. (SK)
Chang, Fong-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Chou, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tzu-Chau
Taiwan launched its evidence-based health-promoting school (HPS) program via an action-research approach in 2010. The program featured a collaborative partnership between schools, local education authorities and university support networks. This study was focused on examining whether an HPS action-research approach was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy in Taiwan. In 2011, questionnaires were sent to 900 sample schools in Taiwan. A total of 621 schools returned the questionnaire, including 488 primary schools and 133 middle schools. The response rate was 69%. This study compared the difference in HPS implementation status, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy between those schools that had implemented action-research HPS (138 schools) and those that had not (483 schools). The univariate analysis results indicated that the HPS implementation levels for components that included school health policies, physical environment, social environment, teaching activities and school-community relations were significantly higher in action-research schools than in non-action-research schools. Teachers in action-research schools reported significantly higher levels of HPS impact and HPS efficacy than non-action-research schools. The multivariate analysis results indicated that after controlling for school level and HPS funding, the HPS action-research approach was significantly positively related to greater levels of HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy.
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
The paper highlights the violations of students' human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School's Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods.…
Hammer, Patricia Cahape
This is the first in a series of reports based on a research study, Developing Effective Professional Learning Communities in Catalyst Schools, conducted between February 2015 and June 2016. "Catalyst schools" were elementary- and secondary-level schools selected to participate in a pilot project intended to explore how best to support…
Smith, Richard Alan; Sassi, Anthony
In 1985, Apple Computer, Inc., and the Houston Independent School District began a project to create a model School of the Future at the F. M. Black Middle School. As described in this guide, the project was designed to demonstrate how microcomputers and related technology can make the process of instruction more efficient and effective. The…
Full Text Available This paper attempts to identify the challenges facing school principals as they engaged in implementing a curriculum reform in Hong Kong. Based on interview data of school principals, this paper shows three major types of implementation challenges facing school principals, namely curriculum planning, catering for learner diversity, and managing change. Drawing on the concept of ‘exploiting situated possibilities’, this paper further shows how these school principals explored and exploited possibilities in and around the school contexts to overcome the implementation challenges, as one way to strengthen the schools’ capacity for change. Implications for developing efficacious principal leadership in school capacity building are discussed.
Liddell, Martha Sue
This study focused on the implementation of a discovery-oriented science education program at a rural elementary school in Mississippi. The instructional leadership role of the principal was examined in the study through identification and documentation of processes undertaken by the principal to implement a discovery-oriented science education program school. The goal of the study was to develop a suggested approach for implementing a discovery-oriented science education program for principals who wish to become instructional leaders in the area of science education at their schools. Mixed methods were used to collect, analyze, and interpret data. Subjects for the study consisted of teachers, students, and parents. Data were collected through field observation; observations of science education being taught by classroom teachers; examination of the principal's log describing actions taken to implement a discovery-oriented science education program; conducting semi-structured interviews with teachers as the key informants; and examining attitudinal data collected by the Carolina Biological Supply Company for the purpose of measuring attitudes of teachers, students, and parents toward the proposed science education program and the Science and Technology for Children (STC) program piloted at the school. To develop a suggested approach for implementing a discovery-oriented science education program, data collected from field notes, classroom observations, the principal's log of activities, and key informant interviews were analyzed and group into themes pertinent to the study. In addition to descriptive measures, chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to determine whether the frequency distribution showed a specific pattern within the attitudinal data collected by the Carolina Biological Supply Company. The pertinent question asked in analyzing data was: Are the differences significant or are they due to chance? An alpha level of .01 was selected to determine
Vira V. Kotkova
Full Text Available Ukrainian and foreign scientists’ views on the essence of blended learning are analyzed in the article. The author's definition of a blended learning course is presented. The process of such course designing is described according to target, motivational, substantive, operational and diagnostic components. Both the structure of the blended learning course implementation as well as students’ educational-cognitive activity distribution between classroom learning and distance course are shown. The problems for students, teachers, and educational institutions of blended courses effective implementation are summarized. Students’ academic performance of three years study is analyzed. The results of students’ questioning to determine their perception of blended learning course are described according to the following categories: the effectiveness of blended course, evaluation objectivity, motivation to study, the use of plagiarism in studies, understanding of blended learning course.
Full Text Available Since alternative assessment embraces highly authentic tasks consistent with classroom goals and instruction, its implementation in the language classroom is believed to promote collaboration with peers, transfer responsibility to the learners and, consequently, foster learner autonomy. This paper presents the results of a research study aiming to determine whether portfolio assessment contributes to the development of autonomy in adolescent learners. In order to collect the data, qualitative and quantative methods of research were applied. The research results reveal that the implementation of portfolio assessment failed to affect the overall level of learner autonomy. Introducing one selected pedagogical procedure does not suffice to foster learner autonomy. Teachers need to be ready to pass a portion of their authority to the learners, who, in turn, need to know how to use the new privileges judiciously.
Full Text Available Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC contains two terminologies underpinning one another. There are many difficult challenges when the plan to create LSLC surfaces. Therefore, strong motivation and precise implementation strategies are of urgency. One of the ways is by developing networking of LSLC between universities and partner schools. The LSLC program will become powerful when it is done collaboratively in a form of strong partnership connected by networks. Writing this article aims to describe strategies for establishing networking with partner schools for implementing lesson study in Indonesia. This review article uses literature comparison study methods and use content analysis. In order for LSLC to manifest and become successful, resourcing and utilizing the partnership with schools are required. In a partnership with schools in order to implement LSLC, both parties must share the same need, which is facing the challenge with the willingness to cooperate for solving the problem. Cooperation with partner schools needs to be nurtured to become networking so that the benefits and the spirit of cooperation in solving problem double fold. Networking with partner schools can be implemented and can function well when the management of this networking conforms to shared needs, nurtures cooperation and mutual respect, gives and takes equally, and also promotes fair acceptance, support, independence, and discipline.
Strunk, Katharine O.; Marsh, Julie A.; Bush-Mecenas, Susan C.; Duque, Matthew R.
Purpose: A common strategy used in school improvement efforts is a mandated process of formal planning, yet little is known about the quality of plans or the relationship between plan quality and implementation. This mixed-methods article investigates plan quality, factors associated with plan quality, and the relationship between plan quality and…
Folta, Sara C; Carmichael Djang, Holly; Halmo, Megan; Metayer, Nesly; Blondin, Stacy A; Smith, Kathleen S; Economos, Christina D
To understand perspectives of stakeholders during initial district-wide implementation of a Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) model of the School Breakfast Program. Qualitative data were collected from twenty-nine focus groups and twenty interviews with stakeholders in a school district early in the process of implementing a BIC model of the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools within a large, urban school district in the USA that served predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority students. Purposively selected stakeholders in elementary schools that had implemented BIC for 3-6 months: students (n 85), parents/guardians (n 86), classroom teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and principals (n 10). Four primary themes emerged, which were interpreted based on the Diffusion of Innovations model. School staff had changed their perceptions of both the relative disadvantages and costs related to time and effort of BIC over time; the majority of each stakeholder group expressed an appreciation for BIC; student breakfast consumption varied from day to day, related to compatibility of foods with child preferences; and stakeholders held mixed and various impressions of BIC's potential impacts. The study underscores the importance of engaging school staff and parents in discussions of BIC programming prior to its initiation to pre-emptively address concerns related to cost, relative disadvantages and compatibility with child preferences and school routines/workflow. Effectively communicating with stakeholders about positive impacts and nutritional value of the meals may improve support for BIC. These findings provide new information to policy makers, districts and practitioners that can be used to improve implementation efforts, model delivery and outcomes.
Ohinmaa, Arto; Langille, Jessie-Lee; Jamieson, Stuart; Whitby, Caroline; Veugelers, Paul J
Comprehensive school health (CSH) is increasingly receiving renewed interest as a strategy to improve health and learning. The present study estimates the costs associated with implementing and maintaining CSH. We reviewed the accounting information of all schools in the Annapolis Valley Health Promoting Schools (AVHPS) program in 2008/2009. We considered support for nutrition and physical activity programs by the public system, grants, donations, fundraising and volunteers. The annual public funding to AVHPS to implement and maintain CSH totaled $344,514, which translates, on average, to $7,830 per school and $22.67 per student. Of the public funding, $140,500 was for CSH, $86,250 for breakfast programs, $28,750 for school food policy programs, and the remainder for other subsidized programs. Grants, donations and fundraising were mostly locally acquired. They totaled $127,235, which translates, on average, to $2,892 per school or $8.37 per student. The value of volunteer support was estimated to be equivalent to the value of grants, donations and fundraising combined. Of all grants, donations, fundraising and volunteers, 20% was directed to physical activity programs and 80% to nutrition programs. The public costs to implement and maintain CSH are modest. They leveraged substantial local funding and in-kind contributions, underlining community support for healthy eating and active living. Where CSH is effective in preventing childhood overweight, it is most likely cost-effective too, as costs for future chronic diseases are mounting. CSH programs that are proven effective and cost-effective have enormous potential for broad implementation and for reducing the public health burden associated with obesity.
Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.; Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.
Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of
Data analysis showed that: racial desegregation was achieved at student and level one staff level and lacking at management and administrative staff level; staffing ... These regularities point to a discursive formation (Foucault, 1977) that undermine integration and would reproduce previous racialised inequalities. Finally ...
Kajzar, Vlastimil; Doležalová, Hana
Roč. 59, č. 4 (2013), s. 1-10 ISSN 1802-5420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : undermining * surface changes * surveying methods Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://gse.vsb.cz/2013/LIX-2013-4-1-10.pdf
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of
Lopes, Lígia; Aguiar, Carlos; da Silva, Fernando Moreira
The Project for Schools Modernization taking place in Portugal, with an estimated total investment of 2450 million for the intervention in the first 205 schools, provide the reclassification of 332 secondary schools by 2015. One of the questions we can pose is if the authorities and the teams of architects selected to design these schools considered fundamental for the correctness of architectural barriers within the school and its accessibility the implementation of standards and principles of inclusion of children/teenagers with special needs within their school environment. As most of the projects are already being implemented, the main aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of a comparative analysis and synthesis of six schools located in the northern part of the country. This analysis occurs from the of Participatory Design perspective which appeals to the experience of the disable children to look (or evaluate) the negative and positive factors in terms of physical space, interpreted by inclusive design rules and orientations. Therefore, the evaluation of schools modernization project, and its discussion, is central for the understanding how these children are addressed in projects which are directed at them.
Gregg A. Garn
Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.
Nordin, Lone Lindegard
. The project is funded by the Danish Ministry of Science, University of Aarhus and Silkeborg municipality, and involves 5 primary schools, 23 teachers and 233 pupils from 7th to 9 class. The project is positioned within the critical approach to school health education and health promotion, developed......Implementation of municipally health promoting projects' in primary schools: teachers perspective Research question This paper discusses the findings from a qualitative research, that aimed to investigate how teachers in primary schools implemented municipal health promoting projects focusing...... that there is a “gap” between policy and practice according to aim, content and methods, and that teachers practice can be explained as coping mechanism. The key findings include: • Teachers practice is closer to traditional health education than critical health education. • Teachers priorities the mandatory teaching...
Beckman, Vernal G.
The current level of implementation of 18 basic middle school principles in the 147 Missouri schools that met the definition of middle schools is the focus of this study. Questionnaire responses were received from 101 of the schools' administrators. Mean scores, standard deviations, and mean percentages of the maximum possible scores yielded by…
Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona
Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH) framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services) has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150). We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13) and Time II (2014). Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES), which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school's support for healthy eating was classified as either "initiation," "action" or "maintenance" along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as "high/increased," "moderate" or "low/decreased" within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary) participated. Most schools remained in the "action" category (n = 20) across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support) and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support). Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance) in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy eating in Ontario school food environments.
Harriger, Dinah; Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Pruitt, Buzz E; Goodson, Patricia
The School Wellness Policy (SWP) mandate marks one of the first innovative and extensive efforts of the US government to address the child obesity epidemic and the influence of the school environment on child health. However, no systematic review has been conducted to examine the implementation of the mandate. The study examines the literature on SWP implementation by using the Diffusion of Innovations Theory as a framework. Empirically based literature on SWP was systematically searched and analyzed. A theory-driven approach was used to categorize the articles by 4 diffusion stages: restructuring/redefining, clarifying, routinizing, and multiple stages. Twenty-one studies were identified, and 3 key characteristics of the reviewed literature were captured: (1) uniformity in methodology, (2) role of context in analyzing policy implementation, and (3) lack of information related to policy clarification. Over half of the studies were published by duplicate set of authors, and only 1 study employed a pure qualitative methodology. Only 2 articles include an explicit theoretical framework to study theory-driven constructs related to SWP implementation. Policy implementation research can inform the policy process. Therefore, it is essential that policy implementation is measured accurately. Failing to clearly define implementation constructs may result in misguided conclusion. © 2014, American School Health Association.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the barriers preventing the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in secondary school geography lessons and to determine its effectiveness on students success. A workshop focusing on ways to implement GIS-based application in the classroom for 14 teachers from nine high schools was conducted in 2006. The teachers were given GIS software, digital data for an application, and the necessary written documents describing the application. Due to var...
This paper documents the process undertaken during the establishment of an ISO 9000 series quality management system by a School of Nursing. Further discussion centres around the reasons why an ISO quality management system was implemented, the lessons learnt during the process and the benefits that accreditation has brought to the School of Nursing. The lessons learnt during the process could be of help to other organisations wishing to achieve a similar accreditation status.
Henroid, Daniel; Sneed, Jeannie
To evaluate current food-handling practices, food safety prerequisite programs, and employee knowledge and food safety attitudes and provide baseline data for implementing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in school foodservice. One member of the research team visited each school to observe food-handling practices and assess prerequisite programs using a structured observation form. A questionnaire was used to determine employees' attitudes, knowledge, and demographic information. A convenience sample of 40 Iowa schools was recruited with input from the Iowa Department of Education. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences in attitudes and food safety knowledge among managers, cooks, and other foodservice employees. Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between manager and school district demographics and the food safety practice score. Proper food-handling practices were not being followed in many schools and prerequisite food safety programs for HACCP were found to be inadequate for many school foodservice operations. School foodservice employees were found to have a significant amount of food safety knowledge (15.9+/-2.4 out of 20 possible points). School districts with managers (P=.019) and employees (P=.030) who had a food handler certificate were found to have higher food safety practice scores. Emphasis on implementing prerequisite programs in preparation for HACCP is needed in school foodservice. Training programs, both basic food safety such as ServSafe and HACCP, will support improvement of food-handling practices and implementation of prerequisite programs and HACCP.
Vine, Michelle M; Elliott, Susan J; Raine, Kim D
The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150) from the perspective of secondary-school students. This research, informed by the ANGELO framework, undertook three focus groups with secondary students (n = 20) in 2 school boards representing both high- and low-income neighbourhoods in fall 2012. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim for subsequent analysis. Key themes were generated deductively from the research objectives and inductively as they emerged from transcripts. Perceived impacts of P/PM 150 included high-priced policy-compliant food for sale, lower revenue generation, and food purchased off-campus. Limited designated eating spaces, proximity to external, nonpolicy-compliant food, and time constraints acted as key local level barriers to healthy eating. Pricing strategies are needed to ensure that all students have access to nutritious food, particularly in the context of vulnerable populations. Recognition of the context and culture in which school nutrition policies are being implemented is essential. Future research to explore the role of public health dietitians in school nutrition policy initiatives and how to leverage local resources and stakeholder support in low income, rural and remote populations is needed.
Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine M.; Miller, Michelle; Lohrmann, David; Gregory, Patricia
Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI), a guide for completing a coordinated school-based program needs assessment relative to healthy eating, physical activity, a tobacco-free lifestyle, and prevention of other health risk behaviors and conditions, was used to assess current programming at 3…
Full Text Available Introduction: Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150. Methods: We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13 and Time II (2014. Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES, which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school’s support for healthy eating was classified as either “initiation,” “action” or “maintenance” along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as “high/increased,” “moderate” or “low/decreased” within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Results: Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary participated. Most schools remained in the “action” category (n = 20 across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support. Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Conclusion: Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy
Bast, Lotus S; Due, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette K
:IT intervention to a medium or high degree had higher levels of administrative leadership (77.3% and 83.3% vs 42.9%), school climate/organizational health (95.5% and 91.7% vs 66.7%), mission-policy alignment (90.9% and 100.0% vs 71.4%), personnel expertise (81.8% and 75.0% vs 46.7%), school culture (77.3% and 91...... factors than the intervention itself-for example, school-level characteristics, such as principal support and organizational capacity. We examined school-level characteristics of schools in groups of high, medium, and low implementation of a smoking prevention intervention. METHODS: The X:IT study...
Green, Emalee T; Venta, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools retrospectively, as reported by incoming college freshmen, exploring whether characteristics of the school influenced implementation. The sample, 169 first-year students from a public university, participated in an online survey inquiring about exposure to programs and high school characteristics. Results demonstrated few students exposed to any eating disorder programming (29.0%), with no students reporting exposure to prevention programming. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the implementation based on school characteristics, suggesting that this is a universal issue across high schools.
This manual is intended to act as a working guide for setting up a Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee at your school. The Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee, or SFVSC, is the key component of the Science Fair Self-Help program, which was developed by Sandia National Laboratories and is designed to support a school`s science activities. The SFVSC is a team of parents and community volunteers who work in concert with a school`s teaching staff to assist and manage all areas of a school Science and Engineering Fair. The main advantage of creating such a committee is that it frees the science teachers from the organizational aspects of the fair and lets them concentrate on their job of teaching science. This manual is based on information gained through a Self-Help Development pilot program that was developed by Sandia National Laboratories during the 1991--92 school year at three Albuquerque, NM, middle schools. The manual describes the techniques that were successful in the pilot program and discusses how these techniques might be implemented in other schools. This manual also discusses problems that may be encountered, including suggestions for how they might be resolved.
Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac
Full Text Available Health promoting schools (HPS is recognized globally as a multifaceted approach that can support health behaviours. There is increasing clarity around factors that influence HPS at a school level but limited synthesized knowledge on the broader system-level elements that may impact local implementation barriers and support uptake of a HPS approach. This study comprised a scoping review to identify, summarise and disseminate the range of research to support the uptake of a HPS approach across school systems. Two reviewers screened and extracted data according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. Relevant studies were identified using a multi-phased approach including searching electronic bibliographic databases of peer reviewed literature, hand-searching reference lists and article recommendations from experts. In total, 41 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review, representing studies across nine international school systems. Overall, studies described policies that provided high-level direction and resources within school jurisdictions to support implementation of a HPS approach. Various multifaceted organizational and professional interventions were identified, including strategies to enable and restructure school environments through education, training, modelling and incentives. A systematic realist review of the literature may be warranted to identify the types of intervention that work best for whom, in what circumstance to create healthier schools and students.
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Hernandez, Kimberley J.; Kirk, Sara F.L.; Curran, Janet A.
Health promoting schools (HPS) is recognized globally as a multifaceted approach that can support health behaviours. There is increasing clarity around factors that influence HPS at a school level but limited synthesized knowledge on the broader system-level elements that may impact local implementation barriers and support uptake of a HPS approach. This study comprised a scoping review to identify, summarise and disseminate the range of research to support the uptake of a HPS approach across school systems. Two reviewers screened and extracted data according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. Relevant studies were identified using a multi-phased approach including searching electronic bibliographic databases of peer reviewed literature, hand-searching reference lists and article recommendations from experts. In total, 41 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review, representing studies across nine international school systems. Overall, studies described policies that provided high-level direction and resources within school jurisdictions to support implementation of a HPS approach. Various multifaceted organizational and professional interventions were identified, including strategies to enable and restructure school environments through education, training, modelling and incentives. A systematic realist review of the literature may be warranted to identify the types of intervention that work best for whom, in what circumstance to create healthier schools and students. PMID:26861376
Turney, Nicy; Clarke, Maggie; Stevenson, Emily
The NHS has a longstanding relationship with care pathways for managing clinical processes and patient outcomes. Care pathways are an effective mechanism to improve the delivery of services in managing children's health. However, few individual NHS trusts have successfully developed and implemented local pathways. This paper describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive care pathways package for school nursing in a community health services trust in the East Midlands.
Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane
When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal
Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.
This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.
Full Text Available Since the passage of The Persons with Disabilities (PWD Act in 1995 and subsequent implementation of various policies and programs by the Indian government to enhance the participation of students with disabilities in regular schools, there has been a steady growth of inclusive education. Such initiatives, however, have placed new demands on schools, especially on teachers who have the major responsibility for implementing inclusion at the classroom level. Literature from other countries indicates that for inclusion to be successful, it is essential that classroom teachers’ concerns about implementing such programs be identified and systematically addressed. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research about teacher concerns regarding inclusive education in India. This study was undertaken to identify the concerns and perceived barriers of regular school teachers in Delhi, India about the inclusion of students with disabilities. Respondents were secondary school teachers working in schools in Delhi that were involved in teaching special needs children. Two focus group interviews and 20 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from the participants. The flexible qualitative analysis program QRS NVivo was utilized for data analysis. Three concerns and eleven barrier themes emerged
Pasupathi, Monisha; Rich, Ben
Two studies explore the narrative construction of self-perceptions in conversational storytelling among pairs of same-sex friends. Specifically, the studies examined how listener behavior can support or undermine attempts to self-verify in personal storytelling. In two studies (n=100 dyads), speakers told attentive, distracted, or disagreeable (Study 1 only) friends about a recent experience. Distracted, but not disagreeable, friends tended to undermine participants' attempts to verify their self-perception of being interested in an activity (Study 1) or their self-perception that an event was typical for them (Study 2). These results support the notion that friends can be an important source of influence on self-perceptions and, perhaps surprisingly, suggest that responsiveness from friends, rather than agreement per se, may be crucial for supporting self-verification processes.
Ganz, Jennifer B; Heath, Amy K; Lund, Emily M; Camargo, Siglia P H; Rispoli, Mandy J; Boles, Margot; Plaisance, Lauren
Although research has investigated the impact of peer-mediated interventions and visual scripts on social and communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorders, no studies to date have investigated peer-mediated implementation of scripts. This study investigated the effects of peer-implemented scripts on a middle school student with autism, intellectual impairments, and speech-language impairment via a multiple baseline single-case research design across behaviors. The target student demonstrated improvements in three communicative behaviors when implemented by a trained peer; however, behaviors did not generalize to use with an untrained typically developing peer.
This study focused on the planning, implementation and evaluation of a character-based school culture (CBSC) project in Taiwan. The project integrated the principles of justice, caring and developmental discipline and was influenced by several well-known American models of character education programmes. The CBSC project was conducted in a…
Bergman, Jacqueline J.; Linnell, Jessica D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Ginsburg, David C.; Brian, Kelley M.; Carter, Rosemary; Donohue, Susan; Klisch, Shannon; Lawry-Hall, Suzanne; Pressman, Jona; Soule, Katherine; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
We conducted a process evaluation of the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a multicomponent school-based nutrition program, when implemented in partnership with University of California (UC) CalFresh and UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE). There were positive impacts on participating students, but results varied across counties, possibly due to…
Graves, Leila A.; Hughes, Harrison; Balgopal, Meena M.
School gardens are ideal places for students to ask and answer questions about science. This paper describes a case study of two 3rd grade teachers and two STEM coordinators who were recruited to implement and evaluate a horticultural-based curriculum developed for this study. Informed by the Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform model we conducted a…
Gentle, Frances; Steer, Michael; Howse, Josie
In this article the authors will outline and describe the recent implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australia's complex school systems. The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (NSW/DEC) played a leading role in the process. The education sector at all levels in Australia appears to have embraced the introduction…
The aim of this study was to determine pre-service teachers' perspectives on constructivism and its implementation in schools. In order to do this, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 12 primary pre-service teachers from the grades 2, 3, and 4. Four pre-service teachers were voluntarily selected from each grade for interview. Each…
This study is a literature review to investigate the effects of implementing technology into a high school mathematics classroom. Mathematics has a hierarchical structure in learning and it is essential that students get a firm understanding of mathematics early in education. Some students that miss beginning concepts may continue to struggle with…
Elias, Maurice J.; Zins, Joseph E.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Weissberg, Roger P.
Many attempts at bringing successful educational programs and products "to scale" as part of school reform, particularly in urban districts, have been disappointing. Based on the experiences of the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and reviews of literature addressing implementation failures, observations about…
How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…
Prescott, Jen Elise; Bundschuh, Kristine; Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Macaruso, Paul
The authors examined the implementation of a blended learning program for literacy instruction across kindergarten through Grade 5 in a Title I urban elementary school, including a population of students (18%) who are English learners. Student progress in the online component of the blended learning program was a significant predictor of growth in…
Herro, Danielle; Quigley, Cassie
This paper examines the implementation practices of a 6th grade middle school teacher enacting STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) teaching in his classroom after participating in a 45-hour STEAM professional development. Case study is used to detail the process, successes, and challenges. Project-based learning, technology…
Hottecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino
Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order…
Jung, Charles; And Others
The implementation in a school district of the Research Utilization and Problem Solving (RUPS) System is demonstrated. RUPS is an instructional system for an inservice program designed to provide the needed competencies for an entire staff to engage in systems analysis and systems synthesis procedures prior to assessing educational needs and…
Staniec, Shelly Ann
This is a qualitative narrative case study set in an Idaho high school where twelve educators offered their viewpoints on the implementation of Idaho's pay-for-performance legislation. In the spring of 2011, Idaho legislators passed laws aimed at increasing student performance and college or career readiness. These laws, known as Idaho's Students…
This policy study critically compares two different efforts to implement an accountability system in the New York City public schools. In 1971, the New York City Board of Education contracted with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which created a lengthy accountability plan for the district. Fitful maneuvers to execute the ETS plan fizzled…
The study identifies motivational characteristics of empowerment among teachers in leadership positions involving information and communications technology (ICT) implementation in schools. The participants were 24 teachers who were candidates for an Information and Communications Technology Leadership Award. Analysis of the in-depth interviews…
Service learning provides pre-service educators with a context for having hands-on field experience and also assists in understanding the theory and practice. This study discusses 7 undergraduates' implementations of learning stations as their service learning with 28 elementary school students. Through thematic data analysis of interviews,…
Aldrin John Jao Estonanto
Full Text Available The Department of Education in the Philippines implemented the Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum in 2013 which led to the creation of Senior High School Program. Studies showed the importance of the support of stakeholders to the success of an educational reform. Thus, it is significant to consider the acceptance of the new curriculum. This descriptive- correlational study sought to determine the acceptability of the Senior High School STEM program and correlate it to the difficulty level of problems along its implementation. Findings showed that there was low acceptability of the new curriculum among stakeholders. It also revealed that the major problems along the implementation of the curriculum were on the areas of Facility and Instructional Materials, and that the difficulty level of the problems was high. Finally, it was found out that there was significant inverse correlation between the curriculum’s acceptability level and the problems’ difficulty level. Thus, the study concludes that the acceptability level of curriculum is significantly related to the difficulty level of the problems encountered by the school along its implementation. The researcher recommends that a series of informationdissemination programs be conducted to raise awareness on the significance of the STEM Curriculum among the stakeholders of the school. Interventions were also proposed to address the problems
Garcia, Ediza; De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Astor, Ron Avi; Lester, Patricia; Benbenishty, Rami
Military children encounter unique stressors that can affect their social and emotional well-being. These challenges can serve as a risk to the military child's successful academic performance. This study fills a much-needed research gap by examining the training and implementation of a public school-based intervention, Families OverComing Under…
Thompson, Gene; Yanagita, Mayuno
How can Japanese teachers of English go about introducing more communicative activities suitable for their contexts? This article discusses an attempt by a high school teacher to implement communicative language teaching (CLT) in her classes while responding to institutional pressure to use "yakudoku" (a traditional grammar translation…
Full Text Available The issue of this research emphasizes on the implementation of character building values through physical education learning in elementary school. The effort in developing this character building practice is essential to be done in order to tackle moral and character crises, which already occur in both individual and collective levels reflected in educational institution from elementary school to higher education. Hence, to form culture and national character, educational program and process are inseparable from environmental factor including the values of society, culture, and humanity. Physical education subject that is based on 2013 Curriculum has significant difference compared to the previous physical education subject. This is due to the fact that integrated physical education has its own uniqueness in terms of planning, systematic implementation, and instructional medium. This research aims at producing guidance in implementing character values integrated in physical education in elementary school. The method used in this research is research and development (R&D method, which includes preliminary research, model designing, limited trial, and extensive trial, as well as validation and dissemination. The findings of the research show that character values can be implemented in physical education in elementary schools in Sumedang Regency.
Hubwieser, Peter; Armoni, Michal; Giannakos, Michail N.
Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and strategies for improving computer science education in K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of the "ACM TOCE" journal. Our intention was to collect a set of case studies from different countries that would describe all relevant aspects of specific implementations of…
Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.
Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) offers an alternative to reactive and exclusionary school discipline practices. However, the shift to SWPBS requires substantial change in the practices of staff, and many leadership teams struggle to rally staff support for implementation. With a more thorough understanding of staff perceptions, level…
Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony; Weinburgh, Molly
In this article, we investigate the change forces that act on administrators, subject department chairpersons and teachers as they seek to implement a change in a Canadian secondary school. Using a case study methodology, our analysis of the data uses Sergiovanni's (1998) six change forces: bureaucratic, personal, market, professional, cultural,…
Anderson, Cynthia M.; Horner, Robert H.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Stiller, Brianna
Supporting the full range of students with behavioral challenges requires that schools build the capacity to implement evidence-based behavioral interventions. Fortunately, a substantive body of research documents behavioral interventions are available to both decrease problem behavior and enhance prosocial skills. To date, however, this…
Chukwumah, Fides Okwukweka; Ezeugbor, Carol Obiageli
This study investigated the extent of problems of strategic plans implementation for secondary schools' improvement in Anambra State, Nigeria for quality education provision. The study used a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents comprised 217 principals. There was no sampling. All the principals were used. Data were collected using…
Hogan, Ashley; Knez, Nikki; Kahng, SungWoo
Variations of behavioral skills training (BST) have been used to teach behaviorally oriented skills such as discrete trial teaching, guided compliance, the implementation of the picture exchange system, and safe guarding students with physical disabilities. One area that has not received much attention is evaluating school staff's correct…
Bayless, David L.; And Others
The Total Quality Management Theory of W. E. Deming can be adapted within an educational organization to build structures that support educators' beliefs. A case study of the implementation of Deming principles at the LeRoy Martin Middle School in Raleigh (North Carolina) illustrates the effectiveness of this management approach. (SLD)
Brownstein, Sheri A; Murad, Aseel; Hunt, Ronald J
With dentistry rapidly evolving as new technologies are developed, this study aimed to identify the penetration of emerging dental technologies into the curricula of U.S. dental schools and to explore whether certain school characteristics affected adoption of these technologies. A 19-question survey was sent to the academic deans of all 62 U.S. dental schools. In addition to questions about characteristics of the school, the survey asked respondents to indicate where in their curricula the technology was incorporated: preclinical didactic, preclinical laboratory, clinical didactic, and/or clinical patient experience. Of 62 eligible schools, 33 useable responses were received, for a 52% response rate. The results showed that the greatest overall penetration of dental technologies was in preclinical didactic courses and the lowest was in the preclinical laboratory. Specific technologies implemented in the largest percentage of responding schools were digital radiography and rotary endodontics. The technologies with the lowest penetration were CAD/CAM denture fabrication and hard tissue lasers. These results suggest that the incorporation of technology into dental schools is following that of private practice as the most widely adopted technologies were those with the greatest acceptance and use in private practice. Among the respondents, factors such as class size and age of the school had greater impact on incorporation of technology than funding source and geographic location.
Hens, Luc; Wiedemann, Torsten; Raath, Schalk; Stone, Riana; Renders, Paul; Craenhals, Eric
Quantitative results from Environmental Management Systems (EMS) at primary schools have rarely been examined in literature. This paper presents the monitoring results of environmental care in 39 primary schools in Northern South Africa. During 2 years, after the EMS was implemented in the curriculum and in the school's management, the progress of environmental performances of the participating schools has been measured, by means of detailed questionnaires, related to four environmental aspects: water, waste, energy and greening. At the beginning of the project, 50% of the schools performed well on water-related environmental actions. Two years later it was 76%. For waste-related activities the improvement was even stronger: from 50% to 100%. The environmental performances of the schools improved also for greening-related actions, from 50% at the start of the project to 64% two years later. Only energy-related activities did not improve significantly with only 24% of all schools performing well at the end of the survey period. In general, the introduction of an EMS succeeded in an improvement of the overall environmental performances of the schools, but cost-intensive activities were less successful than others. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A form of elitism undermines much writing on voter competence. The elitist move occurs when an author uses a self-serving worldview as the basis for evaluating voters. Such elitism is apparent in widely cited measures of “political knowledge” and in common claims about what voters should know. The elitist move typically limits the credibility and practical relevance of the analysis by leading writers to draw unreliable conclusions about voter competence. I propose a more constructive way of t...
Sunstein, Cass Robert
Some people believe that nudges undermine human agency, but with appropriate nudges, neither agency nor consumer freedom is at risk. On the contrary, nudges can promote both goals. In some contexts, they are indispensable. There is no opposition between education on the one hand and nudges on the other. Many nudges are educative. Even when they are not, they can complement, and not displace, consumer education.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.
Prominent thinkers such as Jurgen Habermas and Michael Sandel are warning that biomedical enhancements will undermine fundamental political values. Yet, whether biomedical enhancements will undermine such values depends on how biomedical enhancements will function, how they will be administered and to whom. Since only few enhancements are obtainable, it is difficult to tell whether their predictions are sound. Nevertheless, such warnings are extremely valuable. As a society we must, at the very least, be aware of developments that could have harmful consequences. Indeed, if important values would be jeopardized, we should take appropriate measures to protect them. This paper focuses on four central values: solidarity, personal responsibility, equality and autonomy. It delineates the conditions under which biomedical enhancements would undermine these values. It also details the circumstances under which these values would be unaffected by enhancements as well as those under which they would be promoted. Specifying these conditions is valuable; it would enable society to prepare appropriate ethical guidelines and policy responses in advance. PMID:20002073
Full Text Available The aim of this research is: (1 to analyze the implementation of guidance and counseling supervision, and (2 to find main factors inhibiting the implementation of guidance and counseling supervisory at the Senior High Schools of Singkawang City. The results show that: (1 the implementation of the guidance and counseling supervision has still many weaknesses on each stage done by the supervisors, such as unidentified guidance and counseling teachers‘ needs, the program planning is not yet organized well, the supervisors do not use particular approaches, and they do not control the supervisions carried out, (2 some factors inhibiting the implementation of guidance and counseling supervision include lack of guidance and counseling supervision forces that so many guidance and counseling teachers are not supervised optimally, lack of knowledge and understanding by the supervisors on the implementation, and also minimal development of supervisory competencies in the guidance and counseling field.
Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation‟s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The reseach was conducted in 6 schools and the quuesionnare was distributed to 6 prinsipals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out og 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.
Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation’s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The research was conducted in 6 schools and the questionnaire was distributed to 6 principals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out of 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.
Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E.; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Kimura, Amanda T.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.
Introduction Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students’ intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students’ water intake at mealtimes. PMID:22765930
Suhaili, Wan Farhani; Shahrill, Masitah
This study examines the potential of implementing the passive house standards to reduce energy consumption on school buildings in Brunei. Furthermore, it investigates whether sustainable school buildings make business sense to the government. To do this, conventional and Passive House primary school buildings are compared in terms of their performances using the Passive House Planning Package as well as the Ecotect environmental analysis tool. The findings indicated that by replacing lower U-values building fabrics brought a significantly reduction in the cooling demand of 54%. Whereas, Ecotect models have demonstrated that the heating and cooling loads have tremendously reduced to 75% by reorienting the location of the building to south elevation and by replacing the building fabrics with a lower U-values. These findings were then evaluated with a cost benefit analysis that proved to save cost energy annually from air-conditioning usage from a typical primary school with eight years of pay back period.
Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager; Skovgaard, Thomas; Møller, Niels Christian
condensed into a total amount of 63 factors, arranged into nine overall categories, and prioritized by the national expert group in the questionnaire (1.School leadership, 2.Co-workers, 3.Resources, 4.Policy level, 5.Organizational/cultural level, 6.Pupils, 7.Physical surroundings, 8.Intervention context......, and 9.External factors). Based on five expert interviews, outliers from the questionnaire was examined. Finally, at the workshop, five of the nine overall categories were rated as particularly relevant and important (School leadership, Co-workers, Policy level, Resources and Organizational/cultural...... level). Conclusions All nine overall categories are deemed as decisive for sustainable implementation of school-based PA. However, School leadership were singled out as a particular important category, since commitment at this level is deemed a pre-requisite for many of the other factors....
The Battle River Project: school division implementation of the health-promoting schools approach: assessment for learning: using student health and school capacity measures to inform action and direct policy in a local school district.
Gleddie, Douglas L; Hobin, Erin P
The Battle River Project (BRP) is a school division-level intervention in rural Alberta, Canada, built upon the health-promoting schools approach to health promotion. Using self-reported school and student-level data from administrators and students, the central aim of the BRP is to examine: 'How can the school environment and health behaviours (healthy eating, physical activity and mental wellness) of children and youth be improved when a health-promoting schools model, the Ever Active Schools program, is implemented with school division support?' Evidence used to inform school level changes included students' demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables linked to school environment data, comprised of school demographics and administrator-assessed quality of policies, facilities, and programs related to physical activity. Each participating school and the division were provided with a tailored report of their schools' results to reflect, plan and implement for positive health behavior change. The main lesson learned was that sharing school-specific evidence can operate as a catalyst for embedding health promoting policy and practices within the school and division culture.
Kam, Chi-Ming; Greenberg, Mark T; Walls, Carla T
In order for empirically validated school-based prevention programs to "go to scale," it is important to understand the processes underlying program dissemination. Data collected in effectiveness trials, especially those measuring the quality of program implementation and administrative support, are valuable in explicating important factors influencing implementation. This study describes findings regarding quality of implementation in a recent effectiveness trial conducted in a high-risk, American urban community. This delinquency prevention trial is a locally owned intervention, which used the Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum as its major program component. The intervention involved 350 first graders in 6 inner-city public schools. Three schools implemented the intervention and the other 3 were comparison schools from the same school district. Although intervention effects were not found for all the intervention schools, the intervention was effective in improving children's emotional competence and reducing their aggression in schools which effectively supported the intervention. This study, utilizing data from the 3 intervention schools (13 classrooms and 164 students), suggested that 2 factors contributed to the success of the intervention: (a) adequate support from school principals and (b) high degree of classroom implementation by teachers. These findings are discussed in light of the theory-driven models in program evaluation that emphasized the importance of the multiple factors influencing the implementation of school-based interventions.
Wijnen, Marit; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Smeets, Guus; Kroeze, Maarten J.; Van der Molen, Henk T.
A few years ago, the Erasmus School of Law implemented problem-based learning (PBL) as an instructional method in the bachelor's program. Transition to a PBL program often brings some difficulties for the teaching staff. To find out whether the implementation at the Erasmus School of Law has been successful, students and teachers were asked about…
Ollis, Debbie; Harrison, Lyn
Purpose: The health promoting school model is rarely implemented in relation to sexuality education. This paper reports on data collected as part of a five-year project designed to implement a health promoting and whole school approach to sexuality education in a five campus year 1-12 college in regional Victoria, Australia. Using a community…
Bustos, Nelly; Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Vio, Fernando
In Chilean school there is a kiosk that sells a large number of high-calorie products. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers that children have for buying healthy food and evaluate changes in the pattern of food purchases during a school year at a school where a "Healthy Space" was created. We designed implemented and assessed changes in food purchases by developing a "Healthy Space" which included a kiosk that incorporated a range of healthy food at affordable prices. The staff in charge of the kiosk was trained and we generate communication and marketing strategies to promote the consumption of healthy food. A validated survey to determine food purchases was applied to 9-12 year-old children from both schools at baseline and follow up 8 months later. The total number of schoolchildren was 477 (291 from the intervention and 115 from the control school). There weren't significant differences in the amount of money available to buy food between children of both schools. There was a significant increase in the purchase of fruit, milk, yoghurt, soft drinks and light juices, dried seeds, healthy sandwiches and non-fat ice cream (p increase in the supply of affordable healthy food, including communication and marketing strategies, significantly increases the consumption of these products among school children.
Dick, M; Lee, A; Bright, M; Turner, K; Edwards, R; Dawson, J; Miller, J
This paper reports on the evaluation of the Smart Choices healthy food and drink supply strategy for Queensland schools (Smart Choices) implementation across the whole school environment in state government primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. Three concurrent surveys using different methods for each group of stakeholders that targeted all 1275 school Principals, all 1258 Parent and Citizens' Associations (P&Cs) and a random sample of 526 tuckshop convenors throughout Queensland. Nine hundred and seventy-three Principals, 598 P&Cs and 513 tuckshop convenors participated with response rates of 78%, 48% and 98%, respectively. Nearly all Principals (97%), P&Cs (99%) and tuckshop convenors (97%) reported that their school tuckshop had implemented Smart Choices. The majority of Principals and P&Cs reported implementation, respectively, in: school breakfast programs (98 and 92%); vending machine stock (94 and 83%); vending machine advertising (85 and 84%); school events (87 and 88%); school sporting events (81 and 80%); sponsorship and advertising (93 and 84%); fundraising events (80 and 84%); and sporting clubs (73 and 75%). Implementation in curriculum activities, classroom rewards and class parties was reported, respectively, by 97%, 86% and 75% of Principals. Respondents also reported very high levels of understanding of Smart Choices and engagement of the school community. The results demonstrated that food supply interventions to promote nutrition across all domains of the school environment can be implemented successfully.
McLaughlin, Joan E.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Crepinsek, May Kay; Daft, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Michael
In 1998, Congress authorized implementation of a 3-year pilot breakfast program involving 4,300 students in elementary schools in 6 school districts representing a range of economic and demographic characteristics. The program began in the 2000-01 school year. This lengthy report presents the findings from the pilot's first year. The study had two…
Suleman, Qaiser; Gul, Rizwana
The current study explores the challenges faced by public secondary schools in successful implementation of total quality management (TQM) in Kohat District. A sample of 25 heads and 75 secondary school teachers selected from 25 public secondary schools through simple random sampling technique was used. Descriptive research designed was used and a…
Perusse, Rachelle; Poynton, Timothy A.; Parzych, Jennifer L.; Goodnough, Gary E.
School counselor education program administrators (N = 131) responded to an online questionnaire where the importance and extent of implementation of The College Board's National Office of School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) Eight Components of College and Career Readiness in their school counselor education program were assessed. The mean…
Austin, Megan J.
Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…
Resnicow, K; Davis, M; Smith, M; Lazarus-Yaroch, A; Baranowski, T; Baranowski, J; Doyle, C; Wang, D T
The impact of school health education programs is often attenuated by inadequate teacher implementation. Using data from a school-based nutrition education program delivered in a sample of fifth graders, this study examines the discriminant and predictive validity of three measures of curriculum implementation: class-room observation of fidelity, and two measures of completeness, teacher self-report questionnaire and post-implementation interview. A fourth measure, obtained during teacher observations, that assessed student and teacher interaction and student receptivity to the curriculum (labeled Rapport) was also obtained. Predictive validity was determined by examining the association of implementation measures with three study outcomes; health knowledge, asking behaviors related to fruit and vegetables, and fruit and vegetable intake, assessed by 7-day diary. Of the 37 teachers observed, 21 were observed for two sessions and 16 were observed once. Implementation measures were moderately correlated, an indication of discriminant validity. Predictive validity analyses indicated that the observed fidelity, Rapport and interview measures were significantly correlated with post-test student knowledge. The association between health knowledge and observed fidelity (based on dual observation only), Rapport and interview measures remained significant after adjustment for pre-test knowledge values. None of the implementation variables were significantly associated with student fruit and vegetable intake or asking behaviors controlling for pre-test values. These results indicate that the teacher self-report questionnaire was not a valid measure of implementation completeness in this study. Post-implementation completeness interviews and dual observations of fidelity and Rapport appear to be more valid, and largely independent methods of implementation assessment.
Simões, Francisco; Alarcão, Madalena
Background: Over the past decade, administrators have implemented school-based mentoring (SBM) programs in schools across several western countries. However, few studies have compared the views of mentors and parents regarding the factors that determine SBM success. Objectives: The purpose of this work is to explore the factors that may facilitate or undermine the completion of SBM goals, according to the perspectives of both mentors and parents. Methods: We conducted a qualitative stud...
Inchley, Jo; Muldoon, Janine; Currie, Candace
Increasingly, researchers are exploring alternative ways of assessing the impact of 'Health Promoting School' (HPS) initiatives, in recognition of the model's emphasis on achieving change that is both enduring and far-reaching. However, it is still assumed that initiatives will lead to immediate change at the individual level. This paper challenges that view and argues that potential markers of success associated with process need to be identified earlier as a means of supporting schools and teachers. Notwithstanding differences in the way the HPS is conceptualized and implemented, four themes are highlighted that have relevance beyond any one school or country. These were drawn from a process evaluation of a European Network of HPSs Project in Scotland. They highlight the ways in which schools were able to successfully adopt HPS principles and the conditions that need to be in place for the HPS concept to flourish. Such indicators need to be given greater recognition as HPS outcomes if schools are to progress beyond the early stages of project implementation.
Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curriculum development and evaluation of school-supported projects. It is clear that the implementation of the e-learning strategy has led to a large and increasing proportion of our students experiencing blended learning. In addition, there are initial indications that this has enhanced some learning and teaching processes. Where there has been sustainable embedding of effective e-learning, the following levers were identified as particularly important: flexibility in practices that allow schools to contextualise their plans for change, the facilitation of communities of key staff and creating opportunities for staff to voice and challenge their beliefs about e-learning.
Mauro Tamayo Rozas
Full Text Available Constructing inclusive societies, leaving no one behind, it is an ethical obligation. Developing inclusive educational programs allows ensuring equal opportunities in one of the most critical stages of development. The aim of this study is to describe the implementation of the School Integration Program (SIP in its different dimensions and in different zones of Chile. A descriptive and cross-sectional study of the perception of SIP Coordinators was performed in public and subsidized schools at the country through a web-based survey. A simple random convenience sampling of schools was performed, obtaining 1742 answers from educational establishments with SIP. Higher level of implementation of the program was identified in areas related to interdisciplinary work and comprehensive training, curricular and institutional aspects. On the other hand, deficiencies were identified in the implementation of accessibility, development of reasonable adjustments and participation of the educational community. Likewise, there are differences between the zones of Chile, with the North zone having the least progress. Although there are results in the work team and institutional development, the development of objective conditions and participation is still a pending task in the implementation of the SIP.
Blake, T. A.; Jones, A. G.; Campbell, G.
success of the programme was targeting teachers who would be committed to its implementation and promotion in the school. Strong emphasis by DIAS was placed on providing teacher training days on the set-up and operation of the seismometer, and they were also trained in various animation software programmes used to enhance the learning capacities of the students in the classroom. Regular contact is maintained with the teachers in the programme throughout the academic year to support and encourage their work in the classroom. Teachers receive an SMS alert message from DIAS when an earthquake of Mag 5 has been recorded by the Irish National Seismic network which will then form part of the next lesson plan for Geography and Maths in the curriculum. Most participating schools have become affiliated to the IRIS International Schools Seismic Network site, and students upload the waveform seismic data in SAC format for the recorded seismic events at their school to share with schools internationally. Future developments in the programme will include the investigation of twinning of schools on different continents who are actively pursuing a seismology in schools programme.
Jonsson, Linus; Larsson, Christel; Berg, Christina; Korp, Peter; Lindgren, Eva-Carin
This study aimed to illuminate factors that undermine the healthy habits of adolescents from a multicultural community with low socioeconomic status (S.E.S.) in Sweden with regard to physical activity (P.A.) and food, as stated in their own voices. Adolescents (n = 53, 12-13 y/o) were recruited from one school situated in a multicultural community characterized by low S.E.S. Embracing an interpretive approach, 10 focus-group interviews were conducted to produce data for the study. The focus-group interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in two major themes: (1) the availability of temptations is large, and support from the surroundings is limited; and (2) norms and demands set the agenda. The adolescents' voices illuminate a profound awareness and the magnitude of tempting screen-based activities as undermining their P.A. and healthy food habits. Moreover, several gender boundaries were highlighted as undermining girls' P.A. and healthy food habits. The adolescents' stories illuminated that it is difficult for them, within their environment, to establish healthy habits with regard to P.A. and food. To facilitate the adolescents' healthy habits, we suggest that support from family, friends, the school, and society at large is essential.
Education for Sustainable Development and Multidimensional Implementation. A Study of Implementations of Sustainable Development in Education with the Curriculum of Upper Secondary School in Sweden as an Example
This article discusses different interpretations of sustainable development in education and if different interpretations of the concept are implemented in Curriculum, with the Swedish Curriculum of Upper Secondary School as an example. According to Agenda 21 sustainable development should be implemented in a multidimensional way. In 2011, a new…
Full Text Available Irish educational policy acknowledges the importance of integrating technology meaningfully into teaching and learning at the primary level. Much remains to be done, however, in terms of developing, practically implementing and evaluating the use of technology in the Irish primary classroom. This paper describes a study on the use of a structured approach to digital storytelling as a tool for meaningful technology integration with children at primary level. In this study, the researcher developed a structured approach for implementing digital storytelling with primary school children, and collaborated with a class teacher in an Irish primary school to prepare to implement the approach. Multiple qualitative methods were used to evaluate the implementation, including interviews with the teacher, classroom observation, and focus group interviews with participating children. The results suggested that this structured approach to digital storytelling has the potential to be used successfully as a meaningful technology integration approach with this cohort. The findings also explored implications for the implementation of digital storytelling at primary level, and identified aspects on which further research should be undertaken to enhance and extend the approach that was used.
Bernard Yaw Sekyi Acquah
Full Text Available The focus of the study was to ascertain the extent to which the ICT curriculum is effectively being implemented in basic schools. The aim was to find out teachers’ perception about the introduction of ICT at the basic school level; the availability of facilities for teaching the subject; teachers’ acquired content knowledge as well as their preferred in-service training methods. The study adopted a simple cross sectional survey design which employed descriptive statics for data analysis. A questionnaire was the main survey instrument. A representative sample of 63 public primary schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis was randomly selected, and all ICT teachers (84 in the selected schools were involved in the study. It was revealed that teachers had a positive perception about the teaching of ICT in primary schools. ICT facilities were woefully inadequate for the teaching of the subject in basic schools; the majority of teachers appeared to be knowledgeable in the use of computers and other peripheral devices; and, most of the teachers preferred workshops as a means of acquiring more knowledge and skills in the teaching of ICT.
Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael
The current study investigated the influence of rewards on very young children's helping behavior. After 20-month-old infants received a material reward during a treatment phase, they subsequently were less likely to engage in further helping during a test phase as compared with infants who had previously received social praise or no reward at all. This so-called overjustification effect suggests that even the earliest helping behaviors of young children are intrinsically motivated and that socialization practices involving extrinsic rewards can undermine this tendency.
Wagner and colleagues (2006) state the mediocrity of teaching and instructional leadership is the central problem that must be addressed if we are to improve student achievement. Educational reform efforts have been initiated to improve student performance and to hold teachers and school leaders accountable for student achievement (Wagner et al., 2006). Specifically, in the area of science, goals for improving student learning have led reformers to establish standards for what students should know and be able to do, as well as what instructional methods should be used. Key concepts and principles have been identified for student learning. Additionally, reformers recommend student-centered, inquiry-based practices that promote a deep understanding of how science is embedded in the everyday world. These new approaches to science education emphasize inquiry as an essential element for student learning (Schneider, Krajcik, Marx, & Soloway, 2002). Project-based learning (PBL) is an inquiry-based instructional approach that addresses these recommendations for science education reform. The objective of this research was to study the implementation of project-based learning (PBL) in an urban school undergoing reform efforts and identify the variables that positively or negatively impacted the PBL implementation process and its outcomes. This study responded to the need to change how science is taught by focusing on the implementation of project-based learning as an instructional approach to improve student achievement in science and identify the role of both school leaders and teachers in the creation of a school environment that supports project-based learning. A case study design using a mixed-method approach was used in this study. Data were collected through individual interviews with the school principal, science instructional coach, and PBL facilitator. A survey, classroom observations and interviews involving three high school science teachers teaching grades 9
Yasar, Bilgehan M.
The purpose of this study was to examine practices used by a charter school system to hire and retain science teachers. The research design for this study was a qualitative case study. This single instrumental case study explored the issue within a bounded system. Purposeful sampling strategy was used to identify the participants who were interviewed individually. Findings of the case study supported that using online resources, advertising in the newspaper, attending job fairs, using alternative certification programs, attracting alumni, contacting the college of educations and hiring internationally helped the charter school system with hiring science teachers. Improving teacher salary scale, implementing teacher mentorship programs, reimbursing teachers for certification and master's programs, providing professional development and supporting teachers helped to retain science teachers. Therefore, this study contributes to determining strategies and techniques, selecting methods and programs, training administrators, and monitoring for successful hiring and retaining science teacher implementation.
Full Text Available In this article, we present analyses from a researcher-practitioner partnership in the District of Columbia Public Schools, where we are exploring the impact of educational software on students’ academic achievement. We analyze a unique data set that combines student-level information from the district with data of student usage of a mathematics game platform: First in Math (FIM. These data offer a window into long-standing issues in the educational technology literature around implementation, equity, and student achievement. We show that time spent in FIM was correlated with improved future performance on standardized math assessments for students in Grades 4–8. However, student time spent using FIM was highly related to factors such as race, gender, and prior achievement. Such observations from data are helpful for school districts and researchers to inform equitable implementation of new technologies and maximize benefits to learners.
Simon G Agolory
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs, including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1 by New York City (NYC public schools. METHODS: From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. RESULTS: Of 1,633 schools, 376(23% accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99% implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72% than those without (53% (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing an NPI program in a large school system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.
Bessems, K.M.H.H.; Assema, P. van; Vries, N.K. de; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.
Strategies to promote implementation of school-based health promotion (HP) programmes should be designed to suit determinants of implementation and continuation. This study explored determinants of completeness of teachers' implementation of a healthy diet promotion programme and of their intention
Horner, Robert H; Sugai, George
School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is an example of applied behavior analysis implemented at a scale of social importance. In this paper, PBIS is defined and the contributions of behavior analysis in shaping both the content and implementation of PBIS are reviewed. Specific lessons learned from implementation of PBIS over the past 20 years are summarized.
van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje; de Waal, Esri; Kok, Gerjo
Schools are a common setting for adolescents to receive health education, but implementation of these programs with high levels of completeness and fidelity is not self-evident. Programs that are only partially implemented (completeness) or not implemented as instructed (fidelity) are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it is important to…
Cawley, John; Hull, Harry F; Rousculp, Matthew D
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts available as of January 7, 2008, was conducted for school-located vaccinations, using search words "School Health Services" and "Immunization Programs"; limited to "Child" (6-12 years) and "Adolescent" (13-18 years) for PubMed and "mass or universal" and (immuniz(*) or immunis(*) or vaccin(*)) and (school or Child or Adolescen(*)) for PsychLit and Dissertation Abstracts. Fifty-nine studies met the criteria for review. Strategies such as incentives, education, the design of the consent form, and follow-up can increase parental consent and number of returned forms. Minimizing out-of-pocket cost, offering both the intramuscular (shot) and intranasal (nasal spray) vaccination, and using reminders can increase vaccination coverage among those whose parents consented. Finally, organization, communication, and planning can minimize the logistical challenges. Schools-based vaccination programs are a promising option for achieving the expanded ACIP recommendation; school-located vaccination programs are feasible and effective. Adhering to lessons from the peer-reviewed scientific literature may help public health officials and schools implement the expanded recommendation to provide the greatest benefit for the lowest cost. Given the potential benefits of the expanded recommendation, both directly to the vaccinated children and indirectly to the community, prospective, well-controlled trials to establish the cost-effectiveness of specific vaccination strategies should be high priorities for future research.
Lee, Yew-Jin; Chue, Shien
School-based curriculum innovations, including those in science education, are usually not adequately evaluated, if at all. Furthermore, current procedures and instruments for programme evaluations are often unable to support evidence-based decision-making. We suggest that adopting fidelity of implementation (FOI) criteria from healthcare research can both characterize and narrow the separation between programme intent and actual implementation, which is a mandatory stage of evaluation before determining overall programme value. We demonstrate how such a process could be applied by science educators using data from a secondary school in Singapore that had devised a new curriculum to promote interest, investigative processes, and knowledge in science. Results showed that there were ambivalent student responses to this programme, while there were high levels of science process skill instruction and close alignment with the intended lesson design. The implementation of this programme appeared to have a satisfactory overall level of FOI, but we also detected tensions between programme intent and everyday classroom teaching. If we want to advance science education, then our argument is that applying FOI criteria is necessary when evaluating all curricular innovations, not just those that originate from schools.
Full Text Available This mixed method study sought to explore the issues that faced secondary teachers in a rural central Georgia public high school when attempting to implement a multicultural education program. The key issues of this study centered on the teachers’ multicultural education training and the school’s multicultural education program. Data were gathered from a total of thirty randomly chosen teachers in the Social Studies, Math and English departments at the school. Twenty-five of the thirty teachers received a hard copy four question Likert scale survey to complete. The remaining 5 participants took part in face-to-face interviews discussing six open-ended questions. The findings pointed to several issues facing the teachers such as the lack of an officially implemented multicultural education program, the lack of support from school administrators, no in-service training available for teachers, parental and student misapprehension, and a lack of an officially defined policy on implementation and support of a multicultural education program from administrators locally and district-wide.
Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J
As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors from the literature that influence teachers' implementation of environmental education (EE), and to predict the implementation of EE in the Indiana K--8 Schools by knowledge of these factors. By adapting two earlier instruments, a complete EE assessment instrument was developed, consisting of scales measuring teachers' implementation of EE, their pre-/in-service environmental training, their attitudes toward and competencies in teaching EE, their perceived barriers in teaching EE, and their significant life experiences related to the environment or EE. A questionnaire was sent to 1,200 randomly selected K--8 teachers in public schools throughout Indiana in April 2003, and 385 completed surveys were returned (32.1% return rate). The demographic characteristics of the respondents and the Indiana teacher population were found to be similar. Thus, the results from this study can be generalized to the Indiana teacher population. The construct validity and reliability of each scale were examined after the completion and return of the questionnaires by using factor analysis, item-test correlation analysis, and ANOVA, and also by assessing their alpha indices. It was found that all nine scales were homogeneous, valid, and reliable. Multiple regression analysis was calculated to predict the level of EE implementation in Indiana K--8 schools. Regression analyses indicated that the extent of the teachers' exposure to EE during their pre- and in-service training, the teachers' attitudes toward and competencies in teaching EE, and the barrier "EE not relevant to what I teach" were significant in the full model. This model accounted for 63% of the variance in the teachers' implementation of EE. The teachers' attitudes toward EE had the greatest effect on the teachers' EE implementation when compared to the other significant predictors in the model. The net effects of the extent of the teachers' pre-service and in
Langley, Audra; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Rodríguez, Adriana; Zelaya, Jennifer
Although more schools are offering mental health programs, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve their successful implementation. In this community-partnered study, focus groups were conducted with school staff and parents to explore issues related to community engagement and feasibility of a mental health intervention for elementary school students exposed to trauma. Four educator focus groups, including 23 participants, and 2 parent focus groups, consisting of 9 Spanish-speaking and 7 English-speaking parents were conducted. Participants discussed facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of the program. Participants identified the importance of pre-implementation parent education, raising awareness of the impact of student mental health among educators, maintaining ongoing communication during the intervention, and addressing logistical concerns. Participants described clear considerations for parent and educator engagement, both at the pre-implementation phase and during implementation of the program. Implications for next steps of this community-partnered approach are described.
Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Rodríguez, Adriana; Zelaya, Jennifer
Although more schools are offering mental health programs, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve their successful implementation. In this community partnered study, focus groups were conducted with school staff and parents to explore issues related to community engagement and feasibility of a mental health intervention for elementary school students exposed to trauma. Four educator focus groups, including 23 participants, and 2 parent focus groups, consisting of 9 Spanish-speaking and 7 English-speaking parents were conducted. Participants discussed facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of the program. Participants identified the importance of pre-implementation parent education, raising awareness of the impact of student mental health among educators, maintaining ongoing communication during the intervention, and addressing logistical concerns. Participants described clear considerations for parent and educator engagement both at the pre implementation phase and during implementation of the program. Implications for next steps of this community partnered approach are described. PMID:23576136
Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Miller, Elizabeth
Teen dating violence and sexual violence are severe public health problems. Abusive behaviors within the context of dating or romantic relationships are associated with adverse health outcomes. Promoting positive bystander intervention and increasing knowledge of abusive behaviors are promising strategies for preventing dating and sexual violence. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based, athletic coach-delivered dating violence prevention program that has been shown to increase positive bystander behaviors and reduce abuse perpetration among high school male athletes. Identifying specific barriers and facilitators based on the coaches' experiences with program delivery combined with the coaches' and athletes' program perceptions may help optimize future CBIM implementation and sustainability. Semi-structured interviews with coaches (n = 36) explored the implementers' perspectives on strategies that worked well and potential barriers to program implementation. Ten focus groups with male athletes (n = 39) assessed their experiences with CBIM and the suitability of having their coaches deliver this program. Coaches described using the CBIM training cards and integrating program delivery during practice. Athletes reported coaches routinely delivering the CBIM program and adding their own personal stories or examples to the discussions. Key facilitators to program implementation include support from the violence prevention advocate, the ease of integrating CBIM into the sports season, and using the program materials. Barriers to implementation included finding sufficient time for the program, dynamics of delivering sensitive program content, and participant constraints. Coaches and athletes alike found the program feasible and acceptable to implement within the sports setting. Both coaches and athletes offered insights on the implementation and the feasibility and acceptability of CBIM within school-based athletic programs. These experiences by
This paper explores the dynamics of health and health care in Cuba during a period of severe crisis by placing it within its economic, social, and political context using a comparative historical approach. It outlines Cuban achievements in health care as a consequence of the socialist transformations since 1959, noting the full commitment by the Cuban state, the planned economy, mass participation, and a self-critical, working class perspective as crucial factors. The roles of two external factors, the U.S. economic embargo and the Council of Mutual Economic Cooperation (CMEA), are explored in shaping the Cuban society and economy, including its health care system. It is argued that the former has hindered health efforts in Cuba. The role of the latter is more complex. While the CMEA was an important source for economic growth, Cuban relations with the Soviet bloc had a damaging effect on the development of socialism in Cuba. The adoption of the Soviet model of economic development fostered bureaucracy and demoralization of Cuban workers. As such, it contributed to two internal factors that have undermined further social progress including in health care: low productivity of labor and the growth of bureaucracy. While the health care system is still consistently supported by public policy and its structure is sound, economic crisis undermines its material and moral foundations and threatens its achievements. The future of the current Cuban health care system is intertwined with the potentials for its socialist development.
Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering
The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.
Perry, C L; Sellers, D E; Johnson, C; Pedersen, S; Bachman, K J; Parcel, G S; Stone, E J; Luepker, R V; Wu, M; Nader, P R; Cook, K
The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) was the largest school-based field trial ever sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. The trial demonstrated positive changes in the school food service and physical education program, as well as in students' cardiovascular health behaviors. Because the CATCH intervention programs were implemented in 56 schools (in four states) that were typical of schools throughout the United States, their reception by schools and degree of implementation provide evidence about their feasibility for schools nationally. Extensive process evaluation data were collected from students, teachers, school food service personnel, and physical education specialists throughout the three school years of the CATCH intervention. Four of the CATCH programs--school food service, physical education, classroom curricula, and home programs--were assessed over the three school years. The process data provide information on participation, dose, fidelity, and compatibility of the CATCH programs in the intervention schools for these programs. High levels of participation, dose, fidelity, and compatibility were observed for the four programs during the 3 school years. CATCH emerges as a model of a feasible multilevel health promotion program to improve eating and exercise behaviors for elementary schools in the United States.
Samuels, Sarah E; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Clark, Sarah E; Kao, Janice; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jay; Crawford, Patricia B
To determine extent and factors associated with implementation of California's school nutrition standards 1 year after standards became active. Information on competitive foods and beverages available in schools was collected from a representative sample of 56 public high schools in California. Adherence to nutrition standards was calculated for each item and summarized for each school by venue. The association between schools' sociodemographic characteristics and adherence to standards was determined by multivariate analysis. The majority of schools were adhering to the required beverage standards. None of the schools selling competitive foods were 100% adherent to the food standards. Adherence to both standards tended to be highest in food service venues. In univariate analyses, percent nonwhite enrollment, population density, percent free/reduced-price (FRP) meal eligibility, and school size were significantly correlated with the beverage adherence rate. Percent nonwhite enrollment and population density remained significant in the multivariate regression model. Percent nonwhite enrollment and percent FRP meal eligibility were significantly correlated with the food adherence rate in univariate analysis, but neither remained significant in the multiple regression model. California high schools are making progress toward implementation of the state nutrition standards. Beverage standards appear easier to achieve than nutrient-based food standards. Additional support is needed to provide schools with resources to implement and monitor these policies. Simpler standards and/or a reduction in the foods and beverages sold could better enable schools to achieve and monitor adherence.
Full Text Available Abstract: This study is a part of a bigger study investigating teachers’ personal theories (beliefs regarding English teaching and learning. Involving forty-two English teachers of fifteen Junior High Schools in the city of Sukabumi, West Java, this cross-sectional survey study used data gained from an open-ended questionnaire. A total of 3696 raw data items were gathered and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Relevant findings regarding the implementation of the curriculum in the daily process of English teaching and learning show that there are gaps between the mandated curriculum as stipulated by the government and the implemented curriculum at the classroom level. This departure from the mandated curriculum, in turn, diverts the course of curriculum implementation and leads to a level of accomplishment of the main goals of the English teaching and learning, which is different from what is stated in the mandated curriculum.
Höttecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino
Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order to better understand this problem, an analysis of the obstacles of implementing HPS into classrooms was undertaken. The obstacles taken into account were structured in four groups: 1. culture of teaching physics, 2. teachers' skills, epistemological and didactical attitudes and beliefs, 3. institutional framework of science teaching, and 4. textbooks as fundamental didactical support. Implications for more effective implementation of HPS are presented, taking the social nature of educational systems into account.
Full Text Available The Ontario Ministry of Education has declared a commitment to Indigenous student success and has advanced a policy framework that articulates inclusion of Indigenous content in schooling curriculum (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2007. What are the perceptions among educators and parents regarding the implementation of policy directives, and what is seen to encourage or limit meaningful implementation? To answer these questions, this article draws on interviews with 100 Indigenous (mainly Haudenosaunee, Anishinaabe, and Métis and non-Indigenous parents and educators from Ontario Canada. Policy directives are seen to benefit Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. Interviews also reveal challenges to implementing Indigenous curricular policy, such as unawareness and intimidation among non-Indigenous educators regarding how to teach material. Policy implications are considered.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the model of the “flipped classroom” as a complementary method to school distance education in junior high school Biology. The “flipped classroom” model attempts a different way of organizing the educational process according to which the traditional methods of learning at school and studying at home are interchanged, the learners’ active involvement is supported, their autonomy is reinforced, ICT is utilized and learning occurs partially by distance (blended learning. We performed an action research implementing flipped classroom in Biology teaching in a class of 17 students attending the1st year of junior high school. The educational platform used was the Learning Activity Management System (LAMS. The findings were evaluated qualitative rather than quantitative, and can provide evidence about the prevailing situation. During the action research, it became evident that time management in the classroom was improved. Furthermore, it was observed that students’ involvement in the educational process was also improved. Students had already familiarized themselves with the cognitive aspect of the lesson before entering the class and they considered the learning process as an individual affair which does not only depend on the teacher. The implementation of digital activities accomplished by distance led to taking action and initiative and finally to active learning. School distance education combined with the radical development of ICT can be complementary with the use of various methods, like the “flipped learning”, and give a new perspective and potential to the limited choices of conventional education in the Greek educational system which is worth further investigation.
Purpose: School health promotion is said to be most effective when implemented through a comprehensive, settings-based, whole-school approach. The purpose of this paper is to address the current lack of knowledge about the current state of teacher education for health promotion and its potential to further the development of settings-based…
Perilaku mencuci tangan dengan sabun di Indonesia masih menjadi masalah. Penyebabnya dikaitkan dengan kurangnya kesadaran dalam mencuci tangan pakai sabun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberdayaan komunitas sekolah terhadap penerapan mencuci tangan di kalangan siswa sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Dayeuhkolot, Kabupaten Bandung. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain quasi eksperimental dengan pretest dan posttest serta melakukan analisis deskriptif dan inferensial. Sampel terdiri dari 24 guru, 377 siswa di kelas 4-6, dan 24 dokter kecil. Metode pendekatan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan usaha kesehatan sekolah terpadu (gabungan model fit for school dan UKS terpilih, yang terdiri dari enam tahap. Instrumen terdiri dari kuesioner pengetahuan, lembar observasi, dan lembar checklist. Cuci tangan pakai sabun dievaluasi selama tiga bulan. Hasil menemukan bahwa terdapat skor meningkat dalam kategori baik untuk keterampilan cuci tangan pakai sabun guru dari 12,5% menjadi 100%, skor dokter kecil dalam kategori baik meningkat pada keterampilan cuci tangan pakai sabun dari 0% sampai 100%, keterampilan dari cuci tangan pakai sabun pada siswa meningkat dalam kategori baik dari 0% menjadi 87,5%. Pemberdayaan komunitas sekolah memengaruhi perilaku mencuci tangan di kalangan siswa SD.
Agolory, Simon G.; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily
Introduction Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. Methods From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Results Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (peffects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs. PMID:23341877
Agolory, Simon G; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily
Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (pschool system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.
Nguyen, Kim A; de Villiers, Anniza; Fourie, Jean M; Bourne, Lesley T; Hendricks, Michael K
To explore the perceptions of educators from the Western Cape Province about the feasibility of implementing South African food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) in the national curriculum of primary schools. Combined quantitative and qualitative methods. We report on the quantitative component. Twelve public primary schools of different socio-economic status in three education districts of the Western Cape: Metro Central, Metro East and Cape Winelands. Educators (n 256) participated in the self-completed questionnaire survey. Educators assessed that FBDG were appropriate to South African schoolchildren (94%), could be used as an education tool (97%) and fill gaps in the current curriculum about healthy dietary habits (91%). Besides Life Orientation, FBDG could be taught in other learning areas from grades 3 to 7 (9-13 years old). Important barriers to implementing FBDG in the curriculum were educators' workload (61%), insufficient time (46%), learners' disadvantaged background (43%) and educators' lack of knowledge (33%). Other approaches to teach children about FBDG included linking these to the National School Nutrition Programme (82%), school tuck shops (79%), parent meetings (75%), school nutrition policy (73%) and school assembly (57%). Educators in high-income schools perceived that learners' lifestyle was significantly worse (P school assembly were the best means to teach pupils about FBDG (P school curriculum is seen as important together with optimizing the school physical environment. Key factors required for successful implementation in the curriculum are sufficient educational materials, adequate time allocation and appropriate educator training.
Full Text Available The motivation of sports occupies an even more important role than actually performing physical activities. The Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic ensures the implementation of several compulsory elective sports courses through different stages of educational institutions. We were curious how these courses - especially school in nature - act upon vacations in adulthood. By examining curricular documents and implementing questionnaire methods – applying ,,Vacation practice questionnaire” - we questioned the Hungarian language speakers of southern Slovakia n = 2965. The data were processed using the statistic program SPSS 17. 84.5 % (p < 0.01, of the canvassed took part in school in nature, from which 65,8 % (p < 0.01, rated the time spent there as positive. Amongst the positively valuing 44,2 % indicated the mountains as a favourite and frequently chosen travel destination. 25 % spends more than four hours hiking. We may say that organizing schools in nature has to be considered as an important event (5-7 days, where the students have fun, wherefore they will choose mountains as their travel destination more frequently, which results in higher physical activity. Listed partial discoveries are included in the grant: VEGA no. 1/0376/14 Physical activity intervention for the prevention of health of the population of Slovakia.
The "Lysenko affair", which lasted roughly from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s, was the big scandal of 20th-century science: a classic example of how politics can corrupt and undermine its rational basis. Under Stalin's leadership the Soviet Government suppressed genuine genetics and other sound biology, with devastating consequences for agriculture and health. The worst example of this occurred in August 1948 when the Politburo outlawed the teaching of and research into classical Mendelian genetics. There is broad agreement that this case offers a stark warning against politicians interfering with science. But what, precisely, is this interference that we are being warned about? Whereas the fate of genetics in Soviet Russia was a clear-cut example of direct suppression, there were also other less obvious ways in which politics subverted the scientific process. This indirect interference with science is a persistent feature of modern politics that we need to be on the lookout for.
Sugiarti, Y.; Nurmayani, S.; Mujdalipah, S.
Waste treatment is one of the productive subjects in vocational high school in programs of Agricultural Processing Technology which is one of the objectives learning has been assigned in graduate competency standards (SKL) of Vocational High School. Based on case studies that have been conducted in SMK Pertanian Pembangunan Negeri Lembang, waste treatment subjects had still use the lecture method or conventional method, and students are less enthusiastic in learning process. Therefore, the implementation of more interactive learning models such as blended learning with Edmodo is one of alternative models to resolve the issue. So, the purpose of this study is to formulate the appropriate learning syntax for the implementation of blended learning with Edmodo to agree the requirement characteristics of students and waste treatment subject and explain the learning outcome obtained by students in the cognitive aspects on the subjects of waste treatment. This research was conducted by the method of classroom action research (CAR) with a Mc. Tagart model. The result from this research is the implementation of blended learning with Edmodo on the subjects of waste treatment can improve student learning outcomes in the cognitive aspects with the maximum increase in the value of N-gain 0.82, as well as student learning completeness criteria reaching 100% on cycle 2. Based on the condition of subject research the formulation of appropriate learning syntax for implementation of blended learning model with Edmodo on waste treatment subject are 1) Self-paced learning, 2) Group networking, 3) Live Event- collaboration, 4) Association - communication, 5) Assessment - Performance material support. In summary, implementation of blended learning model with Edmodo on waste treatment subject can improve improve student learning outcomes in the cognitive aspects and conducted in five steps on syntax.
Lorenz, Jan; Rauhut, Heiko; Schweitzer, Frank; Helbing, Dirk
Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently supported by examples from stock markets, political elections, and quiz shows [Surowiecki J (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds]. In contrast, we demonstrate by experimental evidence (N = 144) that even mild social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect in simple estimation tasks. In the experiment, subjects could reconsider their response to factual questions after having received average or full information of the responses of other subjects. We compare subjects’ convergence of estimates and improvements in accuracy over five consecutive estimation periods with a control condition, in which no information about others’ responses was provided. Although groups are initially “wise,” knowledge about estimates of others narrows the diversity of opinions to such an extent that it undermines the wisdom of crowd effect in three different ways. The “social influence effect” diminishes the diversity of the crowd without improvements of its collective error. The “range reduction effect” moves the position of the truth to peripheral regions of the range of estimates so that the crowd becomes less reliable in providing expertise for external observers. The “confidence effect” boosts individuals’ confidence after convergence of their estimates despite lack of improved accuracy. Examples of the revealed mechanism range from misled elites to the recent global financial crisis. PMID:21576485
Kostadinova, B.; Boyanova, L.; Tsakovski, S.; Pavlova, P.
The paper presents the results of a didactic investigation within the period 1998-2000 carried out at the Chair of Chemistry Didactics at Sofia University 'St. Kliment Ohridski'. The proposed system, which includes a program, supplied with appropriate literature, visualization aids and control tools was approbated in three variants, as follows: Elective training; Presentation of seminars or discussion lessons; Inclusion of several topics in the existing physics educational section 'From Atoms to Space', which is enough to provide substantial radioecological information corresponding to the amount planned in the 'Radiation and Man' educational program. The project was carried out at two secondary schools: 'Vassil Levski' in Velingrad and 'Yane Sandanski' in Sandanski. These schools were chosen mainly because of their location - outside the city of Sofia and far from the 30 km zone around the Kozloduy NPP. The project implementation started in the middle of the 2001/2002 school year second term and ended before the end of the term. The current paper summarizes results from teaching of the elective course to secondary school students (10 th grade). Questionnaires and results evaluation scheme are worked out. The data are treated by correlation and cluster analysis
Sterdt, E; Liersch, S; Henze, V; Röbl, M; Suermann, T; Krauth, C; Walter, U
The objective was to determine to what extent daily physical education can be implemented in primary schools, what barriers exist and how to overcome the mentioned barriers. Moreover, it was analysed to what extent daily physical education is accepted by teachers, external trainers, parents and students. Semi-structured interviews with parents (n=7), teachers (n=5) and external trainers (n=6) of the intervention schools. The intervention students (n=44) were surveyed within focus groups. All surveyed groups appraised the implementation of daily school sports as successful. The cooperation between the schools and the sports club should be maintained during a comprehensive implementation of daily physical education. Besides an improved lessons quality teachers and external trainers reported an improved social behaviour of the children. Parents perceived positive effects on the child development. All groups believe that daily physical education increases the enjoyment of children in sports. As a certain barrier a lack of resources (e. g., facilities, equipment, financial resources) in the schools were mentioned. The cooperation between the schools and the sports club proved to be an applicable model to implement daily physical education. The combination of teachers and external trainers can contribute to a higher lesson quality. Considering the perceived potentials of daily physical education by all surveyed groups, a comprehensive implementation of systematic daily physical activity promotion in the primary school setting should be tapped more strongly in future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
FOSTER, GARRETT R.
A SERIES OF THREE CONFERENCES WAS HELD TO EXPLORE THE FEASIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTING A LONG-RANGE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR AN UNGRADED, K-12 SCHOOL, BASED ON RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE CAMBRIDGE CONFERENCE ON SCHOOL MATHEMATICS. OVER 50 MATHEMATICIANS, MATHEMATICS EDUCATORS, AND PERSONS INVOLVED IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED PSYCHOLOGICAL…
Kehm, Rebecca; Davey, Cynthia S.; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Background: Although there are several evidence-based recommendations directed at improving nutrition and physical activity standards in schools, these guidelines have not been uniformly adopted throughout the United States. Consequently, research is needed to identify facilitators promoting schools to implement these recommendations. Therefore,…
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…
This paper examines the trial implementation of the Australian Curriculum in a remote Aboriginal school. It was a school that at the time was beginning to achieve successes with the development of dual-knowledge, transformational outcomes based curriculum that had its justification in the Northern Territory Curriculum Framework. Drawing on the…
Durand, Francesca T.; Lawson, Hal A.; Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Schiller, Kathryn S.
Purpose: This multiple case study investigated district leaders' orientations and strategies as their elementary schools proceeded with state-mandated implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). We identified differences between schools achieving above-predicted outcomes on state CCSS assessments ("odds-beaters") and…
Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.
Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…
Velten, Justin; Mokhtari, Kouider
In this brief report, we share three challenges we encountered when designing and implementing an after school intervention program for an ethnically diverse group of middle grade underachieving readers. We also offer practical solutions to help guide middle school teams in anticipating and addressing potential problems when putting in place…
Bergman, Jacqueline J; Briggs, Marilyn M; Beall, Deborah L; Curwood, Sandy; Gray, Pilar; Soiseth, Scott; Taylor, Rodney K; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
A statewide professional development program was developed and implemented throughout California for school nutrition directors with the goal of creating healthy school environments and regional networks for collaboration and healthy school environment sustainability. Needs of school nutrition directors were identified through a needs assessment questionnaire. Results of the needs assessment questionnaire (n = 256) identified (a) planning cost-effective menus; (b) reducing calories, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat in menus; and (c) using U.S. Department of Agriculture foods cost-effectively as the most useful topics. Highest rated topics informed the content of the professional development program. A post-professional development questionnaire identified key "insights, inspirations, and strategies" as (a) marketing of school foods program, (b) expansion of salad bars, and (c) collaboration with community partners. A 6-month follow-up questionnaire identified that 86% of participants made progress toward implementing at least one of their five insights, inspirations, and strategies in their school districts. Most common areas that were implemented were marketing and branding (32%), revamping salad bars (18%), and motivating staff (16%). School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey analysis showed a significant increase in the use of marketing methods in school nutrition programs from baseline to 6-month post-program implementation (p = .024). © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Olsson, D.; Gericke, N.; Chang Rundgren, S.-N.
During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to…
Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Mirembe, Angel; Nakuti, Janet; Namy, Sophie; Child, Jennifer C; Sturgess, Joanna; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Walakira, Eddy J; Elbourne, Diana; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
The Good School Toolkit, a complex behavioural intervention designed by Raising Voices a Ugandan NGO, reduced past week physical violence from school staff to primary students by an average of 42% in a recent randomised controlled trial. This process evaluation quantitatively examines what was implemented across the twenty-one intervention schools, variations in school prevalence of violence after the intervention, factors that influence exposure to the intervention and factors associated with students' experience of physical violence from staff at study endline. Implementation measures were captured prospectively in the twenty-one intervention schools over four school terms from 2012 to 2014 and Toolkit exposure captured in the student (n = 1921) and staff (n = 286) endline cross-sectional surveys in 2014. Implementation measures and the prevalence of violence are summarised across schools and are assessed for correlation using Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. Regression models are used to explore individual factors associated with Toolkit exposure and with physical violence at endline. School prevalence of past week physical violence from staff against students ranged from 7% to 65% across schools at endline. Schools with higher mean levels of teacher Toolkit exposure had larger decreases in violence during the study. Students in schools categorised as implementing a 'low' number of program school-led activities reported less exposure to the Toolkit. Higher student Toolkit exposure was associated with decreased odds of experiencing physical violence from staff (OR: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.67-0.86, p-valueEffectiveness of the Toolkit may be increased by further targeting and supporting teachers' engagement with girls and students with mental health difficulties. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov , NCT01678846, August 24th 2012.
Pagnotta, Kelly D; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Burton, Laura J; Casa, Douglas J
Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Qualitative study. High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies, this information could serve as a valuable resource for athletic trainers in other states and for future health and safety initiatives.
Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Burton, Laura J.; Casa, Douglas J.
Context: Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. Objective: To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Patients or Other Participants: Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. Data Collection and Analysis: All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Results: Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. Conclusions: The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies
This study examines the potential structural impediments to the reform movement of Project Based Learning (PBL) that are presented to teachers by the inherent nature of the school system, as well as the ways in which teachers address these systemic barriers when attempting to implement PBL in their classrooms. Much of the current research that is aimed at investigating the transition from traditional teacher-centered learning to student-centered PBL---whether PBL as problem based or project based learning---has focused on the transition issues at the level of individual teacher/student. Systemic barriers, on the other hand, are those features that are inherent to the structure of the system, and that pose---by their very nature---physical and/or political circumstances that are inconsistent with the student-centered and collaborative goals of PBL. It is not enough for teachers, parents, students, and administrators to be philosophically aligned with PBL, if the encompassing school system is structurally incompatible with the method. This study attempts to make the structural impediments to PBL explicit, to determine whether or not the existing school system is amenable to the successful implementation of PBL. Because the universal features of PBL coupled with the ubiquity of factory-model schools is likely to create recurring themes, it is plausible that this study may in fact be analytically generalizable to situations beyond those described by the populations and contexts in this set of purposive, multiple cases. One of the themes that emerged from this study was the role of rural poverty as an underlying cause of student apathy. More research may be needed to see whether science, as taught through PBL and in collaboration with practical arts courses, might be able to address some of the social, gendered, and educational needs of impoverished rural students and their families.
Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.
Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations
Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager
Aim: Physical activity (PA) holds important health benefits for children and youth on reducing the risk of obesity, non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type-II-diabetes, and on increasing children’s well-being, academic achievement, cognition etc. In August 2014 a reform...... as the overall methodical approach. Various factors for implementation of physical activity interventions in a school setting were identified using a scoping review of the scientific literature and by exploring grey literature. Using a snowball sampling method, a group of experts (organizations, municipalities...
Multivariable control allows controller designs that can provide decoupled command tracking and robust performance in the presence of modeling uncertainties. Although the last two decades have seen extensive development of multivariable control theory and example applications to complex systems in software/hardware simulations, there are no production flying systems aircraft or spacecraft, that use multivariable control. This is because of the tremendous challenges associated with implementation of such multivariable control designs. Unfortunately, the curriculum in schools does not provide sufficient time to be able to provide an exposure to the students in such implementation challenges. The objective of this paper is to share the lessons learned by a practitioner of multivariable control in the process of applying some of the modern control theory to the Integrated Flight Propulsion Control (IFPC) design for an advanced Short Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft simulation.
Setiawan, Wawan; Munir, Senen, Syamsul Hadi; Nugroho, Eddy Prasetyo; Wihardi, Yaya; Nugraha, Eki
Indonesia strengthening school management through the implementation of School Management System Based Information Technology and Communications (SMS-ICT) is intended to improve the performance of schools to accommodate the complexities of management in a computerized system that is simple but comprehensive so that it aligns with the era of the 21st century. School Management System Based Information and Communication Technology-based standards developed 12 education, adapted from 8 national standards into the system components that support the characteristics of 21st century schools. Twelfth system components include curriculum, Personal Development, Recruitment of New Student Services and Student Development, Education Labor and Education, Infrastructure, Leadership, School Management, Financing, Evaluation, and Social Communications. Development of the system is done through the stages of systematically covering Need Assessment, System Design, System Development, Testing Limited, Reveiw and Improvement, Testing Expanded, Finalize, and Packaging. SMS-ICT has gained Copyright and had seminars both nationally and internationally, and have been published by national journals, and in a book chapter. SMS-ICT applied to several schools in districy/city of West Java is based on cooperation with the Education Department of West Java. Implementation of School Management System as strengthening school management Indonesia shows the essential matters of school management. SMS-ICT managed to bring changes not only bring substantial improvements to the school how it should be managed, but also change the mindset of school leaders and teachers in ways of thinking and acting more professional in carrying out their respective duties. SMS-ICT managed as a unified system of governance that is integrated schools overall strategic component in an integrated system that implements ICT that has the capacity to process data and information quickly, accurately and reliably. SMS-ICT as a
Kate E. Storey
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive School Health (CSH is an internationally recognized framework that holistically addresses school health by transforming the school culture. It has been shown to be effective in enhancing health behaviours among students while also improving educational outcomes. Despite this effectiveness, there is a need to focus on how CSH is implemented. Previous studies have attempted to uncover the conditions necessary for successful operationalization, but none have described them in relation to a proven best practice model of implementation that has demonstrated positive changes to school culture and improvements in health behaviours. Methods The purpose of this research was to identify the essential conditions of CSH implementation utilizing secondary analysis of qualitative interview data, incorporating a multitude of stakeholder perspectives. This included inductive content analysis of teacher (n = 45, principal (n = 46, and school health facilitator (n = 34 viewpoints, all of whom were employed within successful CSH project schools in Alberta, Canada between 2008 and 2013. Results Many themes were identified, here called conditions, that were divided into two categories: ‘core conditions’ (students as change agents, school-specific autonomy, demonstrated administrative leadership, dedicated champion to engage school staff, community support, evidence, professional development and ‘contextual conditions’ (time, funding and project supports, readiness and prior community connectivity. Core conditions were defined as those conditions necessary for CSH to be successfully implemented, whereas contextual conditions had a great degree of influence on the ability for the core conditions to be obtained. Together, and in consideration of already established ‘process conditions’ developed by APPLE Schools (assess, vision, prioritize; develop and implement an action plan; monitor, evaluate, celebrate
Martins, Meghan G.
This research developed a survey that measures the degree to which challenges are experienced by school and district leaders, and teachers, when attempting to implement legislatively required District Improvement Plans (DIPs). The data indicate that there are certainly challenges when implementing DIPs and that teachers report experiencing a…
Baskin, Monica L.; Zunker, Christie; Worley, Courtney B.; Dial, Brenda; Kimbrough, Linda
Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the design, implementation, and lessons learned from an obesity prevention pilot program delivered in a low resource school in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A planned program evaluation was conducted to: document explicitly the process of designing and implementing the program; and assess the…
In January of 2002, President George Bush implemented the No Child left behind act that required all students to be proficient on state standards by the year 2014. One way a school district in Oklahoma met these new requirements was through the implementation of the principles of a Professional Learning Community. This case study was designed…
Jerotich, Florah; Kurgat, Susan J.; Kimutai, Chris K.
The main purpose of this paper was to assess teacher preparedness in the implementation of the integrated Business Studies curriculum in public secondary schools in Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to: find out the level of preservice training of the Business Studies teachers implementing the integrated Business Studies curriculum and to find…
van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; Hoekstra, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.
This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators:
van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S; Hoekstra, T.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M
This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators:
Darlington, Emily Joan; Violon, Nolwenn; Jourdan, Didier
Implementing complex and multi-level public health programmes is challenging in school settings. Discrepancies between expected and actual programme outcomes are often reported. Such discrepancies are due to complex interactions between contextual factors. Contextual factors relate to the setting, the community, in which implementation occurs, the stakeholders involved, and the characteristics of the programme itself. This work uses realist evaluation to understand how contextual factors influence the implementation process, to result in variable programme outcomes. This study focuses on identifying contextual factors, pinpointing combinations of contextual factors, and understanding interactions and effects of such factors and combinations on programme outcomes on different levels of the implementation process. Schools which had participated in a school-based health promotion programme between 2012 and 2015 were included. Two sets of qualitative data were collected: semi-structured interviews with school staff and programme coordinators; and written documents about the actions implemented in a selection of four schools. Quantitative data included 1553 questionnaires targeting pupils aged 8 to 11 in 14 schools to describe the different school contexts. The comparison between what was expected from the programme (programme theory) and the outcomes identified in the field data, showed that some of the mechanisms expected to support the implementation of the programme, did not operate as anticipated (e.g. inclusion of training, initiation by decision-maker). Key factors which influenced the implementation process included, amongst other factors, the mode of introduction of the programme, home/school relationship, leadership of the management team, and the level of delegated power. Five types of interactions between contextual factors were put forward: enabling, hindering, neutral, counterbalancing and moderating effects. Recurrent combinations of factors were
Jones, Mark Thomas
Implementation of guided inquiry teaching for the first time carries inherent problems for science teachers. Reform efforts on inquiry-based science teaching are often unsustainable and are not sensitive to teachers' needs and abilities as professionals. Professional development schools are meant to provide a research-based partnership between a public school and a university. These collaborations can provide support for the professional development of teachers. This dissertation reports a study focused on the implementation of inquiry-based science kits within the support of one of these collaborations. The researcher describes the difficulties and successful adaptations experienced by science teachers and how a coteaching model provided support. These types of data are needed in order to develop a bottom-up, sustainable process that will allow teachers to implement inquiry-based science. A qualitative methodology with "researcher as participant" was used in this study of two science teachers during 2002--2003. These two teachers were supported by a coteaching model, which included preservice teachers for each teacher as well as a supervising professor. Data were collected from the researcher's direct observations of coteachers' practice. Data were also collected from interviews and reflective pieces from the coteachers. Triangulation of the data on each teacher's case supported the validity of the findings. Case reports were prepared from these data for each classroom teacher. These case reports were used and cross-case analysis was conducted to search for major themes and findings in the study. Major findings described the hurdles teachers encounter, examples of adaptations observed in the teachers' cases and the supportive interactions with their coteachers while implementing the inquiry-based kits. In addition, the data were used to make recommendations for future training and use of the kits and the coteaching model. Results from this study showed that the
Full Text Available In the Information Age, faculty and staff in large institutions and schools make transformative changes slowly. The implementation of technology as a tool for communication and in classroom integration for instruction is also slow for many educators. However, today there is an urgency to bring the most recent technology systems, applications, and strategies into the educational organization, creating an environment that requires knowledgeable leaders to manage the rapid change. With resistance just a parking lot whisper away, leaders must orchestrate the right amount of stress to create a need in the staff to constantly evolve to a new level of technology implementation. The five positive stress inducing strategies for change, first introduced by DeVore in 1994 , have proven to be used by highly effective leaders from elementary schools through college. With leaders trained in these key strategies, the likelihood of faculty and staff commitment to the needed changes in technology integration is greatly increased. Leaders can’t wait for the experienced employee to consider using technology as a tool; even elementary students race past the limited and readily outdated technology skills of most teachers. Leaders must create the positive stressors to initiate change for technology in their organizations now.
Wee Eng Hoe
Full Text Available This study evaluated a new sport science curriculum in Malaysian secondary schools. Four implementation dimensions (‘teaching ability’, ‘administration of sport science programme’, ‘teaching duty allocation’ and ‘non-human factors’ were examined. 135 schools and 94 teachers were surveyed. 81% teachers were male and 85% were under 40. About half of the respondents were trained in sport science and had 1-2 years teaching experience. Over 90% of teachers perceived they have knowledge to teach and can manage students. However, 80% felt they need more exposure and training. Male teachers were better than female teachers in managing students and conducting activities/experiments. Experienced teachers were better in conducting activities and experiments. Teachers majoring in sport science were more knowledgeable while PE majors found teaching sport science challenging. Most teachers perceived that teaching facilities, financial allocation and reference resources were inadequate. Majority of the administrators consulted teachers before assigning teaching load but failed to observe teaching. This research provides invaluable feedbacks on the implementation of the programme.
Khan, Rubina Samer
This was an interpretive qualitative study that focused on how three elementary school science teachers from three different public schools perceived and implemented the National Science Education Standards based on the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol and individual interviews with the teachers. This study provided an understanding of the standards movement and teacher change in the process. Science teachers who were experienced with the National Science Education Standards were selected as the subjects of the study. Grounded in the theory of teacher change, this study's phenomenological premise was that the extent to which a new reform has an effect on students' learning and achievement on standardized tests depends on the content a teacher teaches as well as the style of teaching. It was therefore necessary to explore how teachers understand and implement the standards in the classrooms. The surveys, interviews and observations provided rich data from teachers' intentions, reflections and actions on the lessons that were observed while also providing the broader contextual framework for the understanding of the teachers' perspectives.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test studentsÃ¢Â€Â™ knowledge of cardiovascular disease information and to determine if a carefully structured training program administered to high school students would increase their knowledge about cardiovascular disease and risk factors that are preventable. A pilot study was conducted during which fifty high school students from nine counties in the State of Mississippi were measured for their knowledge of hypertension both at baseline and after the completion of an intervention training activity. There were significant gains in knowledge between the pre-test and the post-test that the students completed. The gains in knowledge indicate that elimination of risk factors is possible if all health care and school-based prevention programs are implemented to positively impact changes in eating and physical activity behaviors. StudentsÃ¢Â€Â™ involvement in such activities could translate into significant changes in risk factors at these ages and throughout their lifetime. It is widely accepted that these behavioral changes, if sustained into adulthood, could have the potential to influence cardiovascular risk reduction.
The aims of the research were: (1) To know the students' achievement in Dress Making Teaching by implementing Integrated Entrepreneur Material in Vocational High School, (2) The level of increasing of students' achievement in Dress Making Teaching by integrating Entrepreneurship Material in Vocational High School. By using experimental method this research was conducted in Magelang Vocational High School and applied pre-test post-test design. The samples in this research was XI grade of Fashion Technology Study Program. Observation sheet and documentation were used in this research as instruments. Data analyzed by using descriptive analyze and gain score. The result, there were: (1) students' achievement in Dress Making Teaching was high 88.6 and (2) the increasing of students' achievement was 0.61 it was medium category. The suggestion were: Integrated Entrepreneurship material can be applied in another subject matter, such as Men Wear, Tailoring, Children Wear, and The students who want to be a good entrepreneur, have to drill their skill in making dresses, and know about excellent service to the clients, marketing and make clients satisfaction.
Zammitt, Kimberly A; Pepperell, Jennifer; Coe, Megan
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students experience ongoing bullying, harassment, and lack of safety in school. Specialized instructional support personnel (SISPs), such as school counselors, school social workers, and school psychologists, are in a unique position to advocate for LGB students and to implement an ally development model. The purpose of this article is to describe the current climate for LGB students, to discuss the current barriers facing SISPs in advocating for change, and to provide a model of ally development for use at each level of the K-12 system.
Mann, Georgianna; Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena
The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.5%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (62.2%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply.
van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje; de Waal, Esri; Kok, Gerjo
Schools are a common setting for adolescents to receive health education, but implementation of these programs with high levels of completeness and fidelity is not self-evident. Programs that are only partially implemented (completeness) or not implemented as instructed (fidelity) are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it is important to identify which determinants affect completeness and fidelity of program implementation. As part of the launch of Long Live Love+ (LLL+), an online school-based sexuality education program for adolescents aged 15-17, we performed a process evaluation among teachers and students to measure the levels of completeness and fidelity, identify factors influencing teachers' implementation, and to evaluate the students' response. Sixteen Biology teachers from nine secondary schools throughout the Netherlands who implemented LLL+ were interviewed and 60 students participated in 13 focus group discussions. Results showed that teachers' completeness ranged between 22-100% (M = 75%). Fidelity was high, but many teachers added elements. Teachers and students enjoyed LLL+, particularly the diversity in the exercises and its interactive character. The most important factors that influenced implementation were time and organizational constraints, lack of awareness on the impact of completeness and fidelity, and student response. These factors should be taken into account when developing school-based prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rand, David G; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T
The cognitive basis of prosocial behavior has received considerable recent attention. Previous work using economic games has found that in social dilemmas, intuitive decisions are more prosocial on average. The Social Heuristics Hypothesis (SHH) explains this result by contending that strategies which are successful in daily life become automatized as intuitions. Deliberation then causes participants to adjust to the self-interested strategy in the specific setting at hand. Here we provide further evidence for the SHH by confirming several predictions regarding when and for whom time pressure/delay will and will not alter contributions in a Public Goods Game (PGG). First, we replicate and extend previous results showing that (as predicted by the SHH) trust of daily-life interaction partners and previous experience with economic games moderate the effect of time pressure/delay in social dilemmas. We then confirm a novel prediction of the SHH: that deliberation should not undermine the decision to benefit others when doing so is also individually payoff-maximizing. Our results lend further support to the SHH, and shed light on the role that deliberation plays in social dilemmas.
Chad R Wells
Full Text Available Theoretical models of infection spread on networks predict that targeting vaccination at individuals with a very large number of contacts (superspreaders can reduce infection incidence by a significant margin. These models generally assume that superspreaders will always agree to be vaccinated. Hence, they cannot capture unintended consequences such as policy resistance, where the behavioral response induced by a new vaccine policy tends to reduce the expected benefits of the policy. Here, we couple a model of influenza transmission on an empirically-based contact network with a psychologically structured model of influenza vaccinating behavior, where individual vaccinating decisions depend on social learning and past experiences of perceived infections, vaccine complications and vaccine failures. We find that policy resistance almost completely undermines the effectiveness of superspreader strategies: the most commonly explored approaches that target a randomly chosen neighbor of an individual, or that preferentially choose neighbors with many contacts, provide at best a 2% relative improvement over their non-targeted counterpart as compared to 12% when behavioral feedbacks are ignored. Increased vaccine coverage in super spreaders is offset by decreased coverage in non-superspreaders, and superspreaders also have a higher rate of perceived vaccine failures on account of being infected more often. Including incentives for vaccination provides modest improvements in outcomes. We conclude that the design of influenza vaccine strategies involving widespread incentive use and/or targeting of superspreaders should account for policy resistance, and mitigate it whenever possible.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the application of the associative teaching technology at primary school and the peculiarities of its implementation in teaching English to primary schoolchildren. It is found out that the modern primary school student should be able to think creatively, to solve given tasks, find associative links between objects, and be able to intercultural communication. So, a teacher has to master the innovative teaching technologies that optimize and intensify the educational process to forming primary schoolchildren’s abilities of this kind. It is determined that the technology of associative teaching English to primary schoolchildren is one of the most effective technologies because it meets quite new goals and tasks of teaching foreign languages at primary school, age and individual characteristics, needs, and interests of primary schoolchildren. It is shown that the associative teaching technology is based on the principle of harmony with nature and it creates conditions that are close to life situations, makes learning the foreign language accessible and relaxed. Associative teaching a foreign language and its various aspects are performed in accordance with the primary schoolchildren’s individual characteristics. The psychological mechanism is very important in the organization of associative teaching; it is taken into account in teaching children of primary school because human beings think with images and words are sound images that allow you to express what a person sees, feels, and thinks. Associative teaching combines both verbal and non-verbal means of communication. Associative teaching contributes to learning a foreign language based on the child’s real actions in the form of the active actions with items in accordance with the human linguistic programme that defines phased sequence of the language development. An effective method of teaching a foreign language is a method of Mind Mapping, which
Kelly, Michael Patrick
The researcher's purpose in this study was to examine the process used by the Minot Public Schools to adopt and implement a new elementary science program from Silver Burdett Ginn called Discovery Works. Using case study methods within a naturalistic design, the researcher investigated teachers' concerns as they adopted and implemented Discovery Works in their classrooms. Data were gathered using the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) instrument, interviews with adoption committee members, classroom teachers, grade level meetings, and document analysis of field notes related to each phase of the study. Content analysis methods were used to analyze the data. Emergent themes were presented and substantiated in the data, in terms of six research questions that guided this research. The data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to provide a rich, thick description that and enabled the researcher to confirm and triangulate the concerns of teachers in this study. The quantitative data revealed a general nonuser profile by teachers as they implemented Discovery Works. Three major themes of concerns emerged from a qualitative analysis of the data. The first theme was implementation, including issues related to teacher attitudes and inservice needs. The second theme, management issues, had five concerns subsumed within it. These included concerns related to time, materials, storage, reorder, and cooperative groups. The third theme, effects on students, included issues concerning hands-on methods of teaching science, vocabulary, especially at the upper elementary, and assessment issues. Possible solutions to resolve each of the concerns were presented. Major conclusions are that teacher concerns about Discovery Works were normal for any group experiencing a new innovation. Teachers and students enjoyed using the hands-on materials, and that Minot Public Schools has taken a small, but important step forward on the road to science education reform. Although
Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M
To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1-49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. Analisar se características dos dirigentes, das escolas e do currículo escolar estão associadas à implantação de programas de prevenção ao uso de drogas nas escolas do ciclo fundamental II e médio. Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 263 dirigentes escolares. Os dados foram coletados nos anos
Marishane, R. N.
Empowerment, accountability and redress are prime objectives of school funding in the new South Africa. This is facilitated through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding. The application of the norms has led to the development of a "no-fee school" policy aimed at exempting poor parents from payment of school fees. The…
Taherpour, Fatima; Rajaeepour, Saeed; Siadat, Ali; Kazemi, Iraj
Understanding the social undermining is increasing important in organizational literature both because of its relation with job performance and because of its collective cost to individuals and organizations. This article argued that social undermining can effect on co-creation among faculty members. The study adopted a descriptive-correlational…
Eiraldi, Ricardo; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad
Schools have become the main provider of services to children with mental health needs. Although there is substantial literature on barriers to implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in under-resourced school districts, less has been written on how to overcome those barriers. Providing mental health services in the school setting presents a tremendous opportunity to increase access to quality mental health care for underserved youth. This review provides a brief overview of the barriers to successful implementation and sustainment of EBPs in under-resourced public schools and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The discussion is organized around an established conceptual framework adapted for the delivery of services in under-resourced schools that focuses on interdependent factors that exist at the individual-, team, school-, and macro-levels. This manuscript explores some recommendations and strategies for effectively addressing challenges related to implementation of EBPs. Research ideas are offered to bridge the research-to-practice gap that impacts many under-resourced public school districts.
Eiraldi, Ricardo; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad
Schools have become the main provider of services to children with mental health needs. Although there is substantial literature on barriers to implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in under-resourced school districts, less has been written on how to overcome those barriers. Providing mental health services in the school setting presents a tremendous opportunity to increase access to quality mental health care for underserved youth. This review provides a brief overview of the barriers to successful implementation and sustainment of EBPs in under-resourced public schools and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The discussion is organized around an established conceptual framework adapted for the delivery of services in under-resourced schools that focuses on interdependent factors that exist at the individual-, team, school-, and macro-levels. This manuscript explores some recommendations and strategies for effectively addressing challenges related to implementation of EBPs. Research ideas are offered to bridge the research-to-practice gap that impacts many under-resourced public school districts. PMID:26336512
Olajide, O J; Shucksmith, J; Maguire, A; Zohoori, F V
Despite the considerable improvement in oral health of children in the UK over the last forty years, a significant burden of dental caries remains prevalent in some groups of children, indicating the need for more effective oral health promotion intervention (OHPI) strategies in this population. To explore the implementation process of a community-based OHPI, in the North East of England, using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to provide insights on how effectiveness could be maximised. Utilising a generic qualitative research approach, 19 participants were recruited into the study. In-depth interviews were conducted with relevant National Health Service (NHS) staff and primary school teachers while focus group discussions were conducted with reception teachers and teaching assistants. Analyses were conducted using thematic analysis with emergent themes mapped onto NPT constructs. Participants highlighted the benefits of OHPI and the need for evidence in practice. However, implementation of 'best evidence' was hampered by lack of adequate synthesis of evidence from available clinical studies on effectiveness of OHPI as these generally have insufficient information on the dynamics of implementation and how effectiveness obtained in clinical studies could be achieved in 'real life'. This impacted on the decision-making process, levels of commitment, collaboration among OHP teams, resource allocation and evaluation of OHPI. A large gap exists between available research evidence and translation of evidence in OHPI in community settings. Effectiveness of OHPI requires not only an awareness of evidence of clinical effectiveness but also synthesised information about change mechanisms and implementation protocols. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Coleman Karen J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children
Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole K; Sutherland, Rachel; Yoong, Sze Lin; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wyse, Rebecca J; Delaney, Tessa; Grady, Alice; Fielding, Alison; Tzelepis, Flora; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Parmenter, Benjamin; Butler, Peter; Wiggers, John; Bauman, Adrian; Milat, Andrew; Booth, Debbie; Williams, Christopher M
A number of school-based policies or practices have been found to be effective in improving child diet and physical activity, and preventing excessive weight gain, tobacco or harmful alcohol use. Schools, however, frequently fail to implement such evidence-based interventions. The primary aims of the review are to examine the effectiveness of strategies aiming to improve the implementation of school-based policies, programs or practices to address child diet, physical activity, obesity, tobacco or alcohol use.Secondary objectives of the review are to: Examine the effectiveness of implementation strategies on health behaviour (e.g. fruit and vegetable consumption) and anthropometric outcomes (e.g. BMI, weight); describe the impact of such strategies on the knowledge, skills or attitudes of school staff involved in implementing health-promoting policies, programs or practices; describe the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies; and describe any unintended adverse effects of strategies on schools, school staff or children. All electronic databases were searched on 16 July 2017 for studies published up to 31 August 2016. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Embase Classic and Embase; PsycINFO; Education Resource Information Center (ERIC); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Dissertations and Theses; and SCOPUS. We screened reference lists of all included trials for citations of other potentially relevant trials. We handsearched all publications between 2011 and 2016 in two specialty journals (Implementation Science and Journal of Translational Behavioral Medicine) and conducted searches of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/) as well as the US National Institutes of Health registry (https://clinicaltrials.gov). We
Full Text Available Integrating theory and research on persuasion, moralization, and intergroup relations, the present research aims to highlight the far-reaching impact of health-related persuasion on society. I propose that governments’ health-related persuasion leads to the emergence of new social norms, and in particular moral norms. Importantly, moral norms provide strong behavioral imperatives and are seen as binding for group members. This suggests that moralized persuasion has a strong potential to divide society along the lines of citizens who conform to and citizens who deviate from health-related moral norms. Thus, departing from the traditional focus on targets of persuasion, the present research focuses on those holding a moralized view on health and lifestyle. Key aspects of social cohesion as defined by the OECD (2011 have been tested across four studies. The main hypothesis tested is that those conforming to the norm (e.g., non-smokers, normal weight people, people with healthy lifestyles will stigmatize those deviating from the norm (e.g., smokers, overweight people, people with unhealthy lifestyles. Flowing from stigmatization, less inclusion, lower solidarity with and greater endorsement of unequal treatment of those deviating from the moral norm are predicted. Four survey studies (total N = 1568 examining the proposed associations among non-smokers, normal weight people, and employees with healthy lifestyles are presented. The studies provide unanimous support for the hypothesis, with meta-analysis providing further support for the reliability of the findings. Consistent across studies, social cohesion indicators were negatively affected by health moralization through stigmatization of those deviating from health-related moral norms. Findings highlight an under-acknowledged potential of moralized health-related persuasion to divide society, thereby undermining cohesion and the achievement of important societal goals. In the discussion
Crofoot, Margaret Chatham; Gilby, Ian C
In many social animals, group-mates cooperate to defend their range against intrusion by neighboring groups. Because group size tends to be highly variable, such conflicts are often asymmetric. Although numerical superiority is assumed to provide a competitive advantage, small groups can generally defend their ranges, even when greatly outnumbered. The prevailing explanation for this puzzling phenomenon is that individuals in relatively large groups experience a greater temptation to flee from conflicts, in effect leveling the balance of power. Using playback experiments simulating territorial intrusions by wild capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) groups, we show that such a collective action problem does indeed undermine the competitive ability of large groups. Focal capuchins were more likely to run away from territorial intrusions when their group had a numeric advantage; each one-individual increase in relative group size raised the odds of flight by 25%. However, interaction location had a more important impact on individuals' reactions, creating a strong home-field advantage. After controlling for relative group size, the odds that a focal animal fled were 91% lower in experiments that occurred in the center compared with on the edge of its group's range, whereas the odds that it rushed toward the speaker were more than sixfold higher. These location-dependent patterns of defection and cooperation create a competitive advantage for residents over intruders across a wide range of relative group sizes, which may stabilize range boundaries and provide a general explanation for how groups of widely divergent sizes can coexist, even in the face of intense intergroup competition.
Sheridan, Beth A; MacDonald, Douglas A; Donlon, Mark; Kuhn, Beth; McGovern, Katie; Friedman, Harris
Using a sample of 647 Canadian children in kindergarten to Grade 3 (325 boys, 322 girls), the present study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of Skillstreaming (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2003), a widely known social skills program implemented to target the development of four skill sets, i.e., listening, following directions, problem-solving, and knowing when to tell. Results indicated significant postprogram improvements in all skills as well as in ratings of overall prosociality obtained from both classroom teachers and mental health staff, with medium to large effect sizes obtained from teachers' and mental health professionals' ratings, respectively. Additional analyses yielded significant but weak moderator effects of grade and preprogram prosocial functioning for teacher ratings but no consistent moderator effects for children's sex or school location (i.e., urban versus rural) regardless of rater.
Iadarola, Suzannah; Shih, Wendy; Dean, Michelle; Blanch, Erica; Harwood, Robin; Hetherington, Susan; Mandell, David; Kasari, Connie; Smith, Tristram
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public education settings experience difficulties with transitions during classroom routines, which can result in challenging behavior. Single-subject research supports techniques for transitions, but school-based approaches often require resources and training unavailable in low-resource districts, limiting implementation. We developed and evaluated the Schedules, Tools, and Activities for Transitions (STAT) program, a short-term, manualized intervention of behavioral supports to support daily routine transitions for students with ASD (K-5) in underresourced districts. We utilized a multisite, cluster-randomized, group comparison design (immediate treatment versus waitlist) with matched pairs ( n = 150 students, 57 educators). Data indicated (a) no group differences for academic engagement or classroom independence, and (b) an advantage for STAT in reducing challenging behavior and increasing teacher fidelity. Results show preliminary support for an intervention that is feasible and perceived as sustainable in real-world settings.
Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina
Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…
Nurjanah, E.; Adisendjaja, Y. H.; Kusumastuti, M. N.
The learning Integrated Religious value is one of the efforts to increase the motivation of learning and building the student character. This study aims to describe the application of Biology learning integrated religion values in Integrated Islamic School. Research methods used in this research is descriptive. Participants in this study involved the headmaster, headmaster of curriculum, biology teachers, boarding school teachers, the lead of boarding schools, and students. The instruments used are interview, observation and the student questionnaire about learning biology. The results showed that learning in X school consists of two curriculums, there was the curriculum of national education and curriculum of boarding school. The curriculum of national education referred to 2013 curriculum and boarding school curriculum referred to the curriculum of Salafi boarding school (Kitab Kuning). However, in its learning process not delivered integrated. The main obstacle to implementing the learning integrated religious values are 1) the background of general teacher education did not know of any connection between biology subject and subject that are studied in boarding school; 2) schools did not form the teaching team; 3) unavailability of materials integrated religious values.
Full Text Available Many problems that arise in today's society are rooted in the issue of morality as a result of the marginalization of the values of character. To solve this problem, need to be enforced the values of good character on every member of the community, and the proper way is through the educational process, including through education in schools ranging from elementary education to higher education. To find out whether the teachers in elementary schools are ready to take this work, the research conducted to determine the readiness of teachers and the problems associated with its implementation. Through a questionnaire calculated in descriptive percentage on a sample of elementary school teachers who are spread in Semarang, Semarang District and Temanggung, it can be concluded that in teachers’ view it is very important to integrate the learning of characters in the lesson. However, they need guidance /examples to develop learning model with its features, which integrate the values of the characters in the science subject.Banyak persoalan yang timbul di masyarakat dewasa ini berakar pada persoalan moralitas sebagai akibat terpinggirkannya nilai-nilai karakter, Untuk mengatasi persoalan ini, perlu ditegakkan lagi nilai nilai karakter yang baik pada setiap anggota masyarakat, dan cara yang tepat adalah melalui proses pendidikan, di antaranya melalui pendidikan di sekolah mulai dari pendidikan dasar sampai pendidikan tinggi. Untuk mengetahui apakah para guru pada Sekolah Dasar siap mengemban tugas ini, maka diadakan penelitian untuk mengetahui kesiapan para guru dan masalah-masalah yang terkait dengan pelaksanaannya. Melalui angket yang kemudian diolah secara deskriptive persentasi pada sampel guru SD yang tersebar di Kota Semarang, Kabupaten Semarang dan Kabupaten Temanggung, dapat diketahui bahwa para guru menganggap sangat penting untuk mengintegrasikan pembelajaran karakter dalam matapelajaran IPA. Namun demikian mereka membutuhkan bimbingan
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J
Approximately 6500 high school football athletes are treated annually for exertional heat illness (EHI). In 2009, the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)-led Inter-Association Task Force (NATA-IATF) released preseason heat acclimatization guidelines to help athletes become accustomed to environmental factors contributing to EHI. This study examines compliance with NATA-IATF guidelines and related EHI prevention strategies. The study used a cross-sectional survey completed by 1142 certified athletic trainers (AT), which captured compliance with 17 NATA-IATF guidelines and EHI prevention strategies in high school football during the 2011 preseason. On average, AT reported football programs complying with 10.4 NATA-IATF guidelines (SD = 3.2); 29 AT (2.5%) reported compliance with all 17. Guidelines with the lowest compliance were as follows: "Single-practice days consisted of practice no more than three hours in length" (39.7%); and "During days 3-5 of acclimatization, only helmets and shoulder pads should be worn" (39.0%). An average of 7.6 EHI prevention strategies (SD = 2.5) were used. Common EHI prevention strategies were as follows: having ice bags/cooler available (98.5%) and having a policy with written instructions for initiating emergency medical service response (87.8%). Programs in states with mandated guidelines had higher levels of compliance with guidelines and greater prevalence of EHI prevention strategies. A low proportion of surveyed high school football programs fully complied with all 17 NATA-IATF guidelines. However, many EHI prevention strategies were voluntarily implemented. State-level mandated EHI prevention guidelines may increase compliance with recognized best practices recommendations. Ongoing longitudinal monitoring of compliance is also recommended.
E. O. Oleabhiele
Full Text Available This study focused on the extent of implementation of post-economics curriculum in senior secondary schools in Edo state. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research designed used for the study was the descriptive survey. The population for the study were one hundred and twenty-five (125 economics teachers. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of data for the study while the research questions were answered using the mean and standard deviation and the research hypotheses were tested using the t-test statistics at an alpha level of 0.05. The results of the study revealed that the curriculum content of economics are adequate and in line the objective of the nation on vision 20:2020. And that the instructional strategies employed by economics teachers to implement the curriculum content are appropriate as specified by the curriculum. Based on the findings, it is recommended that economics teachers should trained to select a use instructional strategies that are learners centred and that economics teachers should be encouraged to attend seminars, workshops in order to improve their teaching skills
Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert
South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…
Pfiffner, L. J.; Rooney, M.; Haack, L.; Villodas, M.; Delucchi, K.; McBurnett, K.
Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel psychosocial intervention (Collaborative Life Skills, CLS) for primary-school students with ADHD symptoms. CLS is a 12-week program consisting of integrated school, parent, and student treatments delivered by school-based mental health providers. Using a cluster randomized design, CLS was…
Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan
Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…
Waller, Gillian; Finch, Tracy; Giles, Emma L; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. PROSPERO was also searched for similar systematic reviews and a grey literature search of policy documents and relevant material was also conducted. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they were based in a secondary school and focused on the implementation of a tobacco or substance use programme. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were considered for inclusion. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a conceptual framework to identify facilitators and barriers of implementation and to structure the synthesis. Inclusion criteria were met by 15 papers. The included papers were both quantitative and qualitative and focused on a range of tobacco and substance use interventions, delivered by differing providers. Key facilitating factors for implementation were positive organisational climate, adequate training and teacher's and pupil's motivation. Barriers to implementation included heavy workloads, budget cuts and lack of resources or support. Quality appraisal identified papers to be of moderate to weak quality, as papers generally lacked detail. NPT highlighted the need for studies to extend their focus to include reflexive monitoring around appraisal and the evaluation processes of implementing new tobacco or substance use programs. Future research should also focus on employing implementation theory as a tool to facilitate bridging the gap between school health research and practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. Methods A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. PROSPERO was also searched for similar systematic reviews and a grey literature search of policy documents and relevant material was also conducted. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they were based in a secondary school and focused on the implementation of a tobacco or substance use programme. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were considered for inclusion. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT was used as a conceptual framework to identify facilitators and barriers of implementation and to structure the synthesis. Results Inclusion criteria were met by 15 papers. The included papers were both quantitative and qualitative and focused on a range of tobacco and substance use interventions, delivered by differing providers. Key facilitating factors for implementation were positive organisational climate, adequate training and teacher's and pupil’s motivation. Barriers to implementation included heavy workloads, budget cuts and lack of resources or support. Quality appraisal identified papers to be of moderate to weak quality, as papers generally lacked detail. Conclusion NPT highlighted the need for studies to extend their focus to include reflexive monitoring around appraisal and the evaluation processes of implementing new tobacco or substance use programs. Future research should also focus on employing implementation theory as a tool to facilitate bridging the gap between school health research and practice.
Zweifel, Peter; Janus, Katharina
coming from the case studies. As to physicians working in hospital or group practice, the prediction is again that a transition in hospital payment from FFS to PP weakens their ethical orientation. However, this prediction could not be tested because the one hospital study found relates to a transition to P4P, suggesting that this mode of payment may actually enhance medical ethics of healthcare providers working in a hospital or group practice. The claim that moving away from FFS undermines medical ethics is far too sweeping. It can only in part be justified by observed relationships, which even may suggest that a transition to P4P strengthens medical ethics.
Schools have seen an exponential increase in the range of information communication technology (ICT) being utilised for learning and teaching over the past decade, especially with the advent of the internet. What is exciting is not just more technology, but that there are more types of technology which teachers can pick and choose from, based on…
Schutte, Lisette; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Meijer, Suzanne; Paulussen, Theo; van Empelen, Pepijn; Kok, Gerjo
BACKGROUND: The quality of implementation is important to ensure the effectiveness of behavioral change interventions in practice. Implementing such programs with completeness and adherence is not an automatic process and may require additional support. In school settings, the support teachers
Record, Vincent N.
Purpose: The study aimed to define common characteristics of successful school-community partnerships supporting the improvement of academic achievement in public elementary schools. Based on the perceptions of elementary school administrators, this study identified important factors of, barriers to, and benefits of successful school-community…
Mayworm, Ashley M.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Hunnicutt, Kayleigh L.; Schiedel, K. Chris
Restorative justice (RJ) is an alternative approach to school discipline that has been gaining recognition in the public and academic spheres as a way to engage students who misbehave in school. RJ has promise to address racial/ethnic, gender, and disability disproportionality in school discipline. One aspect of school-based RJ that has received…
Shambaugh, Larisa S.; Chambers, Jay G.
As education budgets continue to tighten, increased attention is focused on how school districts can best distribute existing funds to schools and how schools can best use these funds. Student-based funding (SBF)--sometimes referred to as a weighted student formula--is one approach that school districts have taken during the past decade. SBF…
Riihelä, Juha; Mäki, Sanna
This article describes initiatives implemented in Finland to create an online learning environment for studying geographic information systems (GIS). A development project produced an online GIS tool called PaikkaOppi, aimed at promoting GIS studies and spatial thinking skills in upper secondary schools. The project is reviewed through analysis of…
Engida, Alemayehu Erkihun
This study examined the challenges facing the teaching as well as the implementation of Awgni as a mother tongue language in primary schools of Awi administrative zone. The need to teach through mother tongue in Ethiopia was widely discussed following the change of the politics in 1991. To this end, the government issued new education and training…
Mohamed, Ibrahim Jeylani
The aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of modern mathematics in the primary schools of Somalia. In particular, three concerns were addressed: (1) teachers' confidence and ability in teaching mathematics; (2) students' interest in mathematics; and (3) students' examination performance in mathematics. Subjects were 30 teachers…
Mercy, Kurebwa; Mabhanda, Wilson
The study explored the challenges that impact on the implementation of PLAP in the Primary schools. The research was conducted with teachers who study towards the BEd Management degree with Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) in the Midlands Region. The study used a qualitative research approach and collected data through open ended questionnaires and…
Morrison, Julie Q.; English, Sarah Baker
This article describes a multiagency initiative to evaluate academic tutoring services by focusing on the processes that contribute to effective program implementation. Community-based tutoring service providers serving students in the Cincinnati Public Schools (OH) partnered to initiate a "Seal of Approval" process for promoting…
Kovalev, Dmitry A.; Khussainova, Gulzada A.; Balagazova, Svetlana T.; Tamarasar, Zhankul
This article considers improvement of public morale, raising the emotional and aesthetic culture of young people, their patriotic feelings by providing the musical-pedagogical conditions of training future teachers for the implementation of innovative processes in modern school. The world science would benefit from using the Kazakh musical…
Wills, Howard P.; Mason, Benjamin A.
Technological innovations offer promise for improving intervention implementation in secondary, inclusive classrooms. A withdrawal design was employed with two high-school students in order to assess the effectiveness of a technologically delivered, self-monitoring intervention in improving on-task behavior in a science classroom. Two students…
Goodman-Scott, Emily; Hays, Danica G.; Cholewa, Blaire E.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a widely implemented, culturally responsive framework using prevention and intervention activities to promote a safe school climate and positive academic and behavioral student outcomes. Using a qualitative single-case study design, authors provide a rich description of PBIS implementation…
The performance management system in different forms has been in existence in many countries for some years. In 1999 Botswana like other countries decided to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. At its introduction, the government explained the purpose for which this reform was being…
For this study, a research-based lab module was implemented in two high school chemistry classes for the purpose of examining classroom dynamics throughout the process of students completing the module. A research-based lab module developed for use in undergraduate laboratories by the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) was…
Janssen, Kitty Catharina; Phillipson, Sivanes
Many Victorian secondary schools appear to be implementing Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs as the Australian Federal government's Digital Education Revolution funding has come to an end for 1-to-1 Learning programs. One of the key elements identified as important for the success of these programs is the clear communication of policies and…
Dual language immersion program models represent a potentially effective way to serve growing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) in schools and districts. However, local challenges, such as interpersonal conflict, can impact the process of implementing dual language policies and programs, limiting the extent to which they are able to meet…
This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…
Ntemngwa, Celestin; Oliver, J. Steve
The research study reported here was conducted to investigate the implementation of integrated STEM lessons within courses that have a single subject science focus. The purpose also included development of a pedagogical theory. This technology-based teaching was conceptualized by school administrators and teachers in order to provide middle school…
Štofková, Katarína; Strícek, Ivan; Štofková, Jana
The paper is aimed to evaluate the possibility of applying new methods and tools of more effective educational processes, with an emphasis on increasing their quality especially aimed on educational processes at secondary schools and universities. There are some contributions from practice for the effective implementation of time management, such…
Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Dowdy, Erin; Gonzalez, Victoria; Stewart, Kaitlyn
Because school violence is widespread, social and emotional competence must be targeted. "Second Step" is a social and emotional violence-prevention curriculum that teaches prosocial skills and reduces aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of "Second Step" implementation on students (N = 403) in preschool…
Huts, K.; Van Hoecke, J.; De Knop, P.; Theeboom, M.
The purpose of the present study was twofold, namely implementing a multifunctional (self-) evaluation instrument for physical education in a sample of Flemish secondary schools (N=100), while simultaneously obtaining a preliminary picture of the subjects' product and process quality. Descriptive statistics revealed that P. E. teachers' engagement…
Full Text Available The South African National Health Act (No. 61 of 2003 provides a legal framework for the regulation of the health system across the country. Within the Act, section 71 introduces a number of legal norms relating to research or experimentation with human subjects, including research on HIV prevention and treatment. These norms have been criticised for the negative impact they will have on research involving children. This article describes three of the new consent requirements in section 71 of the Act. It shows, using a range of case studies, how important HIV-related research will be halted or undermined if the current provisions are implemented. The article argues that the new consent requirements are out of step with other statutory provisions and ethical guidelines, and as a result they will exclude a large population group – children in diverse settings – from much-needed evidence-based healthcare interventions. The article concludes with a clarion call for support of advocacy on this issue with the Minister of Health and the Health Portfolio Committee.
Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Pears, Gillian; Baweja, Shilpa; Vona, Pamela; Tang, Jennifer; Kataoka, Sheryl H
This study explored parent engagement in an evidence-based treatment, the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS), which was delivered in a school setting. To examine the successes and challenges in engaging parents in this school-based program, we conducted qualitative interviews by phone to obtain data from clinicians, parents, and other school personnel across eleven schools from 3 different regions of the United States. Almost all of these schools served low-income and ethnically diverse communities. We describe general impressions of parent engagement, parent reactions and preferences with regard to CBITS, barriers to parent engagement, and how to overcome barriers from multiple perspectives. Parent engagement across schools varied, with extensive outreach and relatively good parent engagement in CBITS described in some schools, while in other schools, efforts to engage parents were not as consistent. Implications for future efforts to engage parents in school-based treatments are discussed.
Han-Markey, T L; Wang, L; Schlotterbeck, S; Jackson, E A; Gurm, R; Leidal, A; Eagle, K
The school environment has been the focus of many health initiatives over the years as a means to address the childhood obesity crisis. The availability of low-nutrient, high-calorie foods and beverages to students via vending machines further exacerbates the issue of childhood obesity. However, a healthy overhaul of vending machines may also affect revenue on which schools have come to depend. This article describes the experience of one school district in changing the school environment, and the resulting impact on food and beverage vending machines. Observational study in Ann Arbor public schools. The contents and locations of vending machines were identified in 2003 and surveyed repeatedly in 2007. Overall revenues were also documented during this time period. Changes were observed in the contents of both food and beverage vending machines. Revenue in the form of commissions to the contracted companies and the school district decreased. Local and national wellness policy changes may have financial ramifications for school districts. In order to facilitate and sustain school environment change, all stakeholders, including teachers, administrators, students and healthcare providers, should collaborate and communicate on policy implementation, recognizing that change can have negative financial consequences as well as positive, healthier outcomes. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pope, Lizzy; Garnett, Bernice; Dibble, Marguerite
To encourage high school students to meet physical activity goals using a newly developed game, and to document the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of using an electronic gaming application to promote physical activity in high school students. Working with youth and game designers an electronic game, Camp Conquer, was developed to motivate high school students to meet physical activity goals. One-hundred-five high school students were recruited to participate in a 12-week pilot test of the game and randomly assigned to a Game Condition or Control Condition. Students in both conditions received a FitBit to track their activity, and participants in the Game Condition received access to Camp Conquer. Number of steps and active minutes each day were tracked for all participants. FitBit use, game logins, and qualitative feedback from researchers, school personnel, and participants were used to determine intervention engagement. The majority of study participants did not consistently wear their FitBit or engage with the gaming intervention. Numerous design challenges and barriers to successful implementation such as the randomized design, absence of a true school-based champion, ease of use, and game glitches were identified. Developing games is an exciting technique for motivating the completion of a variety of health behaviors. Although the present intervention was not successful in increasing physical activity in high school students, important lessons were learned regarding how to best structure a gaming intervention for the high school population.
Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Sharma, Deepak; Jaswal, Nidhi; Bharti, Bhavneet; Grover, Ashoo; Thind, Paramjyoti
The "Health Promoting School" (HPS) is a holistic and comprehensive approach to integrating health promotion within the community. At the time of conducting this study, there was no organized accreditation system for HPS in India. We therefore developed an accreditation system for HPSs using support from key stakeholders and implemented this system in HPS in Chandigarh territory, India. A desk review was undertaken to review HPS accreditation processes used in other countries. An HPS accreditation manual was drafted after discussions with key stakeholders. Seventeen schools (eight government and nine private) were included in the study. A workshop was held with school principals and teachers and other key stakeholders, during which parameters, domains and an accreditation checklist were discussed and finalized. The process of accreditation of these 17 schools was initiated in 2011 according to the accreditation manual. HPSs were encouraged to undertake activities to increase their accreditation grade and were reassessed in 2013 to monitor progress. Each school was graded on the basis of the accreditation scores obtained. The accreditation manual featured an accreditation checklist, with parameters, scores and domains. It categorized accreditation into four levels: bronze, silver, gold and platinum (each level having its own specific criteria and mandate). In 2011, more than half (52.9%) of the schools belonged to the bronze level and only 23.5% were at the gold level. Improvements were observed upon reassessment after 2 years (2013), with 76.4% of schools at the gold level and only 11.8% at bronze. The HPS accreditation system is feasible in school settings and was well implemented in the schools of Chandigarh. Improvements in accreditation scores between 2011 and 2013 suggest that the system may be effective in increasing levels of health promotion in communities.
Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David
date, which could potentially affect adherence to treatment and therapeutic outcomes. Stock-outs therefore undermined the intended benefits of ATM strategies. Addressing the procurement challenges, most notably timeous tender awards and supplier performance management, is critical for successful implementation of ATM strategies.
Bvudzai P Magadzire
asked to return for undispensed medication at a later date, which could potentially affect adherence to treatment and therapeutic outcomes. Stock-outs therefore undermined the intended benefits of ATM strategies. Conclusion. Addressing the procurement challenges, most notably timeous tender awards and supplier performance management, is critical for successful implementation of ATM strategies.
Full Text Available Remote Networked Schools (RNS is an initiative by the Quebec Ministry of Education, Leisure and Sports (MELS to investigate solutions that the use of information and communication technologies (ICT can offer for the preservation of small rural schools in Quebec, Canada. The implementation of RNS mobilized then – as it still does now – the local capacity for innovation of all the stakeholders involved in this networking effort to improve learning. Building on Donald P. Ely’s work (1990; 1999, this paper presents the results of an investigation of the RNS educational stakeholders’ perceptions of the importance of the conditions that facilitate the implementation of educational technology innovations for the success of RNS in their locations. Les conditions nécessaires à l’implantation de l’innovation de l'École éloignée en réseau: la perception des intervenants Résumé: L’École éloignée en réseau est une initiative du Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport du Québec (MELS, qui a comme objectif d’explorer ce que l’usage des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC peut offrir pour la sauvegarde des petites écoles rurales au Québec, Canada. L'implantation de l’École éloignée en réseau a mobilisé (et continue aujourd’hui la capacité locale, pour l’innovation, de tous les intervenants impliqués dans cet effort de mise en réseau pour améliorer l’apprentissage. Partant des recherches de Donald P. Ely (1990; 1999, ce texte présente les résultats d’une étude sur la perception des intervenants impliqués dans l’École éloignée en réseau, quant à l’importance des conditions facilitant l’implantation d’innovations technologiques afin que cela soit un succès dans leur communauté.
Braaten, Melissa; Bradford, Chris; Kirchgasler, Kathryn L.; Barocas, Sadie Fox
Purpose: When school leaders advance strategic plans focused on improving educational equity through data-driven decision making, how do policies-as-practiced unfold in the daily work of science teachers? The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study examines how data-centric accountability and…
Adriana M. Marin
Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.
Frost, J.H.; Finkel, E.J.; Norton, M.I.; Ariely, D.; Caprariello, P.A.; Eastwick, P.W.
This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our
Gray, Heewon Lee; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.
This study investigates the link between process evaluation components and the outcomes of a school-based nutrition curriculum intervention, ‘Choice, Control and Change’. Ten New York City public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned into intervention or control condition. The curriculum was to improve sixth to seventh grade students’ energy balance related behaviors, based on social cognitive and self-determination theories, and implemented during the 2006–2007 school year (n = 1136). Behaviors and psychosocial variables were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Process components were evaluated with classroom observations, teacher interviews, and a student questionnaire. Using ‘Teacher Implementation’ (dose delivered) and ‘Student Reception’ (dose received) process data; intervention group was further categorized into medium- and high-implementation groups. Analysis of covariance revealed that, compared with control group, only high-implementation group showed significant improvement in students’ behavior and psychosocial outcomes. Hierarchical linear models showed that ‘Teacher Implementation’ and ‘Student Reception’ significantly predicted students’ sweetened beverage outcomes (P < 0.05). ‘Student Satisfaction’ was also greater when these implementation components were higher, and significantly associated with behavior and psychosocial outcomes (P < 0.05). Implementation process influenced the effectiveness of the ‘Choice, Control and Change’ intervention study. It is important to take into account the process components when interpreting the results of such research. PMID:25700557
Back, David Alexander; Behringer, Florian; Harms, Tina; Plener, Joachim; Sostmann, Kai; Peters, Harm
The use of electronic learning formats (e-learning) in medical education is reported mainly from individual specialty perspectives. In this study, we analyzed the implementation level of e-learning formats and the institutional support structures and strategies at an institutional level in a cluster of mid-European medical schools. A 49-item online questionnaire was send to 48 medical schools in Austria, Germany and Switzerland using SurveyMonkey®. Data were collected between February and September of 2013 and analyzed using quantities, statistical and qualitative means. The response rate was 71 %. All schools had implemented e-learning, but mainly as an optional supplement to the curriculum. E-learning involved a wide range of formats across all disciplines. Online learning platforms were used by 97 % of the schools. Full-time e-learning staff was employed by 50 %, and these had a positive and significant effect on the presence of e-learning in the corresponding medical schools. In addition, 81 % offered training programs and qualifications for their teachers and 76 % awarded performance-oriented benefits, with 17 % giving these for e-learning tasks. Realization of e-learning offers was rewarded by 33 %, with 27 % recognizing this as part of the teaching load. 97 % would use curriculum-compatible e-learning tools produced by other faculties. While all participating medical schools used e-learning concepts, this survey revealed also a reasonable support by institutional infrastructure and the importance of staff for the implementation level of e-learning offerings. However, data showed some potential for increasing tangible incentives to motivate teachers to engage in further use of e-learning. Furthermore, the use of individual tools and the distribution of e-learning presentations in various disciplines were quite inhomogeneous. The willingness of the medical schools to cooperate should be capitalized for the future, especially concerning the provision of e
Wolpert, Miranda; Humphrey, Neil; Deighton, Jessica; Patalay, Praveetha; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Fonagy, Peter; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos
We report on a randomized controlled trial of Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS), which is a nationally mandated school-based mental health program in England. TaMHS aimed to improve mental health for students with, or at risk of, behavioral and emotional difficulties by providing evidence-informed interventions relating to closer working…
This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...
De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Pineda, Diana; Capp, Gordon; Moore, Hadass; Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi
Military-connected youths experience stressful life events, including deployments and multiple school transitions, that make them vulnerable to bullying. Social workers have highlighted the power of grassroots school community initiatives that address risk issues among youths while empowering the community (see http://www.thecommunityguide.org).…
Gortney, Justine Schuller; Bray, Brenda S; Salinitri, Francine D
To describe how schools and colleges of pharmacy use the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) in relation to student assessment and curricular feedback. A survey was distributed to all programs that have implemented the PCOA. The survey was designed to assess 3 domains regarding the use of the PCOA: rationale for use, logistics of administration, and performance data review and distribution. A 79% response rate (41/52) was obtained. The mix of responses was 93% current PCOA users and 7% past users. The most common reasons for PCOA use were for programmatic assessment and benchmarking. The examination was most frequently administered during the P3 year, with minimal stakes attached to performance. Significant differences in responses based on public vs private institution were seen with respect to length of accreditation of current PCOA users, messaging to students regarding performance, inclusion of results in student advising, and distribution of results to stakeholders. Programs were using the PCOA primarily as an assessment in the P3 year for reasons related to programmatic and curricular assessment. Some differences existed between public and private institutional PCOA use and examination-related processes and results distribution.
Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.
Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.
Murayama, Kou; Matsumoto, Madoka; Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Kenji
Contrary to the widespread belief that people are positively motivated by reward incentives, some studies have shown that performance-based extrinsic reward can actually undermine a person's intrinsic motivation to engage in a task. This "undermining effect" has timely practical implications, given the burgeoning of performance-based incentive systems in contemporary society. It also presents a theoretical challenge for economic and reinforcement learning theories, which tend to assume that monetary incentives monotonically increase motivation. Despite the practical and theoretical importance of this provocative phenomenon, however, little is known about its neural basis. Herein we induced the behavioral undermining effect using a newly developed task, and we tracked its neural correlates using functional MRI. Our results show that performance-based monetary reward indeed undermines intrinsic motivation, as assessed by the number of voluntary engagements in the task. We found that activity in the anterior striatum and the prefrontal areas decreased along with this behavioral undermining effect. These findings suggest that the corticobasal ganglia valuation system underlies the undermining effect through the integration of extrinsic reward value and intrinsic task value.
Runhaar, P.R.; Sanders, K.
Vocational Education and Training (VET) Institutions face serious challenges, like the implementation of competence-based education and upcoming teacher shortages, which urge them to implement Human Resources Management policy and practices (HRM). The implementation of HRM, however, often stagnates.
The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive
Francis, Njoroge Ngugi; Ngugi, Margaret; Kinzi, Joab
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected factors on implementation of Information and Communication Technology in public secondary schools in Naivasha sub-county, Kenya. The study investigated whether the ICT infrastructural cost, schools' visions, and teachers' ICT skills hinder effective implementation of ICT policy in…
Balfanz, Robert; Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Byrnes, Vaughan
This article reports on the first 4 years of an effort to develop comprehensive and sustainable mathematics education reforms in high poverty middle schools. In four related analyses, we examine the levels of implementation achieved and impact of the reforms on various measures of achievement in the first 3 schools to implement the Talent…
Bernhardt, Victoria L.; Hebert, Connie L.
Ensure the success of your school and improve the learning of "all" students by implementing Response-to-Intervention (RTI) as part of a continuous school improvement (CSI) process. This book shows you how to get your entire staff working together to design, implement, and evaluate a schoolwide prevention system. With specific examples, CSI expert…
Full Text Available Modern education is closely connected with implementation and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the teaching process. ICT is recommended to be used in schools in Europe to develop competences of students to become high-quality professionals and active citizens in the society. A questionnaire survey of teachers and directors of Latvian schools was carried out in order to evaluate the use of ICT in Latvian schools and attitude of teaching staff towards this process. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that Latvian schools are not supplied with ICT to a satisfactory level. It is necessary to raise the competence of many teachers in the field of ICT. The attitude of teachers to the use of ICT in the study process is more positive in comparison with school directors. Important factors for improvement of ICT use in schools are ICT training for teachers, computer accessibility for teaching staff, sufficient supply of qualitative ICT teaching materials and computers in schools and encouragement of teachers to use ICT.
Delk, Joanne; Harrell, Melissa B; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Muir, Katelyn A; Perry, Cheryl L
Computerized surveys present many advantages over paper surveys. However, school-based adolescent research questionnaires still mainly rely on paper-and-pencil surveys as access to computers in schools is often not practical. Tablet-assisted self-interviews (TASI) present a possible solution, but their use is largely untested. This paper presents a method for and our experiences with implementing a TASI in a school setting. A TASI was administered to 3907 middle and high school students from 79 schools. The survey assessed use of tobacco products and exposure to tobacco marketing. To assess in-depth tobacco use behaviors, the TASI employed extensive skip patterns to reduce the number of not-applicable questions that nontobacco users received. Pictures were added to help respondents identify the tobacco products they were being queried about. Students were receptive to the tablets and required no instructions in their use. None were lost, stolen, or broken. Item nonresponse, unanswered questions, was a pre-administration concern; however, 92% of participants answered 96% or more of the questions. This method was feasible and successful among a diverse population of students and schools. It generated a unique dataset of in-depth tobacco use behaviors that would not have been possible through a paper-and-pencil survey. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Nakigudde, Janet; Calzada, Esther; Boivin, Michael J; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs, but this region has limited access to mental health workers and resources to address these needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions are not available in SSA. This study will investigate the transportability of an evidence-based program from a developed country (United States) to a SSA country (Uganda). The approach includes task-shifting to early childhood teachers and consists of professional development (five days) to introduce strategies for effective behavior management and positive teacher-student interactions, and group-based consultation (14 sessions) to support adoption of effective practices and tailoring to meet the needs of individual students. The design of this study is guided by two implementation frameworks, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Teacher Training Implementation Model, that consider multidimensional aspects of intervention fidelity and contextual predictors that may influence implementation and teacher outcomes. Using a cluster randomized design, 10 schools in Uganda will be randomized to either the intervention group (five schools) or the waitlist control group (five schools). A total of 80 to 100 early childhood teachers will be enrolled in the study. Teacher utilization of evidence-based strategies and practices will be assessed at baseline, immediate post-intervention (six months after baseline), and at seven months post-intervention (during a new academic year). Fidelity measures will be assessed throughout the program implementation period (during professional development and consultation sessions). Individual teacher and contextual factors will be assessed at baseline. Data will be collected from multiple sources. Linear mixed-effect modeling, adjusting for school nesting, will be applied to address study questions. The
Østergaard, Lars; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Andersen, Lars Bo
BACKGROUND: Active transportation to school has been positively associated with various health parameters whereas only sparse evidence exists on risk of injury while commuting to school. This study investigated the overall effectiveness of cycling promotion combined with structural changes...... on cycling to school. METHODS: Interventions at public schools in three different regions in Denmark were based on planned infrastructural changes near schools (e.g. road surface and traffic regulation) and school-motivation for promoting commuter cycling. Participants were pupils from control schools (n...... = 12) or intervention schools (n = 13). All children (n = 2415) from the 4(th) and 5(th) grade were measured at baseline during spring 2010 and at follow-up one year later. RESULTS: No significant differences in commuter cycling were detected in the adjusted analyses comparing the intervention...
Bakhytgul A Zhetpisbayeva
Full Text Available The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan changed the State Educational Program for primary education and the curriculum for teaching English as a third language (L3 to grades 1-4in 2013. As with many changes in the curriculum, English language teaching has also been changed and the starting age for learning of English language has been lowered to 6-7 years of age (Grade 1. However, implementation of the curriculum requires readiness on the part of the teachers and teachers' views about teaching English in primary school is important for successful implementation of English language policy. Thus, this research aims to investigate the teachers’ views about the starting age for L3 learning, teachers' professional development, teaching materials and problems of implementation of a language policy in primary schools in Kazakhstan. The data for the study was gathered from 105 English teachers working in different primary schools. The study revealed that most have not yet made a transition to the organized system of teaching English languages in primary school.
Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Pennington, Jim
Health-related knowledge has been assumed to inform lifestyle choices for school-aged students. A "health-promoting school" provides the conceptual framework for this intervention. A large boarding school developed, implemented and refined a Nutritional Symbol System for their dining hall. The effectiveness of this social marketing…
Hastmann, Tanis J.; Bopp, Melissa; Fallon, Elizabeth A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Dzewaltowski, David A.
Objective: To identify barriers and facilitators for improving the after-school organized physical activity (PA) and snack quality. Methods: After-school staff (Year 1, n = 20; Year 2, n = 17) participated in qualitative, semistructured interviews about the implementation of an after-school obesity prevention intervention. Interviews were…
Johnston, Nancy A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of elective participation in one of three implementation year Career Academies, Education, Entrepreneurship, or Finance, on upper-class high school academic grades, Grade Point Average, and school academy participation measures. Significance of the junior and senior year of high school, the…
Fan, Chung-Hau; Denner, Peter R.; Bocanegra, Joel O.; Ding, Yi
After the change in IDEIA, different models of response to intervention (RtI) have been practiced widely in American school systems. School psychologists are in an important position to facilitate RtI practice and provide professional development in order to help their school systems successfully undergo this transformation. However, there is a…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
Riordan, Cornelius; Faddis, Bonnie J.; Beam, Margaret; Seager, Andrew; Tanney, Adam; DiBiase, Rebecca; Ruffin, Monya; Valentine, Jeffrey
Although for most of the nation's history, coeducation has been the norm in public elementary and secondary school, recent years have marked an increasing interest in public single-sex education. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) authorized school districts to use local or innovative program funds to offer single-sex schools and…
Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen
Systems thinking (ST) is an approach advocating thinking about any given issue as a whole, emphasising the interrelationships between its components rather than the components themselves. This article aims to link ST and school leadership, claiming that ST may enable school principals to develop highly performing schools that can cope successfully…
Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…
Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Raviv, Tali; Ros, Anna Maria; Brewer, Stephanie K.; Distel, Laura M. L.; Torres, Stephanie A.; Fuller, Anne K.; Lewis, Krystal M.; Coyne, Claire A.; Cicchetti, Colleen; Langley, Audra K.
The current study provides the first replication trial of Bounce Back, a school-based intervention for elementary students exposed to trauma, in a different school district and geographical area. Participants in this study were 52 1st through 4th graders (M[subscript age] = 7.76 years; 65% male) who were predominately Latino (82%). Schools were…
Adegoroye, Biodun-Smith; Ajagbe, Adesina Adunfe
Showing concern about the consistent depreciation in expected study and scholastic behaviours among Secondary School students and the trailing failure in school test and exams and public exams, the authors gathered empirical report on the chosen variables among a randomly selected 1,200 secondary school students in JSS I, II, III, SSS I, II, III…
The need to improve math education around the country has been well documented, especially in urban school systems like Philadelphia. In Spring 2010, only 56.6% of students in Philadelphia Public schools scored proficient or advanced on the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSA). In Philadelphia Empowerment Schools, the 107 lowest…
Bingham, Andrea J.; Pane, John F.; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hamilton, Laura S.
In the current educational context, school models that leverage technology to personalize instruction have proliferated, as has student enrollment in, and funding of, such school models. However, even the best laid plans are subject to challenges in design and practice, particularly in the dynamic context of a school. In this collective case…
Hester, Laura L.; Wilce, Maureen A.; Gill, Sarah A.; Disler, Sheri L.; Collins, Pamela; Crawford, Gregory
Background: Asthma is a leading chronic childhood disease in the United States and a major contributor to school absenteeism. Evidence suggests that multicomponent, school-based asthma interventions are a strategic way to address asthma among school-aged children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages the 36 health…
Abery, Elizabeth; Drummond, Claire
Primary schools are identified as being in a primary position to offer nutrition education. Moreover, primary schools can offer an environment which is conducive to the promotion of healthy eating while influencing eating behaviours of children to benefit their health, well-being and academic development and performance. School canteens are one…
Lovecchio, Michael J.
As school districts struggle to identify the role social media will play both inside and outside of the classroom, educational leaders can no longer ignore the benefits that these tools provide to students, stakeholders and faculty members. The potential challenges facing school leaders working in schools that utilize social media is extensive.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background School-based interventions and campaigns are used to promote health and address a wide variety of public health problems. Schools are considered to be key sites for the implementation of health promotion programmes for their potential to reach the whole population in particular age-groups and instil healthy patterns of behavior early in life. However, evidence for the effectiveness of school-based health promotion interventions is highly variable. Systematic reviews of the evidence of school-based interventions tend to be highly problem- or intervention- specific, thereby missing potential generic insights into implementation and effectiveness of such programmes across problems. Methods/design A realist systematic review will be undertaken to explain how, why and in what circumstances schools can provide feasible settings for effective health promotion programmes in the United Kingdom (UK. The review will be conducted in two phases. Phase 1 will identify programme theories about implementation (ideas about what enables or inhibits effective health promotion to be delivered in a school setting. Phase 2 will test the programme theories so that they can be challenged, endorsed and/or refined. A Review Advisory Group of education and health professionals will be convened to help identify and choose potential programme theories, provide a ‘reality check’ on the clarity and explanatory strength of the mechanisms to be tested, and help shape the presentation of findings to be usable by practitioners and decision-makers. Review findings will be disseminated through liaison with decision-makers, and voluntary and professional groups in the fields of education and health.
Full Text Available Background: Health promoting schools focus on, amongst other things, preventing leading causes of death such as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s, Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a sedentary lifestyle and creating conditions that are conducive to health through health education. Aim: This study explored the perceptions of educators regarding implementation of the health promotion programme manuals in selected schools of the Makapanstad community. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was utilised in this study. Four schools were selected to participate in the study. Purposive sampling was used to select educators from these schools who were actively involved in the health promotion programme. Data collection was taken through focus group interviews. One focus group comprised of eight participants who were interviewed three times. The focus group interviews were conducted until data were saturated. Data were analysed using an adaptation of Tesch’s method. The eight steps of Tesch’s method enabled researchers to systematically analyse and organise data using colour coding to develop data into categories, sub-categories and themes. Results and conclusion: The themes that emerged during data analysis were: the perceptions of educators regarding health promotion programme manuals before implementation of manuals, and the perceptions of educators regarding health promotion programme manuals after the implementation of manuals. Introducing health promotion materials to the schools served as a point of departure for developing personal skills and creating a supportive environment for health in schools. The health promotion manual assisted the educators to attain appropriate health promotion information.
Zinckernagel, Line; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rod, Morten Hulvej
the interviews. SETTING: 8 secondary schools in Denmark. Schools were selected using strategic sampling to reach maximum variation, including schools with/without recent experience in CPR training of students, public/private schools and schools near to and far from hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: The study population...... teachers acquired the CPR skills which they considered were needed. They considered CPR training to differ substantially from other teaching subjects because it is a matter of life and death, and they therefore believed extraordinary skills were required for conducting the training. This was mainly rooted...
Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jayaraman, Uma Devi
This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory case study utilizing quantitative and qualitative methodologies intended to ascertain the extent and differences of implementation of research-based instructional practices, learned in an intensive 26-month professional development, in their urban classrooms. Both the extent and differences in the implementation of practices were investigated in relation to the lesson design and implementation, content, and classroom culture aspects of research-based practices. Additionally, this research includes the concerns of the teachers regarding the factors that helped or hindered the implementation of research-based practices in their classrooms. Six graduates of the Master of Chemistry Education Program who were teaching a chemistry course in a high school in the School District of Philadelphia at the time of the study (2006-8), were the case. The teachers completed a concerns questionnaire with closed and open-ended items, and rated their perceptions of the extent of implementation of the practices in their urban classrooms. Additionally, the teachers were observed and rated by the researcher using a reform-teaching observation protocol and were interviewed individually. Also, the teachers submitted their lesson plans for the days they were observed. Data from these sources were analyzed to arrive at the findings for this study. The research findings suggest that the group of teachers in the study implemented the research-based practices in their classrooms to a low extent when compared to the recommended practices inherent to the MCE Program. The extents of implementation of the practices differed widely among the teachers, from being absent to being implemented at a high level, with inconsistent levels of implementation from various data sources. Further, the teachers expressed the depth of knowledge (gained in the MCE Program), formal laboratory exercises and reports, administrative support, self
Full Text Available Research on the Implementation of Religion Education was held at the special Ele- mentary School (SDLB “Asuhan Kasih” in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The results of this study indicate that the implementation of religion education at Orphanage SDLB “Asuhan Kasih” can run well. Despite this aspect of the teaching force is still not in accordance with the subjects being taught. It can be seen from a qualified religion teacher not as a religious teacher. Contributing factor in the lear- ning process is the higher spirit of in learning religion, dedication of religion teacher, the availability of classroom space, facilities and location are not far from the school environment for learners. Inhibiting factor in the learning process is the absence of special teachers to teach religious education, lack of teaching aids, lack of reference books, and a lack of operational funds.
Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Schmidt, Nicole; Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B
During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards. We examined the extent to which a sample of Massachusetts middle schools and high schools sold foods and beverages that were compliant with the state competitive food and beverage standards after the first year of implementation, and complied with four additional aspects of the regulations. Observational cohort study with data collected before implementation (Spring 2012) and 1 year after implementation (Spring 2013). School districts (N=37) with at least one middle school and one high school participated. Percent of competitive foods and beverages that were compliant with Massachusetts standards and compliance with four additional aspects of the regulations. Data were collected via school site visits and a foodservice director questionnaire. Multilevel models were used to examine change in food and beverage compliance over time. More products were available in high schools than middle schools at both time points. The number of competitive beverages and several categories of competitive food products sold in the sample of Massachusetts schools decreased following the implementation of the standards. Multilevel models demonstrated a 47-percentage-point increase in food and 46-percentage-point increase in beverage compliance in Massachusetts schools from 2012 to 2013. Overall, total compliance was higher for beverages than foods. This study of a group of Massachusetts schools demonstrated the feasibility of schools making substantial changes in response to requirements for healthier competitive foods, even in the first year of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad S; Marcus, Steven; Stahmer, Aubyn; Aarons, Gregory A; Lyon, Aaron R; Cannuscio, Carolyn; Barg, Frances; Dorsey, Shannon; Mandell, David S
The significant lifelong impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), combined with the growing number of children diagnosed with ASD, have created urgency in improving school-based quality of care. Although many interventions have shown efficacy in university-based research, few have been effectively implemented and sustained in schools, the primary setting in which children with ASD receive services. Individual- and organizational-level factors have been shown to predict the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for the prevention and treatment of other mental disorders in schools, and may be potential targets for implementation strategies in the successful use of autism EBIs in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine the individual- and organizational-level factors associated with the implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. We will apply the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework that examines the influence of contextual factors (i.e., individual- and organizational-level factors) on intervention implementation in schools. We utilize mixed methods to quantitatively test whether the factors identified in the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework are associated with the implementation of autism EBIs, and use qualitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainment of these interventions with the goal of tailoring implementation strategies. The results of this study will provide an in-depth understanding of individual- and organizational-level factors that influence the successful implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. These data will inform potential implementation targets and tailoring of strategies that will help schools overcome barriers to implementation and ultimately improve the services and outcomes for children with ASD.
The Causality Study of External Environment Analysis (EEA), Internal Environment Analysis (IEA), Strategy Implementation on Study Program Performance at Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago, Indonesia
Waruwu, Binahati; Sitompul, Harun; Manullang, Belferik
The purposes of this study are to find out the significant effect of: (1) EEA on strategy implementation, (2) IEA on strategy implementation, (3) EEA on study program performance, (4) IEA on study program performance, and (5) strategy implementation on study program performance of Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago. The population of…
Langberg, Joshua M; Vaughn, Aaron J; Williamson, Pamela; Epstein, Jeffery N; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Becker, Stephen P
The purpose of the study was to modify, test, and refine the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for adolescents with ADHD for use by school mental health (SMH) providers. Ten SMH providers from three school districts implemented the HOPS intervention with 11 middle school students with ADHD. Parent and teacher ratings of materials organization and homework management were collected pre- and post-intervention and treatment fidelity was assessed. SMH providers and teachers participated in focus groups and provided feedback on ways to improve the feasibility and usability of the HOPS intervention. Students made large improvements in organization skills ( d = 1.8) and homework problems ( d = 1.6) according to parent ratings however, no improvements were observed on teacher ratings. Qualitative data generated from coding the focus groups and audio-recorded HOPS sessions were combined with the quantitative results to systematically refine the HOPS intervention for further evaluation of intervention effectiveness and disseminability.
Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot study of a reduced version of the PATHS Curriculum, a Usdeveloped evidence-based SEL program, among schools in Hong Kong SAR (China. Three hundred and sixteen 12th grade students in three elementary schools participated in the study. A limited number of first grade PATHS lessons were adapted and translated into Chinese. Twelve teachers learned and adopted these lessons in their teaching. Students in these classrooms learned about different emotions and practiced self-control. The intervention lasted four months. After the intervention, students showed improvement in emotion understanding, emotion regulation and prosocial behavior. No change was observed in the level of children's problem behaviors. Over 65% of the teachers reported a high degree of satisfaction and willingness to adopt the intervention. The effects of the intervention varied among schools, with variations in the level of intervention and principal support, but not in the quality of implementation. Discussion is focused on the factors that could shape the adoption and implementation of SEL programs, especially the role of the difference in school systems between Hong Kong and the United States.
Wang, Hui-Po; Wang, Chun-Li
The concept of Pharmacovigilance Planning and Risk Minimization Planning (PVP/RMP), initiated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), addressed an important conceptual change from monitoring the safety of individual medicine to proactively conducting risk prevention for the minimization of medication error. However, the implementation of PVP/RMP is a challenge in societies like Taiwan where irrational medication and co-medication is prevalent. It is even more difficult in Taiwan where two regulatory bodies are governing pharmaceutical affairs, namely Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) in charge of Western Medicine (WM) and the Department of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy (DCMP) in charge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). There are thus dual-tract drug approval panels, two GMP controls and two independent adverse drug event reporting systems. This rendered irrational co-medication of WM and TCM undetectable and the standard tools for monitoring pharmacovigilance inapplicable. The bilateral regulatory system is conceptually unscientific in accordance with PVP/RMP and unethical from humanity point of view. The first part of this review delivers (1) social aspects of polypharmacy in Taiwan; (2) regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical administration; (3) risks undermined in the bilateral regulatory system and (4) pharmacoepidemiology in relation to the risk of polypharmacy. As evidence-based medicine (EBM) forms the fundamental risk-benefit assessment on medication, the second part of this review delivers (1) the scientific aspects of the beauty and the odds of biological system that governs host-xenobiotics interaction; (2) conceptual evolution from product management (pharmacovigilance) to risk management (PVP/RMP); (3) non-biased due process is essential for risk-benefit assessment on medicinal products and (4) the opinion of the authors on system building for safe medication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Grey, Rachel; Hendrix, Alicia; Hitchner, Drew; Hunt, Christina L; Gress, Erika; Madej, Konrad; Parry, Rachel L; Régnier-McKellar, Catriona; Jones, Owen P; Arteaga, María; Izaguirre, Andrea P; Rogers, Alex D; Exton, Dan A
Invasive lionfish ( Pterois volitans and P. miles ) have spread widely across the western Atlantic and are recognized as a major threat to native marine biodiversity. Although lionfish inhabit both shallow reefs and mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; reefs from 30 to 150 m depth), the primary management response implemented by many countries has been diver-led culling limited to reefs less than 30 m. However, many reef fish undergo ontogenetic migrations, with the largest and therefore most fecund individuals found at greatest depths. Here, we study lionfish density, body size, maturity and dietary patterns across the depth gradient from the surface down to 85 m on heavily culled reefs around Utila, Honduras. We found lionfish at increased densities, body size and weight on MCEs compared with shallow reefs, with MCEs also containing the greatest proportion of actively spawning females, while shallow reefs contained the greatest proportion of immature lionfish. We then compared lionfish behaviour in response to divers on shallow culled and mesophotic unculled Utilan reefs, and on shallow unculled reefs in Tela Bay, on the Honduran mainland. We found that mesophotic lionfish exhibited high alert distances, consistent with individuals previously exposed to culling despite being below the depth limits of removal. In addition, when examining stomach content, we found that fish were the major component of lionfish diets across the depth gradient. Importantly, our results suggest that despite adjacent shallow culling, MCEs retain substantial lionfish populations that may be disproportionately contributing towards continued lionfish recruitment onto the shallow reefs of Utila, potentially undermining current culling-based management.
Grey, Rachel; Hendrix, Alicia; Hitchner, Drew; Gress, Erika; Madej, Konrad; Parry, Rachel L.; Régnier-McKellar, Catriona; Jones, Owen P.; Arteaga, María; Izaguirre, Andrea P.; Rogers, Alex D.; Exton, Dan A.
Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread widely across the western Atlantic and are recognized as a major threat to native marine biodiversity. Although lionfish inhabit both shallow reefs and mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; reefs from 30 to 150 m depth), the primary management response implemented by many countries has been diver-led culling limited to reefs less than 30 m. However, many reef fish undergo ontogenetic migrations, with the largest and therefore most fecund individuals found at greatest depths. Here, we study lionfish density, body size, maturity and dietary patterns across the depth gradient from the surface down to 85 m on heavily culled reefs around Utila, Honduras. We found lionfish at increased densities, body size and weight on MCEs compared with shallow reefs, with MCEs also containing the greatest proportion of actively spawning females, while shallow reefs contained the greatest proportion of immature lionfish. We then compared lionfish behaviour in response to divers on shallow culled and mesophotic unculled Utilan reefs, and on shallow unculled reefs in Tela Bay, on the Honduran mainland. We found that mesophotic lionfish exhibited high alert distances, consistent with individuals previously exposed to culling despite being below the depth limits of removal. In addition, when examining stomach content, we found that fish were the major component of lionfish diets across the depth gradient. Importantly, our results suggest that despite adjacent shallow culling, MCEs retain substantial lionfish populations that may be disproportionately contributing towards continued lionfish recruitment onto the shallow reefs of Utila, potentially undermining current culling-based management. PMID:28573007
Schelvis, R.M.C.; Wiezer, N.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Genabeek, J.A.G.M. van; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Bohlneijer, E.T.; Beek, A.J. van der
Background The importance of process evaluations in examining how and why interventions are (un) successful is increasingly recognized. Process evaluations mainly studied the implementation process and the quality of the implementation (fidelity). However, in adopting this approach for participatory
Schelvis, Roosmarijn M.C.; Wiezer, Noortje M.; Blatter, Birgit M.; van Genabeek, Joost A.G.M.; Oude Hengel, Karen M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; van der Beek, Allard J.
Background: The importance of process evaluations in examining how and why interventions are (un) successful is increasingly recognized. Process evaluations mainly studied the implementation process and the quality of the implementation (fidelity). However, in adopting this approach for
Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica
Positive Action (PA) is a school-based intervention for elementary-, middle-, and high-school students that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., academic achievement, school engagement). PA has a long history of documented success achieving these aims, making it an Evidence Based Practice (EBP). Intervention research on EBP's has established the importance of implementation fidelity, especially with regard to program dosage; failure to properly implement an EBP can have negative consequences on targeted outcomes, especially if participants are exposed to a low dosage of the program (e.g., fewer lessons than specified). Much of the current research on PA has neglected to examine how program dosage impacts PA's effect on targeted outcomes. Using propensity score models, multiple imputation, and a 2-level hierarchical linear model, the current study fills this gap and examines how different dosages of PA as measured by years participating in PA and number of PA lessons, impacts adolescent internalizing symptoms, aggression, perceptions of school hassles, and self-esteem over a 3-year period. The current sample included middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 (N = 5,894). The findings indicate that students who received 3 years of the PA intervention and a high number of PA lessons had a significantly higher self-esteem score than those who received 0 years of PA or zero lessons. Participants who received 1 year of PA also reported significantly lower school hassle scores than those who received 0 years. Dosage had no statistically significant effects on aggression or internalizing score. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Theory of multiple intelligences (MI) is considered an innovation in learning the English language because it helps students develop all eight intelligences that, on the other hand, represent ways people understand the world around them, solve problems and learn. They are: verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinaesthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. Also, by focusing on the problem-solving activities, teachers, by implementing theory of multiple intelligences, encourage students not only to build their existing language knowledge but also learn new content and skills. The objective of this study has been to determine the importance of implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences in the English language course syllabus at the University of Nis Medical School. Ways in which the theory of multiple intelligences has been implemented in the English language course syllabus particularly in one lecture for junior year students of pharmacy in the University of Nis Medical School. The English language final exam results from February 2009 when compared with the final exam results from June 2007 prior to the implementation of MI theory showed the following: out of 80 junior year students of pharmacy, 40 obtained grade 10 (outstanding), 16 obtained grade 9 (excellent), 11 obtained grade 8 (very good), 4 obtained grade 7 (good) and 9 obtained grade 6 (pass). No student failed. The implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences in the English language course syllabus at the University of Nis Medical School has had a positive impact on learning the English language and has increased students' interest in language learning. Genarally speaking, this theory offers better understanding of students' intelligence and greater appreciation of their strengths. It provides numerous opportunities for students to use and develop all eight intelligences not just the few they excel in prior to enrolling in a
Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mirabal-Beltran, Roxanne; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Gould, Laura Feagans; Greenberg, Mark T.; Mendelson, Tamar
Identifying factors relevant for successful implementation of school-based interventions is essential to ensure that programs are provided in an effective and engaging manner. The perspectives of two key stakeholders critical for identifying implementation barriers and facilitators – students and their classroom teachers – merit attention in this context and have rarely been explored using qualitative methods. This study reports qualitative perspectives of fifth and sixth grade participants and their teachers of a 16-week school-based mindfulness and yoga program in three public schools serving low-income urban communities. Four themes related to program implementation barriers and facilitators emerged: program delivery factors, program buy-in, implementer communication with teachers, and instructor qualities. Feedback from students and teachers is discussed in the context of informing implementation, adaptation, and future development of school-based mindfulness and yoga programming in urban settings. PMID:28670007
Full Text Available The issues of forming future primary school teachers’ health-preserving technologies and implementing them into the educational process are discussed in the article. Motivational, information and knowledgeable, and operational and instrumental components are singled out as main ones in teachers’ training. Filling the components takes place during the theoretical training while teaching natural, psychological, pedagogical and methodological disciplines, as well as during practical pedagogical training. One of the main tasks of practical pedagogical training is students’ independent work in school hygiene. Methodological recommendations to the independent work are made by the authors; the list of tasks is given. Doing tasks in school hygiene, students assess hygienic conditions for pupils’ work: determine the air-thermal regime, lighting, room equipment, analyze the working mode of a school and a timetable. Unfavorable social and economic problems in contemporary Ukraine, the difficult ecological situation, overloads of information and intensification of educational process cause the tendencies to schoolchildren’s health impairment. Primary school teacher plays an especially important part in organization of preserving and strengthening children’s health that is caused by young learners’ age peculiarities. Primary school teacher, as a main organizer of the educational process, should systematically and effectively influence his/her pupils’ healthy development. Nowadays the problem of preserving pupils’ health is studied by R. Aizman, H. Zaitsev, V. Kabanov, O. Yazlovetska; the ways of preserving and strengthening pupils’ health through implementing health-preserving technologies are disclosed by A. Akhutina, V. Kovalko, V.Lozynskyi, M. Smirnov; the approaches to organizing the holistic educational process as the basis of forming, preserving and incipiency of pupils’ health are developed by M. Bezrukikh, P. Bohdan, V
Hung, Tommy Tsz Man; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Dawson, Angela; Lee, Regina Lai Tong
Health-promoting schools have been regarded as an important initiative in promoting child and adolescent health in school settings using the whole-school approach. Quantitative research has proved its effectiveness in various school-based programmes. However, few qualitative studies have been conducted to investigate the strategies used by health promoters to implement such initiatives. In this study, the researchers conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the qualitative literature to identify important enablers assisting the implementation of health-promoting schools from the perspectives of health promoters. Five enablers have been identified from the review: (a) Following a framework/guideline to implement health-promoting schools; (b) Obtaining committed support and contributions from the school staff, school board management, government authorities, health agencies and other stakeholders; (c) Adopting a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to implementing HPS; (d) Establishing professional networks and relationships; and (e) Continuing training and education in school health promotion. This highlights the importance of developing school health policies that meet local health needs, and socio-cultural characteristics that can foster mutual understanding between the health and education sectors so as to foster health promotion in children and adolescents. PMID:25264789
Malloy, Margaret; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R
Organizational climate has been proposed as a factor that might influence a school's readiness to successfully implement school-wide prevention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of teachers' perceptions of three dimensions of school organizational climate on the dosage and quality of teacher implementation of Positive Action, a social-emotional and character development (SECD) program. The dimensions measured were teachers' perceptions of (a) the school's openness to innovation, (b) the extent to which schools utilize participatory decision-making practices, and (c) the existence of supportive relationships among teachers (teacher-teacher affiliation). Data from 46 teachers in seven schools enrolled in the treatment arm of a longitudinal, cluster-randomized, controlled trial were analyzed. Teacher perceptions of a school's tendency to be innovative was associated with a greater number of lessons taught and self-reported quality of delivery, and teacher-teacher affiliation was associated with a higher use of supplementary activities. The findings suggest that perceptions of a school's organizational climate impact teachers' implementation of SECD programs and have implications for school administrators and technical assistance providers as they work to implement and sustain prevention programs in schools.
Lazdowsky, Lori; Rabner, Jonathan; Caruso, Alessandra; Kaczynski, Karen; Gottlieb, Sarah; Mahoney, Elyse; LeBel, Alyssa
Background: Headache is the most common type of pain reported in the pediatric population, and chronic headache is an increasingly prevalent and debilitating pain condition in children and adolescents. With large numbers of students experiencing acute headaches and more students with chronic headache reentering typical school settings, greater…
Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F
Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P ban commercial advertising by food or beverage companies (31.7% in 2005, 42.6% in 2008; P vending machines available during the lunch period (72.3% in 2004, 37.2% in 2008; P vending machines (83.8% in 2004, 73.5% in 2008; P
Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.
Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…
Casto, Hope G.; Sipple, John W.
School-community interactions facilitate connections between schools and their local surroundings; however, these relationships are subject not only to local political, economic, and social influences but also to broader political and institutional forces. Educational administrators' decisions about programming and partnering can be considered in…
Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Conley, Sharon
Schools employ educational technology to comply with pressures for greater accountability and efficiency in conducting operations. Specifically, schools use "management information systems" designed to automate data collection of student attendance, grades, test scores, and so on. These management information systems (MIS) employed…
Wright, Krystal M.
Schools are continuously searching for solutions to solve truancy, academic, behavioral, safety, and climate issues. One of the latest trends in education is requiring students to adhere to dress codes as a solution to these issues. Dress codes can range from slightly restrictive clothing to the requiring of a uniform. Many school district…
Boer, Perien Joniell
The purpose of this study was to explore how Namibian high school teachers experienced the ICT policy for education in their schools. This mixed methods sequential explanatory design consists of two distinct phases: quantitative followed by qualitative (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). Quantitative data collection involved the distribution and…
Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar
As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…
Lynch, Timothy; Soukup, Gregory J., Sr.
Quality physical education (QPE) in primary school optimises children's well-being. However, international research indicates that the preparation of classroom teachers is impeded by systemic barriers, resulting in low-classroom teacher confidence, competence and subsequent interest. This empirical research investigates school principal…
Wachob, David A.
The purpose of this study was to determine K-12 teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices of brain-based learning strategies in western Pennsylvania schools. The following five research questions were explored: (a) What is the extent of knowledge K-12 public school teachers have about the indicators of brain-based learning and Brain Gym?; (b) To…