WorldWideScience

Sample records for schools skeptics counter

  1. An Apology for Skepticism. Why Constructive Skepticism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Blanca Stănescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 2005 essay Umberto Eco stated that “we are supposed to live in a skeptical age. In fact we live in age of outrageous credulity.” Although his argument is primarily centered on religion losing ground lately due to increasing consumerism and mass-industrialization, it can easily be applied to almost any sphere of modern man’s existence. Eco’s point, and our own in writing this study on the necessity of constructive skepticism, is not that religion, mysticism or the occult are a benefic substitute for scientific discoveries, but that a society which conceives of itself as skeptical and rational is so willing to give up religion on the ground of its irrational character, and to take up the most phantasmagoric theories (e.g. The Da Vinci Code, alien attacks, etc. instead, without realizing that a possible absurdity is often carelessly replaced by a probable one.

  2. Ad skepticisms: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaging customer is the burning issue for companies especially the service sector, either online or offline. Minimizing the customer disengagement is the same like reducing dissatisfaction or churn. Customer disengagement may be caused by many factors, ad skepticism is one of them; ad skepticism has two main antecedents personality variable and consumption/influencing varia-bles. This research explores the relationship of ad skepticism with customer disengagement through personality variables which are cynicism, reactance and self-esteem. The unit of analysis is the telecom and banking industry of Pakistan which is foreseeing an era of virtual currency and both are customer oriented industries. Only offline disengagement is researched and data is collected from the Business centers of telecom and banking branches dealing with virtual curren-cy in Pakistan. Hypothetical model is given after digging the relevant literature; model is tested through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Eight hypotheses were purposed from the connections of model, all hypotheses are accepted except the cynicism posi-tive effect on social ad skepticism. This can be due to commonality of social and charity in Paki-stani society, Muslims consider charity as a pious act and they do not think for cynic behavior in charity or social related works. The results manifest that customers in telecom industry are hav-ing ad skepticism and that is becoming the cause of their disengagement. Further, social ad skep-ticism has more impact on the customer disengagement than the general ad skepticism. While the reactance has more effect on general ad skepticism than other antecedents and cynicism has the lowest impact on social ad skepticism than other antecedents.

  3. Skepticism, empathy, and animal suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltola, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. Resting on Wittgenstein and Husserl, it is argued that skepticism relies on a misguided epistemology and, thus, that key questions posed by it face the risk of absurdity. In the second part of the paper it is suggested that, instead of skepticism, empathy together with intersubjectivity be adopted. Edith Stein's take on empathy, along with contemporary findings, are explored, and the claim is made that it is only via these two methods of understanding that the suffering of nonhuman animals can be perceived.

  4. Private School Chains in Chile: Do Better Schools Scale Up? Policy Analysis. No. 682

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    There is a persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than do small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large, centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more…

  5. The globalization debate: The skeptics

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    Tadić Tadija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A devastating criticism of a "hard core" argumentation, stemming from skeptical authors, has strongly challenged an enthusiasm noticeable in most theoretical analyses of globalization, bringing to light many "darker sides" of the globalization phenomena. A detailed critical re-examination of their often unrealistic assumptions has presented a very serious challenge to globalists and has made room for the arising of the so called "great globalization debate", which has started over time to shape the mainstream of the contemporary social philosophy. In this paper we are closely looking into the way in which skeptics realize their devastating criticism of globalists' argumentation.

  6. The Effectiveness of Private School Franchises in Chile's National Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    There is persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more effective…

  7. Cynicism, Skepticism and History. Cioran and Veyne Cases

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    Roch Charles Little

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cynicism and skepticism are nowadays conceived as curiosities in the history of philosophical thought, reduced to "eccentric" characters like Diogenes of Sinope and Pyrrho of Elis and a series of anecdotes about them.However, they have gone beyond classical antiquity to the present. Both schools of thought offer a constant challenge to the "official" thought bon ton: mocking and irreverent criticism in the case of the first and extreme relativism in the second.This paper presents an epistemological approach supporting the recovery of the cynicism and the pyrrhonian skepticism principles for the criticism of the historical thought in the modernity It is divided into two parts: the first one shows the broad features of these philosophical trends and the second examines their contributions to historical knowledge based on two cases: Cioran for the cynicism and Veyne for the skepticism.

  8. Rorty, Williams, and Davidson: Skepticism and Metaepistemology

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    Christopher Ranalli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit an important exchange on the problem of radical skepticism between Richard Rorty and Michael Williams. In his contribution to this exchange, Rorty defended the kind of transcendental approach to radical skepticism that is offered by Donald Davidson, in contrast to Williams’s Wittgenstein-inspired view. It is argued that the key to evaluating this debate is to understand the particular conception of the radical skeptical problem that is offered in influential work by Barry Stroud, a conception of the skeptical problem which generates metaepistemological ramifications for anti-skeptical theories. In particular, we argue that, contra Williams, Rorty’s view that Davidson was offering a theoretical diagnosis of radical skepticism can be consistently maintained with his transcendental approach.

  9. Countering bullying at an australian secondary school with students as helpers.

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    Peterson, L; Rigby, K

    1999-08-01

    To counter bullying at an Australian coeducational secondary school, staff and students co-operated in developing and implementing appropriate policies and procedures. Questionnaires assessing the incidence of bullying and related attitudes were completed by students in Years 7, 9, 10 and 11 in 1995 and again in 1997. Significant reductions in levels of victimization were recorded for Year 7 students only. Significantly increased support for anti-bullying initiatives was found among senior students (Years 10 and 11). Anti-bullying activities directed and undertaken by students themselves received most approval from peers. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  10. The skeptical green consumer revisited: testing the relationship between green consumerism and skepticism toward advertising

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    Matthes, J.; Wonneberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits the widely believed notion of the skeptical green consumer, in other words, that green consumers tend to distrust green advertising. Study 1, a survey of U.S. consumers, found no positive relationship between green consumerism and general ad skepticism. However, green

  11. CSR and skepticism: the influence of fit and reputation on skepticism towards CSR communications

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    Elving, W.J.L.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Frandsen, F.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Consumers tend to be skeptic sometimes towards CSR outlets or communication of companies. In this experiment we tested the influence of fit and reputation on consumer skepticism when confronted with a Cause Related Marketing advertisement. DESIGN In a two (Fit versus no Fit) by three (bad

  12. Auditors' Professional Skepticism: Neutrality versus Presumptive Doubt

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    Groot, T.L.C.M.; Quadackers, L.M.; Wright, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although skepticism is widely viewed as essential to audit quality, there is a debate about what form is optimal. The two prevailing perspectives that have surfaced are "neutrality" and "presumptive doubt." With neutrality, auditors neither believe nor disbelieve client management. With presumptive

  13. Pedagogical Perspectives for the Online Education Skeptic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Pam Estes; Brewer, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    While online programs continue to grow at an astounding rate in higher education, many faculty remain skeptical of the efficacy of online models. This article provides an overview of some significant benefits of online education while recognizing some common concerns. An examination of the current literature and the authors' own online experiences…

  14. Dream Skepticism and the Conditionality Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Ernest Sosa (2007) has proposed two novel solutions to the problem of dream skepticism. In the present paper, I argue that Sosa's first solution falls prey to what I will refer to as the conditionality problem, i.e., the problem of only establishing a conditional---in this case, "if x......, then I am awake," x being a placeholder for a condition incompatible with dreaming---in a context where it also needs to be established that we can know that the antecedent holds, and as such can infer the consequent, i.e., "I am awake." Sosa's second solution in terms of so-called reflective knowledge......, I conclude that Sosa has not solved the problem of dream skepticism....

  15. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

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    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  16. Skepticism and Denial: Drawing a line

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    Byrne, J. M.; Brown, M. B.; Peacock, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate denialism is distinct from a merely skeptical attitude towards generally accepted views in climate science. But drawing the line between them takes care—there are similarities between skepticism and denial, including a shared reluctance to accept conclusions that nearly all qualified scientists take to be well-justified. Here we will explore both how to draw the line, and how to effectively communicate the differences between denial and skepticism. Identifying which of these two terms best describes someone's attitude turns on whether they reject a generally accepted view based on a `high threshold' for acceptance of conclusions in general, or from a preference that the conclusion in question be false. In most cases, denialism manifests in disregard and mistreatment of evidence, including selective quotation, credulous endorsement of bad sources and incredulous rejection of good sources. Historically, current accepted views became dominant as alternatives were excluded and arguments supporting current views accumulated. The accumulated record of evidence and successful application of those views sets a high bar for proposed alternatives to them. Pure skeptics may refuse to endorse generally accepted views without rejecting or distorting the strong evidence for those views, and typically support policy responses based on the implications of that evidence. But deniers who reject scientific conclusions reject the evidence for those views while endorsing views that a true skeptic would regard as less plausible and well-supported than the accepted views. Thus motivated cognition is the key to defining denial. Pascal's famous argument for belief in God illustrates the problem: even assuming God's existence to be extremely improbable, the expected value of believing is far higher than the expected value of disbelieving. But Pascal's argument undermines its own methodology: without reasons to rely on beliefs as reliable guides to successful action, cost

  17. What Is a Good Skeptic to Do? The Case for Skepticism in the Media Violence Discussion.

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    Gentile, Douglas A

    2015-09-01

    The discussion about violent video games tends to engender extreme positions, each of which are deserving of deep skepticism. Ferguson's (2015, this issue) claim that humans can do something repeatedly with no effect on them should be examined carefully, especially as it violates most established psychological and learning theories. In this commentary, we examine three aspects of Ferguson's claim. First, it is a typical rhetorical trick to sow doubt, but it is valuable to examine the doubting claims. Second, it is good rhetoric to direct attention in only one direction, but it is valuable to examine that direction within its broader outlook. Third, it is good rhetoric to imply bias on the part of one position, but it is valuable to examine the potential biases on all sides. Good science definitely requires skeptics. The problem with the violent video game debate is perhaps that we have not been skeptical enough. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Skeptic, The Forum for Contemporary History; Skeptic Educator's Handbook. Special Issue No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    Announced on a one time basis, this issue of Skeptic and its accompanying educator's handbook focus on crime. They are part of a series of debates-in-print in which a central question is defined and enlarged through expression of several conflicting views. The student magazine is organized into sections on the war on crime, its causes and…

  19. Moore(anists and Wittgenstein on Radical Skepticism

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    Nicola Claudio Salvatore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present and criticize a number of influential contemporary anti-skeptical strategies inspired by G.E. Moore’s “proof of an external world”. I argue that these accounts cannot represent a valid response to skeptical worries. Furthermore, drawing on Wittgenstein’s criticisms of Moore, I argue that Radical skeptical hypotheses should be considered nonsensical combinations of signs, excluded from our epistemic practices.

  20. Nonmonotonic Skeptical Consequence Relation in Constrained Default Logic

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    Mihaiela Lupea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the nonmonotonic consequence relation which models the skeptical reasoning formalised by constrained default logic. The nonmonotonic skeptical consequence relation is defined using the sequent calculus axiomatic system. We study the formal properties desirable for a good nonmonotonic relation: supraclassicality, cut, cautious monotony, cumulativity, absorption, distribution. 

  1. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

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    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parent, Teacher, and School Factors Associated with Over-the-Counter Drug Use among Multiracial Youth

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    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter (OTC) drug use is an increasing health issue among adolescents. Purpose: This study investigated OTC drug use among 7th through 12th grade multiracial students in one metropolitan area. Methods: A total of 2134 students completed the PRIDE Questionnaire, which examines alcohol and other drug use. Results: A total of…

  3. From Cell Phone Skeptic to Evangelist

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    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Liz Kolb started her education career as a teacher of middle and high school social studies in Wyoming City Schools in Cincinnati. She was also a teacher and technology coordinator at Grandview Heights City Schools in Columbus, where she adamantly opposed cell phones in school until she had an "ah-ha" moment. She then founded the Web site Cell…

  4. Measuring Levels of Skepticism Towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Theofilou, Anastasios; Jerofejeva, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine how skepticism, as a personality trait, towards CSR initiatives of companies affects students’ decisions to reward (support by purchasing) or punish (by boycotting) companies for their behaviour. The literature review suggests that very few studies considered skepticism as a possible determinant of consumer attitudes towards CSR. A mixed method approach was taken to ensure\\ud triangulation, including the use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Int...

  5. Needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuzo

    1977-01-01

    Needle counter had been devised by Geiger about 60 years ago before the present GM counter appeared. It is suitable for the detection of weak radiation because it is limited in effective volume, if the background due to mainly cosmic ray is proportional to the effective volume of the counter. Recently the very low β detector having a needle counter as the main detector has been developed. It showed highly excellent performance in the measurements of small area samples, about ten times sensitive as compared with other detectors. The counter is installed in the very low radiation measuring well at Nokogiriyama, Chiba Prefecture, using a NaI scintillator as its guard counter. D. H. Wilkinson first treated a gas amplification counter theoretically and quantitatively. The authors have obtained good results in the comparison with the experiments of the counter using a generalized form of Wilkinson theory. The findings obtained through this study seem to be applicable to the electrode arrangement which is important for the counter design. It was found that the excellent rise time of induced pulses in a gas amplification counter was achieved in larger amplification factor and smaller convolution effect. In the detection of charged particles with small obstructing capability such as γ ray, faster rise time and higher pulses can be obtained with needle counters than wire counters. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Counter-Storytelling with African Proverbs: A Vehicle for Teaching Social Justice and Global Understanding in Urban, U.S. Schools

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    Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Although the current demographics of urban schools in the United States reflect a rapid growth of culturally and linguistically diverse students, curricula continue to emphasize mainstream culture; cultural and linguistic experiences of these diverse students are ignored. In this article, the author examines how the use of counter storytelling in…

  7. Exchanging and Countering Points of View: A Linguistic Perspective on School Students' Use of Electronic Conferencing

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    Coffin, C.; North, S.; Martin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to argue is an important academic goal in secondary education. This paper reports on an exploratory study which investigated how asynchronous text-based conferencing provides a new site for school students to rehearse and develop their skills in argumentation. The study used linguistic tools of analysis to investigate two key…

  8. Forensic neuropsychology: a reply to the method skeptics.

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    Barth, J T; Ryan, T V; Hawk, G L

    1991-09-01

    Various critics or "method skeptics" have contended that clinical neuropsychology is not sufficiently developed as a science to be offered as evidence in legal or trial proceedings. The present article attempts to balance the extreme position of the method skeptics with an overview of legal and research data that support forensic applications of neuropsychology. It is suggested that clinical evidence can usefully inform legal decision making and that the modern trend has been for courts to be increasingly open to such expert testimony. The relevance of studies of clinical judgement, experience, and actuarial prediction is discussed, and neuropsychological assessment validity is specifically addressed. It is concluded that the arguments of the method skeptics should guide future research and caution forensic neuropsychologists, but that a retreat from the courtroom is unwarranted.

  9. Countering school bullying: An analysis of policy content in Ontario and Saskatchewan

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    Ginette Diane Roberge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extreme school violence as a direct consequence of bullying among peers, exacerbated by vast media attention, has caused educational institutions worldwide to put bullying intervention and prevention strategies into operation. This study focused on an overview of two provincewide antibullying incentives in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Saskatchewan, and an analysis of the quality of their respective antibullying policies. An itemized list of beneficial practices for bullying intervention and prevention originated from Smith, Smith, Osborn and Samara (2008’s scoring scheme. The scoring scheme was adapted to the current study by linking research-based program elements that have been found to be effective in reducing school bullying to a content analysis of both provincial frameworks. The final scoring scheme comprised a total of 39 criterions, divided into five categories: Defining Bullying Behaviors, Establishing a Positive School Climate, Disseminating, Monitoring and Reviewing Policy, Reporting and Responding to Bullying, and Involving the Broader Community. Results showed that policies contained a total average of 60% of the criterions in Ontario, and 59% in Saskatchewan. The conclusion of this study observes from policy lenses key essentials of bullying intervention and prevention initiatives in elementary and secondary educational settings. Recommendations are proposed to bridge the gap between areas that have received extensive attention and areas that have received less treatment in bullying intervention and prevention endeavors, using the content of Ontario and Saskatchewan policies as a basis for discussion.

  10. Science and the Public: Debate, Denial, and Skepticism

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    Stephan Lewandowsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When the scientific method yields discoveries that imperil people’s lifestyle or worldviews or impinge on corporate vested interests, the public and political response can be anything but favorable. Sometimes the response slides into overt denial of scientific facts, although this denial is often claimed to involve “skepticism”. We outline the distinction between true skepticism and denial with several case studies. We propose some guidelines to enable researchers to differentiate legitimate critical engagement from bad-faith harassment, and to enable members of the public to pursue their skeptical engagement and critique without such engagement being mistaken for harassment.

  11. Whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Satou, Hideo; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low "1"3"4"/"1"3"7Cs MDA of <50 Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium. Using the MDAs, upper limits of daily intake of radiocesium were estimated for each child. For those screened with the Babyscan, the upper intake limits were found to be ≲1 Bq/day for "1"3"7Cs. Analysis of a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents regarding their food and water consumption shows that the majority of Miharu children regularly consume local and/or home-grown rice and vegetables. This however does not increase the body burden. (author)

  12. Whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Satou, Hideo; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu

    Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low $^{134/137}$Cs MDA of $< 50$ Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium. Using the MDAs, upper limits of daily intake of radiocesium were estimated for each child. For those screened with the Babyscan, the upper intake limits were found to be <1 Bq/day for $^{137}$Cs. Analysis of a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents regarding their food and water consumption shows that the majority of Miharu children regularly consume local and/or home-grown rice and vegetables. This however does not increase the body burden.

  13. Countering the ‘Natural’ Organizational Self on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Trine Susanne

    2017-01-01

    , challenge and contradict organizational self-narration in light of market place skepticism and cynicism. The study identifies three strategies of counter-narrativizing (authenticity, legitimacy and irony) based on juxtaposing pairs of opposites. Moreover, it suggests counter-narration to be a natural......Using narrative as a theoretical and methodological lens, this study explores digital processes of organizational identity construction in the intersection between organization and market.The purpose is to understand the ways in which online interactions produce counter-narratives that contrast...

  14. The Relationship between Accounting Students' Personality, Professional Skepticism and Anticipatory Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Magdy S.; Elias, Rafik Z.

    2016-01-01

    Professional skepticism is an essential component of every successful audit. Research in psychology identified the trait professional skepticism as an enduring personality construct. The current study examines the relationship between the Big Five personality characteristics and accounting students' trait professional skepticism and their level of…

  15. Functional Flexibility in Women's Commitment-Skepticism Bias

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    Christina M. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available If a woman overestimates her romantic partner's commitment, the cost to her fitness—reproduction without an investing partner—can be considerable. Error Management Theory predicts that women have an evolved bias to be skeptical of men's commitment in a relationship, which reduces the likelihood of making a costly false positive error. However, because error probabilities are inversely related, this commitment-skepticism bias simultaneously increases the likelihood of missed opportunities, or false negatives. False positives when gauging a partner's commitment are the more costly error for women, but missing an opportunity to secure a genuinely high-quality mate can also be quite costly. We predicted and found that women's mating cognitions are functionally flexible, such that women do not exhibit the commitment-skepticism bias when faced with behavioral evidence that a male partner is willing to commit (Study 1. This suggests that relationship-enhancing behaviors are one contextual cue that may lessen the bias. However, not all relationship-enhancing behaviors are equally diagnostic of a person's true commitment intent. When comparing men and women's commitment thresholds, we found that women require more behavioral evidence than men do to feel certain of their partner's commitment to them (Study 2.

  16. Science and Fiction. On Don Quijote’s Epistemological Skepticism

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    Félix Schmelzer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work seeks to analyze the representation of scientific knowledge in Cervantes’ Quixote, focusing on various passages that underline the scientific expertise of don Quixote himself. It is shown that the novel contains a subtle critique of science, based on an epistemological skepticism with regard to the arbitrariness of our world concepts. The characterization of don Quixote as a man of science even permits deducting that he suffers from a ‘double mental damage’, caused by the lecture of both books of cavalry and science. Cervantes thus would consider science to be fiction, a very modern point of view.

  17. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  18. Intermediate Conditions of Democratic Accountability: A Response to Electoral Skepticism

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    J. S. Maloy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to respond to “democratic deficits” in modern constitutional republics must contend with the broad scholarly trend of electoral skepticism. While generally casting doubt on periodic competitive elections’ suitability as vehicles of accountability, electoral skepticism does not necessarily entail an absolute devaluation of elections. Some normative and empirical research responds to this trend by refocusing attention on values other than popular power, such as civil peace, which might be served by periodic competitive elections. Another response short of abandoning the value of popular power, however, is to draw out possibilities for institutional design from the restricted conditions under which previous study has found electoral accountability to be plausible or likely. This second task requires an empirically informed exercise in political theory. Pursuing it in a programmatic and policy-relevant way requires descending from the grand, systemic level of constitutional structures and electoral formulae to intermediate (or middle-range institutional conditions of accountability, such as rules about parties, campaigns, and election administration. My analysis reinterprets principal-agent models to develop four general types of crucial condition for electoral accountability, and then ramifies this scheme by reference to recent empirical research. The result is a “top ten” list of specific institutional factors that could be theoretically decisive in helping or hindering electoral accountability. These ten conditions could guide future research designs and reform proposals alike.

  19. Research, Ideology, and the Brown Decision: Counter-Narratives to the Historical and Contemporary Representation of Black Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Most narratives of Brown v. Board of Education primarily focus on integrated schooling as the ultimate objective in Black people's quest for quality schooling. Rather than uniformly assuming integration as Black people's ideological model, the push by Black people for quality schooling instead should be viewed within the…

  20. 'Civil skepticism' and the social construction of knowledge: A case in dendroclimatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-I-Ollé, Meritxell

    2018-03-01

    Early Science and Technology Studies (STS) scholars recognized that the social construction of knowledge depends on skepticism's parasitic relationship to background expectations and trust. Subsequent generations have paid less empirical attention to skepticism in science and its relationship with trust. I seek to rehabilitate skepticism in STS - particularly, Merton's view of skepticism as a scientific norm sustained by trust among status peers - with a study of what I call 'civil skepticism'. The empirical grounding is a case in contemporary dendroclimatology and the development of a method ('Blue Intensity') for generating knowledge about climate change from trees. I present a sequence of four instances of civil skepticism involved in making Blue Intensity more resistant to critique, and hence credible (in laboratory experiments, workshops, conferences, and peer-review of articles). These skeptical interactions depended upon maintaining communal notions of civility among an increasingly extended network of mutually trusted peers through a variety of means: by making Blue Intensity complementary to existing methods used to study a diverse natural world (tree-ring patterns) and by contributing to a shared professional goal (the study of global climate change). I conclude with a sociological theory about the role of civil skepticism in constituting knowledge-claims of greater generality and relevance.

  1. Optimal learning on climate change: why climate skeptics should reduce emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; Willems, T.

    2015-01-01

    Climate skeptics typically argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous, implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing emissions until we know what drives warming. This paper however shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a

  2. Optimal learning on climate change: why climate skeptics should reduce emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; Willems, T.

    2012-01-01

    Climate skeptics argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions until we know more. However this paper shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a change of

  3. A changing climate of skepticism: The factors shaping climate change coverage in the US press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Petri, Hannah; Adam, Silke; Schmucki, Ivo; Häussler, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Skepticism toward climate change has a long tradition in the United States. We focus on mass media as the conveyors of the image of climate change and ask: Is climate change skepticism still a characteristic of US print media coverage? If so, to what degree and in what form? And which factors might pave the way for skeptics entering mass media debates? We conducted a quantitative content analysis of US print media during one year (1 June 2012 to 31 May 2013). Our results show that the debate has changed: fundamental forms of climate change skepticism (such as denial of anthropogenic causes) have been abandoned in the coverage, being replaced by more subtle forms (such as the goal to avoid binding regulations). We find no evidence for the norm of journalistic balance, nor do our data support the idea that it is the conservative press that boosts skepticism.

  4. No more this than that: skeptical impression or Pyrrhonian dogma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necip Fikri Alican

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a defense of Pyrrhonian skepticism against the charge that the suspension of judgment based on equipollence is vitiated by the assent given to the equipollence in question. The apparent conflict has a conceptual side as well as a practical side, examined here as separate challenges with a section devoted to each. The conceptual challenge is that the skeptical transition from an equipollence of arguments to a suspension of judgment is undermined either by a logical contradiction or by an epistemic inconsistency, perhaps by both, because the determination and affirmation of equipollence is itself a judgment of sorts, one that is not suspended. The practical challenge is that, independently of any conceptual confusion or contradiction, suspending judgment in reaction to equipollence evinces doxastic commitment to equipollence, if only because human beings are not capable of making assessments requiring rational determination without believing the corresponding premises and conclusions to be true. The two analytic sections addressing these challenges are preceded by two prefatory sections, one laying out the epistemic process, the other reviewing the evidentiary context. The response from the conceptual perspective is that the suspension of judgment based on equipollence is not a reasoned conclusion adopted as the truth of the matter but a natural reaction to an impression left by the apparently equal weight of opposing arguments. The response from the practical perspective is that the acknowledgment of equipollence is not just an affirmation of the equal weight of arguments but also an admission of inability to decide, suggesting that any assent, express or implied, is thrust upon the Pyrrhonist in a state of epistemic paralysis affecting the will and the intellect on the matter being investigated. This just leaves a deep disagreement, if any, regarding whether equipollence is an inference based on discursive activity or an impression

  5. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  6. Direct-to-consumer advertising skepticism and the use and perceived usefulness of prescription drug information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, Denise E; Huh, Jisu; Reid, Leonard N

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates advertising skepticism in the context of consumers' prescription drug information seeking behavior. Results of a telephone survey found that: (a) the overall level of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) skepticism among consumers was neutral; (b) DTCA skepticism was unrelated to age, positively related to education and income, and varied by race; (c) however, when all the antecedent variables were considered concurrently, only education emerged as a significant predictor (consumers with higher education were more skeptical of DTCA); (d) DTCA skepticism was not significantly related to perceived importance of prescription drug information; (e) DTCA skepticism was not associated with use of advertising and interpersonal sources of prescription drug information; and (f) DTCA skepticism was negatively related to perceived usefulness of advertising sources but unrelated to perceived usefulness of professional interpersonal sources (i.e., physicians and pharmacists). The article concludes with a discussion of findings and directions for future research.

  7. Not All Skepticism Is Equal: Exploring the Ideological Antecedents of Science Acceptance and Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T.; Sutton, Robbie M.; van der Lee, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people’s ideological worldviews. We report three studies—including an analysis of large-scale survey data—in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of science skepticism of climate change, vaccination, and genetic modification (GM). The main predictors are religiosity and political orientation, morality, and science understanding. Overall, science understanding is associated with vaccine and GM food acceptance, but not climate change acceptance. Importantly, different ideological predictors are related to the acceptance of different scientific findings. Political conservatism best predicts climate change skepticism. Religiosity, alongside moral purity concerns, best predicts vaccination skepticism. GM food skepticism is not fueled by religious or political ideology. Finally, religious conservatives consistently display a low faith in science and an unwillingness to support science. Thus, science acceptance and rejection have different ideological roots, depending on the topic of investigation. PMID:29191107

  8. Trust and Professional Skepticism in the Relationship between auditors and Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschauer, Ewald; Fink, Matthias; Moro, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationship between auditors' identification-based trust in client firm's managers and their perceptions of auditors' professional skepticism. We employ a multimethod approach broken Down into two studies. First, in study 1, we approached auditors...... collected from 233 real auditor-client dyads in Germany reveals that auditors' identification-based trust is positively Associated with their clients' perception of the auditors' professional skepticism. The identified coexistence of trust and professional skepticism in auditor-client dyads implies...... that regulatory measures that impede the evolution of trust between auditors and their clients will fail to enhance professional skepticism. instead, regulations should give auditors and their clients sufficient leeway to establish identification-based trust....

  9. An air-filled GM counter as an educational tool and its use at senior high school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikado, Shogo

    1999-01-01

    A Yano-Yonemura type air-filled Geiger-Meuller tube which operates at about 4 kV, having poor resolution but rather high sensitivity, and which is capable of detecting alpha-particles was fabricated. It was found suitable as an educational material for use for one of the 2-hours group experiments in Physics IB' course at senior high school of Japan. Detailed instruction for the fabrication is given, together with some results of the measurement of beta-rays from potassium and also alpha-rays from thorium. (S. Ohno)

  10. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Fatehi, L.; Kuzma, J.

    2015-01-01

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future

  11. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development (United States); Fatehi, L. [Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota (United States); Kuzma, J., E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  12. The Effect of Skepticism on Attitude and Purchase Intention of Green Products

    OpenAIRE

    Abílio Peixoto Diógenes; Minelle Enéas da Silva; Josimar Souza Costa

    2017-01-01

    Continually consumers are sought to alleviate its impacts on environmental problems of society. However, often the existence of a green market it is not align with customer expectations, which may be them skeptical toward advertising offered. Under this context, the paper aims at investigating the effect of skepticism toward advertising on the attitude and purchase intention of green products. Hence, a survey with 508 consumers was carried out. Through a structured equation modeling, the test...

  13. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested.

  14. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested. PMID:24223542

  15. Reporting dream experience:Why (not to be skeptical about dream reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Michelle Windt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested.

  16. Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Cherenkov counter described for use at Isabelle is a threshold counter in which light is focussed on phototubes. The counter is applicable in large-angle, small-aperture magnetic spectrometers for measurement of particle yields at large p/sub T/. Three of these counters will provide complete π-K-p separation in the range of 7-20 GeV/c. Other Cherenkov counters are discussed and a bibliography of relevant literature on the counters utilizing photoionization is included

  17. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  18. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  19. Vaccination persuasion online: a qualitative study of two provaccine and two vaccine-skeptical websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lenny; Hausman, Bernice L; Cashion, Margaret; Lucchesi, Nicholas; Patel, Kelsey; Roberts, Jonathan

    2015-05-29

    Current concerns about vaccination resistance often cite the Internet as a source of vaccine controversy. Most academic studies of vaccine resistance online use quantitative methods to describe misinformation on vaccine-skeptical websites. Findings from these studies are useful for categorizing the generic features of these websites, but they do not provide insights into why these websites successfully persuade their viewers. To date, there have been few attempts to understand, qualitatively, the persuasive features of provaccine or vaccine-skeptical websites. The purpose of this research was to examine the persuasive features of provaccine and vaccine-skeptical websites. The qualitative analysis was conducted to generate hypotheses concerning what features of these websites are persuasive to people seeking information about vaccination and vaccine-related practices. This study employed a fully qualitative case study methodology that used the anthropological method of thick description to detail and carefully review the rhetorical features of 1 provaccine government website, 1 provaccine hospital website, 1 vaccine-skeptical information website focused on general vaccine safety, and 1 vaccine-skeptical website focused on a specific vaccine. The data gathered were organized into 5 domains: website ownership, visual and textual content, user experience, hyperlinking, and social interactivity. The study found that the 2 provaccine websites analyzed functioned as encyclopedias of vaccine information. Both of the websites had relatively small digital ecologies because they only linked to government websites or websites that endorsed vaccination and evidence-based medicine. Neither of these websites offered visitors interactive features or made extensive use of the affordances of Web 2.0. The study also found that the 2 vaccine-skeptical websites had larger digital ecologies because they linked to a variety of vaccine-related websites, including government websites. They

  20. Public skepticism of psychology: why many people perceive the study of human behavior as unscientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-01-01

    Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.

  1. Multimode pulse counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanzon, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulse counter with code conversion is described. The counter is based on the integrated circuits of direct-counting devices of medium integration. The counter ensures various modes of pulse counting depending on the logical control signals: reversible, two-channel summing, one-channel summing binary, summing with ''storage'' signal code fixation without interrupting pulse counting. Arrangement of the suggested structure as a microcircuit of medium integration might contribute to reduction in the counter type nomenclature in digital families of widely used integrated circuits

  2. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  3. Paranormal believers are more prone to illusory agency detection than skeptics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that illusory agency detection is at the basis of belief in supernatural agents and paranormal beliefs. In the present study a biological motion perception task was used to study illusory agency detection in a group of skeptics and a group of paranormal believers.

  4. Epistemic rationality : Skepticism toward unfounded beliefs requires sufficient cognitive ability and motivation to be rational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ståhl, Tomas; van Prooijen, Jan Willem

    2018-01-01

    Why does belief in the paranormal, conspiracy theories, and various other phenomena that are not backed up by evidence remain widespread in modern society? In the present research we adopt an individual difference approach, as we seek to identify psychological precursors of skepticism toward

  5. How climate change skeptical leaders may “Trump” supporters’ pro-environmental engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson Zawadzki, Stephanie; Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Linda; Druen, Perri B.

    2017-01-01

    We explored how climate change engagement may be impacted when climate skeptical leaders are elected and implement policies that contribute to climate change. We used questionnaires at 3 time points (1 day before US election, 20 days into Trump administration, 100 days into Trump administration)

  6. Are Recent Medical Graduates More Skeptical of Vaccines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Damico

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rates of delay and refusal of recommended childhood vaccines are increasing in many U.S. communities. Children’s health care providers have a strong influence on parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about vaccines. Provider attitudes towards immunizations vary and affect their immunization advocacy. One factor that may contribute to this variability is their familiarity with vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of health care provider year of graduation with vaccines and vaccine-preventable disease beliefs. We conducted a cross sectional survey in 2005 of primary care providers identified by parents of children whose children were fully vaccinated or exempt from one or more school immunization requirements. We examined the association of provider graduation cohort (5 years with beliefs on immunization, disease susceptibility, disease severity, vaccine safety, and vaccine efficacy. Surveys were completed by 551 providers (84.3% response rate. More recent health care provider graduates had 15% decreased odds of believing vaccines are efficacious compared to graduates from a previous 5 year period; had lower odds of believing that many commonly used childhood vaccines were safe; and 3.7% of recent graduates believed that immunizations do more harm than good. Recent health care provider graduates have a perception of the risk-benefit balance of immunization, which differs from that of their older counterparts. This change has the potential to be reflected in their immunization advocacy and affect parental attitudes.

  7. Counter-cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R. Canetti; J.A. Garay

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks. Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility. Instead,

  8. A Neutron Rem Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J

    1964-01-15

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF{sub 3} proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF{sub 3} counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60.

  9. Film and skepticism Cavell’s „correction“ of poststructuralist philosophy of arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is the critique of poststructuralist theory of art, and particularly thesis about the avant-garde peace of art as a kind of transgression. As a starting point of this critique, the ordinary language philosophy developed by American philosopher Stanley Cavell is used, particularly his film theory. While poststructuralist philosophy was developed around the notion of ideology, Cavell interprets film and arts in general around the notion of skepticism. While poststructuralism, because of thesis about avant-garde as a kind of transgression within the field of ideology, is a kind of philosophy of negation, we point out that Cavell’s philosophy is a utopian theory of transcending of skepticism where avant-garde film has significant but not crucial place. Cavell’s thesis is used as a basis for re-thinking of modernism, which is in opposition to postmodernist turn realized by poststructuralism.

  10. Environmental Skeptics and Critics (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/environsc/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    environsc@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Environmental Skeptics and Critics ISSN 2224-4263 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/environsc/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/environsc/rss.xml E-mail: environsc@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope The more truth is debated, the clearer it becomes. Science will not proceed without debate and controversy. Wide and in-depth debate and controversy on human's knowledge, attitudes, policies and practices on the environment determines the future of our planet. There are numerous controversial and potentially controversial issues on environmental sciences and practices. ENVIRONMENTAL SKEPTICS and CRITICS (ISSN 2224-4263 is an international journal devoted to the publication of skeptical and critical articles/short communications/letters on theories, viewpoints, methodologies, practices, policies, etc., in ecological and environmental areas. The journal provides a forum for questioning, disputing, arguing, challenging, criticizing and judging known theories, methdologies, practices, and policies, etc., or presenting different ideas. The scope of Environmental Skeptics and Critics is wide and embraces all controversial, non-conclusive or unexplained issues in ecological and environmental areas. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, environsc@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  11. How climate change skeptical leaders may “Trump” supporters’ pro-environmental engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Zawadzki, Stephanie; Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Linda; Druen, Perri B.

    2017-01-01

    We explored how climate change engagement may be impacted when climate skeptical leaders are elected and implement policies that contribute to climate change. We used questionnaires at 3 time points (1 day before US election, 20 days into Trump administration, 100 days into Trump administration) with independent samples. Trump supporters’ behavioral intentions, perceived risks, emotional engagement, and policy preferences lower than prior to presidential election (ps < .05), though their beli...

  12. Da (contranormatividade do cotidiano escolar: problematizando discursos sobre a indisciplina discente On the (counter-normative spectrum of everyday school life: an analysis of the disciplinary events of a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Groppa Aquino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo ambiciona colocar em causa a proliferação discursiva contemporânea em torno das condutas do alunado tidas como indisciplinadas, situando-a, em diálogo com a conceituação foucaultiana, no interior de um quadro socio-histórico e institucional atravessado por demandas multiformes de governamento dos sujeitos escolares. Para tanto, o texto oferece primeiramente uma configuração preliminar da produção acadêmica brasileira sobre a temática disciplinar nas últimas três décadas, bem como problematiza os nortes teórico-metodológicos da investigação voltada ao âmbito (contranormativo do cotidiano escolar. Em seguida, apresenta os resultados de uma investigação baseada nos registros das ocorrências disciplinares que tomaram lugar no ensino médio de uma escola pública na cidade de São Paulo, num intervalo de cinco anos (2003-2007. Por fim, opera algumas aproximações analíticas do problema, apontando que se as queixas disciplinares parecem ser, num primeiro momento, solidárias a uma espécie de esgarçadura do modus operandi escolar clássico, num segundo momento, elas passam a apontar para a irrupção de modos sutis de controle das condutas não apenas discentes, mas também dos profissionais, de modo consoante aos processos de governamentalização em ação na contemporaneidade.This article seeks to question the present day proliferation of discourses related to undisciplined conduct of pupils in schools. Such propagation will be situated, within a foucaultian framework, against the backdrop of complex institutional and socio-historic realities constituted by multiple demands of government of the school subjects. It starts out with a preliminary overview of brazilian academic production concerning the disciplinary theme, and spanning over the last three decades. This leads to a problematization of the theoretical and methodological orientations of research regarding the (counter-normative in everyday school life

  13. Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movement than skeptics: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Raij, Tuukka T

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has attempted to explain why some believe in the supernatural and some do not. One suggested explanation for commonly held supernatural beliefs is that they are a by-product of theory of mind (ToM) processing. However, this does not explain why skeptics with intact ToM processes do not believe. We employed fMRI to investigate activation differences in ToM-related brain circuitries between supernatural believers (N = 12) and skeptics (N = 11) while they watched 2D animations of geometric objects moving intentionally or randomly and rated the intentionality of the animations. The ToM-related circuitries in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were localized by contrasting intention-rating-related and control-rating-related brain activation. Compared with the skeptics, the supernatural believers rated the random movements as more intentional and had stronger activation of the ToM-related circuitries during the animation with random movement. The strength of the ToM-related activation covaried with the intentionality ratings. These findings provide evidence that differences in ToM-related activations are associated with supernatural believers' tendency to interpret random phenomena in mental terms. Thus, differences in ToM processing may contribute to differences between believing and unbelieving.

  14. Paranormal believers are more prone to illusory agency detection than skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2013-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that illusory agency detection is at the basis of belief in supernatural agents and paranormal beliefs. In the present study a biological motion perception task was used to study illusory agency detection in a group of skeptics and a group of paranormal believers. Participants were required to detect the presence or absence of a human agent in a point-light display. It was found that paranormal believers had a lower perceptual sensitivity than skeptics, which was due to a response bias to 'yes' for stimuli in which no agent was present. The relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory agency detection held only for stimuli with low to intermediate ambiguity, but for stimuli with a high number of visual distractors responses of believers and skeptics were at the same level. Furthermore, it was found that illusory agency detection was unrelated to traditional religious belief and belief in witchcraft, whereas paranormal beliefs (i.e. Psi, spiritualism, precognition, superstition) were strongly related to illusory agency detection. These findings qualify the relation between illusory pattern perception and supernatural and paranormal beliefs and suggest that paranormal beliefs are strongly related to agency detection biases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Semantyczne założenia sceptycyzmu kartezjańskiego (Semantic Presuppositions of Cartesian Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Posłajko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper purports to show that in order to formulate the hypothesis that all our beliefs are collectively false – which is taken to be the core of Cartesian skepticism – one must accept the presumption that semantic properties of subject`s beliefs locally supervene on “internal” properties of said subject. In order to show that the responses to skepticism from semantic externalism, i.e. those formulated by Putnam and Davidson, are analyzed. It is argued that even though these arguments are controversial they indicate that Cartesian skeptic must assume that subject beliefs` semantic properties can remain the same in different surroundings, which is exactly what the supervenience thesis amounts to. Finally, it is pointed out that the skepticism introduced by Kripke in his discussion of rule-following is indeed more radical than traditional, Cartesian one, as the former denies the very thesis that the latter must assume.

  16. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin; Takiah Mohd Iskandar; Norman Mohd Saleh; Romlah Jaffar

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2) Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 a...

  17. Nuclear timer/counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuthayavanich, S.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis represents the development of a Timer/COUNTER compatible to the standard Nuclear Instrument Module Specifications. The unit exhibits high accuracy, light weight and ease of maintenance. The unit also has a built-in precision discriminator to discriminate unwanted signals that may cause interference in counting. With line frequency time base the timer can be preset in steps from 0.1 sec. to 9 x 10 5 min. The counter with six digits miniature display and an overflow output has a maximum counting rate of 10 MHz. The accumulated counting data can be transferred to a teletype or printer for hard copy printout with the aid of ORTEC 777 Line Printer or 432 A Print-out Control or any print out interface with input compatible to the print output of the Timer/Counter. Owing to its NIM compatibility the unit is directly powered by the NIM power supply

  18. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2 Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 and non-Big4 firms; 3 The results indicate that professional skepticism and experience have positive effects while time budget pressure has a negative effect on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; and 4 The positive effect of professional skepticism on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatement is stronger among more experienced auditors than that among less experienced. On the other hand, the positive effect of professional skepticism on risk assessment is weaker when auditors work under high time budget pressure than that when they work under low time budget pressure. Additional analysis on the samples from the two selected areas, Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, produces consistent results indicating that the use of separate models for different samples is not necessary. Hence, the study uses a single model for the final analysis. The results provide a better understanding on whether the auditors are able to sustain professional skepticism with a given amount of relevant audit experience and under different levels of time budget pressure.

  19. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  20. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  1. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  2. Counter radicalization development assistance

    OpenAIRE

    van Hippel, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews current research and practice and recommends strategies for development agencies working in the Arab and Muslim world. It builds on the basic assumption that the realization of the Millennium Development Goals will be vital to reduce support for terrorism in the long term. Within this overall framework, emphasis is placed on particular programs that could be specifically applied to counter radicalization.

  3. Whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, G A; Kosterev, V V

    1975-01-24

    A counter for detecting radiation of a man (CRM) is described, which consists of two measuring converters and a recording device. In order to obtain data on spatial distribution of a gamma-radiating nuclide studied, a fixed collimator and a mobile coder made of separate slit elements are placed between the measuring converters and an object investigated.

  4. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  5. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  6. Paranormal psychic believers and skeptics: a large-scale test of the cognitive differences hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

    2016-02-01

    Belief in paranormal psychic phenomena is widespread in the United States, with over a third of the population believing in extrasensory perception (ESP). Why do some people believe, while others are skeptical? According to the cognitive differences hypothesis, individual differences in the way people process information about the world can contribute to the creation of psychic beliefs, such as differences in memory accuracy (e.g., selectively remembering a fortune teller's correct predictions) or analytical thinking (e.g., relying on intuition rather than scrutinizing evidence). While this hypothesis is prevalent in the literature, few have attempted to empirically test it. Here, we provided the most comprehensive test of the cognitive differences hypothesis to date. In 3 studies, we used online screening to recruit groups of strong believers and strong skeptics, matched on key demographics (age, sex, and years of education). These groups were then tested in laboratory and online settings using multiple cognitive tasks and other measures. Our cognitive testing showed that there were no consistent group differences on tasks of episodic memory distortion, autobiographical memory distortion, or working memory capacity, but skeptics consistently outperformed believers on several tasks tapping analytical or logical thinking as well as vocabulary. These findings demonstrate cognitive similarities and differences between these groups and suggest that differences in analytical thinking and conceptual knowledge might contribute to the development of psychic beliefs. We also found that psychic belief was associated with greater life satisfaction, demonstrating benefits associated with psychic beliefs and highlighting the role of both cognitive and noncognitive factors in understanding these individual differences.

  7. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  8. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. ... medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. Taking OTC medicines still has risks. Some interact ...

  9. Bond-market skepticism and stock-market exuberance in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C

    2002-01-01

    The hospital industry needs funds to refurbish physical facilities, upgrade clinical and information technologies, and rebuild financial positions weakened by past external challenges and unwise organizational strategies. The financial markets offer a marked contrast in capital access, as bond creditors remain skeptical while stock investors plunge back into the once-shunned industry. Ironically, high stock prices may drive the for-profit chains to repeat past cycles of overexpansion, while weak bond ratings may save non-profit systems from a comparable loss of focus on the core business of operating and improving inpatient facilities. This turbulence has implications for public payment, antitrust, and financial disclosure policies.

  10. Evaluating the US Counter-ISIL Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    strategy is actually addressing those critical capabilities and vulnerabilities. Finally, it explores alternative, whole-of-government strategies that...Counterterrorism Strategies as an Illustration. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation , 2009. Enduring Leadership in a Dynamic World. Quadrennial Diplomacy...Evaluating the US Counter-ISIL Strategy A Monograph by LTC Jason A. Curl U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army

  11. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  12. Spatial heterogeneity of climate change as an experiential basis for skepticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Mann, Michael L; Gopal, Sucharita; Liederman, Jackie A; Howe, Peter D; Pretis, Felix; Tang, Xiaojing; Gilmore, Michelle

    2017-01-03

    We postulate that skepticism about climate change is partially caused by the spatial heterogeneity of climate change, which exposes experiential learners to climate heuristics that differ from the global average. This hypothesis is tested by formalizing an index that measures local changes in climate using station data and comparing this index with survey-based model estimates of county-level opinion about whether global warming is happening. Results indicate that more stations exhibit cooling and warming than predicted by random chance and that spatial variations in these changes can account for spatial variations in the percentage of the population that believes that "global warming is happening." This effect is diminished in areas that have experienced more record low temperatures than record highs since 2005. Together, these results suggest that skepticism about climate change is driven partially by personal experiences; an accurate heuristic for local changes in climate identifies obstacles to communicating ongoing changes in climate to the public and how these communications might be improved.

  13. Performance of informative priors skeptical of large treatment effects in clinical trials: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Claudia; Han, Weilu; Thanh Truong, Van Thi; Green, Charles; Tyson, Jon E

    2018-01-01

    One of the main advantages of Bayesian analyses of clinical trials is their ability to formally incorporate skepticism about large treatment effects through the use of informative priors. We conducted a simulation study to assess the performance of informative normal, Student- t, and beta distributions in estimating relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) for binary outcomes. Simulation scenarios varied the prior standard deviation (SD; level of skepticism of large treatment effects), outcome rate in the control group, true treatment effect, and sample size. We compared the priors with regards to bias, mean squared error (MSE), and coverage of 95% credible intervals. Simulation results show that the prior SD influenced the posterior to a greater degree than the particular distributional form of the prior. For RR, priors with a 95% interval of 0.50-2.0 performed well in terms of bias, MSE, and coverage under most scenarios. For OR, priors with a wider 95% interval of 0.23-4.35 had good performance. We recommend the use of informative priors that exclude implausibly large treatment effects in analyses of clinical trials, particularly for major outcomes such as mortality.

  14. Beyond Scientism and Skepticism: An Integrative Approach to Global Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan J Stein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disorders has shifted from infectious disease to non-communicable diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Whereas infectious disease can sometimes be combated by targeting single causal mechanisms, such as prevention of contact-spread illness by hand-washing, in the case of mental disorders multiple causal mechanisms are relevant. The emergent field of global mental health has emphasized the magnitude of the treatment gap, particularly in the low and middle income world, and has paid particular attention to upstream causal factors, for example, poverty, inequality, and gender discrimination in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. However, this field has also been criticised for relying on erroneous Western paradigms of mental illness, which may not be relevant or appropriate to the low- and middle-income context. Here, it is important to steer a path between scienticism and skepticism. Scientism regards mental disorders as essential categories, and takes a covering law approach to causality; skepticism regards mental disorders as merely social constructions, and emphasizes the role of political power in causal relations. We propose an integrative model that emphasizes the contribution of a broad range of causal mechanisms operating at biological and societal levels to mental disorders, and the consequent importance of broad-spectrum and multi-pronged approaches to intervention.

  15. Philosophical skepticism not relativism is the problem with the Strong Programme in Science Studies and with Educational Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayannakos, Dimitris P.

    2008-06-01

    The structure of David’s Bloor argument for the Strong Programme (SP) in Science Studies is criticized from the philosophical perspective of anti-skeptical, scientific realism. The paper transforms the common criticism of SP—that the symmetry principle of SP implies an untenable form of cognitive relativism—into the clear philosophical issue of naturalism versus Platonism. It is also argued that the concrete patterns of SP’s interest-explanations and its sociological definition of knowledge involve philosophical skepticism. It is claimed, then, that the most problematic elements of SP reside primarily in philosophical skepticism. It is also claimed that this sort of criticism can be directed against other more radical, versions of constructivism in science and science education studies.

  16. Optimistic bias, advertising skepticism, and consumer intentions for seeking information about the health risks of prescription medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Haley, Eric John

    2017-01-01

    Based on a survey of prescription drug users (N = 408), this study revealed that: (a) the frequency of consumers' personal experience of prescription medicine adverse reactions negatively related to the extent of their optimistic bias about the chances of such events, (b) consumers' perceived personal control over adverse reactions positively related to optimistic bias, and (c) optimistic bias related more negatively to intentions to seek risk information when consumer skepticism toward direct-to-consumer advertising was high. When skepticism was low to average, optimistic bias did not inhibit such intentions. Implications and recommendations for the practice of direct-to-consumer advertising are provided.

  17. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  18. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Cognitive bias in clinical practice - nurturing healthy skepticism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Alysha

    2018-01-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning, known as cognitive biases, are implicated in a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Despite this knowledge, little emphasis is currently placed on teaching cognitive psychology in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Understanding the origin of these biases and their impact on clinical decision making helps stimulate reflective practice. This article outlines some of the common types of cognitive biases encountered in the clinical setting as well as cognitive debiasing strategies. Medical educators should nurture healthy skepticism among medical students by raising awareness of cognitive biases and equipping them with robust tools to circumvent such biases. This will enable tomorrow's doctors to improve the quality of care delivered, thus optimizing patient outcomes.

  20. Cognitive bias in clinical practice – nurturing healthy skepticism among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alysha Bhatti Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Errors in clinical reasoning, known as cognitive biases, are implicated in a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Despite this knowledge, little emphasis is currently placed on teaching cognitive psychology in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Understanding the origin of these biases and their impact on clinical decision making helps stimulate reflective practice. This article outlines some of the common types of cognitive biases encountered in the clinical setting as well as cognitive debiasing strategies. Medical educators should nurture healthy skepticism among medical students by raising awareness of cognitive biases and equipping them with robust tools to circumvent such biases. This will enable tomorrow’s doctors to improve the quality of care delivered, thus optimizing patient outcomes. Keywords: cognitive bias, diagnostic error, clinical decision making

  1. Does Controversial Science Call For Public Participation? The Case Of Gmo Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Christiansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many instances of new and emerging science and technology are controversial. Although a number of people, including scientific experts, welcome these developments, a considerable skepticism exists among members of the public. The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs is a case in point. In science policy and in science communication, it is widely assumed that such controversial science and technology require public participation in the policy-making process. We examine this view, which we call the Public Participation Paradigm, using the case of GMOs as an example. We suggest that a prominent reason behind the call for public participation is the belief that such participation is required for democratic legitimacy. We then show that the most prominent accounts of democratic legitimacy do not, in fact, entail that public participation is required in cases of controversial science in general, or in the case of GMOs in particular.

  2. Qualidade negociada: avaliação e contra-regulação na escola pública Negotiated quality: assessment and counter-regulation in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A "qualidade negociada" é proposta como alternativa de contra-regulação e apoio a processos de mudança complexos nas escolas. Por este conceito, a qualidade é produto de um processo de avaliação institucional construído coletivamente, tendo como referência o projeto político-pedagógico da escola. Defende-se a inadequação de estratégias de "difusão" de mudanças a partir de um centro irradiador destas, sem ter como referência os problemas reais da escola. Analisa-se o conceito de "serviço público" procurando entender suas características particulares. Dado que o servidor público tem estabilidade e atua no interior de relações específicas com o poder, com o dinheiro e com o tempo, procura-se mostrar que, a exemplo das políticas públicas neoliberais (PSDB-PFL, as políticas públicas participativas (pt e aliados também terão problemas se não reconhecerem tais especificidades e se não instalarem processos de avaliação negociados que criem compromissos pactuados e incentivem novas formas de organização nas relações internas das escolas.Negotiated quality is proposed as a counter-regulation alternative favoring complex change processes at school. This concept sees quality as produced through an institutional assessment process, collectively built, whose reference is the political-pedagogical project of school. The text substantiates the unsuitability of strategies that "spread" changes from a center, without any reference to the actual problems of school. It analyzes the concept of public services so as to understand its peculiar characteristics. Since civil servants have job security and work within specific relationships to power, money and time, it attempts to show that, as was the case with the neoliberal public policies (PSDB-PFL, the participative public policies (pt and allies will also be faced with problems if they do not acknowledge such specificities and implement negotiated assessment processes that

  3. A nuclear proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear proportional counter comprising in a bulb filled with a low-pressure gas, a wire forming an anode and a cathode, characterized in that said cathode is constituted by two plane plates parallel to each other and to the anode wire, and in that two branches of a circuit are connected to the anode wire end-portions, each branch comprising a pre-amplifier, a measuring circuit consisting of a differentiator-integrator-differentiator amplifier and a zero detector, one of the branches comprising an adjustable delay circuit, both branches jointly attacking a conversion circuit for converting the pulse duration into amplitudes said conversion circuit being followed by a multi-channel analyzer, contingently provided with a recorder [fr

  4. Silica aerogel Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, S.; Masaike, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kawai, H.

    1984-03-01

    In order to obtain silica aerogel radiators of good quality, the prescription used by Saclay group has been developed. We have done several experiments using beams from KEK.PS to test the performance of a Cerenkov counter with aerogel modules produced in KEK. It turned out that these modules had excellent quality. The production rate of silica aerogel in KEK is 15 -- 20 litres a week. Silica aerogel modules of 20 x 10 x 3 cm 3 having the refractive index of 1.058 are successfully being used by Kyoto University group in the KEK experiment E92 (Σ). Methodes to produce silica aerogel with higher refractive index than 1.06 has been investigated both by heating an module with the refractive index of 1.06 and by hydrolyzing tetraethyl silicate. (author)

  5. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  6. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  7. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  8. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  10. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    OpenAIRE

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlight...

  11. Examining How Media Literacy and Personality Factors Predict Skepticism Toward Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages.

  12. Skeptic Spirituality or the Accidental Buddhism of Machado de Assis's O Segredo do Bonzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Loundo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to support the idea that Machado de Assis’ work conforms well to what may be called a non-religious spirituality. For that, the article’s main focus is the analysis of the short story “O Segredo do Bonzo: Capítulo Inédito de Fernão Mendes Pinto”, published in 1882’s collection titled Papéis Avulsos, where the main principles of that spirituality, which is spread all over his work,  are given in a nutshell. In a first moment, we analise the intertextuality between Machado’s short story “O Segredo do Bonzo” and Portuguese Renaissance writer’s travelogue Peregrinação and the Machado’s nineteen century critique of the west’s main universalizing proposals: Christianity, scientificity and Enlightenment. In a second moment, we analise the philosophical implications of the primacy given to ‘opinion’ as an existential foundation and as a constitutive element of reality, in a context of close proximity with the soteriological traditions of ancient Greek skepticism, on the one hand, and Buddhism, on the other. A critic of religion, specially of Christian religion, Machado’s  ‘accidental’ association with Buddhism is symptomatic of a very peculiar form of non-religious spirituality.

  13. Who You Callin' White?! A Critical Counter-Story on Colouring White Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Cheryl E.

    2013-01-01

    This action research, which utilizes critical race theory's counter-storytelling, analyses a process of debunking White students' epistemology of ignorance in a history course at an urban public high school. After piloting a raced curriculum that deliberately re-centers marginalized counter-stories of students of colour, I document its…

  14. Counter-Stereotypes and Images: An Exploratory Research and Some Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Messabel, Christine; Ferrière, Séverine; Martinez, Frederic; Devif, Julie; Reeb, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the construction and perpetuation of gender stereotypes are classic research subjects in social psychology and in the field of educational guidelines in France. The most recent government decree aims to counter stereotypes in schools, by exposing pupils to counter-stereotypes. This study examines the effects of activating…

  15. Teacher Counter Stories to a Citizenship Education Mega Policy Narrative. Preparing for Citizenship in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres-Fernández, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The present article focuses on the counter stories of two Chilean social studies high school teachers. Counter stories describe how teachers use their professional experience to confront those mega narratives composed of dominant educational policies that impinge upon their pedagogical practices. The mega narrative described in this study as a…

  16. In-vivo radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes a radiation counter utilizing at least one detector for sensing radiation from a living body. The radiation counter also includes an aperture for forming a corridor between the body and the detector. A shield outside the corridor prevents passage of background radiation through the corridor and gaining access to the detector. The counter also includes a device for isolating a selected portion of the body from the corridor such that radiation counting is restricted to a region of the body through a separate detector. The corridor formation permits a user to stand in an upright position while the detector and detectors are able to separately monitor different sections of the body. The radiation counter overcomes the problem of obtaining accurate and quick measurements or radiation doses sustained by a large group of persons. (author)

  17. High-speed parallel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, B.N.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Maksimov, A.N.; Nikityuk, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series 500. The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to 120 nsec

  18. Channel coincidence counter: version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1980-06-01

    A thermal neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the assay of fast critical assembly fuel drawers and plutonium-bearing fuel rods. The principal feature of the detector is a 7-cm by 7-cm by 97-cm detector channel, which provides a uniform neutron detection efficiency of 16% along the central 40 cm of the channel. The electronics system is identical to that used for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter

  19. Portable microcomputer controlled radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.W.; Weber, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A portable microcomputer controlled counter for use as a radiation counter is described. The counter uses digital processing of input pulses from a radiation detector. The number of counts received by the microcomputer per unit time is used to calculate a value for display using a calibration factor obtained during physical calibration of the instrument with a radiation source or with a pulse generator. The keyboard is used to enter calibration points. The number of calibration points which may be entered depends on the degree of accuracy desired by the user. The high voltage generator which drives the detector is triggered by pulses from the microcomputer in relation to the count rate. After processing the count, the resulting count rate or dose rate is displayed on the liquid crystal display. The counter is autoranging in which the decimal point is shifted as necessary by the microcomputer. The units displayed are determined by the user by means of a multiposition switch. Low battery and an overrange condition are displayed. An interface is provided via a connector to allow parallel transmission of data to peripheral devices. Low battery power consumption is featured. The counter is capable of providing more accurate readings than currently available counters

  20. Kant and Hegel's Responses to Hume's Skepticism Concerning Causality: An Evolutionary Epistemological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Christian Scarfe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Hume, determinations of necessary causal connection are without empirical warrant, but, as he maintains, the concept of causality qua necessary connection is indispensable to human beings, having survival value for them, a claim which points to the biological significance of this concept. In contrast to Hume, Kant argues that the causal principle qua necessary connection belongs to the a priori conceptual framework by which rational beings constitute their experience and render the world intelligible. In “Kant’s Doctrine of the A Priori in Light of Contemporary Biology” (1941 / 1962 evolutionary epistemologist Konrad Lorenz sought to adapt Kant’s philosophy to contemporary biology by arguing that the a priori concepts of the understanding can be interpreted as comprising a biologically inherited framework, yet one that is provisional and in flux. Such an evolutionary interpretation of both Hume and Kant’s perspectives of the lacuna concerning causality brings the ideas of these thinkers closer together. Kant himself used suggestive analogies between the major epistemological positions concerning the origin of the a priori concepts of the understanding and the major biological theories of his time concerning the generation and development of organisms. Nevertheless, Kant would probably be reluctant to embrace such an evolutionarily-oriented conception of the categories, given his descriptions of them as self-thought, a priori first principles having a purely intellectual origin, belonging as a very condition for the possibility of the experience of rational beings in general, and as neither the product of a process of development, nor subject to one. This paper shows how Hegel’s emphasis on the dialectical progression of the logical Concept (Begriff can help to ground Lorenz’s evolutionary neo-Kantianism. Toward the end of the paper, I discuss the evolutionary relevance of skepticism and critical thinking in this

  1. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  2. Is it just a brick wall or a sign from the universe? An fMRI study of supernatural believers and skeptics

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Riekki, Tapani; Raij, Tuukka; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity of 12 supernatural believers and 11 skeptics who first imagined themselves in critical life situations (e.g. problems in intimate relationships) and then watched emotionally charged pictures of lifeless objects and scenery (e.g. two red cherries bound together). Supernatural believers reported seeing signs of how the situations were going to turn out in the pictures more often than skeptics did. Viewing the pictures act...

  3. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlightenment.  In the process, they defined the main terms of an enduring vision of the world that we now associate with the Right.

  4. Plea and counter-plea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The bulk of papers written during the hearing 'Plea and counter-plea', the so-called 'Gorleben hearing', which was held from 28th March until 3rd April 1979, comprises ca. 4,200 pages. It consists of the written comments put forward by the critics of nuclear energy, the minutes of the hearing as well as the supplementary statements of the counter-critics. This report is trying to confront those essential objections made by the critics which put in doubt the feasibility of a fuel-cycle centre with regard to safety engineering with the facts which are considered correct from the view of the DWK. The oral and written explanations of the counter-critics are particularly referred to in this debate. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Portable counter for geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, O J

    1949-05-01

    A portable counter which has been developed for prospecting for radio-active uranium and thorium minerals, for general geological investigations, and as an ultra-sensitive detector of lost or mislaid radium, is described. The aforementioned general usage includes the identification of changes in strata by means of the investigation of the slight amount of residual activity pressent in most minerals. The apparatus, which consists essentially of a scaled-down version of a standard laboratory Geiger-Muller counter, is highly sensitive since a variation equivalent to 4% of the cosmic ray background can be detected by a three-minute count.

  6. ''Conventional'' Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Cherenkov counters to be used with ISABELLE are described. The three counters used in the Hadron Spectrometer can be used to identify particles in the range 10 to 40 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 3 GeV/c. A longer spectrometer for 400 x 400 GeV operation should also be used. The spectrometers may be used with CO 2 and H 2 . The range of particle identification of 8 to 60 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 5 GeV/c is possible

  7. O acerto de contas de Diderot com o ceticismo The settlement of accounts of Diderot with skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jonas de Lima Piva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é o segundo de uma tríade que trata do diálogo, mais precisamente do envolvimento, entre a filosofia de Denis Diderot e o ceticismo. O primeiro artigo, intitulado "O jovem Diderot e o ceticismo dos Pensamentos", foi publicado na revista Dois Pontos, em sua edição dedicada ao tema do ceticismo (cf. PIVA, 2007, e limitou-se a uma análise minuciosa do problema da postura cética nos Pensamentos filosóficos, de 1746. O presente artigo, por seu turno, examina duas questões fundamentais, desta vez em O passeio do cético ou As alamedas, de 1747, último livro em que o ceticismo é evocado com destaque pelo enciclopedista, dois anos antes de ele render-se definitivamente ao materialismo ateu: 1 a interpretação que Diderot desenvolve do ceticismo e 2 sua posição diante dele. Já o terceiro e derradeiro texto da tríade examinará - evidentemente, numa próxima oportunidade - a presença do ceticismo no pensamento diderotiano da maturidade, ou seja, no período que se inicia em 1749, com a redação da Carta sobre os cegos, quando a questão da dúvida cética passa a perder em suas obras a relevância que tinha na origem de suas reflexões, mudando, até mesmo, de registro.This article is the second of a triad that is the dialogue, specifically the involvement, between the philosophy of Denis Diderot and the skepticism. The first article, entitled "The young Diderot and the skepticism of Thoughts", was published in the journal Dois Pontos, in its edition dedicated to the theme of skepticism (see PIVA, 2007, and limited itself to a detailed analysis of the problem of attitude sceptical on Thoughts on Philosophical, 1746. This article, in turn, examines two key issues, this time on The Tour of Sceptical or The Boulevards, 1747, the latest book in which the skepticism is raised to prominence by the encyclopaedist, two years before he was finally over atheist to materialism atheist: 1 the interpretation that Diderot develops of

  8. The Eros of Counter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  9. Dimensions of Counter-Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    The book welcomes proposals for chapter contributions on a wide array of topics related to the narratological notion of counter-narratives. By way of example, the topic has hitherto been treated by disciplines and subjects such as literature studies, organization studies, corporate communication...

  10. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  11. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1991-07-01

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55 Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  12. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  13. I Am Right, You Are Wrong: How Biased Assimilation Increases the Perceived Gap between Believers and Skeptics of Violent Video Game Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N = 662) indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases. PMID:24722467

  14. I am right, you are wrong: how biased assimilation increases the perceived gap between believers and skeptics of violent video game effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Greitemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants (N = 662 indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases.

  15. I am right, you are wrong: how biased assimilation increases the perceived gap between believers and skeptics of violent video game effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. Participants (N = 662) indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases.

  16. An introduction to automatic radioactive sample counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; the detection of radiation in sample counters; nucleonic equipment; liquid scintillation counting; basic features of automatic sample counters; statistics of counting; data analysis; purchase, installation, calibration and maintenance of automatic sample counters. (U.K.)

  17. Counter-discourse in Zimbabwean literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangena, Tendai

    2015-01-01

    Counter-Discourse in Zimbabwean Literature is a study of specific aspects of counter-discursive Zimbabwean narratives in English. In discussing the selected texts, my thesis is based on Terdiman’s (1989) the postcolonial concept of counter-discourse. In Zimbabwean literature challenges to a dominant

  18. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  19. Counter support for WA35

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    This assembly was equipped with 78 counters, each consisting of a lucite cone, to produce Cerenkov light, and a CsI scintillator plate of 3 mm thickness glued on the face of the cone. The experiment WA35 was set-up in the s1 beam (West Hall) by the Darmstadt-Heidelberg-Virginia-Warsaw Collaboration to measure angular distributions and multiplicities of pions and recoil protons produced by hadrons interacting in nuclei. (See Annual Report 1976 p. 39)

  20. Is it just a brick wall or a sign from the universe? An fMRI study of supernatural believers and skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani; Raij, Tuukka; Hari, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity of 12 supernatural believers and 11 skeptics who first imagined themselves in critical life situations (e.g. problems in intimate relationships) and then watched emotionally charged pictures of lifeless objects and scenery (e.g. two red cherries bound together). Supernatural believers reported seeing signs of how the situations were going to turn out in the pictures more often than skeptics did. Viewing the pictures activated the same brain regions among all participants (e.g. the left inferior frontal gyrus, IFG). However, the right IFG, previously associated with cognitive inhibition, was activated more strongly in skeptics than in supernatural believers, and its activation was negatively correlated to sign seeing in both participant groups. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on the universal processes that may underlie supernatural beliefs and the role of cognitive inhibition in explaining individual differences in such beliefs.

  1. INTRODUCING OVER THE COUNTER COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bakić-Mirić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacist in today’s world has a great responsibility – to help and educate patients about diverse ways for effective self-treatment. Whereas self-care is becoming increasingly popular among patients today the availability of over-the-counter medications makes it possible for patients to treat numerous conditions on their own but still under the supervision of a healthcare provider. During the pharmacist-patient encounter, the pharmacist’s obligation is to evaluate the patient’s medical condition, provide proper advice and counsel the patient on the proper course of treatment to be taken. Also by employing effective over the counter (OTC counseling as the most proper means in a pharmacist/patient communication process and, accordingly, rapport building in the OTC area, the pharmacist needs to demonstrate high energy, enthusiasm, respect, empathy, know-how of sensitive intercultural issues alongside personal appearance, body language, eye contact that all together make his/her personal “signature”. Accordingly, apart from patient education, the primary objective of OTC counseling becomes to educate pharmacists on basic principles used in assisting patients in the selection of over-the-counter (OTC products, provide examples of proper communication techniques for effective patient counseling concerning the OTC products (i.e. dosage, administration technique, storage, food and beverage interaction, monitoring etc where the pharmacist plays the key role in helping patients maximize their pharmaceutical care.

  2. Position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode, which functions as an RC line. A pair of preamplifiers at the anode ends act as stabilized active-capacitance loads, each comprising a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier and a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction of handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10 6 counts/sec). (author)

  3. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  4. When 'paradigms' differ: scientific communication between skepticism and hope in recent philosophy of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coletto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The first half of this article illustrates how contemporary humanist philosophy of science got caught up in a gradual loss of confidence concerning the possibility of sound communication among scholars holding on to different paradigms or presuppositions. The second half is dedicated to the responses provided by a Christian school of philosophy to the bleak possibility of a communication crisis. The resources deployed by the reformational school of philosophy are argued to constitute valuable instruments to create a more hopeful attitude towards scientific dialogue. A final note is dedicated to the possible causes of the difficulties experienced in this area of reflection by contemporary humanist philosophy of science.

  5. Seeing, Believing, and Learning to Be Skeptical: Supporting Language Learning through Advertising Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee; He, Haixia; Robbgrieco, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study documents how a high school ESL teacher working with new immigrants ages 14-20 supported the development of their critical thinking and English language skills by using advertising analysis activities. The article examines the use of key critical questions for analyzing media messages and documents instructional activities designed to…

  6. Improvements to well scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farukhi, M.R.; Mataraza, G.A.; Wimer, O.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of ionising radiation detection. It concerns in particular scintillation detectors of the type that is commonly used in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube and that is used for monitoring radiation, for instance in the clinical measurements of isotopes. This invention enables well scintillation counters to be made, characterised by a high efficiency in measuring the thindown rate of radio-pharmaceutical solutions and to resolve the distribution of energy emanating from the radioactive source. It particularly consists in improving the uniformity of the luminous efficiency, the quality of the resolution and the efficiency whilst improving the reception of light [fr

  7. Scintillation counter based radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2009-02-01

    The average human exposure per year is about 240mrem which is come from Radon and human body and terrestrial and cosmic radiation and man-made source. Specially radiation exposure through air from environmental radiation sources is 80mrem/yr(= 0.01mR/hr) which come from Terrestrial and cosmic radiation. Radiation dose is defined as energy deposit/mass. There are two major methods to detect radiation. First method is the energy integration using Air equivalent material like GM counter wall material. Second method is the spectrum to dose conversion method using NaI(Tl), HPGe. These two methods are using generally to detect radiation. But these methods are expensive. So we need new radiation detection method. The research purpose is the development of economical environmental radiation dosimeter. This system consists of Plastic/Inorganic scintillator and Si photo-diode based detector and counting based circuitry. So count rate(cps) can be convert to air exposure rate(R/hr). There are three major advantages in this system. First advantages is no high voltage power supply like GM counter. Second advantage is simple electronics. Simple electronics system can be achieved by Air-equivalent scintillation detector with Al filter for the same detection efficiency vs E curve. From former two advantages, we can know the most important advantages of the this system. Third advantage is economical system. The price of typical GM counter is about $1000. But the price of our system is below $100 because of plastic scintillator and simple electronics. The role of scintillation material is emitting scintillation which is the flash of light produced in certain materials when they absorb ionizing radiation. Plastic scintillator is organic scintillator which is kind of hydrocarbons. The special point are cheap price, large size production(∼ton), moderate light output, fast light emission(ns). And the role of Al filter is equalizing counting efficiency of air and scintillator for

  8. Factors influencing consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer and over-the-counter drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mina; Whitehill King, Karen; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-04-01

    Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months completed online survey questionnaires. Variables measured included demographics (age, gender, race, education, and income), health-related characteristics (health status, prescription and over-the-counter drug use, health consciousness, and involvement with prescription or over-the-counter drugs), perceived amount of attention and exposure to DTCA and OTCA, attitudinal outcomes (skepticism toward DTCA/OTCA and attitude toward DTCA/OTCA), and behavioral outcomes triggered by DTCA and OTCA. The findings indicate that exposure to drug advertising is one of the most significant predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Some audience factors such as health status, involvement with drugs, health consciousness, drug use, income, and age also were differentially associated with consumer responses to drug advertising.

  9. Flood risk and climate change in the Rotterdam area, The Netherlands : enhancing citizen's climate risk perceptions and prevention responses despite skepticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Joop; Botzen, W. J Wouter; Terpstra, Teun

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication about climate change and related risks is complicated by the polarization between “climate alarmists” and “skeptics.” This paper provides insights for the design of climate risk communication strategies by examining how the interplay between climate change and flood risk

  10. Flood risk and climate change in the Rotterdam area, The Netherlands: Enhancing citizen's climate risk perceptions and prevention responses despite skepticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Terpstra, T.

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication about climate change and related risks is complicated by the polarization between “climate alarmists” and “skeptics.” This paper provides insights for the design of climate risk communication strategies by examining how the interplay between climate change and flood risk

  11. Programmable spark counter of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, A.E.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Vorobjev, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose, a new set-the programmable all-automatic spark counter AIST-4-has been developed and manufactured. Compared to our previous automated spark counter ISTRA, which was operated by the integrated fixed program, the new set is operated completely by a personal computer. The mechanism for pressing and pulling the aluminized foil is put into action by a step motor operated by a microcontroller. The step motor turns an axle. The axle has two eccentrics. One of them moves a pressing plate up and down. The second eccentric moves the aluminized foil by steps of ∼15mm after the end of each pulse counting. One turnover of the axle corresponds to one pulse count cycle. The step motor, the high-voltage block and the pulse count block are operated by the microcontroller PIC 16C84 (Microstar). The set can be operated either manually by keys on the front panel or by a PC using dialogue windows for radon or neutron measurements (for counting of alpha or fission fragment tracks). A number of algorithms are developed: the general procedures, the automatic stopping of the pulse counting, the calibration curve, determination of the count characteristics and elimination of the short circuit in a track

  12. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  13. Counter Traction Makes Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Easier

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...

  14. Crate counter for normal operating loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, R.A.

    A lithium-loaded zinc sulfide scintillation counter to closely assay plutonium in waste packaged in 1.3 by 1.3 by 2.13m crates was built. In addition to assays for normal operating loss accounting, the counter will allow safeguards verification immediately before shipment of the crates for burial. The counter should detect approximately 10 g of plutonium in 1000 kg of waste

  15. The 'miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Bellettini, G.

    2002-01-01

    Muon detection is fundamental to many of the interesting analyses at CDF II. For more efficient muon registration in Run II it was decided to increase geometrical coverage. The so-called 'miniskirt' counters are part of this upgrade. The original design parameters of the 'miniskirt' and mixed 'miniskirt' scintillation counters for the CDF Muon System are presented. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of mixed 'miniskirt' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns

  16. HOW THE WAR WAS ‘ONE’: COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM AND THE SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF COUNTER-TERRORISM IN CANADA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Amanda Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global “war on terror” highlights a fundamental quandary for all liberal democracies seeking to counter the violent extremism of their own citizens while maintaining civic rights and freedoms. This challenge accompanies a transformation in international conflict from inter-state war and superpower rivalry, to homegrown terrorism, radicalization-to-violence, Internet propaganda, and targeting and recruitment of vulnerable persons. These new threats shift the battlefield, as traditionally defined, to the home front, as extremist violence is nurtured by and perpetrated within public spaces, such as schools, places of religious worship, civil society and the home. Today, violence emanates from within liberal democratic society and its extremist motivations bypass the very institutions that would otherwise support civic rights, freedoms and multiculturalism. As such, attempts to counter extremist violence must appeal to the political, social, cultural, religious and familial aspects of human behavior alongside a parallel shift in efforts to keep citizens safe within their own social spaces. In recent years, Canada has been introduced to home grown and lone individual terrorism with the cases of attack against armed forces personnel in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Ottawa in 2014. This article identifies the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in the Canadian context, a propitious case by which to evaluate different approaches to countering violent extremism. Canadian initiatives - simultaneously proliferating and in their infancy – raise a host of questions about counter-terrorism in liberal democratic countries. For example, why do individuals radicalize-to-violence in rights-based and multicultural societies? How and when can the liberal democratic state best temper the radicalization process in ways that are effective and procedurally just? What state-society balance works best to counter radicalized viewpoints? Who are the

  17. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuchta Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  18. Evaluation of waste crate counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Shaw, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A novel nondestructive measurement system has been developed to perform combined gamma-ray, passive neutron, and active neutron analyses of radioactive waste packaged in large crates. The system will be used to examine low level and transuranic waste at the Waste Receiving and Processing facility at Westinghouse-Hanford Corp. Prior to delivery of the system, an extensive evaluation of its performance characteristics will be conducted. The evaluation is to include an assessment of the mechanical properties of the system, gamma-ray attenuation correction algorithms, instrument response as a function of source positions, performance of the high resolution gamma-ray detector for ''hot spot'' and isotopic analyses, active and passive neutron counter response, instrument sensitivity, matrix effects, and packaging effects. This report will discuss the findings of the evaluation program, to date, and indicate future directions for the program

  19. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  20. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  1. The effects of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic textbook images on science performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J; Woodzicka, Julie A; Wingfield, Lylan C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic images on male and female high school students' science comprehension and anxiety. We predicted stereotypic images to induce stereotype threat in females and impair science performance. Counter-stereotypic images were predicted to alleviate threat and enhance female performance. Students read one of three chemistry lessons, each containing the same text, with photograph content varied according to stereotype condition. Participants then completed a comprehension test and anxiety measure. Results indicate that female students had higher comprehension after viewing counter-stereotypic images (female scientists) than after viewing stereotypic images (male scientists). Male students had higher comprehension after viewing stereotypic images than after viewing counter-stereotypic images. Implications for alleviating the gender gap in science achievement are discussed.

  2. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H

    2015-09-23

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  3. Charged particle identification: Cherenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary is given of a study of Cherenkov counters for ISABELLE. The study was certainy not exhaustive and was meant primarily to suggest future detector development. A substantial research effort is needed in order to insure that Cherenkov counters utilizing photoionization are fully exploited

  4. Development of photocathodes for gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    A lot of ways of physics needs the development of high sensibility imaging devices with large sensitive surface. The problems brought by the building of such devices may be solved by the use of gaz counters. But we must sensitize these counters to low energy photons ( [fr

  5. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Budiman, A C; Hasheminejad, S M; Nadesan, T; Tandiono; Low, H T; Lee, T S

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  6. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  7. Aerogel Cherenkov Counters of the KEDR Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ovtin, I V; Barnyakov, M Y; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Danilyuk, A F; Katcin, A A; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Kuyanov, I A; Onuchin, A P; Rodiakin, V A

    2017-01-01

    The particle identification system of the KEDR detector is based on aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters called ASHIPH counters. The system consists of 160 counters arranged in two layers. An event reconstruction program for the ASHIPH system was developed. The position of each counter relative to the tracking system was determined using cosmic muons and Bhabha events. The geometric efficiency of the ASHIPH system was verified with Bhabha events. The efficiency of relativistic particle detection was measured with cosmic muons. A π/K separation of 4δ in the momentum range 0.95 −1.45 GeV/c was confirmed. A simulation program for the ASHIPH counters has been developed.

  8. Ethics and skeptics: what lies behind ethical codes in occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2005-02-01

    Ethical codes, or systems, are conditioned and their enforcement is permitted by social processes and attitudes. In occupational health, our efforts to adhere to our own ethical frameworks often are undermined by forces and interests outside the field. Failure to acknowledge the profoundly social nature of ethical codes impedes our ability to anticipate consequences, to legitimate decisions based on utility and benefit, and to find social structures that support, rather than invalidate, our view of ethical behavior. We examine three sets of social philosophies. Jane Jacobs, the visionary urban planner, has written Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics, which is a restatement in modern terms of a critical passage in Plato's most important dialogue, the Republic. She (and Plato) postulate two major ethical systems, renamed here the "guardian system," which is characterized by loyalty, cohesiveness, and confidentiality, and the "marketplace system," which is characterized by trade, decentralization, and shared information. Occupational health, in this formulation, often runs afoul of the guardian mentality and also may be subject to inappropriate negotiation and compromise in the marketplace system. George Lakoff, a semiotician, has written Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don't, which argues that there are two fundamental social paradigms based on concepts of the family. One, which he calls the Strict Father, emphasizes discipline, the positive aspects of taking risks, and the need to individuals to be self-sufficient. The other, which he calls the Nurturing Parent, emphasizes empowerment, the positive aspects of security, and the need for community and relationships. Occupational health practice violates aspects of both and therefore is supported by neither. Classical Chinese thought involved many schools of thought, including Confucianism and Legalism. It has been suggested that Confucianism provides

  9. Aerogel Cerenkov counters at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelz, G.

    1984-11-01

    In high energy physics it is common to identify a charged particle and its kinematical parameters by the measurement of its momentum and its velocity. Cerenkov detectors have developed into a standard tool because they operate in the γ = (1-β 2 )sup(-1/2) range from about 1 to 100 which is not easily accessible by other devices. Pions, kaons and protons in present high energy experiments reach energies of several GeV. Threshold Cerenkov detectors for these particles need indices of refraction below 1.1 which are often produced with gases under high pressure. The design for chambers operating in this region was drasticly simplified when porous materials serving as Cerenkov radiators were invented. These chambers complement the time-of-flight counters, which cover the low energy region. Aerogel of silica is up to now the only porous substance with sufficient optical transparency. Its quality has been improved substantially in recent times so that large size detectors can be constructed. (orig.)

  10. Direct-to-consumer antidepressant advertising and consumers' optimistic bias about the future risk of depression: the moderating role of advertising skepticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ju, Ilwoo; Kim, Kenneth Eunhan

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) is reported to influence the public's beliefs about diseases, no research has investigated how DTCA may affect the extent of consumers' optimistic bias about the future risk of diseases. Based on a survey with members of an online consumer panel (n = 699), the current study revealed that: (a) Consumers exhibited a tendency to believe they were at less risk of developing clinical depression in the future than their peers, demonstrating an optimistic bias. (b) Exposure to antidepressant DTCA acted to reduce the extent of such bias, especially when consumers were less skeptical of prescription drug advertising. When consumers were highly skeptical, DTCA exposure did not significantly relate to the extent of optimistic bias. (c) Once formed, the extent of optimistic bias negatively related to consumers' intention to seek information about depression. Implications of the research for the theory and practice of DTCA were discussed.

  11. Counter-diabatic driving for Dirac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Zhen; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Xi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fast quantum control of Dirac equation dynamics by counter-diabatic driving, sharing the concept of shortcut to adiabaticity. We systematically calculate the counter-diabatic terms in different Dirac systems, like graphene and trapped ions. Specially, the fast and robust population inversion processes are achieved in Dirac system, taking into account the quantum simulation with trapped ions. In addition, the population transfer between two bands can be suppressed by counter-diabatic driving in graphene system, which might have potential applications in opt-electric devices.

  12. Flood risk and climate change in the Rotterdam area, The Netherlands: Enhancing citizen's climate risk perceptions and prevention responses despite skepticism

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, J.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Terpstra, T.

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication about climate change and related risks is complicated by the polarization between “climate alarmists” and “skeptics.” This paper provides insights for the design of climate risk communication strategies by examining how the interplay between climate change and flood risk communication affects citizens’ risk perceptions and responses. The study is situated in a delta area with substantial geographic variations in the occurrence and potential impact of flood risk, which ...

  13. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  14. On counter-stereotypes and creative cognition: When interventions for reducing prejudice can boost divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether

  15. The counter ion: expanding excipient functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireesh Apte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excipients have increasingly become 'enablers' of drug delivery and efficacy rather than passive bystanders. Advances in pharmaceutical technology have enabled the ability to deliver specific counter ions (in the form of the counter ion containing excipient and the API simultaneously to preselected targets in the body. This, coupled with a near universal mechanism of columbic interactions that determine the [API- counter ion] efficacy, can be harnessed to exploit this hitherto unavailable or unrecognized enabling mechanism. New excipients may be assembled by a near inexhaustible supply of different permutations of counter ions and their judicious use in specific situations could potentially drive a renaissance in excipient innovation (and drug delivery and efficacy despite regulatory stagnation.

  16. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin

    -directed graph is dynamic (can be altered by some outside actor), some orientations may need to be reversed in order to maintain the low out-degree. We present a new algorithm that is simpler than earlier work, yet matches or outperforms the efficiency of these results with very few exceptions. Counter games...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i...... are a type of abstract game played over a set of counters holding values, and these values may be moved between counters according to some set of rules. Typically they are played between two players: the adversary who tries to concentrate the greatest value possible in a single counter, and the benevolent...

  17. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A critical evaluaton is presented of the actual state of investigations and explanations of the resolution and pulse height changes resulted in proportional counters from radiation intensity variations. (author)

  18. Counter-Leadership Targeting and Conflict Termination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Bradly

    1999-01-01

    .... Can the leader be found? And, is it legal and ethical to attack the leader? Analysis rarely has been conducted to determine whether the targeted organization is vulnerable to Counter Leadership Targeting (CLT...

  19. Countering North Korean Special Purpose Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Troy

    1999-01-01

    As United States and Republic of Korea forces stand to defend against a DPRK attack, one of the most formidable tasks is how to counter a second front in the Joint Rear Security Area of the Republic of Korea...

  20. Tests of BF3 counters with getter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, R.; Dauphin, G.

    1968-01-01

    BF 3 counters with addition of a getter have been developed to improve operation characteristics of these detectors in presence of strong gamma flows. The getter is made of an active coal deposit on the cathode. As noticed by other studies, the degradation of these counters is related to the exposure to strong neutron flows and to gamma radiations. The authors report tests performed on these counters with a brief presentation of the counters, and a presentation of the test installation. A threshold curve and an amplitude spectrum are obtained, and counting is performed for a fixed threshold before and after the exposure of detectors to variable doses of γ radiation. The results after a first 2 hour long irradiation, a 230 hour long second irradiation, and a third irradiation under high voltage (2100 V) are discussed. Thermal tests are then performed and commented

  1. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  2. Counter - Drug: Mandate for the Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding to new missions assigned...observations for determining the short-, mid-, and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide...and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding

  3. Lifetime characteristics of Gaiger-Muller counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the process of functional aging of Geiger-Muller counters. Two types of Geiger-Muller counter chambers were characterized in an experiment using a combined constant voltage. Chamber A had a coaxial geometry and chamber B had a plan-parallel geometry. The experimental results indicate that the aging process was faster in the case of chambers with a coaxial geometry. The results are explained based on the process of electrical discharges in gasses.

  4. Quality control and the multicrystal counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, G.C.; Davis, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability of multicrystal counters for use in counting large numbers of radioimmunoassay samples is studied. In particular, the dependencies of the outputs from the array of detectors, and hence their degree of matching, on the count rate and volume of the samples being counted are investigated. Quality control procedures are described to assist in the assurance of consistent performance of the counter in the clinical situation. (U.K.)

  5. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  6. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  7. Countering Islamic Radicalization Indonesian Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    promote values and beliefs that create the impression that controlling and maintaining current global structure benefits all, when in fact it works...success in a globalized and digital world. Most of the Islamic school students also got outdoor activities such as sports, farming, hiking , marching... benefiting from a bigger audience, and spreads the terror almost instantaneously, because the main victims of the attacks are the people who watch the

  8. Discursive Justification and Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I consider how a general epistemic norm of action that I have proposed in earlier work should be specified in order to govern certain types of acts: assertive speech acts. More specifically, I argue that the epistemic norm of assertion is structurally similar to the epistemic norm...

  9. A melancholy skeptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Guimarães

    Full Text Available Hume variously viewed the association of philosophy and melancholy in different stages of his development. In this essay I propose to follow this progress, beginning with his youthful belief that a philosophical life would shelter its pursuer from melancholy. In my hypothesis, for the mature Hume knowledge in the broad sense of wide experience alone can ease melancholy states, while knowledge as narrow rational speculation proves itself untenable, as it triggers a state of melancholy despair in the agent.

  10. Supervision on Transference and Counter-Transference Issues for Undergraduate Students’ Counseling Practice at Counseling Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirah Diniaty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate students should take 4 credits for counseling practice subject in Counseling Department of State Islamic University of Riau. The subject is taken by seventh semester students who conduct counseling practice at senior high school for 3 months. Based on prelimenary study, majority of students acknowledged that they felt nervous to follow this programme. Thus, the problem of transference and counter transference issue for undergraduate students counseling practice must be answered by their supervisions. The result showed that a total of 93% of respondents had positive transference, while 7% of them had negative one. It means that majority of respondents felt positive transference, while internship students faced identification counter transference. It was proved that internship students did not need to have negative thinking of being rejected by the schools. The finding also showed that 97.3% of interenship students faced identification counter transference, while 2,7%  of them experienced for unidentification of transfenece. It means that there were a few of them should be supervised to have good counter transference. Supervision format that done by supervisor (university teacher and tutor (high school teacher was by conducting monthly meeting and by following up counseling result and writing report. It is recommended that a professional discussion is conducted to discuss problems faced by internship students.

  11. The Banking Counter-Guarantee. Juridical Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolache Rada

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Not so much studied by the specialised literature, the banking counter-guarantee may beconfounded with the other types of guarantee which frequently go with the guaranteed obligation –simple guarantee, collateral guarantee, the confirmation of the guarantee. The counter-guarantee may bean independent or accessory obligation, as the case may be, exclusively governed by its text, accordingto the parties’ will. At the same time, it is a complex juridical act, a contract whose contents cannot beset apart from the contracts connected form an “economic” point of view. The counter-guarantee is theresult of the banking practice and is generated by the need to make amends for the flaws generated bythe direct guarantee. The present research is focused on the analysis of the banking practice, normativeacts, jurisprudence and banking juridical literature.

  12. CORNELL: CLEO's counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Particle identification by measuring ionization is complicated by the fact that the energy lost to ionization in passing through matter has large fluctuations, first calculated by Landau. These large fluctuations imply that many measurements must be made in order to determine the most probable ionization value that is characteristic of the particle type. The JADE chamber at PETRA and the TPC chamber at PEP measure both the ionization and the momenta of tracks in the same device. In the CLEO experiment at Cornell's CESR ring, ionization is measured in dedicated energy loss counters contained in each of the eight octants surrounding the drift chamber and superconducting coil. The last of these were installed in the summer of 1981, replacing Cherenkov counters that were used while the energy loss counters were being developed and built

  13. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  14. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept is presented explaining changes in spectrometric parameters of proportional counters which occur due to varying count rate. The basic feature of this concept is that the gas gain of the counter remains constant in a wide range of count rate and that the decrease in the pulse amplitude and the detorioration of the energy resolution observed are the results of changes in the shape of original current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. In order to confirm the validity of this statement, measurements of the gas amplification factor have been made in a wide count rate range. It is shown that above a certain critical value the gas gain depends on both the operating voltage and the count rate. (author)

  15. Calibration of nuclear medicine gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Vranjes, S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: morlic@vin.bg.ac.yu; Orlic, M.)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the practical problem of nuclear medicine gamma counters calibration has been solved by using dose calibrators CRC-15R with standard error ±5%. The samples from technetium generators have been measured both by dose calibrators CRC-15R and gamma counter ICN Gamma 3.33 taking into account decay correction. Only the linear part of the curve has practical meaning. The advantage of this procedure satisfies the requirements from international standards: the calibration of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a standard dosimetry laboratory and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine procedures be calibrated in terms of activity of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered. (author)

  16. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  17. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  18. Counter of radiation in body parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new radiation counter for the determination of radiocontaminated body parts has been designed. Composed of several movable detectors, shielded from background radiation and focused on different parts of the human body by narrow apertures in the lead enclosure, the invention provides a quick tool for quantitative and qualitative part-by-part analysis of the body with respect to radiocontamination. The counter can be handled easily by the tested person himself and consequently, it is suitable for mass controls etc. (G.J.P.)

  19. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jales, R.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B 12 and albumin. (author)

  20. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) antidepressant advertising and consumer misperceptions about the chemical imbalance theory of depression: the moderating role of skepticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Based on a survey with members of an online consumer panel (N= 699), this study revealed that: (a) a substantial percentage of consumers held misperceptions about the chemical imbalance theory of depression; (b) personal and interpersonal experiences with depression positively related to such misperceptions; (c) overall, exposure to direct-to-consumer (DTC) antidepressant advertising did not significantly relate to misperceptions; and (d) DTC exposure magnified misperceptions when consumers were highly trustful of DTC advertising, whereas exposure diluted misperceptions when consumers were highly skeptical. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed, especially in light of the social responsibility of DTC advertising.

  1. Skepticism and pharmacophobia toward medication may negatively impact adherence to psychiatric medications: a comparison among outpatient samples recruited in Spain, Argentina, and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De las Cuevas C

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carlos De las Cuevas,1 Mariano Motuca,2 Trino Baptista,3 Jose de Leon4–6 1Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology and Psychiatry, Universidad de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain; 2Instituto Vilapriño, Center for Studies, Assistance and Research in Neurosciences, Mendoza, Argentina; 3Departament of Physiology, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela; 4Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA; 5Psychiatry and Neurosciences Research Group (CTS-549, Institute of Neurosciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 6Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net (CIBERSAM, Santiago Apostol Hospital, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain Background: Cultural differences in attitudes toward psychiatric medications influence medication adherence but transcultural studies are missing. The objective of this study was to investigate how attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medications influence treatment adherence in psychiatric outpatients in Spain, Argentina, and Venezuela.Methods: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural psychopharmacology study was designed to assess psychiatric outpatients’ attitudes toward their prescribed medication. Patients completed the Drug Attitude Inventory – 10 Item (DAI-10, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire – Specific Scale (BMQ-Specific, the Sidorkiewicz adherence tool, and sociodemographic and clinical questionnaires. The study included 1,291 adult psychiatric outpatients using 2,308 psychotropic drugs from three Spanish-speaking countries, the Canary Islands (Spain (N=588 patients, Argentina (N=508, and Venezuela (N=195.Results: The univariate analyses showed different mean scores on the DAI-10 and the BMQ – Necessity and Concerns subscales but, on the other hand, the percentages of non-adherent and skeptical patients were relatively similar in three countries. Argentinian patients had a very low level of pharmacophobia

  2. Producing 'internal suspect bodies': divisive effects of UK counter-terrorism measures on Muslim communities in Leeds and Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Madeline-Sophie

    2018-04-06

    Research on UK government counter-terrorism measures has claimed that Muslims are treated as a 'suspect community'. However, there is limited research exploring the divisive effects that membership of a 'suspect community' has on relations within Muslim communities. Drawing from interviews with British Muslims living in Leeds or Bradford, I address this gap by explicating how co-option of Muslim community members to counter extremism fractures relations within Muslim communities. I reveal how community members internalize fears of state targeting which precipitates internal disciplinary measures. I contribute the category of 'internal suspect body' which is materialized through two intersecting conditions within preventative counter-terrorism: the suspected extremist for Muslims to look out for and suspected informer who might report fellow Muslims. I argue that the suspect community operates through a network of relations by which terrors of counter-terrorism are reproduced within Muslim communities with divisive effects. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  3. 'Miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Artikov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Muon detection is fundamental for the most of the interesting analyses at CDF. At the course of Run II, the collaboration expects to collect hundreds of t t-bar decays yielding a muon as well as several million B-hadron events involving J/ψ → μ + μ - decays. Muon detection is also of fundamental importance in the study of W-boson properties and in the search for Higgs production associated with W or Z bosons. Considerable effort therefore went into extending the muon detector coverage for Run II, which started in March 2001. The CDF II muon detector system consists of multiple layers of drift chambers and scintillation counters, which span the pseudorapidity (|η|) range between 0 and 1.5. Detectors spanning different ranges have different geometries, and the muon scintillation counter system includes subsystems in the regions that have come to be known as the 'central' (0 pe for WLS fiber readout is smaller than for conventional readout, we can also expect an increase in the statistical contribution to the overall uncertainty. Our first concern, before adopting this solution, was therefore to ascertain that the mean timing resolution obtained under these conditions was adequate. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of MSX' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns. (author)

  4. Cerenkov counters at the Omega Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    P. Petroff on the left. Here one sees both the gas Cerenkov counters sitting in front of the magnet to select forward emitted particles. The smaller one, working at high pressure, sits nearest to the Omega magnet (see photo 7505073X), the other (see photo 7505071X) works at atmospheric pressure.

  5. A gridded air counter for measuring exoelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Chiba, Yoshiya; Kirihata, Humiaki.

    1980-01-01

    A gridded air counter with a quenching circuit is described, which serves to detect low-energy electrons such as thermionic electrons, photoelectrons and exoelectrons emitted into the atmospheric air. The air counter consists of a loop-shaped anode and two grids provided for quenching the gas discharge and for protecting the electron emitter from the positive ion bombardment. The quenching circuit with a high input sensitivity of 5 mV detects the initiation gas discharge caused by an incident electron and immediately supplies a rectangular wave pulse of 300 V in amplitude and of more than 3 msec in width to the quenching grid near the anode. Simultaneously, the voltage of the suppressor grid is brought down and kept at -30 V against the earthed sample for the same period of time. Performance of the gridded air counter was examined by use of photoelectrons emitted from an abraded aluminum plate. The quenching action was successfully accomplished in the anode voltage range from 3.65 to 3.95 kV. The photoelectrons emitted into the atmosphere could be counted stably by use of this counter. (author)

  6. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A

    1963-03-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.

  7. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  8. Micropipette as Coulter counter for submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzevich, Yauheni; Ordonez, Tony; Evans, Grant; Chow, Lee

    2011-03-01

    Coulter counter based on micropipette has been around for several decades. Typical commercial Coulter counter has a pore size of 20 μ m, and is designed to detect micron-size blood cells. In recent years, there are a lot of interests in using nanometer pore size Coulter counter to detect single molecule and to sequence DNA. Here we describe a simple nanoparticle counter based on pulled micropipettes with a diameter of 50 -- 500 nm. Borosilicate micropipettes with an initial outer diameter of 1.00 mm and inner diameter of 0.5 mm are used. After pulling, the micropipettes are fire polished and ultrasound cleaned. Chlorinated Ag/AgCl electrodes and 0.1 M of KCl solution are used. The ionic currents are measured using an Axopatch 200B amplifier in the voltage-clamp mode. Several types and sizes of nanoparticles are measured, including plain silica and polystyrene nanospheres. The results will be discussed in terms of pH values of the solution and concentrations of the nanoparticles. Financial support from National Science Foundation (NSF-0901361) is acknowledged.

  9. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  10. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  11. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  12. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of

  13. Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. This paper discusses the corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for 60 Co using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/μm to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed

  14. E143 experiment. Shower counter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.

    1994-01-01

    The calibration procedure for the shower counters used in the E143 experiment is described. It has been developed during january 1994 in view of being used for the quick analysis. The method is explained and the results obtained on a given run are presented. (author)

  15. Conceptualizing School Leadership and Management from a Distributed Perspective: An Exploration of Some Study Operations and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Healey, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    A distributed perspective on school leadership and management has garnered considerable attention from policy makers, practitioners, and researchers in many countries over the past decade. However, we should be skeptical of its appeal as a measure of worth. While optimism is high with respect to taking a distributed perspective, we urge caution by…

  16. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jerry D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  18. A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan

    1992-01-01

    Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer

  19. High use of over-the-counter analgesic; possible warnings of reduced quality of life in adolescents - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Siv; Lagerløv, Per; Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Helseth, Sølvi

    2016-01-01

    Use of over-the-counter analgesics among adolescents has increased markedly. High consumption of over-the-counter analgesics among adolescents is associated with frequent pain, lower self-esteem, reduced sleep, lower educational ambition, binge drinking, higher caffeine consumption, and part-time employment. Knowledge about life experiences of adolescents who frequently use over-the-counter analgesics may be useful to prevent health problems. The purpose of the study was to increase knowledge about adolescents who suffer from frequent pain and have a high consumption of over-the-counter analgesics. A qualitative study, employing one-on-one, in-depth interviews using a thematic interview guide. Data were collected in Norway in 2013-2014. Three boys and sixteen girls; aged 14-16 years, who continuously consumed over-the-counter analgesics were recruited from ten high schools in urban and suburban districts. Candidate participants were excluded if they were medically diagnosed with an acute or chronic illness, requiring extended use of over-the-counter analgesics within the last year. The interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed as text according to Kvale's three contexts of interpretation: self-understanding, common sense and theory. All participants disclosed unresolved physical and psychosocial distress characterized as pain. Frequent pain from various body parts made everyday life challenging. Methods of pain self-appraisal and over-the-counter analgesics use often mimicked maternal patterns. Participants reported being raised under unpredictable circumstances that contributed to long lasting family conflicts and peer-group problems. Participants wanted to feel appreciated and to be socially and academically successful. However, pain reduced their ability to manage everyday life, hampered experienced possibilities for success, and made social settings difficult. Childhood experiences influence how adolescents experience pain and use over-the-counter

  20. Efficiency calibration of solid track spark auto counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin; Zhu Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    The factors influencing detection efficiency of solid track spark auto counter were analyzed, and the best etch condition and parameters of charge were also reconfirmed. With small plate fission ionization chamber, the efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experiment assemblies was re-calibrated. The efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experimental conditions was obtained. (authors)

  1. Counter-responses as organizers in adolescent analysis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, M Barrie

    2004-01-01

    The author introduces Counter-response as a phenomological term to replace theory-burdened terms like counter-transference, counter-identification, and counter-resistance. He discusses the analyst's use of self (drawing on the comparison with Winnicott's use of the object) in processing the expectable destabilizing counter-reactions that occur in working therapeutically with disturbed adolescents and their parents. Further; he discusses the counter-reaction to the patient's narrative, acting-out, and how re-enactments can serve as an organizer for understanding the patient's inner life when the analyst formulates his/her counter-response. Emphasis is placed on the therapist forming his or her own narrative with the adolescent that takes into account the evoked counter-reaction. For this purpose, the author recommends the use of a combined counter-response and metaphor-orienting perspective to acknowledge and work with the denial, illusions, reversal of perspective, and catastrophic anxieties experienced with these adolescents. The counter-response perspective permits the emergence of the disturbed adolescent's novel narrative; however, since these experiences can be destabilizing or disruptive, the author also recommends the use of a personal metaphor to anticipate the reluctance to examining, processing, and formulating the analyst's dysphoric counter-reaction. With the use of the counter-response, the analyst's therapeutic ideal is to achieve a more optimal balance between using accepted narrative theories and exploring novel enactment experiences. His swimming metaphor stratagem is designed to keep the analyst in these difficult encounters.

  2. Generalization of the development of liquid-sparkling counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Zhengzhu; Zhang Jue; Zhang Jinwei

    2006-01-01

    This paper includes five parts. It not only reviews the development history of liquid-sparkling counter but refers that the appearance of coincident circuit is its milestone. The paper summarizes the resembled hard ware and soft ware and soft ware of liquid-sparkling counter of indoor and overseas, and prospects the development of liquid-sparkling counter in our country. (authors)

  3. Association of Maternal Self-Medication and Over-the-Counter Analgesics for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Fangel; Gottschau, Mathilde; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, such as paracetamol (PCM), among children and adolescents is increasing and constitutes an important public health issue internationally. Reasons for this development are unclear; parental influence is suggested. Our objective was to examine...... whether self-medication with OTC analgesics among school-aged children is influenced by maternal self-reported health and medicine use, taking the child's frequency of pain into account....

  4. Cosmic rays with portable Geiger counters: from sea level to airplane cruise altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: Francesco.Riggi@ct.infn.it

    2009-07-15

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive air showers induced by high-energy primary protons in the atmosphere were also carried out, involving undergraduate and graduate teaching levels.

  5. 學習做勞工,同時做男人:反學校文化中階級與性別的交織之民族誌研究 Learning to Labor While Learning to be a Man: An Ethnographic Study of the Intersectionality of Class and Gender in the Counter-School Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    楊巧玲 Chiao-Ling Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available P. Willis的Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs 出版至今已40年,促使後來的研究者視學校為一政治、社會、文化鬥爭的場域,並能了解青少年的身分認同如何在學校中形構而成,影響深遠,經典地位無庸置疑。本文著眼於其主要發現與論證,即反學校文化中階級與性別如何交織共構而成勞工子弟的身分認同,首先從四位一體的角度,分別針對其基本議題、技法、認識論、存在論進行評析,以期形成較為全面的理解;其次將焦點置於教育的範疇,探討這樣的經典著作對教育研究以及實務有何啟示,前者包括基本議題的深化與開創、民族誌研究法的貢獻與侷限,後者包括教育政策與學校改革、教師角色與師資培育;最後提出二點反思:教育研究應多著眼於教育政策的可能弔詭、教育機會均等既是基本議題也是終極關懷。 It has been forty years since P. Willis published his seminal work, Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Two contributions stand out. One is to convincingly make it explicit that schooling serves as a site for political, social and cultural struggle. The other is to vividly analyze how youth identity is constituting and constructed in schools. This paper focuses on its major finding and argument, which is that class and gender intersect in a complicated way to form the identity of white working-class boys via the counter-school culture. To establish a more comprehensive understanding, this paper considers this influential study first in terms of four interrelated aspects, the basic issue, the technique, epistemology and ontology, and then its implications for educational research and practice. For educational research, two points are addressed: deepening and creating basic issues and the contribution and limitation of ethnographic studies; for educational

  6. A new neutron counter for fission research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, B., E-mail: benoit.laurent@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Granier, T.; Bélier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Martin, J.-F.; Taieb, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Hambsch, F.-J. [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A.B.; Haight, R.C.; Nelson, R.O.; O' Donnell, J.M. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A new neutron counter for research experiments on nuclear fission has been developed. This instrument is designed for the detection of prompt fission neutrons within relatively high levels of gamma and neutron background. It is composed of a set of {sup 3}He proportional counters arranged within a block of polyethylene which serves as moderator. The detection properties have been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments with radioactive sources. These properties are confirmed by an experiment on neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U at the WNR facility of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during which the mean prompt fission neutron multiplicity, or ν{sup ¯} has been measured from 1 to 20 MeV of incident neutron energy.

  7. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  8. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  9. Sources of Brazil's Counter-Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been two key initiatives taken in the last two decades in Brazil to create a counter-hegemonic project for the country. One initiative resulted from Brazil's business community and high-level State bureaucracy and aimed at forming a regional economic and political bloc that would guarantee and enlarge a relative independence from the hegemonic powers. The other resulted from the emergence of the new unionist movement in São Paulo and from the formation of Partido dos Trabalhadores and aimed at promoting radical democratization and reducing social exclusion. Both initiatives have created policies and changes that have converged to enhance Brazil's counter-hegemonic position as a regional and emerging power.

  10. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) succesfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm 2 with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results. (orig.)

  11. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F. (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati (Italy))

    1981-07-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) successfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm/sup 2/ with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results.

  12. Calibration of the neutron scintillation counter threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calibrating the threshold of a neutron counter in the form of a 10x10x40 cm plastic scintillator is described. The method is based on the evaluation of the Compton boundary of γ-spectrum from the discrimination curve of counter loading. The results of calibration using 60 Co and 24 Na γ-sources are given. In order to eValuate the Compton edge rapidly, linear extrapolation of the linear part of the discrimination curve towards its intersection with the X axis is recommended. Special measurements have shown that the calibration results do not practically depend on the distance between the cathode of a photomultiplier and the place where collimated γ-radiation of the calibration source reaches the scintillator

  13. Engaging Civil Society in Countering Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper Dr. Bibi van Ginkel takes an in depth look at how multi-lateral institutions, engage with civil society to counter violent extremism. Dr. van Ginkel argues that civil society can play a crucial role in preventing and countering violent extremism in numerous ways – by working on development programs, through their work in conflict transformation, in providing a platform to raise political grievances and to facilitate dialogue, or through their work in empowering victims and survivors of terrorism. The Paper finds that over the last decade there has been a more intensive coordination of activities between the UN and other multi-lateral organisations and civil society but the question remains whether the implementation as well as the drafting of these policies will live up to their potential effectiveness. This Paper gauges how effective these measures have been and what more there is to do. The final section concludes with a series of policy recommendations.

  14. Fast differential pulse discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelevoj, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The flowsheet of a differential pulse discriminator counter is described; the result of discrimination here is independent from the shape of the input pulse. Rate of the analysis of input pulses with minimum amplitude up to 0.3 mV coming out from the photomultiplier makes up 220 MHz. The flowsheet of the discriminator used in the system of photon counting for atmosphere probing is presented

  15. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, M.; Tan Jilian; Potenza, R.; D'amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter with a distributed constant delay-line-cathode (PSAC) is described. The strips formed on the printed board were served as the cathode and the delay line for readout of signals. The detector (PSAC) was operated in isobutane gas at the pressure range from 10 to 20 torr. The position resolution is better than 1 mm and the time resolution is about 350 ps, for 252 Cf fission-spectrum source

  16. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications

  17. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  18. Development of aerogel Cherenkov counters at Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Baehr, J.; Bellunato, T.; Beloborodov, K.I.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Calvi, M.; Danilyuk, A.F.; Djordjadze, V.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Lipka, D.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Onuchin, A.P.; Perego, D.; Rodiakin, V.A.; Savinov, G.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shamov, A.G.; Stephan, F.; Tayursky, V.A.; Vorobiov, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    The work on aerogel Cherenkov counters was started in Novosibirsk in 1986. Production of aerogels with refractive indices of 1.006-1.13 and thicknesses of blocks up to 50mm was developed. The light absorption length at 400nm is 5-7m, the scattering length is 4-5cm. By these parameters, the Novosibirsk aerogel is one of the best in the world. The ASHIPH Cherenkov counters with light collection on wavelength shifters have been developed. The ASHIPH system of the KEDR detector contains 1000l of aerogel. The π/K separation is 4.5σ. A project of ASHIPH counters for the SND detector has been developed. Aerogel RICH for LHCb gives a possibility to identify hadrons in the momentum range of 2-10GeV/c. The Novosibirsk group is developing an aerogel RICH for the endcap for the SuperBaBar project. Calculations performed by a group of physicists from Novosibirsk and DESY-Zeuthen have shown that aerogel radiators enable to achieve time resolution up to 20fs

  19. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  20. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  1. Consumer Preferences for High Welfare Meat in Germany: Self-service Counter or Service Counter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Weinrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people view animal welfare standards in the agricultural industry as critical and some consumers would prefer to buy high welfare meat. In order to successfully introduce high welfare meat products onto the market, some important marketing decisions must be made. Due to limited shelf space in retail outlets, niche products like high welfare meat cannot be placed both at the self-service counter and at the service counter. In order to analyze where to place it best an online survey of 642 German consumers was conducted. By means of factor and cluster analyses, consumers’ animal welfare attitudes and their preference for a point of purchase were combined. The different target groups were joint using cross tabulation analysis. The results reveal that consumers in the target group show a more positive attitude to the service counter.

  2. Prečo dlhoval Sókratés Asklépiovi kohúta? Skeptická interpretácia posledných Sokratových slov z dialógu Faidón (Why Socrates owed the Cock to Asclepius? Skeptical Interpretation of Socrates’ Last Words in the Phaedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Škvrnda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study argues for skeptical interpretation of Socrates’ last words in the dialogue Phaedo. Author analyses two passages, concerning health of the soul and concludes, that Plato’s position towards the immortality of soul can not be evaluated as dogmatic. Socrates’ last words remain therefore a puzzle with twofold meaning, connoting skeptic position.

  3. Counter-Narratives and the Unrehearsed Stories Counter-Terrorists Unwittingly Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments produce both deliberate and involuntary (and less conscious narratives when countering terrorism. The thesis of this article is that such unintended messages can be much more powerful and consequential than is realized; in fact, they can completely contradict the intended official 'counter-narrative'. To substantiate this hypothesis, the author looks at the experience of the German Federal Republic in the 1970s and beyond when state and society were confronted with the Red Army Faction (RAF and similar left-wing "revolutionaries" like those of the 2nd of June Movement or the Red Zora.

  4. Taxing Junk Food to Counter Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity. PMID:24028245

  5. Rate dependent image distortions in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, M.W.; Bento, A.C.; Smith, A.

    1994-01-01

    The positional linearity of imaging proportional counters is affected by the intensity distribution of the incident radiation. A mechanism for this effect is described, in which drifting positive ions in the gas produce a distorting electric field which perturbs the trajectories of the primary electrons. In certain cases, the phenomenon causes an apparent improvement of the position resolution. We demonstrate the effect in a detector filled with a xenon-argon-CO 2 mixture. The images obtained are compared with the results of a simulation. If quantitative predictions for a particular detector are required, accurate values of the absolute detector gain, ion mobility and electron drift velocity are needed. ((orig.))

  6. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  7. Taxing junk food to counter obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-11-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity.

  8. Cerenkov counter for the experiment NA3

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The program of the NA3 experiment included the study of hadronic interactions with a large transverse momentum pT, thus the inclusion in the set-up of three gas threshold Cerenkov counters of large acceptance. The photo shows the downstream part of the second Cerenkov (located at the output of the magnet). The yellow membrane is a temporary protection for the optics (shown in photo 7810540X) to be taken away when fixing this part to the gas tank (entering the magnet and not shown). The photomultipliers all around are heavily shielded.

  9. Use of parallel counters for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Results of investigation of using parallel counters, majority coincidence schemes, parallel compressors for triggering in multichannel high energy spectrometers are described. Concrete examples of methods of constructing fast and economic new devices used to determine multiplicity hits t>900 registered in a hodoscopic plane and a pixel detector are given. For this purpose the author uses the syndrome coding method and cellular arrays. In addition, an effective coding matrix has been created which can be used for light signal coding. For example, such signals are supplied from scintillators to photomultipliers. 23 refs.; 21 figs

  10. Governmentality, Counter-conduct and Prefigurative Demonstrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter attends to the micro-ethnographic detail of actual practices, procedures and technologies – the techne – of governance, especially those practices that manifest as what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’. The interactional and categorial practices of a prefigurative protest demonstra......This chapter attends to the micro-ethnographic detail of actual practices, procedures and technologies – the techne – of governance, especially those practices that manifest as what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’. The interactional and categorial practices of a prefigurative protest...... demonstration are examined using video recordings that were made of a theatrical protest event called “United Nathans weapons inspections” in February 2003. The chapter draws upon Mitchell Dean’s analytics of government and Carl Death’s analytics of protest. A first step in an analytics of protest is to uncover...... how fields of visibility, forms of knowledge, technologies and apparatuses, and subjectivities and identities are negotiated and accomplished collaboratively. Specific tools and methods that are well suited to investigating the situated practices, procedures and technologies of governmentality...

  11. Silicon photomultipliers in AMIGA muon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, Ana Martina [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Instituto de Tecnologias en Deteccion y Astroparticulas (ITeDA) (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The project AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) aims to extend the energy range at the Pierre Auger Observatory to observe cosmic rays of lower energies (down to ∝10{sup 17} eV) and to study the transition from extragalactic to galactic cosmic rays. AMIGA is compounded by an infill of surface detectors (employing Cherenkov radiation detection in water) and muon counters. The AMIGA muon counters consist of an array of buried modules composed of 64 scintillator bars, a multi-pixel Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) and the corresponding electronic of acquisition which works along with the surface detector. Currently, ITeDA is evaluating the feasibility of replacing PMTs with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) without performing any substantial modification in the digital readout nor in the mechanical design. I present calibration results of a prototype module associated to the surface detector Toune of the Pierre Auger Observatory using a SiPM Hamamatsu S1257-100C plugged to the standard AMIGA front-end electronics. In addition, a study concerning gain stability and temperature variation has also been performed and is reported. I finally discuss a comparison between traces measured by both photodetectors (PMT and SiPM) for modules associated to the surface detector Toune.

  12. 300-MHz optical discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1981-07-01

    The prediction of future CO 2 content in the atmosphere is not completely credible because the oceanographers and terrestrial ecologists do not agree on the global CO 2 balance. Very precise measurements of O 2 /N 2 ratio using Raman scattering over a few years' period could provide important information and lead to the explanation of the disparity in the atmospheric CO 2 balance. An optical discriminator-counter has been developed to count closely spaced optical events in the few photon level. Simulated optical events as close as 2.5 ns apart had been positively detected by using selected photomultipliers and optimized discriminators. Testing of the optical discriminator-counter was done by using an electrical pulse pair spaced 3 ns apart and also by a similar optical pulse pair generated by fast light-emitting diode. The photomultiplier is capable of counting an average single photoelectron pulse frequency of 50 MHz and has a sensitive detecting area of 50 mm in diameter. The discriminator performance is discussed

  13. Reduction of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R.; Kirsten, T. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1991-11-15

    A method to reduce the number of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters is described. A shaping of the outer cathode leads to a more uniform gas gain along the counter axis. The method is useful in situations in which the total number of decay events is very low. The effects leading to degraded events are studied theoretically and experimentally. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by using it for the proportional counter of the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment. (orig.).

  14. Construction and calibration studies of the SAPHIR scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrewa, D.

    1988-03-01

    For the scintillation counter system of the SAPHIR detector at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn 50 time of flight counters and 12 trigger counters have been built. Each of them has two photomultipliers, one at each side. A laser calibration system with a pulsed nitrogen laser as central light source to monitor these photomultipliers has been optimized. It was used to adjust the photomultipliers and to test their long and short time instabilities. (orig.)

  15. Criticism and Counter-Criticism of Public Management: Strategy Models

    OpenAIRE

    Luis C. Ortigueira

    2007-01-01

    Critical control is very important in scientific management. This paper presents models of critical and counter-critical public-management strategies, focusing on the types of criticism and counter-criticism manifested in parliamentary political debates. The paper includes: (i) a normative model showing how rational criticism can be carried out; (ii) a normative model for oral critical intervention; and (iii) a general motivational strategy model for criticisms and counter-criticisms. The pap...

  16. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  17. Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviller, H. de

    1965-01-01

    The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10 -2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author) [fr

  18. Cosmic Ray Background Analysis For A Cargo Container Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Norbert; Geist, W.H.; Lestone, J.P.; Mayo, D.R.; Menlove, Howard O.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new model for calculating the expected yield of cosmic-ray spallation neutrons in a Cargo Container Counter, and we have benchmarked the model against measurements made with several existing large neutron counters. We also developed two versions of a new measurement uncertainty prediction code based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The codes calculate the minimum detectability limit for the Cargo Container Counter for either neutron singles or doubles counting, and also propagate the uncertainties associated with efficiency normalization flux monitors and cosmic ray flux monitors. This paper will describe the physics basis for this analysis, and the results obtained for several different counter designs.

  19. Melinda: De Facto Primary School Music Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A series of reviews dating back to the 1960s and a body of research literature points to the inadequate delivery of music education by generalist primary school teachers in Australian schools. Despite recommendations for specialist music teachers to teach music in all Australian primary schools to counter this ongoing trend, such an approach has…

  20. Countering Climate Confusion in the Classroom: New Methods and Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M.; Berbeco, M.; Reid, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Politicians and ideologues blocking climate education through legislative manipulation. Free marketeers promoting the teaching of doubt and controversy to head off regulation. Education standards and curricula that skim over, omit, or misrepresent the causes, effects, risks and possible responses to climate change. Teachers who unknowingly foster confusion by presenting "both sides" of a phony scientific controversy. All of these contribute to dramatic differences in the quality and quantity of climate education received by U.S. students. Most U.S. adults and teens fail basic quizzes on energy and climate basics, in large part, because climate science has never been fully accepted as a vital component of a 21st-century science education. Often skipped or skimmed over, human contributions to climate change are sometimes taught as controversy or through debate, perpetuating a climate of confusion in many classrooms. This paper will review recent history of opposition to climate science education, and explore initial findings from a new survey of science teachers on whether, where and how climate change is being taught. It will highlight emerging effective pedagogical practices identified in McCaffrey's Climate Smart & Energy Wise, including the role of new initiatives such as the Next Generation Science Standards and Green Schools, and detail efforts of the Science League of America in countering denial and doubt so that educators can teach consistently and confidently about climate change.

  1. Fiber-Optic Monitoring System of Particle Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Titov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a fiber-optic system to monitor the counters of particles. Presently, optical counters of particles, which are often arranged at considerable distance from each other, are used to study the saltation phenomenon. For monitoring the counters, can be used electric communication lines.However, it complicates and raises the price of system Therefore, we offered a fiber-optic system and the counter of particles, free from these shortcomings. The difference between the offered counter of particles and the known one is that the input of radiation to the counter and the output of radiation scattering on particles are made by the optical fibers, and direct radiation is entered the optical fiber rather than is delayed by a light trap and can be used for lighting the other counters thereby allowing to use their connection in series.The work involved a choice of the quartz multimode optical fiber for communication, defining the optical fiber and lenses parameters of the counter of particles, and a selection of the radiation source and the photo-detector.Using the theory of light diffraction on a particle, a measuring range of the particle sizes has been determined. The system speed has been estimated, and it has been shown that a range of communication can reach 200km.It should be noted that modulation noise of counters of particles connected in series have the impact on the useful signal. To assess the extent of this influence we have developed a calculation procedure to illustrate that with ten counters connected in series this influence on the signal-to-noise ratio will be insignificant.Thus, it has been shown that the offered fiber-optic system can be used for monitoring the counters of particles across the desertified territories. 

  2. Mass transfer in counter current flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doichinova, Maria D.; Popova, Petya G.; Boyadjiev, Christo B. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    A theoretical analysis of gas-liquid counter-current flow in laminar boundary layers with flat phase boundary based on similarity variables method has been done. The obtained numerical results for the energy dissipation, mass transfer rate and their ratio are compared with analogous results for concurrent flows. A diffusion type of model is proposed for modeling of the mass transfer with chemical reaction in the column apparatuses in the cases of circulation zones. The presence of rising and descending flows (the change of the velocity direction) leads to using three coordinate systems. An iterative algorithm for the concentration distribution calculation is proposed. The influence of the zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column is investigated. Key words: efficiency, mass transfer, velocity distribution, column apparatuses, circulation zones.

  3. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  4. CWRU multiwire proportional counter readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevington, P.R.; Leskovec, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic system is described which translates pulses from individual wires of multiwire proportional counters into binary addresses indicating the location of the wires in the chambers. The system combines a fast (<100 ns) serial scan of an event buffer with parallel encoding to provide fast transfer of addresses (250 ns per hit). The buffer has provision for disabling the input less than 40 ns after detection of an event to suppress recording of multiple hits caused by individual events. The encoder can digitize the address of every hit encountered or just the first addresses of contiguous hits. The system includes a coincidence trigger for determining whether timing criteria have been satisfied between chambers and with external devices. Events which do not meet the coincidence criteria are typically reset within 400 ns. The addresses are transferred to a computer interface through CAMAC modules. Multiple buffering permits further data acquisition during CAMAC transfer cycles. (Auth.)

  5. Fabrication of preamplifier for proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, Y.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Talebi, B.; Mohammadi, A.; Etaati, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    We have tried to describe techniques of preamplifier fabrication for proportional counter. At first electronic circuit of preamplifier has been analyzed by means of Or cad 9.1. Then we assembled the circuit. Thereafter essential and standard parameters of preamplifier has been measured and compared with foreign made one, according to IEEE standard method. (IEEE Std 301-1988) Specification for our preamplifier is: 1. Rise time of output plus: 25 nsec. 2. Fall time of output pulse: 50μ sec. 3. Charge sensitive: 46.3 mV/pc. 4. Average noise: 500 ion pair (rms) 5. Count R ate L imit: 9.14*10 10 Count/sec. 6. Resolution: %1.3 7. Spectrum of Bf3 detector to 300μ Ci Am-Be source for this preamplifier is the same as foreign one. On the Whole comparison of this preamplifier with the foreign one shows that their parameters similarity is about %95

  6. Efficiency simulation of long neutron counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qingyuan; Li Bojun; Zhang De; Guo Hongsheng; Wang Dong; Yang Gaozhao; Si Fenni; Liu Jian

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve the high efficiency and uniform sensitivity for neutrons with widely different energies, the efficiency of long boron trifluoride proportional counter imbedded in polyethylene moderator was simulated by MCNP code. The result shows that detective efficiency would increase with increasing moderator radius and response curve at higher energy would be ameliorated through adjusting the thickness of front moderator. Also we calculated the relative efficiencies for different energy of a detector whose efficiencies were calibrated on an accelerator. The simulated efficiency for D-D neutrons (2.4 MeV) is 75% of the efficiency for D-T neutrons (14.1 MeV), which is approximately agreed with experimental data, 61%. The validity of the simulated model was proved by the consistent results between calculation and experiment data. (authors)

  7. Fast-neutron coincidence-counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Atwell, T.L.; Lee, D.M.; Erkkila, B.; Marshall, R.S.; Morgan, A.; Shonrock, C.; Tippens, B.; Van Lyssel, T.

    1982-03-01

    The fast neutron counter (FNC) described in this report is a computer-based assay system employing fast-pulse counting instrumentation. It is installed below a glove box in the metal electrorefining area of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed to assay plutonium salts and residues from this process and to verify the mass of electrorefined metal. Los Alamos National Laboratory Groups Q-1, Q-3, and CMB-11 carried out a joint test and evaluation plan of this instrument between May 1978 and May 1979. The results of that evaluation, a description of the FNC, and operating instructions for further use are given in this report

  8. The multimodal argumentation of persuasive counter discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    The continuous interest in and concern with business communication can be detected in the way critical aspects of this kind of communication are represented and debated in a wide range of discourses in a wide range of contexts. Drawing upon a social semiotic perspective, this paper explores...... the persuasive counter discourse of Media Bites videos: http://griid.org/category/media-bites/. The videos are a part of GRIID organization’s efforts directed at revealing misleading communicative strategies employed in various business contexts. In these instructive videos, the viewers are made familiar...... the misleading strategies employed. The viewers are also instructed where else they can find information about these strategies and the consequences of misleading advertising discourse. The argumentation framework of the Media Bites videos is also persuasively articulated for engaging the viewers as active...

  9. CAMAC differential pulse discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselikov, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Differential pulse discriminator-counter for Moessbauer spectrometer is described. Input pulse setting into the channel is performed according to the following algorithm: the pulse is transmitted to the channel depending on the fact whether the preceding pulse has got to the discrimination window or not. The circuit does not contain delay lines, taking into account the delay of a signal from the upper level discriminator in relation to the lower level discriminator signal, which is connected with input pulse rise finite time, which in turn allows one to reduce the discriminator dead time up to the operation time of threshold circuits. The pulse counting rate is 150 MHz, input signal amplitude is ±3 V, dead time is 6 ns, delay time from input to output is 14 ns. The unit is made in CAMAC system

  10. Quality measurement by proportional counter with B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, Yoshihiko; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    The dosimetry of air and the tissue-equivalent phantom made of acryl are carried out by the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and TEPC with wall contained B, and both results were compared. The changes of quality with distance from the beam center are determined by the frequency mean renewal energy y F (y)and the dose mean renewal energy y D (y) as indicators of quality. Both y F (y)and y D (y) of tissue-equivalent phantom are larger than air, but very large change was not observed in all distance. The dose rate is determined by y D (y), the number of events and measurement time. Change of dose rate was larger than the change of quality. The maximum value of dose rate depended on γray and neutron beam showed at the point 2 cm away from the center. (S.Y.)

  11. China's Cyber Initiatives Counter International Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior to its historic 2015 “no hack” pact for commercial advantage with the United States, Beijing has been engaged drafting and passing legislation, most with specific cyber components, to enhance its security posture while protecting its economic interests. This approach is in stark contrast to United States efforts that have demonstrated a focus on “acting globally, thinking locally” philosophy wherein most of its cyber efforts have been outwardly facing and are distinct from other security considerations. This paper suggests that by strengthening its domestic front with a legal framework, Beijing is preparing itself to counter any foreign initiative contrary to Beijing’s plans (e.g., cyber norms of behavior, cyber sanctions, etc. by being able to exert legal measures against foreign interests in country, thereby preserving its cyber sovereignty.

  12. Counter current decantation washing of HLW sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 51 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks with typical dimensions 25.9 meters (85 feet) diameter and 10 meters (33 feet) high. Nearly 114 million liters (30 M gallons) of HLW waste is stored in these tanks in the form of insoluble solids called sludge, crystallized salt called salt cake, and salt solutions. This waste is being converted to waste forms stable for long term storage. In one of the processes, soluble salts are washed from HLW sludge in preparation for vitrification. At present, sludge is batch washed in a waste tank with one or no reuse of the wash water. Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite are added to the wash water for tank corrosion protection; the large volumes of spent wash water are recycled to the evaporator system; additional salt cake is produced; and sodium carbonate is formed in the washed sludge during storage by reaction with CO 2 from the air. High costs and operational concerns with the current washing process prompts DOE and WSRC to seek an improved washing method. A new method should take full advantage of the physical/chemical properties of sludge, experience from other technical disciplines, processing rate requirements, inherent process safety, and use of proven processes and equipment. Counter current solids washing is a common process in the minerals processing and chemical industries. Washing circuits can be designed using thickeners, filters or centrifuges. Realizing the special needs of nuclear work and the low processing rates required, a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit is proposed using small thickeners and fluidic pumps

  13. First Generation College Students in STEM: Counter Stories of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Carol D.

    First-generation community college Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students have unique challenges in transferring to a four-year college. This is especially true for Latin and African American students who may experience multiple challenges, including discrimination, immigration issues and language issues, and sometimes poor academic preparation in their K-12 education. This project used a grounded theory approach to explore through an equity lens the educational journey of seven Los Medanos College students who have successfully transferred to a four-year institution were interviewed. All of these students that participated in this project were former Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement Program (MESA) students at Los Medanos College. The MESA Program is a learning community that provides academic support for "educationally and economically disadvantaged" students so they can excel in math and science, transfer to four-year institutions as majors in math-based fields, and graduate with baccalaureate degrees in STEM majors. Several intervention strategies are embedded into the program, including: counseling, mentors, a learning center, tutors, financial aid and transfer workshops, and internship and scholarship opportunities. The students were interviewed and asked several questions regarding their high school life, MESA, and community college and transfer experiences. The main theoretical framework utilized to analyze the interviews was Border Lands theory because these students created a safe space that allowed them to straddle their life at home and their life at school. Interviews with these students reveal seven successful, happy, and engaged students. Several themes emerged with respect to the importance of students' finding a major that they love, finding community, and the importance of teachers, family, and engagement in their success. The results of this project also emphasize the importance of hiring passionate teachers

  14. X-ray proportional counter for the Viking Lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesius, F.L.; Kroon, J.C.; Castro, A.J.; Clark, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    A set of four sealed proportional counters with optimized energy response is employed in the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer units aboard the two Viking Landers. The instruments have provided quantitative elemental analyses of soil samples taken from the Martian surface. This paper discusses the design and development of these miniature proportional counters, and describes their performance on Mars

  15. Output pulse height distribution of the GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou; Xiong Jianping

    1995-01-01

    The GM counters are the radiation detectors most in use. It has special advantages compared with other detectors. This paper introduces the output pulse height distribution of the GM counters, gives the measuring instruments and methods. The measuring results, some discussions, and useful conclusion are given as well

  16. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  17. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse

  18. Analysis of Cherenkov counter efficiencies for E691

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremaldi, L.; Elliott, J.; Gibney, M.; Nauenberg, U.

    1985-01-01

    A program is outlined which simulates Cherenkov counters. The program can compute the effect of the magnetic field on the efficiencies of Cherenkov counters. It also tells what cone to mirror distance gives the highest collection efficiency and at which target position should the laser be placed to represent the direction of the actual Cherenkov light the mirror sees

  19. Presettable up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Meyer, U.; Weidhase, F.

    1976-01-01

    A module containing a presettable binary up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit is described. The use of dataway is discussed. As an example for application in nuclear physics, control of beam position by the up-down counter is illustrated

  20. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  1. Counter-Buffing: A Visual Criticism of Guerrilla Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Robb Conrad; Cooke, Laquana

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses and explores hip-hop's reclamation of space using transit as a public bulletin. It is situated within counter-publics discourse and couched in the theoretical frameworks offered by visual rhetorical theory. This article also discusses hip-hop counter-publics through guerrilla advertising by former graffiti artists, SKI and…

  2. Counter diffusion of zinc and iron in alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, R.K.; Deb, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Half cell technique showed that an increase in moisture tension and CaCO 3 content caused reduction in the counter diffusion coefficients of zinc and iron in an alluvial soil. Increases in bulk density, ambient temperature and concentration of synthetic chelating agents e.g. EDTA and DTPA increased the counter diffusion coefficients of both zinc and iron. (author)

  3. The IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid scintillation counter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Razdolescu, AC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available at IFIN-HH using a 3 H standard. The performances of the IFIN-HH TDCR counter was checked against the measurement results of the TDCR counters of CSIR NML (South Africa), RC (Poland) and LNHB (France). A set of ready-to-measure Ni-63 sources in liquid...

  4. Beam test of Cherenkov counter prototype for ZDF setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacharava, A.K.; Macharashvili, G.G.; Nioradze, M.S.; Komarov, V.I.; Sopov, V.S.; Chernyshev, V.P.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a Cherenkov counter of total internal reflection for particle separation in the momentum range where all types of particles radiate Cherenkov light. The Cherenkov counter prototype with the lucite radiator was tested on the secondary beam of the ITEP (Moscow) accelerator. Dependence of the photomultiplier pulse height on the particle entrance angle was clearly observed. 4 refs., 4 figs

  5. A proportional counter for efficient backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Cudny, W.; Holnicka, J.; Walentek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a novel gas-tight proportional counter with flat beryllium windows for backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy. The krypton-filled counter has a geometry that approaches 2π and a resolution of 12% fwhm for the 14.4 keV line of 57 Fe, and is easy to manufacture. (Auth.)

  6. Sweat, Skepticism, and Uncharted Territory: A Qualitative Study of Opinions on Data Sharing Among Public Health Researchers and Research Participants in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hate, Ketaki; Meherally, Sanna; Shah More, Neena; Jayaraman, Anuja; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Osrin, David

    2015-07-01

    Efforts to internalize data sharing in research practice have been driven largely by developing international norms that have not incorporated opinions from researchers in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to identify the issues around ethical data sharing in the context of research involving women and children in urban India. We interviewed researchers, managers, and research participants associated with a Mumbai non-governmental organization, as well as researchers from other organizations and members of ethics committees. We conducted 22 individual semi-structured interviews and involved 44 research participants in focus group discussions. We used framework analysis to examine ideas about data and data sharing in general; its potential benefits or harms, barriers, obligations, and governance; and the requirements for consent. Both researchers and participants were generally in favor of data sharing, although limited experience amplified their reservations. We identified three themes: concerns that the work of data producers may not receive appropriate acknowledgment, skepticism about the process of sharing, and the fact that the terrain of data sharing was essentially uncharted and confusing. To increase data sharing in India, we need to provide guidelines, protocols, and examples of good practice in terms of consent, data preparation, screening of applications, and what individuals and organizations can expect in terms of validation, acknowledgment, and authorship. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  8. Influence of tube volume on measurement uncertainty of GM counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available GM counters are often used in radiation detection since they generate a strong signal which can be easily detected. The working principal of a GM counter is based on the interaction of ionizing radiation with the atoms and molecules of the gas present in the counter's tube. Free electrons created as a result of this interaction become initial electrons, i. e. start an avalanche process which is detected as a pulse of current. This current pulse is independent of the energy imparted on the gas, that being the main difference between a GM counter and the majority of other radiation detectors. In literature, the dependence on the incidence of radiation energy, tube's orientation and characteristics of the reading system are quoted as the main sources of measurement uncertainty of GM counters. The aim of this paper is to determine the dependence of measurement uncertainty of a GM counter on the volume of its counter's tube. The dependence of the pulse current on the size of the counter's tube has, therefore, been considered here, both in radial and parallel geometry. The initiation and expansion of the current pulse have been examined by means of elementary processes of electrical discharge such as the Markov processes, while the changes in the counter's tube volume were put to test by the space - time enlargement law. The random variable known as the 'current pulse in the counter's tube' (i. e. electrical breakdown of the electrode configuration has also been taken into account and an appropriate theoretical distribution statistically determined. Thus obtained theoretical results were then compared to corresponding experimental results established in controlled laboratory conditions.

  9. Mandating doctors to attend counter-terrorism workshops is medically unethical

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This is a brief exploration of the ethical issues raised for psychiatrists, and for universities, schools and wider society, by the demand that they attend mandatory training as part of the UK government's Prevent counter-terrorism strategy. The silence on this matter to date on the part of the General Medical Council, medical Royal Colleges, and the British Medical Association is a failure of ethical leadership. There is also a civil liberties issue, reminiscent of the McCarthyism of 1950s U...

  10. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  11. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF STUDENTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Said Rabayah

    2014-01-01

    The association between ICT diffusion and education is a subject of hot debate in both ICT and educational circles. Stances range from positive enthusiast, to skeptics, to disbelievers vis-a-vis the impact of ICT on students’ achievements. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the presence of any correlation between students’ academic achievements as recorded by Trends in International Mathematics and Science (TIMMS 2011) and the penetration of ICT in their schools and households, with ...

  12. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-01-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected

  13. Sexual revolution and counter-revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents of today inherit the conflicting legacies of the sexual reformation of the 1960s and the counter-reformation of the 1980s/1990s. Sexual mores are influenced by a younger age of puberty than in earlier generations and by the availability of effective contraception and antibiotics to combat sexually transmitted diseases. In the era of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, however, absolutely safe sex cannot be guaranteed, only relative degrees of safety and risk. Masturbation may be one way of achieving safe sex. Advancing technology also allows greater equality of opportunity and economic emancipation for women, enabling men and women to share equally in the care of older infants and children, also influencing sexual roles. Sex education for adolescents is provided sporadically and inconsistently, being seen by opposing factions as either encouragement to early pregnancy or a means of preventing it. In particular, the images delivered by the mass media are blatantly contradictory, ranging from endorsement of teenage sexual expression to condemnation of abortion and teenage pregnancy. Cultural traditions have strong influences on the acceptability of early pregnancy and on family structure. Black American culture is based on the three-generational family as opposed to the white tradition of the nuclear, two-generational family. It is important to realize a social policy that will respect not only the sexual rights of young people, but also the sexual health of the community.

  14. The research on the failure regularity of GM counter tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiyuan; Huai Guangli; Xie Bo; Zhang Hao

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of GM counter tubes should be described by useful time before failure-life and failure rate during life. A new method to study the failure regularity of GM counter tubes is advanced and adopted. The essential point of the method is that after the GM counter tubes of the instruments in use is tested, both the performance parameters and other information of the GM counter tubes and the instruments collected are recorded. Then database is created. Failure criterion is ascertained. The GM counter tubes are inspected to determine whether they are failure. Failure mode should be decided if the GM counter tubes failure. The GM counter tubes with the same useful year come together to make up a subsample. According to the relevant information, the number of the subsample is restored to the number of the sample that initially put into use. Then the number of failure sample is counted and at the same time the distribution of failure mode is got. The parameter m, γ, t 0 of Weibull distribution function are calculated with method of linear fit. Thus mean life, failure rate and other character values are obtained. Using this method, useful life and failure rate are determined. The conclusion is that the useful life is 18-20 years and the failure rate is 5 x 10 -6 and 4 x 10 -6 /h respectively during the course

  15. COUNTER-PUNISHMENT, COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION AMONG PARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eAndrighetto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study how communication affects cooperation in an experimental public goods environment with punishment and counter-punishment opportunities. Participants interacted over thirty rounds in fixed groups with fixed identifiers that allowed them to trace other group members’ behavior over time. The two dimensions of communication we study are asking for a specific contribution level and having to express oneself when choosing to counter-punish. We conduct four experimental treatments, all involving a contribution stage, a punishment stage and a counter-punishment stage in each round. In the first treatment communication is not possible at any of the stages. The second treatment allows participants to ask for a contribution level at the punishment stage and in the third treatment participants are required to send a message if they decide to counter-punishment. The fourth combines the two communication channels of the second and third treatments. We find that the three treatments involving communication at any of the two relevant stages lead to significantly higher contributions than the baseline treatment. We find no difference between the three treatments with communication. We also relate our results to previous results from treatments without counter-punishment opportunities and do not find that the presence of counter-punishment leads to lower cooperation level. The overall pattern of results shows that given fixed identifiers the key factor is the presence of communication. Whenever communication is possible contributions and earnings are higher than when it is not, regardless of counter-punishment opportunities.

  16. Multi-element proportional counter for radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Rossi, H.H.; Johnson, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses design modifications of a multi-element proportional counter. The original counter exhibited poor resolution, as measured by the width of the event-size spectrum for low-energy photons. It was also suspected that the field inside each volume was not sufficiently symmetric. Results of the modifications showed that a dramatic improvement in resolution could be obtained in the chamber with tissue-equivalent septa if their potentials were adjusted to obtain optimal resolution. The full width at half maximum then approached, although it did not equal, that of a standard spherical counter

  17. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  18. Numerical modelling of tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segur, P.; Colautti, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a survey is given of the various numerical techniques employed to study the transport of ionising particles inside a TEPC. The first part is devoted to the description of the general concept of particle transport calculations. Thereafter, the different methods available to study transport phenomena and energy deposition in the sensitive volume and in counter walls are described. Finally, the basic ionisation mechanisms which may occur in a counter are described, and the non-equilibrium phenomena which play an important role mainly for counters that are to be used in measurements at the nanodosemeter level are studied. (author)

  19. What Can Be Done about School Shootings? A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Randy; Cornell, Dewey G.; Modzeleski, William; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2010-01-01

    School shootings have generated great public concern and fostered a widespread impression that schools are unsafe for many students; this article counters those misapprehensions by examining empirical evidence of school and community violence trends and reviewing evidence on best practices for preventing school shootings. Many of the school safety…

  20. Calibrating Fundamental British Values: How Head Teachers Are Approaching Appraisal in the Light of the Teachers' Standards 2012, Prevent and the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Lynn; Bryan, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    In requiring that teachers should "not undermine fundamental British values (FBV)," a phrase originally articulated in the Home Office counter-terrorism document, Prevent, the Teachers' Standards has brought into focus the nature of teacher professionalism. Teachers in England are now required to promote FBV within and outside school,…

  1. Counter-Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ..., with little or no warning. Success in defending our nation, our military forces, and partners and allies depends on how effectively we apply air, space, and cyberspace power to counter this threat...

  2. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  3. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is to help protect consumers against possible criminal tampering. Drug products with tamper-evident packaging have ... Medicines Medicines in My Home (MIMH) Choosing the right over-the-counter medicine (OTCs) The Over-the- ...

  4. Expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements by GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, K.; Arandjic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with possible ways of obtaining expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements for four types of GM counters with a same counter's tube, in cases when the contributors of these uncertainties are cosmic background radiation and induced overvoltage phenomena. Nowadays, as a consequence of electromagnetic radiation, the latter phenomenon is especially marked in urban environments. Based on experimental results obtained, it has been established that the uncertainties of an influenced random variable 'number of pulses from background radiation' and 'number of pulses induced by overvoltage' depend on the technological solution of the counter's reading system and contribute in different ways to the expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements of the applied types of GM counters. (author)

  5. Discrimination capability of avalanche counters detecting different ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prete, G.; Viesti, G.; Padua Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The discrimination capability of avalanche counters to detect different ionizing particles has been studied using a 252 Cf source. Pulse height, pulse-height resolution and timing properties have been measured as a function of the reduced applied voltage for parallel-plate and parallel-grid avalanche counters. At the highest applied voltages, space charge effects shift the pulse-height signal of the avalanche counter away from being linearly proportional to the stopping power of the detected particles and cause the pulse-height resolution to deteriorate. To optimize the avalanche counter capability, without loss of time resolution, it appears better to operate the detector at voltages well below the breakdown threshold. Measurements with 32 S ions are also reported. (orig.)

  6. Calibration and Monte Carlo modelling of neutron long counters

    CERN Document Server

    Tagziria, H

    2000-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique has become a very powerful tool in radiation transport as full advantage is taken of enhanced cross-section data, more powerful computers and statistical techniques, together with better characterisation of neutron and photon source spectra. At the National Physical Laboratory, calculations using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4B have been combined with accurate measurements to characterise two long counters routinely used to standardise monoenergetic neutron fields. New and more accurate response function curves have been produced for both long counters. A novel approach using Monte Carlo methods has been developed, validated and used to model the response function of the counters and determine more accurately their effective centres, which have always been difficult to establish experimentally. Calculations and measurements agree well, especially for the De Pangher long counter for which details of the design and constructional material are well known. The sensitivit...

  7. Retrofit designs for small bench-type blood cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes several retrofit designs to correct operational problems associated with small bench-type blood cell counters. Replacement electronic circuits as well as modifications to the vacuum systems are discussed.

  8. The scintillation counter system at the SAPHIR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, D.

    1989-10-01

    The scintillation-counters system of the SAPHIR-detector at the stretcher accelerator ELSA in Bonn consists of 64 counters. It supplies a fast hadronic trigger and is utilizised for the particle identification by time of flight measurements. Prototypes of the counters (340x21.25 x 6.0 cm 3 ) had been tested. The contribution to the resolution of the time of flight measurement was measured to σ=125 ps, the effective light velocity to 17.5 ns/cm and the attenuation length of 7.8 m. A pion kaon separation is possible up to a momentum of 1 GeV/c with time of flight measurement. With the first photon-beam at SAPHIR the counters were tested, first triggers were obtained and evaluated. (orig.) [de

  9. New proportional counter assembly in Gliwice 14C laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscicki, W.; Zastawny, A.

    1977-01-01

    The design and parameters are described of a proportional counter for low level counting. The cathode tube 80 mm in diameter and 30 cm in length is made of pure copper. The anode is a tungsten wire 0.05 mm in diameter. The cathode tube is surrounded by a cylindrical ring container with mercury. The total volume of the counter is 1.5 l and it is filled with carbon dioxide. At a pressure of 1 at of CO 2 the counter background is 4.20+-0.05 cpm and contemporary 14 C net effect 10.22+-0.10 cpm; at a pressure of 2 at of CO 2 the background is 4.40+-0.05 cpm and the contemporary 14 C net effect 20.53+-10 cpm. The efficiency of the proportional counter is 88% in both cases. (J.B.)

  10. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN FRY COUNTER DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL AIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Oktoriyana; Ujang Sumarwan; Hartoyo Hartoyo

    2014-01-01

    This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected...

  11. Test of long scintillating counter prototypes for CDF-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Pukhov, O.; Incagli, M.; Leone, S.; Menzione, A.; Pauletta, G.; Tokar, S.

    2000-01-01

    New type long (up to 3 m) scintillating counter prototypes, developed for CDF-II, have been tested. The shift-spectrum fiber ribbons were used for light collection, and modern ultra compact photomultipliers R5600 were used for light detection. The efficiency for m.i.p. was excellent for all prototypes. The light yield from the far end of the counters was found to be more than 20 photoelectrons

  12. High-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNCC): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1979-06-01

    This manual describes the portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the assay of plutonium, particularly by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The counter is designed for the measurement of the effective 240 Pu mass in plutonium samples which may have a high plutonium content. The following topics are discussed: principle of operation, description of the system, operating procedures, and applications

  13. A Bayesian statistical method for particle identification in shower counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashimizu, N.; Kimura, A.; Shibata, A.; Sasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    We report an attempt on identifying particles using a Bayesian statistical method. We have developed the mathematical model and software for this purpose. We tried to identify electrons and charged pions in shower counters using this method. We designed an ideal shower counter and studied the efficiency of identification using Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. Without having any other information, e.g. charges of particles which are given by tracking detectors, we have achieved 95% identifications of both particles

  14. Design and Implementation of MOD-6 Synchronous Counter using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Dibal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a MOD-6 synchronous counter using VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The VHSIC stands for Very High Speed Integrated Circuit. Using this approach, the behaviour of the counter is the most important aspect of the design. In the first section, the paper introduced counters in general, and their areas of specialization, like frequency synthesizers. The synchronous counter was then introduced, stating the behaviour of the flip-flops that make the counter. The modulus of a counter was defined. In the second section, the Xilinx ISE (Integrated Simulation Environment and the ISIM (Integrated Simulator were presented and briefly described with their respective snapshots. The structure of a typical VHDL code was presented, which included LIBRARY, ENTITY, and ARCHITECTURE. Each of these structures was then briefly described. The main work in this paper was then presented. The count sequence steps were stated as . VHDL was used to model the counter to count through six steps, outputting count values according to desired steps. The hardware implementation of the design was presented, where the implementation process was described, with a supporting diagram, followed by the floor-planning technique, in which the PORTS described in the VHDL design were assigned to the physical pins of the XC3S1000 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array chip. The final steps of the hardware implementation process were then presented. These include bitstream generation and download to target device. The third section of the paper presented the results obtained. Simulation/timing results of the design were presented, showing the output of the counter at each state with respect to the clock signal. The result of the synthesis of the design was presented, which showed the FPGA area with the exact location of the pins on the FPGA chip. Finally, the fourth section presented the conclusion arrived at, in respect of the design that was carried

  15. A comprehensive test specification for pulse fission counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D L [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    The following test specification is based on the memorandum AERE - M 728 which it now replaces It contains a standard acceptance test procedure for the many U.K.A.E.A, designed pulse fission counters now commercially available. This test specification may be used for any pulse fission counter provided a specification sheet as shown in Appendix 3 is supplied to the contractor quoting this report and including specified values for the measured quantities. (author)

  16. Recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-12-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  17. Recoil-proton fast-neutron-counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, G.; Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A proton-recoil neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time-of-flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV, presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  18. A recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV. (author)

  19. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-12-31

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

  20. Case study for co and counter swirling domestic burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kotb

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, the influence of equivalence ratio for co and counter-swirl domestic burners compared with non-swirl design on the thermal efficiency as well as CO emissions has been studied using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. Also, the flame stability, and pot height, which is defined as the burner-to-pot distance (H, of the co and counter domestic burners were compared. The analysis of the results showed that, for both swirl burners co and counter one the thermal efficiency under all operation conditions tested is higher than the non-swirled burner (base burner. For example, the thermal efficiency increased by 8.8%, and 5.8% than base burner for co and counter swirl, respectively at Reynolds number equal 2000 and equivalence ratio 1. The co and counter swirl burners show lower CO emission than the base burner. The co swirl burner has wider operation range than counter swirl. With the increase of pot height, the thermal efficiency of all burners decreases because the flame and combustion gases are cooled due to mixing with ambient air. As a result, the heat transfer is decreased due to atmospheric loss, which decrease the thermal efficiency.

  1. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  2. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...... an interrupted time series design that contrasts the monthly sales data for over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine before and after the legislation took effect. RESULTS: The total use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine as well as those containing paracetamol and codeine has risen...... leads to irrational use of over-the-counter medicines is not substantiated in the case of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  3. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Knowledge Management: A Skeptic's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation discussing knowledge management is shown. The topics include: 1) What is Knowledge Management? 2) Why Manage Knowledge? The Presenting Problems; 3) What Gets Called Knowledge Management? 4) Attempts to Rethink Assumptions about Knowledgs; 5) What is Knowledge? 6) Knowledge Management and INstitutional Memory; 7) Knowledge Management and Culture; 8) To solve a social problem, it's easier to call for cultural rather than organizational change; 9) Will the Knowledge Management Effort Succeed? and 10) Backup: Metrics for Valuing Intellectural Capital i.e. Knowledge.

  5. Ideal response function of a 3He proportional counter to thermal neutrons determined by different length counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Naoto; Kudo, Katsuhisa; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yoshimoto, Takaaki

    2000-01-01

    The relative gas multiplication along the cylindrical axis of three 3 He proportional counters with different length were measured by using a thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor and an ideal response function by taking into account the difference of pulse height spectra were measured by different length counters. The three 3 He proportional counters (model type of P4-0806, P4-0806 and P4-0808 manufactured by Reuter-Stokes) prepared for relative gas multiplication measurements had identical structure having cylindrical outer shells of 304 stainless steel except for different sensitive lengths of 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm, respectively. All counters were filled with 400 kPa of 3 He gas and 200 kPa of Ar gas. The pulse height distributions were measured by moving the counter in the direction of it's cylindrical axis perpendicular to the thermal neutron beam. The measured pulse heights corresponding to the full energy peaks at various entrance points were normalized to that of the whole counter irradiation. The results as a function of the distance from the bottom edge of the stainless steel cylinder are shown. The total transition region of gas gain corresponded to about 23 %, 15 % and 10 % of each nominal sensitive region corresponding to shot, middle and long counters. The ideal pulse height spectrum (dots) obtained by using proportional counters of 10 cm and 20 cm in nominal sensitive length to thermal neutron beam is shown in the paper in comparison to simulated one which was calculated assuming the constant gain within the sensitive region and zero gas gain outside the sensitive regions. The simulation realized the ideal response function fairly well. (S.Y.)

  6. Responding to Cyber Jihad: Towards an Effective Counter Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “Who is in control of the narrative?” is the mantra that now echoes in the hallways of the EU’s headquarters in Brussels. Spurred in part by large-scale jihadist propaganda, approximately 20,000 people from 50 countries have joined the fight in Iraq and Syria. So far, authorities in their countries of origin have not been able to address the jihadist radicalisation messages transmitted via the internet and social media. Many new initiatives were recently announced, however, including the establishment of a European counter-narrative centre in Brussels. Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the role of the internet and social media in processes of radicalisation. It offers an outline of the various aspects of the jihadist narrative, in order better to understand what message needs to be countered. The counter-actions against this cyber jihad can take different forms. Parallel to the way in which advertisement campaigns are tailored to sell products to a certain target group, strategic communication should take into account how a number of recurring elements play a role in the counter-messaging. The understanding of who the target group is, what jihadist narrative is used and how that message can be countered, who the credible messenger should be, and what medium can best be used to deliver the message are all relevant questions that can only be answered in a context-specific manner. The Research Paper concludes with several recommendations on how the recently announced new European counter-narrative centre can effectively contribute to the already diverse landscape of counter-narrative initiatives.

  7. On timing properties of the SRPO-304 proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Pugacheva, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    Data of measurements of the signal delay time and the time of development of the discharge in a proportional counter filled with 90% Xe + 10% CH 4 mixture at 0.3 atm are presented. The measurements were carried out on muons of cosmic rays. Signal delay distribution for the proportional counter are given relative to the time of passage through it of a charged particle. The data obtained shows that the average delay time is 0.8 μs when a particle passes near the counter centre, whereas when it passes near its side wall the average delay time is 1.5 μs. The investigation of the discharge development time distribution was carried out for two values of the discriminator threshold: 6 and 20 keV. It was determined that the discharge development time distribution depends but little on the place of particle passage in a counter. The average discharge development time is 1.5 μs, with the maximum time beina 4.3 μs. It is shown that the resolution time of logical circuits will be near 4 μs when the counter is combined with scintillation detectors

  8. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  9. Picosecond-precision multichannel autonomous time and frequency counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szplet, R.; Kwiatkowski, P.; RóŻyc, K.; Jachna, Z.; Sondej, T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and test results of a multichannel time interval and frequency counter developed as a desktop instrument. The counter contains four main functional modules for (1) performing precise measurements, (2) controlling and fast data processing, (3) low-noise power suppling, and (4) supplying a stable reference clock (optional rubidium standard). A fundamental for the counter, the time interval measurement is based on time stamping combined with a period counting and in-period two-stage time interpolation that allows us to achieve wide measurement range (above 1 h), high precision (even better than 4.5 ps), and high measurement speed (up to 91.2 × 106 timestamps/s). The frequency is measured up to 3.0 GHz with the use of the reciprocal method. Wide functionality of the counter includes also the evaluation of frequency stability of clocks and oscillators (Allan deviation) and phase variation (time interval error, maximum time interval error, time deviation). The 8-channel measurement module is based on a field programmable gate array device, while the control unit involves a microcontroller with a high performance ARM-Cortex core. An efficient and user-friendly control of the counter is provided either locally, through the built-in keypad or/and color touch panel, or remotely, with the aid of USB, Ethernet, RS232C, or RS485 interfaces.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron counters for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looman, Marc; Peerani, Paolo; Tagziria, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    MCNP-PTA is a new Monte Carlo code for the simulation of neutron counters for nuclear safeguards applications developed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). After some preliminary considerations outlining the general aspects involved in the computational modelling of neutron counters, this paper describes the specific details and approximations which make up the basis of the model implemented in the code. One of the major improvements allowed by the use of Monte Carlo simulation is a considerable reduction in both the experimental work and in the reference materials required for the calibration of the instruments. This new approach to the calibration of counters using Monte Carlo simulation techniques is also discussed.

  11. Lessons from History for Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroro J. Ingram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of interrelated macro-, mezzo- and micro-level considerations for maximizing the efficacy of not just a strategic communications campaign but message design. Historical examples are drawn upon to illustrate their practical application. The Policy Brief concludes by analysing four key strategic-policy principles arguing that a counter-terrorism strategic communications campaign is more likely to be successful if it is based on the cumulative effects of a multidimensional messaging strategy.

  12. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  13. Development of failure-detecting device for γ radioimmunoassay counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xianzhi; Zhang Bingfeng

    1997-01-01

    A failures-detecting device based on single chip microcomputer technique for detecting of failures of γ radioimmunoassay counter is developed. The device can output signals of variable amplitude and frequency similar to the pulse of γ particle for shooting problem parts of γ counter's detecting system. By automatically comparing the shapes and amplitudes of the two signals to and from an amplifier unit, the device can distinguish if the amplifier unit works normally. The differential-input amplifier circuit gives 0.1% accuracy for the measurement of the stability of high voltage. The pulse widen circuit of this device allows for middle speed A/D detecting of periodical low-frequency pulse waves of micro-second width. This device is used specifically for the maintaining and failure-detecting of γ radioimmunoassay counter

  14. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  15. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP, dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the dual 2-blade SRPs configuration or 4-blade SRP configuration under the same advance ratio, and the CRP configuration also gains the highest efficiency whether under the situation of providing the same trust or absorbing the same power. It concludes that, for a stratospheric airship, the CRP configuration is better than the multiple SRPs configuration or a multi-blade SRP one.

  16. A semiconductor counter telescope for neutron reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalovic, B I; Ajdacic, V S [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1963-12-15

    A counter telescope consisting of two or three semiconductor counters for {delta}E/{delta}x vs. E analysis was made for studying nuclear reactions induced by 14.4 MeV neutrons. Various factors important for the telescope performance are discussed in details and some solutions for getting an optimum resolution and a low background are given. Protons, deuterons and alpha particles resulting from scattering and reactions of 14.4 MeV neutrons on deuterium, tritium, praseodymium and niobium were detected, and pulses from the counters recorded on a two-dimensional analyzer. These experiments have shown that the telescope compares favorably with other types of telescopes with regards to the upper limit of neutron flux which can be used, (DELTADELTA)x and E resolution, versatility and compactness (author)

  17. An acoustical bubble counter for superheated drop detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Montvila, D.; Flynn, D.; Brennan, C.; D'Errico, F.

    2006-01-01

    A new bubble counter has been developed based on the well-established approach of detecting vaporization events acoustically in superheated drop detectors (SDDs). This counter is called the Framework Scientific ABC 1260, and it represents a major improvement over prior versions of this technology. By utilizing advanced acoustic pattern recognition software, the bubble formation event can be differentiated from ambient background noise, as well as from other acoustic signatures. Additional structural design enhancements include a relocation of the electronic components to the bottom of the device; thus allowing for greater stability, easier access to vial SDDs without exposure to system electronics. Upgrades in the electronics permit an increase in the speed of bubble detection by almost 50%, compared with earlier versions of the counters. By positioning the vial on top of the device, temperature and sound insulation can be accommodated for extreme environments. Lead shells can also be utilized for an enhanced response to high-energy neutrons. (authors)

  18. An acoustical bubble counter for superheated drop detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chris; Montvila, Darius; Flynn, David; Brennan, Christopher; d'Errico, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    A new bubble counter has been developed based on the well-established approach of detecting vaporization events acoustically in superheated drop detectors (SDDs). This counter is called the Framework Scientific ABC 1260, and it represents a major improvement over prior versions of this technology. By utilizing advanced acoustic pattern recognition software, the bubble formation event can be differentiated from ambient background noise, as well as from other acoustic signatures. Additional structural design enhancements include a relocation of the electronic components to the bottom of the device; thus allowing for greater stability, easier access to vial SDDs without exposure to system electronics. Upgrades in the electronics permit an increase in the speed of bubble detection by almost 50%, compared with earlier versions of the counters. By positioning the vial on top of the device, temperature and sound insulation can be accommodated for extreme environments. Lead shells can also be utilized for an enhanced response to high-energy neutrons.

  19. A high-efficiency neutron coincidence counter for small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Russo, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The inventory sample coincidence counter (INVS) has been modified to enhance its performance. The new design is suitable for use with a glove box sample-well (in-line application) as well as for use in the standard at-line mode. The counter has been redesigned to count more efficiently and be less sensitive to variations in sample position. These factors lead to a higher degree of precision and accuracy in a given counting period and allow for the practical use of the INVS counter with gamma-ray isotopics to obtain a plutonium assay independent of operator declarations and time-consuming chemicals analysis. A calculation study was performed using the Los Alamos transport code MCNP to optimize the design parameters. 5 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  20. A miniature spark counter for public communication and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, C.H.; Weng, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of a miniature spark counter for public communication and education using naturally occurring radon as a radioactive source without involving any man-made radioactivity is described. The battery-powered miniature spark counter weighs 2.07 kg with a volume of 4.844 x 10/sup -4/ m/sup 3/. The circuitry consists of seven major components: timer, high-voltage power supply, attenuator, noninverting amplifier, low-pass filter, one-shot generator, and counter. Cellulose nitrate films irradiated with alpha particles from radon emanating from soil were etched and counted. The visible sparks during counting are rather heuristic, which can be used to demonstrate naturally occurring radioactivity in classrooms or showplaces

  1. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode demonstrates higher catalytic activity with a cobalt-complex electrolyte and higher cell efficiency. The origin of the improved performance was investigated by surface morphology examination (scanning electron microscopy), various electrochemical analyses (cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and crystalline analysis (X-ray diffractometry).

  2. Proton-recoil proportional counter tests at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; Burrows, D.R.; DeVolpi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A methane filled proton-recoil proportional counter will be used as a fission neutron detector in the fast-neutron hodoscope. To provide meaningful fuel-motion information the proportional counter should have: a linear response over a wide range of reactor powers background ratio (the number of high energy neutrons detected must be maximized relative to low energy neutrons, and gamma ray sensitivity must be kept small); and a detector efficiency for fission neutrons above 1 MeV of approximately 1%. In addition, it is desirable that the detector and the associated amplifier/discriminator be capable of operating at counting rates in excess of 500 kHz. This paper reports on tests that were conducted on several proportional counters at the TREAT reactor

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEOUS PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS FOR NEUTRON DOSIMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Faezeh; Waker, Anthony J

    2018-01-10

    The use of a custom-made cylindrical graphite proportional counter (Cy-GPC) along with a cylindrical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) for neutron-gamma mixed-field dosimetry has been studied in the following steps: first, the consistency of the gamma dose measurement between the Cy-TEPC and the Cy-GPC was investigated over a range of 20 keV (X-ray) to 0.661 MeV (Cs-137 gamma ray). Then, with both the counters used simultaneously, the neutron and gamma ray doses produced by a P385 Neutron Generator (Thermo Fisher Scientific) together with a Cs-137 gamma source were determined. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 4-GHz counters bring synthesizers up to speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Miller, R.

    1984-06-01

    The availability of digital IC counters built on GaAs makes direct frequency division in microwave synthesizers possible. Four GHz is the highest clock rate achievable in production designs. These devices have the ability to drive TTL/CMOS logic, and the counter can be connected directly to single-chip frequency synthesizers controllers. A complete microwave sythesizer is formed by two chips and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The advantages of GaAs are discussed along with flip-flop basics, aspects of device fabrication, and the characteristics of GaAs MESAFETs. Attention is given to a GaAs prescaler usable for direct conversion, four kinds of flip-flops in a divide-by-two mode, and seven-stage binary ripple counters.

  5. Interactive hypermedia training manual for spent-fuel bundle counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    Spent-fuel bundle counters, developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program for the International Atomic Energy Agency, provide a secure and independent means of counting the number of irradiated fuel bundles discharged into the fuel storage bays at CANDU nuclear power stations. Paper manuals have been traditionally used to familiarize IAEA inspectors with the operation, maintenance and extensive reporting capabilities of the bundle counters. To further assist inspectors, an interactive training manual has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer using hypermedia software. The manual uses interactive animation and sound, in conjunction with the traditional text and graphics, to simulate the underlying operation and logic of the bundle counters. This paper presents the key features of the interactive manual and highlights the advantages of this new technology for training

  6. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  7. TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information. - Highlights: • TOP counter was developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. • The real size prototype was produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons. • The quartz radiator production and assembling with MCP-PMT was successfully carried out. • The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  8. About the distribution of delays in G.M counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, E.; Rogozinski, A.

    1954-01-01

    We measure, with an oscillograph method the global time that pass between the time that a particle in a determined region of the studied counter and the answer of the amplifier associated to the counter. This delay is composed of the latency time T l and the T q delay, that result from the rise time finished of the impulse and whose value depends of the sensitivity threshold of the amplifier. The selection of (cosmic) particles generating discharge in the studied counter is obtained thanks to a telescope of two meters in coincidence whose opening is limited by a group of four counters in anti-coincidence with the first. The meter is arranged so that the median plan of the telescope crosses to a variable distance d of his axial thread. The measures have been done for different securities of the distance d and of the over-voltage V s applied to the counter. The results show that the statistical distribution of the delays is more spread especially when d is bigger and V s more reduced. The average values of the observed delays vary of 7.10 -8 s for d = 0 and V s es = 200 V, to 90.10 -8 s for d = 1,9 cm and V s = 50 V. The mobility of an free electron within the gaseous mixture filling the counter under a pressure of 10 cm.Hg was found equal: (2,1 ±0,2).10 4 cm 2 .s -1 .V -1 . (author) [fr

  9. Can counter-advertising reduce pre-adolescent children's susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods? Experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to test whether counter-advertisements (i.e. messages contesting industry marketing) make pre-adolescent children less susceptible to the influence of food promotions. Since children have lower media literacy levels due to their immature cognitive abilities, specific research questions explored were: (1) whether the effectiveness of counter-ads is contingent on children having understood them; and (2) whether counter-ads may be detrimental when they are misinterpreted. A between-subjects experimental design using a web-based methodology was employed. 1351 grade 5-6 students (mean age 11 years) from schools located in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia participated. Participants were randomly shown an animated web banner advertisement (counter-ad challenging front-of-package promotion or control ad) and a pair of food packages from the same product category comprising an unhealthy product featuring a front-of-package promotion (nutrient content claim or sports celebrity endorsement) and a healthier control pack without a front-of-package promotion. Responses to the assigned advertisement, choice of product (healthy versus unhealthy) and ratings of the unhealthy product and front-of-package promotion on various nutritional and image-related attributes were recorded for each child. Sixty-six percent of children who viewed a counter-ad understood its main message. These children rated the front-of-package promotion as less believable and rated the unhealthy product bearing the front-of-package promotion as less healthy compared to the control group. However, children who misunderstood the counter-ad rated the unhealthy product bearing a front-of-package promotion as more healthy and rated the front-of-package promotion more favourably than those who correctly understood the counter-ad. Counter-advertising may have unintended consequences when misunderstood. If public health organizations or government pursue counter-advertising as a strategy to reduce

  10. A large multi-cell threshold gas Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declais, Y.; Aubert, J.J.; Bassompierre, G.; Payre, P.; Thenard, J.M.; Urban, L.

    1980-08-01

    A large multi-cell threshold gas Cerenkov counter consisting of 78 cells has been built for use in a high energy muon scattering experiment at CERN (European Muon Collaboration). It is used with neon, nitrogen or a mixture of those two gases, allowing the pion threshold to be varied between 6 and 20 GeV/c. The sensitive region of the counter has a length of 4.0 m and entrance and exit windows of 1.1 x 2.4 m 2 and 2.4 x 5.0 m 2 , respectively

  11. Geiger counters of gamma rays with a bismuth cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, R.; Legrand, J.P.

    1953-01-01

    Geiger Muller counters present a lake of efficiency of some per cent, for the γ radiations. In the region 0,3 - 1 MeV, a substantial growth of their output can be obtained by a special construction of their cathode. In accordance with previous works, we constructed some counter of formed cathode by a pleated copper wire fencing covered of Bi by electrolysis. The successive modifications brought to a cylindrical conventional cathode in sheet metal of copper, that succeeds to this type of cathode, drive to an improvement of the output. (M.B.) [fr

  12. Proportional counter response calculations for gallium solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Reynolds, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gallium bases solar neutrino detectors are sensitive to the primary pp reaction in the sun. Two experiments using gallium, SAGE in the Soviet Union and GALLEX in Europe, are under construction and will produce data by 1989. The radioactive /sup 71/Ge produced by neutrinos interacting with the gallium detector material, is chemically extracted and counted in miniature proportional counters. A number of calculations have been carried out to simulate the response of these counters to the decay of /sup 71/Ge and to background events

  13. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  14. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  15. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  16. An integrated photosensor readout for gas proportional scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A xenon gas proportional scintillation counter has been instrumented with a novel photosensor that replaces the photomultiplier tube normally used to detect the VUV secondary scintillation light. In this implementation, the collection grid of a planar gas proportional scintillation counter also functions as a multiwire proportional chamber to amplify and detect the photoelectrons emitted by a reflective CsI photocathode in direct contact with the xenon gas. This integrated concept combines greater simplicity, compactness, and ruggedness (no optical window is used) with low power consumption. An energy resolution of 12% was obtained for 59.6 keV x-rays

  17. Counter-transference reactions contributing to completed suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestin, J

    1987-12-01

    Counter-transference reactions are frequently elicited while treating suicidal patients and they may contribute to the patient's committing suicide. Therapeutic constellations including the failure of the therapist to (1) cope with the patient's aggressiveness, (2) tolerate the patient's dependency, (3) handle the erotic transference adequately and (4) preserve loyalty towards the patient; they have all been identified as being responsible for a therapeutic impasse with fatal consequences. Knowledge of the therapeutic constellations especially prone to facilitate negative counter-transference reactions may help the therapist to master them effectively.

  18. Proportional counter with uniform electric field with Penning's mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.

    1984-01-01

    Some calculations are given and the design of proportional counters with a homogeneous electric field filled with Penning's mixtures, which ensure the best energy resolution is described. The counters with mixtures of Ne+Ar, Ne+CH 4 , Ne+CO 2 and Ar+C 2 H 2 have been checked. The admixtures (Ar, CH 4 , CO 2 , C 2 H 2 ) constitute from 0.1 to 2%, with pressure from 125 Tr to 760 Torr. The best energy resolution has been obtained for the mixture of Ne+1%CH 4 at the pressure of 190 Torr

  19. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  20. Personality Types and Burnout Syndrome in Primary School Teachers in Chile [Tipos de personalidad y síndrome de burnout en Educadoras de Párvulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salvador Ortiz Parada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine differences in burnout’s level as function of personalities types and attendance in public or private school, a non-experimental study was designed. Burnout levels were measured with the MBI teacher’s version and personalities types with the NEO-Five Factors Inventory (n = 133. A set of socio-demographic variables was included. By means of ANOVA ONEWAY, differences were found in emotional exhaustion among kindergarten teachers who work in public and private school (p ≤ 0,05. Differences were also found between spectator and skeptic personality types in burnout levels, and between skeptic and complicated types in emotional exhaustion (p ≤ 0,05. These results emphasize the relevance to give attention to public school’s educator and those who had high neuroticism’s levels because they tend to have more burnout

  1. The parallel plate avalanche counter: a simple, rugged, imaging X-ray counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensen, K.D.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Bahnsen, A.; Madsen, M.M.; Olesen, C.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional parallel gap proportional counter has been developed at the Danish Space Research Institute. Imaging over the 120 mm diameter active area is obtained using the positive ion component of the avalanche signals as recorded by a system of wedge- and strip-electrodes. An electronically simple, but very effective background rejection is obtained by using the fast electron component of the avalanche signal. Gas gains up to 8x10 5 have been achieved. An energy-resolution of 16% and a sub-millimeter spatial resolution have been measured at 5.9 keV for an operating gas gain of 10 5 . In principle, the position coordinates are linear functions of electronic readouts. The present model, however, exhibits non-linearities, caused by imperfections in the wedge and strip-electrode pattern. These non-linearities are corrected by using a bilinear correction algorithm. We conclude that the rugged construction, the simple electronics, the effectiveness of the background rejection and the actual imaging performance makes this a very attractive laboratory detector for low and intermediate count rate imaging applications. ((orig.))

  2. Reactance and Coping Responses to Tobacco Counter-Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Michelle S; Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco prevention messages generally take one of three tactics: They can be educational, attack the tobacco industry, or attack particular brands. Being a smoker and smoking a particular brand may form an essential part of a person's self-identity. As such, reactance theory suggests that attack messages can unintentionally attack smokers' self-image. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 experiment using six different messages and 260 respondents tested whether smokers have different reactions to tobacco counter-advertisements than nonsmokers. It also examined whether attacking a smoker's brand leads to greater reactance and other maladaptive responses compared to attacking other brands. Consistent with predictions, smokers reported more maladaptive coping responses and fewer adaptive coping responses to tobacco counter-ads than nonsmokers. The study also reveals differences attributable to brand identification. These findings suggest that interventions should consider different counter-advertising tactics for smokers and nonsmokers. Similar admonitions may apply to counter-advertising strategies on other health issues.

  3. Slim by Design: Kitchen Counter Correlates of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S.; Kaipainen, Kirsikka

    2016-01-01

    Background: The home is one place where people can control what foods are available and how the environment is arranged. Given the impact of environments on health, the objective of this study is to determine whether the presence of foods on a person's kitchen counter are associated with their body mass index (BMI). Method: In Study 1, a…

  4. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  5. Losing the Plot: Narrative, Counter-Narrative and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glazzard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Counter-terrorist practitioners and policy makers appear to be very interested in narrative. They often describe the worldview of violent Islamist groups and movements as the ‘jihadi narrative’, while their efforts to confront terrorist propaganda are usually labelled as ‘counter-narrative’ or ‘alternative narrative’. However, while the counter-narrative approach has gained widespread acceptance in governments, think-tanks and civil society organisations, it is built on very shaky theoretical and empirical foundations. Some valuable theoretical contributions to the study of violent extremist narrative have been made by psychologists in particular, but there is one discipline which is conspicuous by its absence from the field: literary studies. This paper makes a case for the value of studying violent extremist narratives as narratives in the literary sense. By employing the tools and techniques of literary criticism, violent extremist communication can be revealed as not only potentially persuasive, but also creative and aesthetically appealing: terrorists inspire their followers, they don’t merely persuade them. Understanding the creative sources of this inspiration is vital if counter-narrative is to succeed in presenting an alternative to the propaganda of violent extremist groups.

  6. BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: THE NOTION, ESSENCE AND MAIN AREAS OF COUNTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sarankina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article issued theoretical and practice problems of combating terrorism in current conditions, in particular, analyzes the concept of bio-terrorism as a form of terrorism, we investigate its nature, characteristics, and also referred to the major directions of countering.

  7. Stress and use of over-the-counter analgesics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke Jenny; Ekholm, Ola; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use and perceived stress among 25 to 44-year-old men and women from 1994 to 2005; to examine the association between stress and OTCA use over time, and to explore whether the association attenuates when controlled by stress...

  8. Quality analysis during production of car counter cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jagusiak-Kocik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the chapter the company operating in the plastic industry was presented. The car counter case to Fiat was the main subject. The production process of the research product depicted technologically was presented. Hierarchy of the nonconformities with use of ParetoLorenz diagram was made.

  9. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  10. Response of horizontal magnetic field variation to partial counter electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukunda Rao, M.; Alamelu, V.

    1985-01-01

    The partial counter electrojet events seen through backscatter observations are examined in terms of the parameter ΔH'sub(CEJ)=(Hsub(equator)-Hsub(low lat.))sub(CEJday)-(Hsub(equator)-Hsub(low lat.))sub(mean 1Qday). It is found that the parameter indicates most of the changes in the electrojet observed through the backscatter observations. (author)

  11. The Tax Evasion in Ukraine: Causes and Methods of Countering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfentii Liudmyla A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the concept of tax evasion is researched; reasons of occurrence and development of this phenomenon are analyzed; proposals on the main directions of prevention and countering tax evasion have been developed. Analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the scientific works of many scholars, it was found that there is no unified approach to interpretation of the essence of this phenomenon in the context of legality and awareness of relevant actions in the scientific literature. As a result of the research the factors of tax evasion with the allocation of moral, political, economic, technical, and legal reasons have been systematized. The preconditions of tax evasion in Ukraine are analyzed, the most common schemes are indicated, resulting from which the budget of Ukraine suffers the greatest losses. Methods of countering tax offenses have been researched and necessity of development and implementation of measures on prevention and countering tax evasion at the State level has been substantiated. Prospects for further researches in this direction are studying of foreign experience of countering tax evasion and detailed analyzing of the tax minimization schemes prevalent in Ukraine with the purpose of identifying ways of elimination of possibility of their use.

  12. Digital signal processing for 3He proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Kurahashi, Tomohiko; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    Numerical analysis of individual pulses from 3 He proportional counters has been performed. A parametric approach has been used for the identification of a charge particle track direction. Using area parameters, a clear separation of events was observed for the wall effect on a triton and a proton, respectively. ((orig.))

  13. Refiguring the African Image in the Counter Hegemonic Discourse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different stylistic strategies thereby connecting, sharing and responding to the overall. African colonial experience. This paper discusses the strategies adopted by McKay and Hughes in their poetic counter-rhetoric as a way of forging the African image, a major motif in colonial and post-colonial literary articulation in Africa.

  14. Bargaining Theory and Building Strategies for Countering Armed Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    actions previously labeled counter-insurgency, -terrorism, -drug, or - gang operations; irregular, unconventional, small guerilla, asymmetrical, or 4th...field of wheat, which, without regard to the individual stalk , may be mown down more or less efficiently depending on the quality of the scythe; it

  15. Test of a large size acrylic scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertino, M.; De Zorzi, G.; Zanello, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have tested the behaviour of an acrylic scintillator measuring the attenuation length and the time resolution of a 7.8 m long counter. On a small sample the photon yield relative to the NE 110 plastic has been measured. (orig.)

  16. Countering the Cyber-Attack, a case-study [video

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Squires; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2015-01-01

    A cyber-criminal organization electronically diverts funds, a hacking group uses their prowess to try to influence politics, these are examples of the evolving world of cyber crime. Keith Squires, Commissioner of Public Safety and Homeland Security Advisor for the State of Utah talks about his experience in building a cyber security program to counter such cyber criminals.

  17. Insubordinate Spaces for Intemperate Times: Countering the Pedagogies of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Barbara; Lipsitz, George

    2013-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux argues that countering the disasters of neoliberalism requires facing "the challenge of developing a politics and pedagogy that can serve and actualize a democratic notion of the social" (2011). The authors suggest that Immanuel Wallerstein's notion of "middle-run" temporality (2008) and Stuart Hall's discussion of "middle-level"…

  18. TiO 2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2 ... The band gap energy decreases (g) from 3.45 eV for pristine CeO2 to 2.98–3.09 eV ... as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain ...

  19. Counter terms for low momentum nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Jason D.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Brown, G.E.; Bogner, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    There is much current interest in treating low energy nuclear physics using the renormalization group (RG) and effective field theory (EFT). Inspired by this RG-EFT approach, we study a low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, V low-k , obtained by integrating out the fast modes down to the scale Λ∼2 fm -1 . Since NN experiments can only determine the effective interaction in this low momentum region, our chief purpose is to find such an interaction for complex nuclei whose typical momenta lie below this scale. In this paper we find that V low-k can be highly satisfactorily accounted for by the counter terms corresponding to a short range effective interaction. The coefficients C n of the power series expansion ΣC n q n for the counter terms have been accurately determined, and results derived from several meson-exchange NN interaction models are compared. The counter terms are found to be important only for the S, P and D partial waves. Scaling behavior of the counter terms is studied. Finally we discuss the use of these methods for computing shell model matrix elements

  20. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Blazquez, J.B.; Barrado, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hidrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Montecarlo application and the other one analytical at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (author) [es

  1. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno Casado, J.L.; Blazquez Martinez, J.B.; Barrado Menendez, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hydrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Monte Carlo application and the other one analytica at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (Author)

  2. Pulse-shape discrimination in IAEA tritium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, T.

    1981-01-01

    Two systems of pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for the reduction of background in low-level proportional counters were tested. A tentative conclusion is drawn that both PSD systems, although they decrease slightly the meson background, do not bring improvement in the analytical accuracy

  3. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF 2 , as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures

  4. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220 Section 864.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices...

  5. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  6. Organizational Identity Negotiations through Dominant and Counter Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde; Frandsen, Sanne

    of a highly contested organization, E-rail, we examine ticket inspectors’ story work to demonstrate how counter-narratives make room for multiple – and sometimes even opposing - understandings of organizational identity to co-exist. Our analysis shows that ticket inspectors in their story work draw explicitly...

  7. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar

    2000-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...

  8. Are international fund flows pro- or counter-cyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert; Yang, Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether international fund flows are pro-or counter-cyclical by employing a concordance index. International fund flows are investments in bond and equity markets by institutional investors, such as mutual funds, exchange traded funds, closed-end funds and hedge funds. We find that

  9. Helium-air counter flow in rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Tanaka, Gaku; Zhao, Hong; Hishida, Makoto; Shiina, Yasuaki

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical analysis of helium-air counter flow in a rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of 10. The channel has a cross sectional area of 5-50 mm and a length of 200 mm. The inclination angle was varied from 0 to 90 degree. The velocity profiles and concentration profiles were analyzed with a computer program [FLUENT]. Following main features of the counter flow are discussed based on the calculated results. (1) Time required for establishing a quasi-steady state counter flow. (2) The relationship between the inclination angle and the flow patterns of the counter flow. (3) The developing process of velocity profiles and concentration profiles. (4) The relationship between the inclination angle of the channel and the velocity profiles of upward flow and the downward flow. (5) The relationship between the concentration profile and the inclination angle. (6) The relationship between the net in-flow rate and the inclination angle. We compared the computed velocity profile and the net in-flow rate with experimental data. A good agreement was obtained between the calculation results and the experimental results. (author)

  10. People, places and infrastructure: Countering urban violence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People, Places, and Infrastructure: Countering Urban Violence and Promoting Justice in Mumbai, Rio, and Durban. In today's rapidly urbanizing world, cities offer economic opportunity and social mobility, yet they are also places of violence for increasingly large numbers of residents. As urbanization spreads, new sites are ...

  11. Public knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter medicines:Case study in Dar es ... views on OTC in terms of safety and effectiveness and knowledge and ... it shows those pharmacists need to be more proactive in the management of ...

  12. Radar observation of the equatorial counter-electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuise, C.; Crochet, M.; Gouin, P.; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan

    1979-01-01

    Electron drift velocity in the equatorial electrojet has been measured for a few years by coherent radar techniques in Africa. For the first time such measurements were performed during a strong reversal of the ionospheric current dubbed 'counter-electrojet'. These observations agree with the theories of the plasma instabilities at the origin of the electron density irregularities giving the radar echoes

  13. Real-time aerosol photometer and optical particle counter comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, E.; Belosi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Prodi, F.; Berico, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparison exercise among real-time aerosol samplers, based on different light scattering techniques. The comparison was carried out near to the ISAC institute in a box positioned inside the CNR research area in Bologna. Two nephelometers (Dust Trak from TSI, and Air Genius from Unitec) and an optical particle counter (ENVIRO-check from Grimm) were used for P M1 and P M10 fraction assessment. In the case of the optical particle counter, the particle number concentration in each size bin was also used. In parallel, two manual sampling lines were employed for reference (gravimetric) measurements. The results highlight different factor scales for the dust monitors, in comparison with gravimetric assessment, underlining the importance of a user calibration of such monitors as a function of the specific aerosol sampled. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the hourly P M 10 and P M1 concentrations, against daily average concentrations, were studied in order to compare the ability of each sampler to follow changes in the aerosol size distribution. It was found that the photometers and optical particle counter revealed different behaviours. In the latter, a small increase in the particle concentration number in the coarse fraction gave a relatively high increase in the mass concentration that was not measured by the photometers. The explanation could be the relatively slight influence of a small particle number variation on the total scattered light for the photometers, unlike the case of the optical particle counter, where each particle contributes to the mass concentration. This aspect merits future research in order to better understand optical particle counter output used in P Mx monitoring activities.

  14. Solidarity and Recognition: Geographies of Counter-globalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Goodman

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalism is a contested concept, but perhaps best understood as a spatial strategy, which disempowers those unable to transcend the fixity of place and social context. Under globalism fluidity becomes a key source of power, enabling the powerful to liquefy assets, to disembed, and thereby displace, political, social or ecological impacts. The infrastructures of globalism enable the disembodied extension of power across territory, to the extent that one model, universally applicable for all societies, is positioned as supreme. The only possible challenge to globalism perhaps, is through a similarly disembedded counter-movement, that mirrors the global reach and power of mainstream globalism. The praxis of counter-globalist movements suggests a different tendency, one that centres on the assertion of particularity against universality. Expressed in the legitimacy of ‘many worlds’ against ‘one world’ globalism, such resistance centres on exposing the material effects and foregrounding concrete and material experiences of globalism. Movements mobilise against the disembodied logic of globalism on the basis of co-presence and inter-subjectivity, and are embedded in relational concepts of selfhood. They are often intensely embodied and are radically emplaced through militant localism and trans-local dialogue. Counter-globalism thus does not seek to defeat geography; rather it embraces it, as the starting-point of mobilisation. The starting point of this article is thus to analyse globalism as a spatial strategy, a strategy of displacement grounded in material power. Globalism thus signifies the capacity to exploit and dominate at distance, from the sanctity of corporate boardrooms, military briefings and media cutting rooms. The claim is to universal market, military and normative power, but the impact is of extended and deepened division. Centres of power appear more as islands, or enclaves, defined against the backwash effects of counter

  15. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  16. Girls' Groups as a Component of Anti-Sexist Practice--One Primary School's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to improve their achievement and confidence, girls at a London elementary school were segregated and taught subjects designed to counter traditional role limitations. Boys, meanwhile, felt their status was being undermined, and teachers were uncertain about the rightness of countering societal norms. (DM)

  17. People's practices : exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods : ...cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, H.

    2000-01-01

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoods

    The central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development

  18. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  19. Description of the manufacture of a Geiger-Muller counter with window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.

    1959-01-01

    Total details about the manufacture elements in counter fabrication and the way of obtention are described as well as total indications useful in the installation process and filling of the counter. The appropriate materials and precautions that might be adopted in order to obtain counters with uniform operation and good characteristics, are described. Counters are of brass, with thin mica or aluminium windows and operate at 1100 V approximately with a slope lower than 5 % 1100 V. (Author)

  20. Neutron coincidence counter for MOX fuel pins in storage trays: users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.; Menlove, H.

    1982-08-01

    The neutron coincidence counter for measurement of mixed-oxide fuel pins in storage trays is described. The special detector head has been designed so that the detectors, high-voltage junction boxes, and electronics are interchangeable with those of the high-level neutron coincidence counter system. This manual describes the system components and the operation and maintenance of the counter. The counter was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in-plant inspection applications by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  1. The background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters in SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of external γ radiation on the process of 71 Ge-decay counting in proportional counters in SAGE experiment of solar neutrino flux measurement is examined. One determines the systematic error of SAGE result, connected with radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters, and the background counting rate of proportional counters from γ radiation of passive and active shield [ru

  2. Identification of irradiated spices with aid of scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusheimo, K.

    1989-08-01

    The aim off the work was to determine how one can identify gamma-irradiated spices with aid of a scintillation counter (LKB/Wallac 1219 RackBeta Spectral) by chemiluminescence measurements. Even though scintillation counters are more sensitive than real luminometers they have not been capable in identifying the irradiated spices after contact with photosensitizer like luminol, isoluminol and lucigenin presumably because the actual chemiluminescence reaction took place before the sample vial reached the measuring range. Whereas it was noticed that the identification of pure, dry allspice, black pepper, white peppar and cardemom was possible without any solutions when there were also present similar unirradiated spices. The identification was possible even after 23 weeks duration depending on the dose of the irradiation (10 kGy or 50 kGy) and the weight of the samples (1 g or 9 g). The duration of the investigation was 23 weeks

  3. Uraniferous minerals heap leaching process by counter techique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes G, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was made at laboratory level with respect to a process for the treatment of an uranium ore by counter current acid heap leaching with maturity periods and washing. This mineral with an average grade of 0.24% of U 3 O 8 from the levels zero-fourty of the El Nopal uraniferous deposit, located in the Sierra of Pena Blanca, State of Chihuahua (Mexico). The process which is proposed consist of 4 consecutive stages: a) The prehumectation with a fertile solution of a 0.0034 g U 3 O 8 /1 and 3 g H 2 SO 4 /l concentration, b) The counter current acid attack, c) The maturity or hardening, d) The washing with current water. The relaton liquid-solid in the stages of prehumectation, acid attack, as well as washing stage was of 0.3 m 3 /t. The average efficiency was of 77% of recovered *uranium. (author)

  4. Programmable automatic alpha--beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A programmable automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed for routine sample counting by operational health physics personnel. The system is composed of an automatic sample changer utilizing a large silicon diode detector, an electronic counting system with energy analysis capability, an automatic data acquisition controller, an interface module, and a teletypewriter with paper tape punch and paper tape reader. The system is operated through the teletypewriter keyboard and the paper tape reader, which are used to instruct the automatic data acquisition controller. Paper tape programs are provided for background counting, Chi 2 test, and sample counting. Output data are printed by the teletypewriter on standard continuous roll or multifold paper. Data are automatically corrected for background and counter efficiency

  5. COUNTERING RADICALISATION ACROSS EUROPE – THE PIONEERING ISDEP PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  6. Tribological behaviors of UHMWPE composites with different counter surface morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhen; Yin, Zhongwei; Li, Hulin; Gao, Gengyuan

    2017-12-01

    The influence of counter surface morphologies on hybrid glass fiber (GF) and carbon fiber (CF) filled ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were studied under various contact pressure and sliding speed against GCr15 steel in dry condition. The goals were to investigate the tribological behavior of GF/CF/UHMWPE composite as a kind of water lubricated journal bearing material. The friction and wear behavior of composites were examined using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The morphologies of the worn surface were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser 3D micro-imaging and profile measurement. Generally, the wear rate and friction coefficient of composites increase as the increment of counter surface roughness. The friction coefficient increases firstly and then decrease with an increase in sliding speed and contact pressure for counterface with Ra=0.2 and 3.5 μm, while the friction coefficient decreased for counterface with Ra=0.6 μm.

  7. Nitrogen large area proportional counter with gas regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidner, L.; Sadri, E.

    1984-10-01

    A nitrogen large area proportional chamber with gas regeneration is introduced to measure alpha and beta/gamma activites. In contrast to the flow counters used till now the new detector is independent of an external gas supply. The gas amplification factor of nitrogen keeps constant up to an impurity of 2% of O 2 . Oxygen diffusing through unavoidable leakages into the counting gas is removed by an activated catalyzer using low temperature copper oxidation. Humidty is adsorbed by a molecular sieve. The closed counter consists of three components: the actual detector, a gas purification cartridge and a gas circulating pump. Finally, the report describes long run experiments being carried out with prototypes. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawano, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isozumi, Y. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive {sup 55}Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH{sub 4} admixed dry air or N{sub 2}. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 10{sup 4}) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O{sub 2} has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N{sub 2}.

  9. The suppression of destructive sparks in parallel plate proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, R.A.; Mason, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The authors find that high energy background events produce localised sparks in parallel plate counters when operated in the proportional mode. These sparks increase dead-time and lead to degradation ranging from electrode damage to spurious pulsing and continuous breakdown. The problem is particularly serious in low energy photon detectors for X-ray astronomy which are required to have lifetimes of several years in the high radiation environment of space. For the parallel plate imaging detector developed for the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) they investigate quantitatively the spark thresholds, spark rates and degradation processes. They discuss the spark mechanism, pointing out differences from the situation in spark chambers and counters. They show that the time profile of the sparks allows them to devise a spark suppression system which reduces the degradation rate by a factor of ''200.

  10. The design of the DUPIC spent fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Rinard, P.M.; Kroncke, K.E.; Lee, Y.G.

    1997-05-01

    A neutron coincidence detector had been designed to measure the amount of curium in the fuel bundles and associated process samples used in the direct use of plutonium in Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) fuel cycle. All of the sample categories are highly radioactive from the fission products contained in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel feed stock. Substantial shielding is required to protect the He-3 detectors from the intense gamma rays. The Monte Carlo neutron and photon calculational code has been used to design the counter with a uniform response profile along the length of the CANDU-type fuel bundle. Other samples, including cut PWR rods, process powder, waste, and finished rods, can be measured in the system. This report describes the performance characteristics of the counter and support electronics. 3 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs

  11. The whole-body counter of the radiation centre Giessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobelt, W.

    1976-01-01

    The layout of the whole-body counter at the institute for biophysics of the Giessen radiation centre is decribed. With suitable collimators, the whole-body counter may be used to determine the radioactivity in human and animal organs. The shielding and the measuring and waiting rooms for the patients are described with regard to their technical details. The whole-body counting system enables the radioactivity and the retention of various radioisotopes (e.g. 58 Co-vitamin B 12 , 40 K, 54 Mn, 137 Co, 131 J, 22 Na) to be measured. The estimation of the radiation exposure due to different types of examinations in nuclear medicine, in terms of the critical organs for each type of examination, is very accurate with this counting device. (GSE) [de

  12. A Fear Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Veldhuis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreading fear is the essence of terrorism. Terrorists exploit fear by terrorising the target audience into concessions. Understanding how feelings of fear influence the way people feel, think and act is therefore an important starting point to explore how individuals and societies can learn how to cope with fear of terrorism. In this Policy Brief, Research Fellows Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Dr. Tinka Veldhuis explore the dynamics of fear in response to terrorism, and emphasise the importance of integrating initiatives to manage fear of terrorism and reduce its negative consequences into overarching counter-terrorism strategies. It argues that societies can benefit greatly from promoting resilience and a fear management approach to counter-terrorism.

  13. Effectiveness of Counter-Trafficking Response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meçe Merita H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a new phenomenon of Albanian post-socialist society which significantly increased during the difficult years of its transformation from centralized state-led economy to market economy. Both economic and political instability contributed to its size, nature and multiple dynamics. Drawing on a rights-based approach to human trafficking, this paper examines the effectiveness of the counter-trafficking response of the Albanian government with a special emphasis on prevention, protection and prosecution. Using secondary data and reviewing various country strategic documents, it highlights a range of weaknesses and challenges which have hindered its effectiveness over years. It concludes that successful and effective counter-trafficking response requires well rounded and coordinated gender sensitive, victim-centred, holistic and human rights-based efforts. Combined with adequate law enforcement, they will sustainably tackle the full spectrum of this problem.

  14. An annular BF3 counter of large sensitive volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    An annular neutron counter having a large sensitive volume with inner and outer diameter 31 cms with multiple electrode system fabricated especially to measure the neutron output from fissile region of standard fast reactor fuel of length nearly equivalent to 500 cms is described. The counter efficiency is nearly 0.3% for neutron and sensitivity 0.0018 counts/neutron for (alpha, neutron) and spontaneous fission source. Its other potential applications which are indicated are : (1) quality control of fast reactor fuel pins (2) fuel inventory (3) assessing radioactivity of solid waste packets containing PuO 2 (4) uniformity of fuel loading of a reactor and (5) neutron monitoring in a fuel plant. (M.G.B.)

  15. Counter-current flow limited CHF in thin rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical expression for counter-current-flow-limitation (CCFL) was used to predict critical heat flux (CHF) for downward flow in thin vertical rectangular channels which are prototypes of coolant channels in test and research nuclear reactors. Top flooding is the mechanism for counter-current flow limited CHF. The CCFL correlation also was used to determine the circulation and flooding-limited CHF. Good agreements were observed between the period the model predictions and data on the CHF for downflow. The minimum CHF for downflow is lower than the flooding-limited CHF and it is predicted to occur at a liquid flow rate higher than that at the flooding limit. 17 refs., 7 figs

  16. Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (α,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (α,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the 240 Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (α,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride

  17. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references

  18. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao NEGREIROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  19. Hardware accuracy counters for application precision and quality feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Rosa Piga, Leonardo; Majumdar, Abhinandan; Paul, Indrani; Huang, Wei; Arora, Manish; Greathouse, Joseph L.

    2018-06-05

    Methods, devices, and systems for capturing an accuracy of an instruction executing on a processor. An instruction may be executed on the processor, and the accuracy of the instruction may be captured using a hardware counter circuit. The accuracy of the instruction may be captured by analyzing bits of at least one value of the instruction to determine a minimum or maximum precision datatype for representing the field, and determining whether to adjust a value of the hardware counter circuit accordingly. The representation may be output to a debugger or logfile for use by a developer, or may be output to a runtime or virtual machine to automatically adjust instruction precision or gating of portions of the processor datapath.

  20. A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are ......A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects...... that mimicked the dynamics of receptive field selectivity as found in neurophysiological studies. Furthermore, the initial sensory response yielded theoretical hazard rate functions that closely resembled empirically estimated ones. Finally, supplied with a Naka-Rushton type contrast gain control, the model...

  1. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding

  2. PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-02-10

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  3. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  4. Catching Seriously Bad Dudes: US Counter-terrorism strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardyová, Alžběta

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7-8 (2008), s. 34-38 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : terrorism * counter- terrorism * US * 9/11 Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/156_socioweb_7_08.pdf

  5. Enantioseparations in counter-current chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, A P

    2001-01-12

    Examples of chiral separations in counter-current chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) are not numerous, due to the difficulty of finding chiral selectors highly selective in the liquid phase as well as a combination of solvents that does not destroy the selectivity and retains the capacity to elute chiral isomers of interest. New ideas and new chiral selectors generally come from other separation techniques, as will be highlighted in this review.

  6. Charged particle counters in the pre-modern period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beringer, R.

    1979-01-01

    The history of nuclear particle and radiation counting techniques divides itself naturally into three epochs that may be labeled: Early, Pre-Modern, and Modern. The Pre-Modern era is designated as the period starting in the 1930's during which the several types of gas-ionization counters of the Early period were perfected and coupled to vacuum tube circuits and recording apparatus. These developments are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Negative probabilities and counter-factual reasoning in quantum cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Acacio de Barros; G Oas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss quantum-like decision-making experiments using negative probabilities. We do so by showing how the two-slit experiment, in the simplified version of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, can be described by this formalism. We show that negative probabilities impose constraints to what types of counter-factual reasoning we can make with respect to (quantum) internal representations of the decision maker. (paper)

  8. Countering Chinas Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Bradford D...created and employed a vision and strategy to control it. China continually demonstrates its economic might in the region and conducts economic ...power to counter China’s rising influence in the South China Sea. The policy and strategy should incorporate establishing strong economic ties in

  9. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-)filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. We present results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases. (orig.)

  10. The time response function of spark counters and RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, A.; Mangiarotti, A.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory for the avalanche growth with and without space charge effects is briefly summarized and compared to a broad field of applications. These include spark counters as well as timing and trigger RPCs operated in avalanche mode. A large domain in electrical field strength, pressure, gap size and gas mixture type is covered. A reasonable agreement with the experiment is observed, giving confidence on the validity of both assumptions and treatment of the theory

  11. Atomic Interferometry with Detuned Counter-Propagating Electromagnetic Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Ming -Yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Atomic fountain interferometry uses atoms cooled with optical molasses to 1 μK, which are then launched in a fountain mode. The interferometer relies on the nonlinear Raman interaction of counter-propagating visible light pulses. We present models of these key transitions through a series of Hamiltonians. Our models, which have been verified against special cases with known solutions, allow us to incorporate the effects of non-ideal pulse shapes and realistic laser frequency or wavevector jitter.

  12. Commercial bacterial colony counter for semiautomatic track counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; McMahon, T.A.; Espinosa, G.

    1983-01-01

    Bacterial colony counters have not been widely used for track counting. However, they do provide an economical alternative to sophisticated optical analyzers for applications that require reproducible track density measurements for large numbers of samples. Simple measurements of size characteristics can be made when there is little need for high resolutions. Such systems are particularly well suited for neutron and alpha dosimetry work, particularly if electrochemical etching or some other track enhancement method has been used. 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. Lanthanides separation by counter - current electrophoretic using α - hydroxyisobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleluia, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    Studies about counter-current electrophoretic separation of rare earth metal ions using α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as complexing electrolyte are discussed. La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu were separated and fractions with purities better than 99,9% were obtained, using neutron activation analysis. A relation between the first stability constant of the α-hydroxyisobutyrate/lanthanide complexes and their migration velocities were observed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  14. Performance and development of dE/dx counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1980-09-01

    The performance of existing or nearly completed detectors for particle identification by using the relativistic rise of energy loss will be discussed. Detailed analysis of systematic errors leads finally to large detector systems approaching the ultimate resolution as measured in small test devices. New methods for extracting the information from the counter with the potential of better particles separation than standard dE/dx will be presented. It includes very fine sampling, delta-ray clipping, and cluster counting

  15. Performance and development of dE/dx counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of existing or nearly completed detectors for particle identification by using the relativistic rise of energy loss is discussed. Detailed analysis of systematic errors leads finally to large detector systems approaching the ultimate resolution as measured in small test devices. New methods for extracting the information from the counter with the potential of better particle separation than standard dE/dx are presented. It includes very fine sampling, delta-ray clipping, and cluster counting. (Auth.)

  16. Introduction of Counter-Proliferation Capabilities in Development States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulfield, P.; Edwards, T.; Witkin, A.; Elgebaly, A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent history we have seen a number of States develop their indigenous industrial skills to a point suitable for the manufacture of nuclear components. Private individuals unbeknown to the State have then utilized this capability to supply directly into proliferation networks - potentially reducing international confidence in such a State. To combat this possibility, a developing State must recognize the challenges that are raised by its emerging skills and take action to introduce measures that not only help the State identify proliferation activities but also ensure the national security of the State. One of those measures might be to develop a capability within the State to recognize and counter the activities of would-be-proliferators. In many States this capability is managed and applied through a dedicated counter-proliferation unit that has strong links with border controls and customs organizations. A counter-proliferation unit, once established could show dramatic returns for a modest investment. The activities of such a Unit could save the State political embarrassment by hindering and narrowing the chances of unintentional proliferation activities. The Unit should not be introduced as part of a Safeguards agreement or as part of a non proliferation treaty. It should rather be established as an act by the State to protect and control its emerging technologies from being involved, willingly or unwittingly, in proliferation activities. This is a sovereign act of the State - solely for its benefit and should not be imposed by any external power. Today's would-be-proliferators around the world cooperate and act together; similarly emerging counter-proliferation units should act and work together in order to be a step ahead of the proliferators. Improved world-wide cooperation should increase the detection rate of proliferation incidents which will in turn curtail the spread of nuclear weapons - for the benefit of all. (author)

  17. Secondary emission scintillation counter for microdosimetry at the nanometer level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The secondary emission scintillation (SES) counter is a device designed to count the positive ions of charged-particle tracks in gas volumes simulating sites in tissue with diameters of the order of 1 nanometer. Based on suggestions by H.H. Rossi and A.M. Kellerer, the basic idea of the device was developed by A. Kosiara, M. Biavati, and R.D. Colvett in the late 1970s. The device was substantially modified in 1982, but work on it was suspended before the new version could be tested, in order to devote full-time effort to rebuilding RARAF. Work resumed on the SES counter in 1986. A diagram of the prototype SES counter now being tested is shown. A weak electric field in the cylindrical collection region of the device drifts ions from a track to a small region (less than 1 mm) of high electric field where they are accelerated by several kilovolts onto a dynode, producing secondary electrons. The secondary electrons are then accelerated onto a plastic scintillator, and the resulting light is detected by a photomultiplier. The passage of a charged particle is established by a solid state detector, which triggers electronics detecting coincidences and measuring the timing and amplitude of pulses from the photomultiplier

  18. Counter-intuitive moral judgement following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-02-07

    Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e.g., do not lie), moral judgements demonstrate sensitivity to the psychological intuitiveness of the judgements, rather than their deontological or utilitarian content (Kahane et al., Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 2011, 393). We sought the moral judgements of 30 TBI participants and 30 controls on moral dilemmas where content (utilitarian/deontological) and intuition (intuitive/counter-intuitive) were measured concurrently. Overall TBI participants made utilitarian judgements in equal proportions to controls; disproportionately favouring utilitarian judgements only when they were counter-intuitive, and deontological judgements only when they were counter-intuitive. These results speak against the view that TBI causes a specific utilitarian bias, suggesting instead that moral intuition is broadly disrupted following TBI. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Using culture and psychology to counter the Taliban's violent narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2017-08-01

    Scholars, politicians, and policy-makers have increasingly pointed to the role of narratives in recruiting militants and justifying violence, highlighting the need for counter-narratives that promote peace. However, few have offered concrete guidelines on how to construct counter-narratives. This exploratory study uses prototype theory from social psychology to analyse Taliban narratives written in Arabic on the historical figure Maḥmūd of Ghaznī (971-1030), who is portrayed as a figure worthy of emulation. Key themes emerge from the Taliban's narratives: potential ingroup members are defined as Sunni Muslims who are committed to jihad; deviant Muslims must become Sunnis; non-Muslims must be converted and humiliated; and Taliban leaders should emulate Maḥmūd of Ghaznī's attributes. Contrasting the Taliban's narratives of Maḥmūd of Ghaznī with the historical record reveals themes that are culled empirically around which counter-narratives could be constructed.

  20. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  1. A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2018-04-30

    A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are mutually confusable and hard to see. The model assumes that the visual system's initial sensory response consists in tentative visual categorizations, which are accumulated by leaky integration of both transient and sustained components comparable with those found in spike density patterns of early sensory neurons. The sensory response (tentative categorizations) feeds independent Poisson counters, each of which accumulates tentative object categorizations of a particular type to guide overt identification performance. We tested the model's ability to predict the effect of stimulus duration on observed distributions of responses in a nonspeeded (pure accuracy) identification task with eight response alternatives. The time courses of correct and erroneous categorizations were well accounted for when the event-rates of competing Poisson counters were allowed to vary independently over time in a way that mimicked the dynamics of receptive field selectivity as found in neurophysiological studies. Furthermore, the initial sensory response yielded theoretical hazard rate functions that closely resembled empirically estimated ones. Finally, supplied with a Naka-Rushton type contrast gain control, the model provided an explanation for Bloch's law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. First Townsend coefficient of organic vapour in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernicki, J.

    1990-01-01

    A new concept is presented in the paper for implementing the proven method of determining the first Townsend coefficient (α) of gases using an avalanche counter. The A and B gas constants, interrelated by the expression α/p=A exp[-B/(K/p)], are analyzed. Parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) with an electrode spacing d from 0.1 to 0.4 cm have been employed for the investigation, arranged to register low-energy alpha particles at n-heptane vapour pressures of p≥5 Torr. An in-depth discussion is given, covering the veracity and the behaviour vs K/p, of the n-heptane A and B constants determined at reduced electric-field intensity values ranging from 173.5 to 940 V/cm Torr; the constants have been found to depend upon d. The results of the investigation are compared to available data of the α coefficient of organic vapours used in avalanche counters. The PPAC method of determining α reveals some imperfections at very low values of the pd product. (orig.)

  3. Countering violent extremism via de-securitisation on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Warrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a civil society actor on Twitter entering a securitized discourse on terrorism illustrates the transformative theoretical potential that emerges from new forms of communication online. Through a qualitative analysis of tweets from the Average Mohamed profile, the potential to change a negative narrative of violent extremism operating within a securitised discourse of Islamic terrorism, is discussed in an online context. The arguments forming from this analysis offers a new approach to studying online counter narratives by linking a theoretical framework of securitisation and de-securitisation to recent political efforts Countering Violent Extremism (CVE and Preventing Violent Extremism (PVE. Through the inclusion of a civil society Twitter account as an illustrative case, this paper explores how social media can challenge existing assumptions of who can be a de-securitising actor within security theory by blurring the lines between political and societal sectors in a securitised threat from Islamic terrorism. If and how a civil society actor can loosen the dichotomous discursive relationship between Self/Other relations within a contemporary discourse on terrorism becomes relevant for a theoretical discussion by presenting an argument suggesting that online CVE polices are more effective within the sphere of ‘normal’ politics rather than within the realm of securitization. This theoretical perspective offers an analytical framework including a wide range of actors involved in counter narratives policies which is useful for further CVE research.

  4. A "Marked Success": Physical Activity at Miss White's School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the career of Flora White, who operated a school for girls in Concord, Massachusetts (USA) from 1897 to 1914. The school promoted individualised learning and physical activity for young women. Its programme of female exercise and sports ran counter to prevailing scholarly, medical, and popular opinion in the US. White faced…

  5. Intercalibration of CDTN and IRD whole body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Alonso, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Intercalibration exercises are designed to harmonize analytical techniques and ensure reliability of measurement results performed in a laboratory network. Such strategy helps to improve laboratory performance among participants in future intercomparison exercises, when it is verified the metrological capacity, by determining accuracy, precision and reproducibility of data produced by each laboratory. In Brazil, there are currently four in vivo monitoring systems, located in IRD, in Rio de Janeiro, CDTN, in Belo Horizonte, IPEN, in Sao Paulo and CNAAA, in Angra dos Reis. Such systems, generically referred as whole body counters, aim to detect and quantify radionuclides in organs and tissues for radiological protection purposes and to provide useful information for studies on biokinetic behavior of radionuclides in humans and animals. The objective of this work is to establish a methodology to be applied for intercalibration of whole body counters. The IRD whole body counter is installed in a 15 cm steel shielded room where two NaI(Tl) and four HPGe detectors are calibrated for the determination of radionuclides in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The CDTN whole body counter has one NaI detector set up in a shadow shield configuration, and is able to determine radionuclides emitting photons from 100 to 2000 keV. The intercalibration exercise described in this work was planed for whole body geometry using the scintillation detectors available in both laboratories. It was used a thin glass vial containing 2,6615 g of a solution of four gamma emitters ( 57 Co, 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn), supplied by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The glass vial was measured in the same geometry in both IRD and CDTN whole body counters, being positioned at 31,5 cm distance from the NaI(Tl) detector of each laboratory. The calibration curves (photo peak channel and Efficiency vs Energy) of each detection system were compared. The

  6. Possibility of semiconductor counters application for internal contamination measurement of whole human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunic, O.; Orlic, M.; Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of high resolution semiconductor counters application in 'Vinca' Whole Body Counter for direct beta-gamma internal contamination measurement are discussed, assuming the following relevant characteristics: efficiency, resolution and counter price. A comparison with appropriate characteristics of NaI(Tl) crystal used in 'Vinca' WBC is treated. It is evident that the scintillation counters have the higher detection efficiency, but HPGe counters having much better resolution and recently lowest prices are also acceptable to join the existing NaI(Tl) counters with the HPGe counters in the same time, allow better spectral analyses of the human body activity and additionally more precise estimation of the equivalent doses rate which is generally a essential problem in WBC measurements. (author)

  7. Tobacco counter-advertising: a review of the literature and a conceptual model for understanding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel W

    2003-01-01

    The tobacco counter-advertising literature is reviewed as it relates to basic process questions concerning what makes counter-advertisements effective. Limitations in addressing (a) counter-advertisement content and the psychological mediators targeted, (b) counter-advertisement style and the affective reactions targeted, (c) prior smoking experience, and (d) other audience factors are enumerated. A theoretical model based on alcohol advertising research is presented to address those limitations. The model addresses the practical research question of predicting when tobacco counter-advertising will work by examining the independent influence of each of these enumerated factors, as well as how these factors operate in concert, qualifying each other. The model also addresses the process question of explaining how counter-advertising works by identifying affective and cognitive processes as mediators. By understanding the processes that underlie the qualified findings, one can better advise the designers of tobacco counter-advertisements how to be more effective.

  8. Students' attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala'a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students' convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams.

  9. Porter’s five forces reconsideration: Model of joint MBA programmes and schools’ fusion in the industry of Management Education as a counter point of competitive environment model : COMMUNICATION POUR LA BIENNALE 2015 « COOPERER » Identifiant : N° 448

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN , Thi Thu Tra

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In the scope of our doctoral research, business education is considered as an industry where business schools act as firms. Our thesis focuses on the strategic management field, with aims to explore how schools revisit their MBA curricula. Within this framework, joint and merged MBA programmes have been analysed as a counter point of Porter’s five forces (1980): rivalry among competitors, entry barriers, substitutions’ threats, buyers’ and suppliers’ bargaining power. ...

  10. Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction for the Public in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wujun Wen; Xiaowen Liu; Geng Xu (Research Center for Sustainable Development of Shandong Province, Shandong Normal Univ., Jinan Shandong 250014 (China)). e-mail: wenwj@sdnu.edu.cn

    2009-05-15

    The Ministry of Science and Technology of China organized experts to develop the Internet-based software Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction to directly measure energy conservation and emission reduction potentials in people's daily lives. Research and testing of the software have been completed, and the software is available to the public on the Internet. The Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction software is being promoted with the aim of stimulating the public's enthusiasm for energy conservation and emission reduction. The software is of great significance in energy conservation and emission reduction education oriented to elementary and middle school students and community residents, thus changing the lagged public participation of Chinese citizens in energy conservation and emission reduction. The counter can calculate people's energy conservation and emission reduction potential in six aspects of daily life. The user can know his or her value of energy conservation and emission reduction in each aspect by clicking the options in keeping with his or her true daily routines. The user can also know the amounts of energy conservation and emission reduction as well as the potential energy conservation and emission reduction of the whole nation by clicking the Effect Calculation Button. Family life areas mainly include the methods and habits of water use, the use of energy conservation cookers, methods of saving paper, the use of environmental protection products, the habit of home appliance use, and the methods of washing clothing, especially the use of the washing machine with the function of energy conservation. Housing includes the building materials, the heating and cooling systems, the temperature control measures, and the lighting, etc. Heating and cooling times for the house by air conditioner should be reduced. Architects can do a great deal by using energy-efficient building materials and designing houses

  11. Using a whole body counter to attract a younger generation to radiation and radiation protection topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Mohr, U.; Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of young academics in the nuclear field especially in the field of radiation protection RP. One of the reasons is the very small number of students in the so called STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) which distribute among the different topics in these fields. One important task to overcome the foreseeable shortage of RP professionals is to attract pupils to this field. In routine monitoring the whole body counter of the Institute of Radiation Research (ISF) is used to identify and quantify radioactive materials that are incorporated in the human body using the technique of gamma spectroscopy. The in-vivo monitoring lab participates in activities for pupils at school level, e.g. Kinderuniversitaet, practical studies of secondary level pupils and 'Girls day'. Pupils that come to the lab are ages 14 to 18. The whole body counter is an optimal tool for these children to experience (natural) radioactivity and radiation protection issues. First pupils get a short introduction on radioactivity and gamma spectroscopy at a level adjusted to their current knowledge. After this they are measuring themselves in the whole body counter. A routine measurement of 300 s is able to show the natural occurring K-40 in their bodies. After their own measurements they do calibration measurements using a bottle phantom with a set up adjusted to their own body weights. The bottle phantom is filled with a potassium chloride (KCl) solution and contains no other radioactivity than the natural K-40 content of the KCl. Thus no further radiation protection measures need to be taken for using this phantom. A simple Excel-Sheet is then used to estimate their own K-40 activity by comparing the spectra of their measurement to the ones of the calibration measurements. This 'hands on' experience and the connection of radiation and their own bodies often is a 'eureka' effect and opens discussion on preconceptions of radiation and the need of RP

  12. The Access Gap: Poverty and Characteristics of School Library Media Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribesh, Shana; Gavigan, Karen; Dickinson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Stephen Krashen believes that schools can counter the effects of poverty in at least one area: access to books. However, little research has been done to determine whether students living in poverty have access to school library services comparable to those attending schools with low concentrations of students living in poverty. We examined the…

  13. Off ramp : a secondary school TDM program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, F. [Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (BEST), Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The cities of Vancouver and Victoria in British Columbia have implemented a high school vehicle trip reduction program entitled Off-Ramp. The program, created by BEST, is about youth empowerment to help youths lead their peers to walk, cycle, skateboard, in-line skate, or carpool to school for a sustainable environment. Students raise awareness through media and drama to counter pop images of driving as being cool. Sponsorship is very important to the success of the program.

  14. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  15. A versatile gas-flow proportional counter for Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibicu, I., E-mail: bibicu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics (Romania); Nicolescu, G. [IFIN-HH, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Cretu, C. [Transylvania University, Physics Department (Romania)

    2009-07-15

    This article presents a versatile gas-flow proportional counter for surface and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, suitable for studies with {sup 57}Fe, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 151}Eu isotopes. The main advantages obtained by new design are: (1) the height of the detection volume can be changed in large limits from 0 to 38 mm, (2) the detection volume can be choose symmetrical or not in respect with anode plan, (3) the anode replacement is easily (4) and different anode configuration can be used. The characteristics of the detector, operating at room temperature, are reported.

  16. Variable dead time counters: 2. A computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, B.W.; Lees, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    A computer model has been developed to give a pulse train which simulates that generated by a variable dead time counter (VDC) used in safeguards determination of Pu mass. The model is applied to two algorithms generally used for VDC analysis. It is used to determine their limitations at high counting rates and to investigate the effects of random neutrons from (α,n) reactions. Both algorithms are found to be deficient for use with masses of 240 Pu greater than 100g and one commonly used algorithm is shown, by use of the model and also by theory, to yield a result which is dependent on the random neutron intensity. (author)

  17. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting “influence warfare”, a battle to convince and persuade the different target audiences to rally behind them. In this battle of perceptions, the different government agencies need to be aware of the often implicit and unwittingly produced “stories” they tell to counter those narrated by the terrorists. It is crucial to take in consideration the fact that combating terrorism is a form of communication, as much as terrorism is itself.

  18. Xenon-based Penning mixtures for proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1989-01-01

    The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the gas gain and energy resolution of gas-filed proportional counters. Details are given on the performance obtained with a variety of quench additives of varying ionization potentials for use in xenon-filled systems. It is confirmed that optimum performance is obtained when the ionization potential is closely matched to the first metastable level of xenon (8.3 eV) as is the case with xenon + trimethylamine and xenon + dimethylamine. For these mixtures the Penning effect is at its strongest. (orig.)

  19. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.F.; Guedes, G.P.; Tamura, E.; Pepe, I.M.; Oliveira, N.B.

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10 6 counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10 7 events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author)

  20. Stabilization of the photomultiplier gain of a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, I.D.; Dmitriev, V.D.; Kuznetsov, A.V.; Malkin, L.Z.; Petrov, B.F.; Sheremet'ev, A.K.; Shpakov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    A stabilization system of photomultiplier gain, where light-emitting diode flashes have been used to obtain a reference signal, is described. The diode is placed just in the liquid scintilllator volume. The stabilization system contains several (according to the number of photomultipliers) identical channels, which of them consists of a colorimeter, a control trigger and an integrator with an operational amplifier. Increase of photomultiplier stability is reached by changing voltage of photomultiplier power according to the reference signal amplitude. The level of background and efficiency of neutron detection by a scintillation counter are unchanged when using the stabilization system for 10 days of measurements

  1. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included

  2. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A F; Guedes, G P [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tamura, E [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pepe, I M; Oliveira, N B [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10{sup 6} counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10{sup 7} events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Space charge effect in SQS transition in a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgaki, Hideaki; Kametani, Hitoshi; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Uozumi, Yuusuke; Ijiri, Hidenobu; Matoba, Masaru; Sakae, Takeji; Koori, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Systematic investigation of the gas multiplication characteristics in the transition region from proportional to SQS mode in a cylindrical proportional counter has been performed. The property of saturation of the gas multiplication factor can be reproduced using the effective electric field which is corrected for the space charge related to the positive ion density in the avalanche. Photon-mediated gas multiplication can explain the large jump phenomenon of the SQS transition. It is shown that the effective electric field in the avalanche becomes almost zero near the anode surface (Meek's streamer condition) at the 50% transition voltage and the region of its maximum moves slightly away from the anode surface. (orig.)

  4. Avalanche localization and its effects in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Okuno, H.; Walenta, A.H.

    1977-11-01

    Avalanche development around the anode wire in a gas proportional counter is investigated. In the region of proportional gas amplification, the avalanche is found to be well localized on one side of the anode wire, where the electrons arrive along the field lines from the point of primary ionization. Induced signals on electrodes surrounding the anode wire are used to measure the azimuthal position of the avalanche on the anode wire. Practical applications of the phenomena such as left-right assignment in drift chambers and measurement of the angular direction of the primary ionization electrons drifting towards the anode wire are discussed

  5. Real-time reconfigurable counter-propagating beam-traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauro, Sandeep; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We present a versatile technique that enhances the axial stability and range in counter-propagating (CP) beam-geometry optical traps. It is based on computer vision to track objects in unison with software implementation of feedback to stabilize particles. In this paper, we experimentally...... which simulates biosamples. By working on differences rather than absolute values, this feedback based technique makes CPtrapping nullify many of the commonly encountered pertubations such as fluctuations in the laser power, vibrations due to mechanical instabilities and other distortions emphasizing...

  6. Computer simulation of gain fluctuations in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Nelgun; Tapan, . Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    A computer simulation code has been developed in order to examine the fluctuation in gas amplification in wire proportional counters which are common in detector applications in particle physics experiments. The magnitude of the variance in the gain dominates the statistical portion of the energy resolution. In order to compare simulation and experimental results, the gain and its variation has been calculated numerically for the well known Aleph Inner Tracking Detector geometry. The results show that the bias voltage has a strong influence on the variance in the gain. The simulation calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. (authors)

  7. Relativity mission with two counter-orbiting polar satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Patten, R.A.; Everitt, C.W.F.

    1975-01-01

    In 1918, J. Lense and H. Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. An experiment to measure this effect with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit is described. For a 2 1 / 2 year experiment, the measurement accuracy should approach 1 percent. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken at points of passing near the poles. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in the polar ranging data. (auth)

  8. Systematic test on fast time resolution parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Li Guangwu; Gu Xianbao; Chen Yanchao; Zhang Gang; Zhang Wenhui; Yan Guohong

    2011-01-01

    Systematic test on each detect unit of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) used in the fission multi-parameter measurement was performed with a 241 Am α source to get the time resolution and position resolution. The detectors work at 600 Pa flowing isobutane and with-600 V on cathode. The time resolution was got by TOF method and the position resolution was got by delay line method. The time resolution of detect units is better than 400 ps, and the position resolution is 6 mm. The results show that the demand of measurement is fully covered. (authors)

  9. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  10. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC 2 shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using μ-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 (micro)m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  11. Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaj, Ladislav

    2013-09-01

    For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches.

  12. High speed non-latching squid binary ripple counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.H.; Phillips, R.R.; Sandell, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    High speed, single flux quantum (SFQ) binary scalers are important components in superconducting analog-to-digital converters (ADC). This paper reviews the concept for a SQUID ADC and the design of an SFQ binary ripple counter, and reports the simulation of key components, and fabrication and performance of non-latching SQUID scalers and SFQ binary ripple counters. The SQUIDs were fabricated with Nb/Nb 2 O 5 /PbIn junctions and interconnected by monolithic superconducting transmission lines and isolation resistors. Each SQUID functioned as a bistable flip-flop with the input connected to the center of the device and the output across one junction. All junctions were critically damped to optimize the pulse response. Operation was verified by observing the dc I-V curves of successive SQUIDs driven by a cw pulse train generated on the same chip. Each SQUID exhibited constant-voltage current steps at 1/2 the voltage of the preceding device as expected from the Josephson voltage-to-frequency relation. Steps were observed only for the same voltage polarity of successive devices and for proper phase bias of the SQUID. Binary frequency division was recorded up to 40GHz for devices designed to operate to 28GHz

  13. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  14. A multi purpose 4 π counter spherical ionization chamber type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calin, Marian Romeo; Calin, Adrian Cantemir

    2004-01-01

    A pressurized ionization chamber detector able to measure radioactive sources in internal 2π or 4π geometry was built in order to characterize alpha and beta radioactive sources, i.e. to calibrate these sources by relative method and to test the behavior of gas mixtures in pressurized-gas radiation detectors. The detector we made is of spherical shape and works by collecting in a uniform electric field the ionization charges resulting from the interaction of ionizing radiation with gas in the sensitive volume of the chamber. An ionizing current proportional to the activity of the radioactive source to be measured is obtained. In this paper a gas counter with a spherical symmetry is described. This detector can work in a very satisfactory manner, either as a flow counter or as a ionization chamber reaching in the latter case a good α pulse height resolution, even with large emitting sources. Calculations are made in order to find the dependence of the pulse shape on the direction of emission of an α-particle by a point source in the chamber (finite track). A good agreement is found between these calculations and the experimental tests performed, which show that this dependence can be employed in high efficiency measurements of angular α-γ correlations. (authors)

  15. Absolute measurements with a 4 π-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Kerstin

    1959-06-01

    Measurements on standardized p-emitters have been made in a 4 it proportional flow-counter. The counter efficiency is found to be near 100 %. Absorption curves have been determined with plastic foils and aluminium. A comparison is made between the self-absorption arising in different methods of source preparation which include precipitates and the use of wetting agents The most reliable results have been obtained with sources on aluminium foils, where the foil absorption is calculated from the absorption curves and the self-absorption is supposed to be negligible for isotopes with end point energy above 0.5 MeV. The β-emitters studied have energies ranging from 1.71 MeV ( 32 P) to 0.167 MeV ( 35 S). Most of them have been obtained from National Physical Laboratory and Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England. The agreement between their calibration and our measurements is very good except in the case of Co 60

  16. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, T; Suzuki, T

    2010-01-01

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  17. Absolute measurements with a 4 {pi}-counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Kerstin

    1959-06-15

    Measurements on standardized p-emitters have been made in a 4 it proportional flow-counter. The counter efficiency is found to be near 100 %. Absorption curves have been determined with plastic foils and aluminium. A comparison is made between the self-absorption arising in different methods of source preparation which include precipitates and the use of wetting agents The most reliable results have been obtained with sources on aluminium foils, where the foil absorption is calculated from the absorption curves and the self-absorption is supposed to be negligible for isotopes with end point energy above 0.5 MeV. The {beta}-emitters studied have energies ranging from 1.71 MeV ({sup 32}P) to 0.167 MeV ({sup 35}S). Most of them have been obtained from National Physical Laboratory and Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England. The agreement between their calibration and our measurements is very good except in the case of Co 60.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes as Counter Electrodes for Gratzel Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodive, Hasan; Aliev, Ali; Zhang, Mei; Lee, Sergey; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2006-03-01

    The role of interfaces is very critical for solar cell devices which use nanostructured materials. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) are devices which parts are interfacial in character and physico --chemical processes occur at the interface of two distinct media. DSSC are of great interest due to combination of their high efficiency and relatively low cost. An effective counterelectrode with high electrochemical activity is an important component of DSSC to enhance its practical utility. Presently used Pt coated ITO counterelectrode can not be applied in flexible DSSC architectures, while there is a growing need for flexible anodes which are transparent and have desired interface characteristics. In this work in order to search for such materials for counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells, newly developed strong and transparent and modified carbon nanotube sheets [1] are used in interfacial counter electrode. To increase the electrochemical activity of the anode the CNT sheets are coated with highly conductive SWCNT and compared with pure multiwall CNT sheets. We show that the transparent sheets of SWCNT/MWCNT perform as a flexible anode and as electrochemical catalyst and also can be used in tandems of dye sensitized solar cells as transparent charge recombination or interconnect layers. [1] M. Zhang, S.Fang, A.Zakhidov, S.B.Lee, A.Aliev et.al., Science, 309,(2005) 1215

  19. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  20. Smaller Counter Cation for Higher Transconductance in Anionic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Martina M.

    2017-12-11

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are a focus of research because combine their inherent electrical conductivity and the ability to interact with ions in aqueous solutions or biological systems. However, it is still not understood to what degree the counter ion in CPEs influences the properties of the CPE itself and the performance of electronic transducers. In order to investigate this, three different conjugated polyelectrolytes, poly(6-(thiophen-3-yl)hexane-1-sulfonate)s (PTHS−X+), are synthesized, which have the same polythiophene backbone but different X+ counter ions: the bulky tetrabutylammonium (TBA+), tetraethylammonium (TEA+), and the smallest tetramethylammonium (TMA+). At the interface with biological systems, thin CPE films have to be stable in an aqueous environment and should allow the inward and outward flow of ions from the electrolyte. Since the studied PTHS−X+ have different solubilities in water, the optical properties of pristine PTHS−X+ as well as of crosslinked PTHS−X+ via UV–vis absorption spectroscopy are investigated additionally. PTHS−TMA+ exhibits better aggregation, fast interdiffusion of ions, and fast recovery from the oxidized state. Additionally, spectroelectrochemical and cyclic voltammetric as well as electrochemical capacitance investigations show that PTHS−TMA+ can be oxidized to a higher degree. This leads to a better performance of PTHS−TMA+-based organic electrochemical transistors.

  1. Use of the helium-3 proportional counter for neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Le Thanh, P.

    1967-01-01

    Up to now, two methods have been mainly used for neutron spectrometry near nuclear installations: - photographic emulsion spectrometry - the so-called, 'multisphere' technique spectrometry. The first method, which is fairly difficult to apply, has a threshold energy of about 500 keV; this is a big disadvantage for an apparatus which has to be used for spectrometry around nuclear installations where the neutron radiation is very much degraded energetically. The second method does not suffer from this disadvantage but the results which it yields are only approximate. In order to extend the energy range of the neutron spectra studied with sufficient accuracy the use of a helium-3 proportional counter has been considered. This report presents the principles of operation of the helium-3 spectrometer, and the calculation methods which make it possible to take into account the two main effects tending to deform the spectra obtained: - energy absorption by the walls of the counter, - energy loss of the incident neutrons due to elastic collisions with helium-3 nuclei. As an example of the application, the shape of the neutron spectrum emitted by a polonium-lithium source is given; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. (authors) [fr

  2. A REVIEW ON COUNTER-ROTATING WIND TURBINES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRINA G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On a dynamic energy market characterized by the constant energy demand increase and economic as well as environmental constraints, the study and development of efficient conversion systems of wind’s energy has been approached by a considerable number of researchers. Given the modern economic and environmental challenges regarding the energy production and consumption, an advance in the research of innovative or improved wind energy conversion solutions has been registered. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, but not exhaustive overview of research achievements in counter-rotating wind turbine systems development, characterization and use. The review presents the first theoretical results that led to the counterrotating wind turbines development as well as the related methods used for investigating their performance. Valuable results have been found within various studies, which are carried out for different testing systems and conditions. Furthermore, there is still need of extensive studies, taking into account that the counter-rotating wind turbines have to prove their reliability in real operating conditions.

  3. Counter-Terrorism, Technology and Transparency: Reconsidering State Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine Eijkman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Discussion Paper, Dr. Quirine Eijkman discusses the use of surveillance, storage of personal information, biometrics, satellite technology and other forms of ICT technology used in the fight against terrorism. Although technology is a powerful tool to fight terrorism, it is also a means for increasing social control by the state. Henceforth, there is a risk that panoptic surveillance – where the few view the many – could develop. Therefore accountability in relation to use of technological counter-terrorism measures such as smart surveillance cameras, biometric devices or the tracking of personal data is discussed in this article. The extra powers that both public authorities and private companies gain through new (surveillance technologies should be counterbalanced. In this context the role of the state, because of its monopoly to use force and its duty to protect the rule of law, is crucial. By reconsidering how to enforce accountability by the state, the effects of technological counter-terrorism measures could be checked and balanced.

  4. Study of rare earth separation by counter current electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Sergio Machado

    1995-08-01

    The counter current electromigration (CCEM) is an electrophoretic technique where the charged species migrate on an electrical field toward an electrolytic flux. Usually this electrolyte is a complexing agent and is necessary to increase the small differences between the species mobilities. A new column was developed, all made of acrylic, in a cylindrical shape. A set of experiments was carried out with the species Na + /K + , K + /Sm +3 , K + /Eu +3 and K + /Sm +3 /Eu +3 using the α-hydrox i-isobutyric acid o,01 M as the counter current electrolytic flux. From a synthetic mixture of 90% of samarium and 10% of europium was obtained the samarium ion in a purity better than 99,9% where the concentration of Eu was determined by the polarography technique. The potassium ion was used as a leading electrolyte. It was also measured the mobilities of the involved species in the α-HIBA medium. Two models are proposed, a stationary model and a dynamic one. A simulator of a simplified stationary model, prepared in FORTRAN language, was developed and tested toward experimental results. (author)

  5. Flow characteristics of counter-current flow in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    2004-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident, a damaged core would form a debris bed consisting of once-molten and fragmented fuel elements. It is necessary to evaluate the dryout heat flux for the judgment of the coolability of the debris bed during the severe accident. The dryout phenomena in the debris bed is dominated by the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) in the debris bed. In this study, air-water counter-current flow behavior in the debris bed is experimentally investigated with glass particles simulating the debris beds. In this experiment, falling water flow rate and axial pressure distributions were experimentally measured. As the results, it is clarified that falling water flow rate becomes larger with the debris bed height and the pressure gradient in the upper region of the debris bed is different from that in the lower region of the debris bed. These results indicate that the dominant region for CCFL in the debris bed is identified near the top of the debris bed. Analytical results with annular flow model indicates that interfacial shear stress in the upper region of the debris bed is larger than that in the lower region of the debris bed. (author)

  6. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN FRY COUNTER DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL AIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Oktoriyana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected from 152 respondents who were fish farmers located in Sukabumi Regency, West Java Province. This research found that external and internal factors influenced positively perceived attributes faktors. The external and perceived attributes factors also influenced positively attention factor. The external factor had negative influence but internal and attention factors had positive influence on consumer’s interest. Perceived attributes and interest factors influenced positively desire factor. Managerial implications is elaborated in the discussion.

  7. Construction techniques and operation principles of Geiger-Mueller counters using external cathode (Mazetype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, F.X.

    1988-01-01

    The construction techniques for external cathode (Maze) and internal cathode Geiger-Muller counters are described, showing the operation principles and the used material nature. More than 200 counter types were evaluated analysing their characteristics. The influence of several types of guard-rings was studied, for optimizing counter operation conditions. Plateaus of the order of 700 V with slope of 0,3%/100 V for the net counting rate, and 1400 V with a slope of 0,8/100 V for total counts using total pressure of 10 cmHg, were obtained. A counter for β detection, using blown glass window in one of the edges of the cylinder was constructed. Counters of long life using materials such as, mica, adhesive glues, etc., were obtained. The results shown that the best counter operation occurs when it is empty in a vacuum of 10 -5 mmHg. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Some aspects of the use of proton recoil proportional counters for fast neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, T.J.; Bennett, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-filled proton recoil proportional counters have been used extensively for the measurement of neutron spectra in degraded fission-spectrum environments. Some considerations relating to the use of these counters for personnel dosimetry are here described. High sensitivity and good accuracy in the determination of dose-equivalent can be obtained if relatively high pressure hydrogen-filled proportional counters are used as the active element in a dosimeter system

  9. Analytical Solution for the Anisotropic Rabi Model: Effects of Counter-Rotating Terms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guofeng; Zhu, Hanjie

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropic Rabi model, which was proposed recently, differs from the original Rabi model: the rotating and counter-rotating terms are governed by two different coupling constants. This feature allows us to vary the counter-rotating interaction independently and explore the effects of it on some quantum properties. In this paper, we eliminate the counter-rotating terms approximately and obtain the analytical energy spectrums and wavefunctions. These analytical results agree well with the ...

  10. Proceedings of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters held at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University on January 27 in 1986. An energy resolution, wall effects of response functions, n · γ discrimination methods and other fundamental properties of recoil proton counters are discussed for a new development of an application of this counter. (author)

  11. Background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters of the SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of external γ radiation on the process of counting 71 Ge decays in the proportional counters of the SAGE experiment measuring the solar-neutrino flux is considered. The systematic uncertainty in the SAGE result due to radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters is estimated. The background counting rate in the proportional counters that is caused by γ radiation from the enclosing shield is also determined

  12. Towards a Theory of Fear Management in the Counter-Terrorism Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, the state of the art in counter-terrorism research, counter-terorism measures and counter-terrorism impacts has taken off. Nevertheless, countering terrorism as a branch of fear management is still a discipline to be developed. In this Research Paper, authors Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf attempt to lessen this gap. The Paper identifies and analyses governmental approaches to managing fear in relation to terrorist incidents. It is a stocktaking approach, offering a preliminary oversight of some central aspects and pointers on the way forward when constructing and testing such a theory.

  13. Evaluation of in-plant neutron coincidence counters for the measurement of molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Russo, P.A.; Wachter, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Americium is extracted from plutonium by a molten salt extraction (MSE) process. The residual americium-laden salts are a significant waste stream in this pyrochemical purification process. Rapid assay of MSE residues is desirable to minimize the exposure of personnel to these often high-level emissions. However, the quantitative assay of plutonium in MSE residues is difficult. Variable, unknown (a,n) rates and variable emitted-neutron energy spectra preclude the use of standard neutron coincidence counting techniques with old-generation neutron coincidence counters. Gamma-ray assay methods have not been successful with some residues because of random lumps of plutonium metal. In this paper, we present measurements of MSE residues with two state-of-the-art neutron coincidence counters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility: an in-line counter built for the assay of bulk waste material and the pyrochemical multiplicity counter that underwent test and evaluation at that facility. Both of these counters were designed to minimize the effects on measurements of variations in the sample geometry and variable energy spectra of emitted neutrons. These results are compared to measurements made with an HLNCII and with a 20-yr-old in-line well counter. The latter two counters are not optimized in ft sense. We conclude that the newer counters provide significantly improved assay results. The pyrochemical multiplicity counter operated in the conventional coincidence mode provided the best assays overall

  14. Construction techniques and working principles of external cathode Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, Francisco Xavier

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the construction technique and working principles of the external cathode Geiger-Mueller counter are described in detail. During the analysis of the behavior of these counters a new phenomena was observed, related to an increase int he background rate with the applied voltage. The experiments have also shown that the pulse amplitude of those counters decreases exponentially with the counting rate. The counters built with the techniques described in this paper has shown plateaus of about 1400 V with slope of 0,8%/100 V. (author)

  15. Determination of optimum shape and dimensions of anode high-voltage isolators for gaseous proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelen, K.; Jagusztyn, W.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the shape and dimensions of the high-voltage anode-to-cathods isolator on the regularity of the electrostatic field distribution along the anode of a cylindrical gaseous proportional counter is studied. For a counter of fixed dimensions, the length and diameter of the glass isolators were optimized to disrupt as little as possible the regularity of the field distribution in the active volume of the counter. Results of calculations are in agreement with experimental data. The obtained results provide a basis for obtaining a correct ratio of the active volume of the counter to its total volume. (author)

  16. The study of the influence of helium on the counter's measurement properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rui; Weng Kuiping; Ren Xingbi

    2009-04-01

    In measurement of tritium by the proportional counter, methane is usually used as counter gas. Gas samples have been made with helium and methane in the proportion of concentration and measured to study the influence of helium on the counter's measurement properties. Then gas sample with tritium and helium has been measured, and the result is according with anticipation. The experiment has showed that the plateau curve of counter could be changed by helium, but the influence could be ignored when helium concentration less 10%. (authors)

  17. A test of planar spark counters at the PEP storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.; Bowden, G.B.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Klem, D.E.; Ogawa, A.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Pitthan, R.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-01-01

    A test of planar spar counters (PSCs) at the PEP electron-positron storage ring showed the following. PSCs can be used under harsh experimental conditions without long term degradation of resolution. On-line time-of-flight resolutions were below 200 ps, coordinate resolutions better than 4 mm, both limited to these values by the resistivity of the semiconducting glass and the electronics used. The best single counter time resolution under realistic conditions at the storage ring was 76 ps. Pulse height was a good indicator of the number of particles striking a counter. Subsequent measurements using cosmis rays gave a single counter time resolution of 50 ps. (orig.)

  18. Proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.; Pawlowski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The work describes the construction of a proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons. It has been shown that in this counter filled with Penning's mixtures Ne+Ar+CO 2 , Ne+CH 4 and Ar+C 2 H 2 , much higher resolutions are obtained than in typical cylindrical counters. In the counter described filled with a mixture of Ne+1%CH 4 , a resolution of fwhm=10.5% has been obtained for E=5.9 keV. (orig.)

  19. Proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J.; Pawlowski, Z. (Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Inst. Radioelektroniki)

    1982-09-15

    The work describes the construction of a proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons. It has been shown that in this counter filled with Penning's mixtures Ne+Ar+CO/sub 2/, Ne+CH/sub 4/ and Ar+C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, much higher resolutions are obtained than in typical cylindrical counters. In the counter described filled with a mixture of Ne+1%CH/sub 4/, a resolution of fwhm=10.5% has been obtained for E=5.9 keV.

  20. Counter-Productive Counter-Terrorism. How is the dysfunctional discourse of Prevent failing to restrain radicalisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Powell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores why the Prevent strand of the UK Government’s counter-terrorism strategy, CONTEST, is failing to achieve success in reducing radicalisation of young Muslims. By refusing to engage with extremists, and denying ‘extreme’ ideas a platform for expression, this paper will explain how the importance of cultural-linguistic epistemologies, and their role in extremism, has been overlooked. Rather than striving to understand how socio-political factors influence one’s reading of religious doctrines or interpretation of ideology, Prevent understands ideology to be the core radicalising agent, used by influential figures who can exploit the grievances of the vulnerable. The problematic repercussions of this will be addressed throughout, highlighting the various, and extensive, criticisms that Prevent has faced from academics, practitioners and commentators – primarily that it is counter-productive. The importance of the post-9/11 neoconservative paradigm in underpinning Prevent will be explained, but a Neo-Weberian approach, as a better lens through which to understand radicalisation, will be proposed, to ultimately trump the simplistic, yet currently dominant, ‘Conveyor Belt’ theory. Based on this, recommendations are made for an improved Prevent, rooted in the notion that radicalisation, extremism, or terrorism cannot be prevented, without knowing the motives, the views, and the assumptions of the radicals, the extremists, and those vulnerable to engaging with them.