Sample records for schools public health

  1. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon


    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  2. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health. (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman


    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  3. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice. (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon


    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Evaluation of school health instruction in public primary schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective school health instruction in primary schools is essential in addressing the health risks and needs of school age children and adolescents. This study sought to evaluate the status of school health instruction in public primary schools in Bonny Local Government Area. Method: This is a cross sectional ...

  5. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David


    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  6. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health (United States)

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca


    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  7. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015. (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  8. Keeping the “Public” in Schools of Public Health (United States)

    Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman


    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation’s public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation’s largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  9. Contributing to Balkan public health: a school for Skopje. (United States)

    Levett, Jeffrey


    The absence of social well-being and growing vulnerability are alarming for a large portion of people living in the Balkan countries. The Stability Pact is currently targeting the issue of social cohesion, which holds out promise for as yet unrealized development. Both the World Health Organization and the Council of Europe have called attention to the population vulnerability and growing disparity in health status between that region and Europe. Reversal of present trends demands the support of the international community and the strengthening of all public health institutions, human resource training, and population health research. Given the severity of the problem space of population vulnerability, these actions are more than ever indispensable to the health sector of the region. The paper describes an encouraging dialogue for Balkan health conducted by the National School of Public Health in Athens, Greece over the past decade and emphasizes the work of the newly created Public Health in South Eastern Europe (PH-SEE) Network (, which provides new opportunities for engagement in regional public health through Public Health Schools and Institutes. There is a need for public health curricula development and a closer linkage of all Schools with the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. A curriculum for peace and public health is already under development in institutions in Athens, Greece; Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; and Zagreb, Croatia. Soon to be added to the group of regional institutions is the School of Public Health in Skopje. It is a policy response to considerable need in a country showing pre-conflict conditions in the heart of the South Eastern Europe. Within the general framework of public health development, a School of Public Health in Skopje can be of great national benefit. Suggestions are made for its function under an umbrella of interdisciplinarity and autonomy, and the need to steer a path clear of

  10. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health. (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders


    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  11. How to create and terminate a school of public health. (United States)

    Köhler, Lennart; Karlberg, Ingvar


    The famous preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) from 1948, stating that health is not only the absence of disease, has been one of the most influential political statements of our time. The follow-up, reaching a position where health is viewed as instrumental to a good life and not as a goal in itself, as set out in the Ottawa Charter of 1986, has likewise been of the utmost importance for the global development of public health, as well as developing the concept of health promotion. The focus on public health sparked by the WHO was paralleled by expansion of the academic interest in the topic, beginning in the USA and successively adopted around the world. In the Nordic countries the pioneering of an academic platform for public health studies and research began in 1953. This was later followed by a stepwise expansion to a full academic institution with postgraduate studies, work-related training, research and development. From the start, the resultant institution called the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was a joint Nordic project financed by the Nordic governments. The NHV became a leader in public health studies in Nordic countries and also a role model for the development of an academic community. A large campus and a select and erudite staff, together with thousands of students, paved the way for the NHV having a major impact on public health policy in Nordic countries. One effect of this was increasing awareness of the need for systematic policy supporting public health research and, with this, the founding of institutions of public health in all of the separate Nordic countries. Ironically, the impact made by the NHV in spreading the idea of public health as an important part of academic study has made the NHV superfluous. It is true that courses and programmes in public health are now available at most universities in the five Nordic countries, but they are directed at young students fresh from high school. There is no

  12. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector? (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon


    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  13. The role of schools of public health in capacity building. (United States)

    Tulchinsky, Theodore H; Goodman, Julien


    Public health has been an enormously effective instrument for improving life expectancy and quality of life. Historically a sphere of governmental activity led by physicians and staffed by sanitarians and nurses, public health has evolved to become a multi-facetted field of societal activity. It engages many agencies and community action in reducing infectious and non-communicable diseases as well as many aspects of lifestyle and health equity. Education for an adequate professional workforce is one of its key functions. Schools of public health have fulfilled this role only partly even in developed countries, but in countries in transition and in low-income countries the problem is much more acute. We discuss the role of mentoring of new schools calling for strong public and private donor support for this as a key issue in global health.

  14. Nordic School of Public Health NHV and its legacy in global health. (United States)

    Krettek, Alexandra; Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Toan, Tran Khanh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim


    This article describes the legacy of the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in global health. We delineate how this field developed at NHV and describe selected research and research training endeavours with examples from Vietnam and Nepal as well as long-term teaching collaborations such as BRIMHEALTH (Baltic RIM Partnership for Public HEALTH) in the Baltic countries and Arkhangelsk International School of Public Health in Russia. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Recruiting the future public health workforce: an analysis of prospect communication among accredited Schools of Public Health. (United States)

    Purcell, Jennifer M


    Schools of Public Health cannot sustain the national momentum for public health justice and human rights without recruiting and training a skilled public health workforce. With growing demand for public health workers, schools must work to increase their applicant pools. This project examined prospect communication materials from accredited Schools of Public Health and found that the vast majority of schools did not capitalize on opportunities to move prospects to applicants. Whereas most responded within a reasonable time, several schools made no communication efforts at all. Recruitment materials varied widely from institution to institution and between epidemiology and health education programs. Strategic, personalized communication strategies-the 3 Cs-are recommended to increase the pools of qualified applicants nationwide and can be utilized to increase prospect pools in a wide range of health sciences.

  16. Alumni survey of Masters of Public Health (MPH training at the Hanoi School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To elicit the opinions of the Public Health alumni of the MPH program; 2 To assess the applicability of the knowledge and skills acquired; 3 To identify the frequency of the public health competencies that the alumni performed. Methods We requested 187 graduates to complete a self-administered questionnaire and conducted in-depth interviews with 8 alumni as well as a focus group discussion with 14 alumni. Results In total 79.1% (148 of the MPH graduates completed and returned the questionnaire. Most alumni (91% agreed that the MPH curriculum corresponded with the working requirements of public health professionals; and nearly all were satisfied with what they have learnt (96%. Most respondents said that the MPH program enabled them to develop relevant professional skills (95% and that they were satisfied with the curriculum (90%. Notably fewer respondents (73% felt that the MPH program structure was balanced and well designed. Most alumni (64.3% were satisfied with Hanoi School of Public Health (HSPH full-time lecturers; but even more (83% were satisfied with visiting lecturers. The most commonly selected of the 34 pre-identified public health competencies were: applying computer skills (66.4%, planning and managing health programs (47.9%, communicating with the community and/or mobilizing the community to participate in health care (43.2%. Overall, the MPH alumni felt that HSPH emphasized research methods at the expense of some management and operational competencies. The most important challenges at work identified by the alumni were insufficient skills in: data analysis, decision making, inter-sectoral cooperation development, English language and training. Conclusion The training program should be reviewed and revised to meet the needs of its graduates who enter diverse situations and positions. English language skills were identified as top priority for further emphasis. The training program should comply with a more

  17. National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives. (United States)

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.


    This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

  18. A Public Health Pharmacy Course at a Malaysian Pharmacy School (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Ahmed, Syed Imran


    Objectives To develop and implement a new course on public health into the bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum in Malaysia. Design A required 2-credit-hour course was designed to provide an overview of public health pharmacy roles and the behavioral aspects of human healthcare issues. Graded activities included nursing home visits, in-class quizzes, mini-projects, and poster sessions, and a comprehensive final examination. Assessment The majority of the students performed well on the class activities and 93 (71.5%) of the 130 students enrolled received a grade of B or higher. A Web-based survey was administered at the end of the semester and 90% of students indicated that they had benefited from the course and were glad that it was offered. The majority of students agreed that the course made an impact in preparing them for their future role as pharmacists and expanded their understanding of the public health roles of a pharmacist. Conclusions A public health pharmacy course was successfully designed and implemented in the BPharm curriculum. This study highlighted the feasibilities of introducing courses that are of global relevance into a Malaysian pharmacy curriculum. The findings from the students' evaluation suggest the needs to incorporate a similar course in all pharmacy schools in the country and will be used as a guide to improve the contents and methods of delivery of the course at our school. PMID:19960093

  19. Advocacy for Quality School Health Education: The Role of Public Health Educators as Professionals and Community Members (United States)

    Birch, David A.; Priest, Hannah M.; Mitchell, Qshequilla P.


    Advocacy at the local school or school district level has received emphasis as a strategy for improving school health education. The involvement of health educators in advocacy for school health education has been described as "imperative" at all levels of school-based policy. Allensworth's 2010 Society for Public Health Education…

  20. Main competences and skills to perform Essential Public Health Operations, offered by Schools of Public Health in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otok, Robert; Foldspang, Anders


    OBJECTIVES: To consider the stage of implementation of main competences and EPHO skills in selected schools of public health in four European countries-France, Poland, Portugal, and the UK. METHODS: By use of visual analogue scales (VAS) ranging 1-5, the leads of three schools of public health (SPH......) in each of the four countries, France, Poland, Portugal and the UK, reported the strength of intellectual and practical competences as well as skills to perform essential public health operations (EPHOs), offered by their education and training programmes. RESULTS: The self-reports indicated substantial...

  1. Public Health Stops at the School House Door


    Paulson, Jerome A.; Barnett, Claire L.


    Summary: In the United States, all children of appropriate age are required to attend school, and many parents send their children to child care. Many school and day care buildings have been found to have environmental health problems that impact children?s health and diminish their ability to learn. No federal agency has the capacity or authority to identify, track, or remediate these problems. A recent meeting, coordinated by Healthy Schools Network, Inc., has developed a set of recommendat...

  2. Public Schools (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  3. Nordic School of Public Health NHV and its legacy in global health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krettek, A.; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Toan, T. K.


    This article describes the legacy of the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in global health. We delineate how this field developed at NHV and describe selected research and research training endeavours with examples from Vietnam and Nepal as well as long-term teaching collaborations...

  4. Expected ethical competencies of public health professionals and graduate curricula in accredited schools of public health in North America. (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M; Wright, Brandy; Semaan, Salaam


    We assessed expected ethics competencies of public health professionals in codes and competencies, reviewed ethics instruction at schools of public health, and recommended ways to bridge the gap between them. We reviewed the code of ethics and 3 sets of competencies, separating ethics-related competencies into 3 domains: professional, research, and public health. We reviewed ethics course requirements in 2010-2011 on the Internet sites of 46 graduate schools of public health and categorized courses as required, not required, or undetermined. Half of schools (n = 23) required an ethics course for graduation (master's or doctoral level), 21 did not, and 2 had no information. Sixteen of 23 required courses were 3-credit courses. Course content varied from 1 ethics topic to many topics addressing multiple ethics domains. Consistent ethics education and competency evaluation can be accomplished through a combination of a required course addressing the 3 domains, integration of ethics topics in other courses, and "booster" trainings. Enhancing ethics competence of public health professionals is important to address the ethical questions that arise in public health research, surveillance, practice, and policy.

  5. Perceived Uncertainty and Organizational Health in Public Schools: The Mediating Effect of School Principals' Transformational Leadership Style (United States)

    Hameiri, Lior; Nir, Adam


    Purpose: Public schools operate in a changing and dynamic environment evident in technological innovations, increased social heterogeneity and competition, all contributing to school leaders' uncertainty. Such changes inevitably influence schools' inner dynamic and may therefore undermine schools' organizational health. School leaders have a…

  6. State procurement law: facilitating the collaboration between health department and school of public health. (United States)

    Huber, George A; Barron, Gerald M; Duchak, Linda S; Raniowski, Martin; Alsahlani, Hazem S; Potter, Margaret A


    The mark of an "academic health department" includes shared activity by academic and practice partners sustained over time. Despite a long history of productive interactivity, the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health often faced administrative hurdles in contracting for projects of mutual interest. Seeking to overcome these hurdles, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health negotiated a Master Agreement on the basis of statutes designating both as "public procurement units." This provided a template for project specifications, standard financial terms, and a contracting process. Since taking effect, the Master Agreement has supported projects in policy development, capacity building, workforce development, program evaluation, data analysis, and program planning. This experience suggests an approach potentially useful for other states and localities seeking to solidify academic health department partnerships either envisioned for the future or already in place.

  7. A school-based public health model to reduce oral health disparities. (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J


    Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. Knowledge of School Health Programme among Public Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    It creates a general awareness on human health in both the teachers and the pupils as well as members of the wider community; inculcates and promotes good health habits in school children and provides the children with the knowledge useful in taking decisions for themselves on health and well-being and ensures that.

  9. Improving Schools, Improving School Health Education, Improving Public Health: The Role of SOPHE Members (United States)

    Birch, David A.


    The reciprocal relationship between health and education has garnered increased attention among public health professionals. The evidence is clear that the level of an individual's education is related to health outcomes in adulthood and that healthier children are more likely to be academically successful than those with health issues. Unpacking…

  10. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge of Middle School Students in Public and Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Serbes


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine public and private middle school students’ levels of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge (HRFK according to school type, gender, and grade. A cross-sectional survey method was applied in the research. A total of 334 public middle school students (nfemale =154 and nmale = 180 and 386 private middle school students (nfemale =187 and nmale = 199 participated in the survey. The data collection instrument was developed by Hunuk and Ince (2010 based on the “Superkids-Superfit Knowledge” study (Mott, Virgilio, Warren and Berenson, 1991. The data collected was analysed using the following descriptive and non-parametric tests: the Pearson chi-square, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Kruskal-Wallis H-test. Findings indicated a significant difference according to school type and age group (p<.05, but a non-significant difference according to gender and HRFK test result. Results improved year to year except among 7th graders. In other words, private middle school students’ HRFK results were higher than those of public middle school students; grade level was also linked to HRFK, but gender was not. These results suggest that physical education curriculums should be developed with reference to HRFK objectives. Another recommendation would be that HRFK tools be customized by grade level in the Turkish context.

  11. Knowledge of School Health Programme among Public Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Teachers are in a vantage position to facilitate positive health among school-age children through the School Health Programme (SHP). ... Des proportions plus élevées de personnes âgées de 40 ans et, qui aient jamais été mariés et ont eu 2 qualifications avaient une connaissance suffisante par rapport à leurs ...

  12. European and North American Schools of Public Health – Establishment, growth, differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Bozikov


    Full Text Available Unlike European Schools of Public Health, whose development was primarily influenced by the medical profession and was linked to the healthcare system, North American Schools of Public Health operate as independent academic institutions engaged in research and education of Public Health specialists. While Public Health has been recognised as a distinctive profession in USA and Canada for almost a century, in many European countries it is not recognized as such and, accordingly, there are no well-defined job positions for graduates. Similarities and differences between the European and American Schools of Public Health are reviewed and the importance of classification of core competences, responsibilities and scope of knowledge required for Public Health practice was pointed out as a prerequisite for accreditation of study curricula. For the professionalization of Public Health in Europe further efforts are needed.

  13. School Psychology: A Public Health Framework: III. Managing Disruptive Behavior in Schools: The Value of a Public Health and Evidence-Based Perspective. (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa


    This article emphasizes the value of an evidence-based and public health perspective in managing disruptive behavior. Information about comprehensive school-based programs and classroom management techniques for disruptive behavior disorders is presented and the important role school psychologists can play in implementing these programs discussed.…

  14. Whither public health? (United States)

    Berliner, H S


    This paper examines the future of Schools of Public Health in the United States. The history of Schools of Public Health is developed by tracing the history of the philanthropies which supported scientific medicine and public health in the early decades of the twentieth century. The role of the theory of disease in shifting the focus of public health from the community to the laboratory is explored. This paper argues that Schools of Public Health have lost their legitimacy and no longer have any content area or discipline for which they alone are responsible. The declining public image of public health is explored in light of the recent swine flu and legionnaire disease episodes. The current tendencies of Schools of Public Health as miniature business schools or as departments of medical schools are explored and criticized and a revitalized curriculum for Schools of Public Health is posited.

  15. Evaluating health literacy of Kerman Medical University, School of Public Health students about recycling solid waste (United States)

    Hashemi, Majid; Khanjani, Narges; Saber, Maryam; Fard, Narges Kargar


    Background: The increasing trend in waste production and its improper disposal in the environment have led to mismanagement of national resources and hazards to the natural environment. Therefore, the recycling of solid waste can help prevent economic and bio-environmental disasters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health literacy of the students of the Kerman Public Health School about the management and recycling of solid waste. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the target population was all of the students of the Kerman Public Health School (421 students) in five fields. A questionnaire including demographic and health literacy questions was distributed among the students. Results: The male students answered the questions significantly more than female students (Peducation, the family income, and number of people in the family had no significant effect on health literacy. All students believed recycling is important and more than 50% had acquired their knowledge from their academics. Conclusion: This survey showed that although students in health-related fields confirm the necessity of recycling solid waste, they still need more education in health literacy as they are supposed to be the promoters of public health in the society in the near future. PMID:23555126

  16. Health literacy of Kerman Medical University, school of public health students about recycling solid waste (United States)

    Hashemi, Majid; Khanjani, Narges; Saber, Maryam; Fard, Narges Kargar


    Introduction: The increasing trend in waste production and its improper disposal in the environment have led to mismanagement of national resources and hazards to the natural environment. Therefore the recycling of solid waste can help prevent economic and bioenvironmental disasters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health literacy of the student of the Kerman Public Health School, about the management and recycling of solid waste. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the target population was all of the students of the Kerman Public Health School (421 students), in five fields. A questionnaire including demographic and health literacy questions was distributed among the students. Results: The male students answered the questions significantly more than female students (P education, the family income and number of people in the family had no significant effect on health literacy. All students believed recycling is important and more than 50% had acquired their knowledge from their academics. Conclusion: This survey showed that students in health related fields although confirm its necessity, but need more education in health literacy as they are supposed to be the promoters of public health in the society in the near future. PMID:23555144

  17. The Mexican Public Health School and its continental interaction: 1945-1982.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Gudiño-Cejudo


    Full Text Available This article analyzes a 37 year period during which the Mexican School of Public Health gave priority to teaching over research, related with American projects that promoted students exchange and became part of the group of Latin American Schools of Public Health that created the Latin American association of Public Health Schools (ALAESP. Due to the contribution of the Pan-American Health Organization, the association got together on a regular basis between 1959 and 1979 and the Mexican representatives participated in the discussions held to improve performance within schools and make sure they were all oriented towards the three main priorities: teaching, research and implementation of services in the community. Based upon this context, which was ruled by the OPS, we now analyze the role of the Mexican school in the generation of human resources for health and its performance within the context of Latin American Schools.

  18. Group Health Insurance Plans for Public-School Personnel, 1964-65. (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the major considerations in developing group health insurance coverage for public school personnel. A general overview is given of (1) group health insurance coverage, (2) patterns of group health insurance, (3) group health insurance organizations, (4) eligibility and enrollment practices, and (5) continuous health insurance…

  19. School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices of Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Hendershot, Candace; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy


    Background: From January through June 2009, 6.1 million children were uninsured in the United States. On average, students with health insurance are healthier and as a result are more likely to be academically successful. Some schools help students obtain health insurance with the help of school nurses. Methods: This study assessed public school…

  20. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence (United States)


    Denver Post, 24 February 2010. Available: 68 “3 Die as Teen Romance Sours,” The Seattle Times, 26...fumes, as well as gunfire. Inadequate leadership at the national and local level resulted in deficient direction, inferior tactics, and failure to...protect the public health, but he also believes NRA members are much more reasonable than their organization’s leadership . He suggested background

  1. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field : a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014


    Forsman, Anna K.; Freden, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian


    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual N...

  2. Education and training among Italian postgraduate medical schools in public health: a comparative analysis. (United States)

    Garavelli, E; Marcantoni, C; Costantino, C; Tedesco, D; Burrai, V; Giraldi, G; D'Andrea, E


    The postgraduate medical Schools in Public Health (locally known as School of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) should ensure adequate scientific and technical knowledge and professional skills in preventive medicine, health promotion and healthcare planning as provided by Ministerial Decree 285/2005. The Italian Committee of Medical Residents in Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Public Health and Preventive Medicine - S.It.I. (Consulta Nazionale dei medici in formazione specialistica S.It.I.) has always been engaged in monitoring activities on public health teaching, guaranteeing the homogeneity of educational proposals among all national Schools in Public Health. The purpose of this study is to provide a 'snapshot' of public health education and training in Italy and to identify the improvement actions needed for implementing an innovative and homogeneous public health training. A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of three months (March to May 2013). A self-administered questionnaire was e-mailed to local Committee's delegates of all 32 postgraduate medical Schools in Public Health in Italy. The questionnaire was structured in four sections: general information, University education and training, extra-University training, interdisciplinary activities. The majority of local Committee's delegates have agreed to be enrolled in the survey. A total of 28 questionnaires were returned (88% response rate). The number of residents in each Italian School in Public Health ranged from 7 to 31. The distribution of professors in relation to residents is not similar for each University Schools. The ratio professors/residents spanning from 0.2 to 2. About teaching, only 4 University Schools offered all courses requested by Ministerial Decree 285/2005. Most of them offered at least 75% of the requested courses, but there were Schools in which the courses were less than 50%. The vast majority of schools held more

  3. Review of MPH practicum requirements in accredited schools of public health. (United States)

    Oglesby, Willie H; Alemagno, Sonia A; Zullo, Melissa D; Hartman, Olivia; Smith, Katalin; Smith, Joseph; Buzzelli, Michael


    Accreditation criteria by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) state that prior to graduation, Masters of Public Health (MPH) students must demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills through a practice experience, commonly called the "Practicum." The purpose of this research was to review those MPH Practicum requirements. Practicum guidelines from US-based schools of public health that were accredited as of October 2011 were reviewed. Data on each Practicum's level of coordination, timing, and credit and contact hours as well as information about written agreements, preceptors, and how the Practicum was graded were collected. Seventy-four Practicums in 46 accredited schools of public health were reviewed. The majority (85 %) of accredited schools controlled the Practicum at the school-level. Among the Practicums reviewed, most did not require completion of any credit hours or the MPH core courses (57 and 74 %, respectively) prior to starting the Practicum; 82 % required written agreements; 60 % had stated criteria for the approval of preceptors; and 76 % required students to submit a product for grading at the conclusion of the Practicum. The results of this research demonstrate that the majority of accredited schools of public health designed Practicum requirements that reflect some of the criteria established by CEPH; however, issues related to timing, credit and contact hours, and preceptor qualifications vary considerably. We propose that a national dialogue begin among public health faculty and administrators to address these and other findings to standardize the Practicum experience for MPH students.

  4. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.


    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  5. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools. (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R


    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Violence in public schools and health promotion: reports and dialogues with students and teachers

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    Kátia Ovídia José de Souza


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze perceptions about the interaction between health and environment, from the reports and conversations with teenagers and teachers from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on violence and health promotion. Methods: Descriptive and qualitative study, conducted from February to June 2009, involving 153 students of two public schools in Rio de Janeiro and 17 teachers. Data collection among students was carried out by means of participant observation with notes in a field diary, a semi-structured questionnaire and focus groups. Among teachers, participant observation with notes in a field diary and study groupwere adopted. A thematic analysis was performed, seeking to establish units of meaning. Results: The reports of the students presented discussions on three forms of violence: urban, school and sexual violence within the family. About urban violence, the students highlighted the issue of lack of public safety, especially in their entertainment area. School violence has been characterized as: a violence in school (physical and psychological violenceamong students, bullying and against school property; b violence of the school (through derogatory comments of teachers on students; c violence against the school (devaluation of the teacher and the outcomes of school violence on teacher’s health. Students alsocommented on sexual violence within the family, the teenager as a victim or the perpetrator towards a family member. Conclusions: Violence coping strategies should be established as a health promotion measure for students, teachers and families.

  7. Sexual and Gender Minority Health Curricula and Institutional Support Services at U.S. Schools of Public Health. (United States)

    Talan, Ali J; Drake, Carolyn B; Glick, Jennifer L; Claiborn, Camilla Scott; Seal, David


    Limited research has examined the ways in which public health training programs equip students to address health disparities affecting the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and other sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. This study outlines the availability of public health curricula on SGM health topics, and the prevalence of LGBT and SGM-inclusive institutional support services across CEPH-accredited U.S. schools of public health. Content analysis of all course offerings related to gender and sexuality revealed a limited focus on sexual and gender minority health: just 4.7% of courses contained keywords indicating that LGBT or SGM health topics were covered. Similar analysis of institutional support services available at U.S. schools of public health found that only 25% of schools had LGBT student organizations, and just 19% had an office of diversity that specifically advertised LGBT or SGM-inclusive programming or services on the institution's Web site. Finally, only two of 52 schools offered an educational certificate centered on LGBT health. These findings illustrate a significant need for enhanced curricular content and institutional support services that equip public health students to address SGM health disparities. Improvement in this area may encourage future health care professionals to work to reduce these disparities, to improve SGM persons' experiences in health care settings, and to generate further research in this area.

  8. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Fink, Brian N.


    Background: Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between…

  9. [Hygiene in schools - an important issue for the public health services]. (United States)

    Heudorf, U; Voigt, K; Eikmann, Th; Exner, M


    According to the Protection against Infection Act (IfSG), schools have to identify their arrangements of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for hygienic conditions, and the public health departments are obliged to check the hygienic conditions in schools. Here, practical experience with these topics in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, is presented.Although all schools had been informed about their duties according to IfSG in 2001, only 44% (80/180 schools) of them were able to present their SOPs when requested to do so by the public health department in 2006. Complaints about bad sanitary hygiene in schools have to be confirmed, often even in recently redeveloped facilities, because of vandalism. The equipment of washing basins was improved very well during the influenza pandemic in 2009. In 2010, however, a tendency to deterioration had been observed. With data on high levels on indoor contamination (particles and CO2) in class rooms in 2006, the city increased the frequency of cleaning and launched a programme on proper ventilation in classrooms. However, a study on ventilation in 29 schools in 2009 resulted in very high levels of CO2; obviously the recommendation to ventilate the classrooms every break are neglected. Large studies on drinking water quality exhibited good data, with the exception of high Legionella contaminations in hot water systems supplying the showers in gymnasiums. Major redevelopment measures were necessary.Hygienic conditions in schools should be improved urgently. The public health departments should increase their consulting services as well as their control visits in schools - with the aim to improve hygiene in schools. Responsibility of the schools as well as of the individuals in the schools is demanded as well. More public attention to this topic seems mandatory, may be via a "signal light - red-yellow-green" for schools? © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Developing a flexible core Dental Public Health curriculum for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene schools. (United States)

    Atchison, Kathryn; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Bhoopathi, Vinodh


    The curriculum for graduating dental and dental hygiene students must prepare them to contribute to the improvement or maintenance of health for individual patient's and the public's health. The objective is to describe the background for and the process used to develop a core Dental Public Health Curriculum for such students. The process used was to solicit and review existing dental public health curriculum in dental and dental hygiene schools; review curriculum for other health professionals; identify the themes needed to frame the curriculum; select usable materials and identify gaps in existing curricular materials; and develop appropriate curriculum materials that would embody the competencies developed for undergraduate dental and dental hygiene education. Twenty-three topics were identified as embodying the eight competencies. Based on these topics, six courses, Principles of Dental Public Health, Evidence-Based Dentistry, Ethics and Dental Public Health, Dental Public Health Policy and Advocacy, Oral Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and Oral Health Literacy and Dental Public Health, were prepared. Each course includes syllabus, PowerPoint presentations, student assignments and activities, instructor guide, and classroom discussion points. Depending on the hours available in the existing curriculum at the dental or hygiene school, lecture presentations and take home assignments/discussions may be used independently or in combination with presentations from other courses. In addition, individual discussions and activities may be used to integrate dental public health materials into other courses. A flexible curriculum is available at the AAPHD website to enable the incorporation of DPH topics into the curriculum. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. Retiree Health Insurance for Public School Employees: Does it Affect Retirement? (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.


    Despite the widespread provision of retiree health insurance for public sector workers, little attention has been paid to its effects on employee retirement. This is in contrast to the large literature on health-insurance-induced “job-lock” in the private sector. I use the introduction of retiree health insurance for public school employees in combination with administrative data on their retirement to identify the effects of retiree health insurance. As expected, the availability of retiree health insurance for older workers allows employees to retire earlier. These behavioral changes have budgetary implications, likely making the programs self-financing rather than costly to taxpayers. PMID:25479889

  12. [School of Public Health of Mexico: educational and technological innovation in the new millennium]. (United States)

    Magaña-Valladares, Laura; Suárez-Conejero, Juana Elvira; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Gudiño-Cejudo, María Rosa


    This article was conceived to analyze the work of the School of Public Health of Mexico (ESPM for is acronym in Spanish) from the year 2000 to the present day. One of the highlights that we will examine is the reorientation of the educational work of the school in order to meet the challenges in health and education that emerged during the end of the twentieth century. In order to explain the evolution of this process, we will describe the three main guiding principles that characterize the present work of the school: the pedagogical model's change, the incorporation of the information and communication technologies, and the professionalization in teaching. The purpose of this work is to define those guiding principles, and to expose, through the contrast between past and present, the complete history of uninterrupted work of the School of Public Health of Mexico during its ninety-two years of existence, that has gone beyond the boundaries of the country.

  13. The School of Public Health at the University of Chile: Origins, Evolution, and Perspectives

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    Paulina Pino


    Full Text Available With the support of and in accordance with the model of the Rockefeller Foundation, the School of Public Health of the University of Chile was established in 1943 as a training center for public health institution administrators. From the beginning its academic leaders also took the lead in the country’s health institutions, allowing the increasing knowledge of public health to be brought directly into practice con­currently with training. The military coup of 1973 halted this cycle and broke and destroyed the links between the school and national governance and policymaking; despite this, the university continued to consolidate its role as the major training institution for public health professionals. During that time the Master’s Programs in Public Health and in Biostatistics were launched, attracting students throughout the country and Latin America, but very few professors had adequate research training. Only in 2000, a decade after the return to democracy, a strategic plan was implemented to renew the School of Public Health (SPH and reshape it for the new public health scenario in Chile. Since then efforts have been made to bring research skills up to date through PhD training and sending young professors to study abroad. Also, a PhD program was created in the SPH in 2003, and graduates are being rapidly hired in universities and the Health Ministry. The recovery of at least part of a leading role of the public health agenda should be based on the capacity to generate relevant new knowledge and advocate for its implementation.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Oral Health of Public School Children of Batangas City

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    Full Text Available Dental caries among Filipino children ranked second worst among 21 World Health Organization Western Pacific countries. A recent National Oral Health Survey showed that 97 percent of Grade 1 students and 82 percent of Grade 2 students surveyed suffered from tooth decay. WHO (2007 urges governments to “ promote oral health in schools, aiming at developing healthy lifestyles and self care practices in children”. The study assessed the dental health education of public school children in Batangas City to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of the respondents on oral health; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment on the dental health education and propose a program to improve the project. This study used a descriptive type of research and distributed a standardized questionnaire to 279 public school children of Ilijan, Sta. Rita Kalsada and Julian Pastor Memorial Elementary School. The participants were selected randomly. The findings of the study showed that there is an observed significant to highly significant relationship between the school and the assessment on oral health in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices. This means that their assessment is affected by the school where they belong.

  15. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014. (United States)

    Eriksson, Bo


    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen. © 2015 the Nordic

  16. Formal public health education and career outcomes of medical school graduates.

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    Marie Krousel-Wood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data are available evaluating the associations of formal public health education with long-term career choice and professional outcomes among medical school graduates. The objective of this study was to determine if formal public health education via completion of a masters of public health (MPH degree among US medical school graduates was associated with early and long-term career choice, professional satisfaction, or research productivity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 1108 physicians (17.1% completed a MPH degree who had 10-20 years of follow-up post medical school graduation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to their counterparts with no MPH, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to have completed a generalist primary care residency only [relative risk (RR 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.35-2.29], obtain employment in an academic institution (RR 1.81; 95% CI 1.33-2.37 or government agency (RR 3.26; 95% CI 1.89-5.38, and practice public health (RR 39.84; 95% CI 12.13-107.38 or primary care (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18-2.05. Furthermore, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to conduct public health research (RR 8.79; 95% CI: 5.20-13.82, receive NIH or other federal funding (RR 3.11, 95% CI 1.74-5.33, have four or more peer-reviewed publications (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.56-2.60, and have five or more scientific presentations (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.70-2.98. CONCLUSION: Formal public health education via a MPH was associated with career choice and professional outcomes among physicians.

  17. Public health nurses' perceptions of mobile computing in a school program. (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta K; O'Mara, Linda M


    The use of mobile computing (MC) in healthcare practice has grown substantially in recent years, yet little is known about its impact. This descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study explored the perceptions of public health nurses (PHNs) in a school health program about their use of MC. Public health nurses participated in focus group interviews and completed weekly reflections. They perceived that MC (a) increased PHNs' flexibility although they were constrained by work rules, (b) increased peer and employer connectedness yet increased isolation, (c) and increased PHNs' status while creating a wider gap between PHNs and their clients. Public health nurses described their practice as being more efficient and client-focused with MC. Over time, PHNs grew more comfortable with the tool, developed a dependence on it, and learned to deal with technological problems. Although this new technology shows promise, there is a need for further research to examine its impact as a tool to promote public health nursing practice.

  18. Corporate Funding for Schools of Public Health: Confronting the Ethical and Economic Challenges. (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N


    We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.

  19. Community Schools: a Public Health Opportunity to Reverse Urban Cycles of Disadvantage. (United States)

    Diamond, Catherine; Freudenberg, Nicholas


    Community schools link students, families, and communities to educate children and strengthen neighborhoods. They have become a popular model for education in many US cities in part because they build on community assets and address multiple determinants of educational disadvantage. Since community schools seek to have an impact on populations, not just the children enrolled, they provide an opportunity to improve community health. Community schools influence the health and education of neighborhood residents though three pathways: building trust, establishing norms, and linking people to networks and services. Through such services as school-based health centers, nutrition education, family mental health counseling, violence prevention, and sexuality education, these schools build on the multiple reciprocal relationships between health and education. By developing closer ties between community schools and neighborhood health programs, public health professionals can help to mobilize a powerful new resource for reducing the health and educational inequalities that now characterize US cities. We suggest an agenda for research, practice, and policy that can build the evidence needed to guide such a strategy.

  20. Academic modernization of the School of Public Health of Mexico: 1983-1995.

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    Julio Frenk


    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the recent efforts to modernize the School of Public Health of Mexico (ESPM. In the first part we analyze the conditions in which the ESPM operated at the beginning of the 1980s. In part two we describe the changes introduced in the ESPM between 1983 and 1986, up until its incorporation into the National Institute of Public Health (INSP. In part three we discuss the conceptual renovation which built the platform for the new academic programs introduced by the School between 1987 and 1995. In the fourth part we discuss the construction of the new facilities of INSP and the process of moving to the city of Cuernavaca. The main message of this paper is that the transformations witnessed by the ESPM in the final decades of the past century turned it into a true academic institution which uses research as the motor for training of human resources in public health.Kew words: School of Public Health of Mexico; training in public healthAutor de correspondencia: Dr. Octavio Gómez-Dantés. Genovevo de la O, 103 A, col. Santa María Ahuacatitlán. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Correo electrónico:

  1. Eating disorders in South African schools: a public health crisis that ...

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    Eating disorders in South African schools: a public health crisis that needs immediate intervention. Z Mchiza. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  2. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014. (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian


    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  3. State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Diabetes, Heart Disease, Obesity and Associated Risk Factors, and Promote School Health. (United States)

    Park, Barbara Z; Cantrell, Letitia; Hunt, Holly; Farris, Rosanne P; Schumacher, Patricia; Bauer, Ursula E


    The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funds a program to boost progress in reducing the prevalence and incidence of multiple chronic diseases and their associated risk factors. This article describes the program, State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Diabetes, Heart Disease, Obesity and Associated Risk Factors, and Promote School Health, and the program's action model, design, and administration and management structure. This program is based on 4 domains of public health action: 1) epidemiology and surveillance, 2) environmental approaches, 3) health care system interventions, and 4) community programs linked to clinical services. The 4 domains of public health action leverage data to inform action, support healthy choices and behaviors, strengthen delivery of clinical preventive services, and help Americans better manage their health.

  4. School-Based Mental Health Services in Post-Disaster Contexts: A Public Health Framework (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Overstreet, Stacy; Summerville, Meredith


    Large scale natural disasters pose serious risks to mental health and simultaneously wreak havoc on the very systems called upon to ameliorate those risks. School-based mental health services have been identified as a potential mechanism through which gaps in service delivery systems can be addressed in post-disaster environments. We believe that…

  5. Integrating public health policy, practice, evaluation, surveillance, and research: the school health action planning and evaluation system. (United States)

    Cameron, Roy; Manske, Stephen; Brown, K Stephen; Jolin, Mari Alice; Murnaghan, Donna; Lovato, Chris


    The Canadian Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute of Canada have charged their Centre for Behavioral Research and Program Evaluation with contributing to the development of the country's systemic capacity to link research, policy, and practice related to population-level interventions. Local data collection and feedback systems are integral to this capacity. Canada's School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) allows data to be collected from all of a school's students, and these data are used to produce computer-generated school "health profiles." SHAPES is being used for intervention planning, evaluation, surveillance, and research across Canada. Strong demand and multipartner investment suggest that SHAPES is adding value in all of these domains. Such systems can contribute substantially to evidence-informed public health practice, public engagement, participatory action research, and relevant, timely population intervention research.

  6. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000: a cooperative health sciences library/public school information literacy program for medical assistant students. (United States)

    Spang, L; Marks, E; Adams, N


    Educating diverse groups in how to access, use, and evaluate information available through information technologies is emerging as an essential responsibility for health sciences librarians in today's complex health care system. One group requiring immediate attention is medical assistants. Projections indicate that medical assistant careers will be among the fastest growing occupations in the twenty-first century. The expanding use and importance of information in all health care settings requires that this workforce be well versed in information literacy skills. But, for public school vocational education staff charged with educating entry level workers to meet this specialized demand, the expense of hiring qualified professionals and acquiring the sophisticated technology necessary to teach such skills poses a dilemma. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000, a cooperative work-study information literacy program jointly formulated by the Wayne State University's Shiffman Medical Library and the Detroit Public Schools' Crockett Career and Technical Center, demonstrates that cooperation between the health sciences library and the public school is a mutually beneficial and constructive solution. This article describes the background, goals, curriculum, personnel, costs, and evaluation methods of Tools 2000. The Shiffman-Crockett information literacy program, adaptable to a variety of library settings, is an innovative means of preparing well-trained high school vocational education students for beginning level medical assistant positions as well as further education in the health care field. PMID:9803297

  7. Retiree health insurance for public school employees: does it affect retirement? (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D


    Despite the widespread provision of retiree health insurance for public sector workers, little attention has been paid to its effects on employee retirement. This is in contrast to the large literature on health-insurance-induced "job-lock" in the private sector. I use the introduction of retiree health insurance for public school employees in combination with administrative data on their retirement to identify the effects of retiree health insurance. As expected, the availability of retiree health insurance for older workers allows employees to retire earlier. These behavioral changes have budgetary implications, likely making the programs self-financing rather than costly to taxpayers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Public Health Genomics education in post-graduate schools of hygiene and preventive medicine: a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Ianuale, Carolina; Leoncini, Emanuele; Mazzucco, Walter; Marzuillo, Carolina; Villari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania


    The relevance of Public Health Genomics (PHG) education among public health specialists has been recently acknowledged by the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the prevalence of post-graduate public health schools for medical doctors which offer PHG training in Italy. The directors of the 33 Italian public health schools were interviewed for the presence of a PHG course in place. We stratified by geographical area (North, Centre and South) of the schools. We performed comparisons of categorical data using the chi-squared test. The response rate was 73% (24/33 schools). Among respondents, 15 schools (63%) reported to have at least one dedicated course in place, while nine (38%) did not, with a significant geographic difference. Results showed a good implementation of courses in PHG discipline in Italian post-graduate public health schools. However further harmonization of the training programs of schools in public health at EU level is needed.

  9. Mentally retarded hepatitis-B surface antigen carriers in NYC public school classes: a public health dilemma. (United States)

    Bakal, C W; Novick, L F; Marr, J S; Millner, E S; Goldman, W D; Pitkin, O


    The placement of retarded children who have been institutionalized and are asymptomatic hepatitis-B surface antigen carriers into public school classes for the retarded has caused controversy and presented the New York City Health Department with an unusual medical-ethical dilemma. In this situation, the cost of interfering with deinstitutionalization, an important social advance, must be balanced against the benefit of controlling the unquantified but real risk of transmitting a potentially serious disease. The Health Department guidelines for managing this problem recommended serological surveillance, promotion of classroom hygiene where possible, and teaching of carriers in classes separate from their susceptible peers. A federal court disallowed the cohorting provisions of these guidelines. Changing policies and practices towards the mentally retarded, such as deinstitutionalization, raise important public health issues which will have to be faced by the involved communities.

  10. Achieving Public Schools (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight


    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  11. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.


    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  12. School of Public Health of Mexico: Educational and technological innovation in the new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magaña-Valladares


    Full Text Available This article was conceived to analyze the work of the School of Public Health of Mexico (ESPM for is acronym in Spanish from the year 2000 to the present day. One of the highlights that we will examine is the reorientation of the educational work of the school in order to meet the challenges in health and education that emerged during the end of the twentieth century. In order to explain the evolution of this process, we will describe the three main guiding principles that characterize the present work of the school: the pedagogical model´s change, the incorporation of the information and communication technologies, and the professionalization in teaching. The purpose of this work is to define those guiding principles, and to expose, through the contrast between past and present, the complete history of uninterrupted work of the School of Public Health of Mexico during its ninety-two years of existence, that has gone beyond the boundaries of the country.

  13. Using Registered Dental Hygienists to Promote a School-Based Approach to Dental Public Health. (United States)

    Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Wellever, Anthony; Kelly, Patricia


    We examine a strategy for improving oral health in the United States by focusing on low-income children in school-based settings. Vulnerable children often experience cultural, social, economic, structural, and geographic barriers when trying to access dental services in traditional dental office settings. These disparities have been discussed for more than a decade in multiple US Department of Health and Human Services publications. One solution is to revise dental practice acts to allow registered dental hygienists increased scope of services, expanded public health delivery opportunities, and decreased dentist supervision. We provide examples of how federally qualified health centers have implemented successful school-based dental models within the parameters of two state policies that allow registered dental hygienists varying levels of dentist supervision. Changes to dental practice acts at the state level allowing registered dental hygienists to practice with limited supervision in community settings, such as schools, may provide vulnerable populations greater access to screening and preventive services. We derive our recommendations from expert opinion.

  14. At the crossroads: new paradigms of food security, public health nutrition and school food. (United States)

    Ashe, Leah M; Sonnino, Roberta


    Public health nutrition sits at the nexus of a global crisis in food, environmental and health systems that has generated - along with numerous other problems - an urgent and changing problem of food insecurity. The 'new' food insecurity, however, is different from the old: it is bimodal, encompassing issues of both under- and over-consumption, hunger and obesity, quantity and quality; it has assumed a decidedly urban dimension; and it implicates rich and poor countries alike. The complexity of the expressions of this challenge requires new approaches to public health nutrition and food policy that privilege systemic, structural and environmental factors over individual and mechanistic ones. In this context, the current paper argues that school food systems rise with buoyant potential as promising intervention sites: they are poised to address both modes of the food security crisis; integrate systemic, structural and environmental with behavioural approaches; and comprise far-reaching, system-wide efforts that influence the wider functioning of the food system. Based on a discussion of Bogotá and other pioneering policies that explicitly aim to create a broader food system with long-term foundations for good public health and food security, the paper suggests a new research and action agenda that gives special attention to school food in urban contexts.

  15. Using Concept Mapping in the Development of a School of Public Health. (United States)

    Hsu, Laura J; Pacheco, Misty Y; Crabtree, Christopher; Maddock, Jay E


    Schools of Public Health have a wide variety of essential stakeholders. Broad input in program planning should assist in ensuring well-developed plans and strong community buy-in. The planning of a school can better address the needs of multiple stakeholders from systematic broad-based input from these constituents using concept mapping. In this study, we used concept mapping to prioritize a set of recommendations from diverse stakeholders to assist in the process of planning a school. A set of statements was generated on essential elements for the proposed school from a broad group of stakeholders. The statements were then distilled into unique themes, which were then rated on importance and feasibility. Cluster maps and pattern matches were used to analyze the ratings. Unique themes (N = 147) were identified and grouped into 12 clusters. Cluster themes included leadership, faculty, culture, school, and curriculum. Pattern matches revealed a significant, modest correlation between importance and feasibility (r = 0.27). A broad range of perspectives was used to identify relevant areas to address in the development of a school.

  16. Schools of public health in low and middle-income countries: an imperative investment for improving the health of populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Rabbani


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health has multicultural origins. By the close of the nineteenth century, Schools of Public Health (SPHs began to emerge in western countries in response to major contemporary public health challenges. The Flexner Report (1910 emphasized the centrality of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health measures in health professional education. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care (PHC in 1978 was a critical milestone, especially for low and middle-income countries (LMICs, conceptualizing a close working relationship between PHC and public health measures. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2005–2008 strengthened the case for SPHs in LMICs as key stakeholders in efforts to reduce global health inequities. This scoping review groups text into public health challenges faced by LMICs and the role of SPHs in addressing these challenges. Main text The challenges faced by LMICs include rapid urbanization, environmental degradation, unfair terms of global trade, limited capacity for equitable growth, mass displacements associated with conflicts and natural disasters, and universal health coverage. Poor governance and externally imposed donor policies and agendas, further strain the fragile health systems of LMICs faced with epidemiological transition. Moreover barriers to education and research imposed by limited resources, political and economic instability, and unbalanced partnerships additionally aggravate the crisis. To address these contextual challenges effectively, SPHs are offering broad based health professional education, conducting multidisciplinary population based research and fostering collaborative partnerships. SPHs are also looked upon as the key drivers to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs. Conclusion SPHs in LMICs can contribute to overcoming several public health challenges being faced by LMICs, including achieving SDGs. Most importantly they can develop cadres of

  17. School-based primary NCD risk reduction: education and public health perspectives. (United States)

    Bay, Jacquie L; Hipkins, Rosemary; Siddiqi, Kamran; Huque, Rumana; Dixon, Robyn; Shirley, Debra; Tairea, Karen; Yaqona, Delaney; Mason-Jones, Amanda; Vickers, Mark H


    The rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has heightened awareness of the necessity for primary risk prevention programmes. These aim to facilitate long-term behaviour changes in children and adolescents that can reduce NCD risk factors and disease onset in later-life. School-based programmes designed to improve childhood and adolescent health behaviours and wellbeing contribute to this; however, design and impact assessment of these is complex. These programmes should be multidisciplinary, utilizing both educational and health expertise. Health outcomes may not be evident in the short term, but may occur with learning-related behaviour modifications, highly effective when sustained over a lifetime. Thus assessment must analyse short-term learning and behaviour impacts as well as long-term capability, behaviour and health outcomes.The focus of assessment measures in the health and education sectors differs and often lacks depth in one or other area. Educators generally focus on identifying evidence of learning related to capability, attitude and/or behaviour changes, while public health practitioners typically focus on health measures (e.g. body mass index (BMI), mental health, or risk behaviours).We argue that multidisciplinary approaches incorporating education and health viewpoints clarify issues relating to the potential value of schools as a setting to facilitate primary NCD risk reduction. To demonstrate this, we need to: 1) build stronger understandings of the features of effective learning for behavioural change and the best way to evaluate these, and 2) convincingly correlate these measures with long-term metabolic health indicators by tracking learner behaviour and health over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  19. Achieving healthy school siting and planning policies: understanding shared concerns of environmental planners, public health professionals, and educators. (United States)

    Cohen, Alison


    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment-both, school siting and school facility planning policies-are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work toward a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work.

  20. The Mobile Reference Service: a case study of an onsite reference service program at the school of public health* (United States)

    Tao, Donghua; McCarthy, Patrick G.; Krieger, Mary M.; Webb, Annie B.


    The School of Public Health at Saint Louis University is located at a greater distance from the library than other programs on the main medical center campus. Physical distance diminishes the ease of access to direct reference services for public health users. To bridge the gap, the library developed the Mobile Reference Service to deliver onsite information assistance with regular office hours each week. Between September 2006 and April 2007, a total of 57 in-depth reference transactions took place over 25 weeks, averaging 2 transactions per week in a 2-hour period. Overall reference transactions from public health users went up 28%, while liaison contacts with public health users doubled compared to the same period the year before. The Mobile Reference Service program has improved library support for research and scholarship, cultivated and strengthened liaison relationships, and enhanced marketing and delivery of library resources and services to the Saint Louis University School of Public Health. PMID:19159004

  1. The Mobile Reference Service: a case study of an onsite reference service program at the School of Public Health. (United States)

    Tao, Donghua; McCarthy, Patrick G; Krieger, Mary M; Webb, Annie B


    The School of Public Health at Saint Louis University is located at a greater distance from the library than other programs on the main medical center campus. Physical distance diminishes the ease of access to direct reference services for public health users. To bridge the gap, the library developed the Mobile Reference Service to deliver on-site information assistance with regular office hours each week. Between September 2006 and April 2007, a total of 57 in-depth reference transactions took place over 25 weeks, averaging 2 transactions per week in a 2-hour period. Overall reference transactions from public health users went up 28%, while liaison contacts with public health users doubled compared to the same period the year before. The Mobile Reference Service program has improved library support for research and scholarship, cultivated and strengthened liaison relationships, and enhanced marketing and delivery of library resources and services to the Saint Louis University School of Public Health.

  2. Teaching public health in UK medical schools: 'things have improved: teaching no longer feels like an expensive hobby'. (United States)

    Lyon, Anna K; Hothersall, Eleanor J; Gillam, Steve


    Recent policy initiatives in the UK have underlined the importance of public health education for healthcare professionals. We aimed to describe teaching inputs to medical undergraduate curricula, to identify perceived challenges in the delivery of public health teaching and make recommendations that may overcome them. We undertook a cross-sectional survey; questionnaires were sent electronically to 32 teaching leads in academic departments of public health in UK medical schools and followed up by telephone interviews. We obtained a 75% response rate; 13 public health teaching leads were interviewed. We found much variability between schools in teaching methods, curricular content and resources used. Concerns regarding the long-term sustainability of teaching focus on: staffing levels and availability, funding and the prioritization of research over teaching. We give examples of integration of public health with clinical teaching, innovative projects in public health and ways of enabling students to witness public health in action. There is a need to increase the supply of well-trained and motivated teachers and combine the best traditional teaching methods with more innovative approaches. Suggestions are made as to how undergraduate public health teaching can be strengthened. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Smoking control at the School of Public Health, Universidade de São Paulo. (United States)

    Mirra, Antonio Pedro; Pereira, Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo; Stewien, Glacilda Telles de Menezes; Marcondes, Ruth Sandoval


    schools of Public Health, by their nature, have increased responsibility in the development of health promotion programs, focusing on tobacco control. The participation of groups of health professionals in educational actions helps to convey information about smoking to the population. to evaluate the prevalence of smoking and the effectiveness of control programs among the teaching and non-teaching staff of the School of Public Health of the Universidade de São Paulo (FSP-USP). They were monitored by surveys conducted from 1980 to 2013. application of a questionnaire, containing the variables: identity, gender, smoking habit (are you a smoker, former smoker or non-smoker), which was answered in a private interview. Data analysis was done using absolute and relative frequencies. the prevalence of smokers had a reduction from 50.3%, in 1980, to 13.4%, in 2013; among males, prevalence fell from 56.9% to 12.8%, and among females from 45.9% to 13.7%. As for the teaching staff, there was a fall from 10.2% (2006) to 5.9% (2013); the decrease among non-teaching employees was from 21.6% to 16.3%. knowledge by health professionals of the harms caused by tobacco smoking contributed to their participation in anti-smoking programs, and led to a decline in the number of smokers at FSP-USP. The creation of 100% tobacco-free environments and programs to treat smokers who want to cease their addiction should be encouraged.

  4. [Environmental spread of Taenia proglottids: an atypical yet interesting public health problem in schools]. (United States)

    Dutto, M; Sapino, G; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A


    We report herein a new case of teniasis caused by Taenia saginata (tapeworm) in a pediatric patient with done-on-purpose dispersion of proglottids happened in an elementary school inside the health district ASL CN-1. This new case highlights how teniasis in children is not as rare, as it is not so rare dispersal of proglottids in the environment, made on purpose, by the same subjects that have been parasitized. The environmental dispersion of proglottids is an important public health problem that requires a rapid and joint management of the problem aiming to identify the parasite as quickly as possible, given the different pathogenic larval stage of three species of tapeworm that can infest the man.

  5. Need to reform education in graduate schools of public health in Japan: Toward outcome-based education to cultivate competencies. (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Yano, Eiji


    Japan, known for its good healthcare access via universal health insurance, leads the world in terms of life expectancy, and possesses a public health system that has improved health standards markedly in the 20th century. However, we currently face major challenges to maintain and promote people's health. Although these complicated problems pose numerous threats to public welfare, education of public health for health professionals still retains 20th-century standards. This also means that graduate education of public health in Japan is traditionally based on obtaining licensure as a medical professional, conducting research and writing papers, and on-the-job training. Since graduate school education is expected to produce competent public health leaders, Japan requires a reform toward a new education design that caters to the current societal needs. The current global trend in the education of health professionals leans toward outcome-based education to meet core competencies. Here, "competency" refers to a set of features or particular behavioral patterns possessed by highly qualified persons. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a general health professional competency standard that includes both management and leadership competencies. Moreover, the Lancet Commission concluded that there was a need for transformative education based on a "health system approach." In brief, this means that our education should correspond to the needs of the health system to allow for the resolution of problems by educated professionals with satisfactory levels of competencies. In addition, as "change agents," these competent professionals are expected to promote societal change toward the realization of better public health. In Japan, the Central Education Council has produced several reports on professional graduate school reform since 2000. These reports indicate that graduate school curricula require reform to allow the health professionals to work

  6. Health Insurance for Public School Teachers in Wisconsin: A Good Value for Taxpayers or a Case of Market Abuse? (United States)

    Browne, Mark; Leetch, Linda


    A study examined one state's suggestion for more cost-effective health insurance for teachers. Health insurance coverage for public school teachers in Wisconsin is determined through a collective-bargaining process. The Wisconsin Education Association (WEA) Insurance Corporation is affiliated with the states largest teachers' union and provides…

  7. State Policy Snapshot: School District Facilities and Public Charter Schools (United States)

    Simnick, Russ


    One of the greatest challenges to the health of the public charter school movement is access to adequate facilities in which the schools operate. Public charter school facilities are rarely funded on par with school district facilities. Over the years, more states have come to realize that they have an obligation to ensure that all public school…

  8. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: knowledge translation and effective communication. (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Jessani, Nasreen; Mafuta, Eric M


    Local health systems research (HSR) provides policymakers and practitioners with contextual, evidence-based solutions to health problems. However, producers and users of HSR rarely understand the complexities of the context within which each operates, leading to the "know-do" gap. Universities are well placed to conduct knowledge translation (KT) integrating research production with uptake. The HEALTH Alliance Africa Hub, a consortium of seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa, was formed to build capacity in HSR. This paper presents information on the capacity of the various SPHs to conduct KT activities. In 2011, each member of the Africa Hub undertook an institutional HSR capacity assessment using a context-adapted and modified self-assessment tool. KT capacity was measured by several indicators including the presence of a KT strategy, an organizational structure to support KT activities, KT skills, and institutional links with stakeholders and media. Respondents rated their opinions on the various indicators using a 5-point Likert scale. Averages across all respondents for each school were calculated. Thereafter, each school held a results validation workshop. A total of 123 respondents from all seven SPHs participated. Only one school had a clear KT strategy; more commonly, research was disseminated at scientific conferences and workshops. While most respondents perceived their SPH as having strong institutional ties with organizations interested in HSR as well as strong institutional leadership, the organizational structures required to support KT activities were absent. Furthermore, individual researchers indicated that they had little time or skills to conduct KT. Additionally, institutional and individual links with policymakers and media were reported as weak. Few SPHs in Africa have a clear KT strategy. Strengthening the weak KT capacity of the SPHs requires working with institutional leadership to develop KT strategies designed

  9. Toward a Healthy High Schools Movement: Strategies for Mobilizing Public Health for Educational Reform (United States)

    Ruglis, Jessica


    Although research shows that education and health are closely intertwined, health professionals have difficulty using this evidence to improve health and educational outcomes and reduce inequities. We call for a social movement for healthy high schools in the United States that would improve school achievement and graduation rates; create school environments that promote lifelong individual, family, and community health and prevent chronic illness, violence, and problems of sexual health; and engage youths in creating health-promoting environments. Achieving these goals will require strengthening and better linking often uncoordinated efforts to improve child health and education. Only a broad social movement has the power and vision to mobilize the forces that can transform educational and health systems to better achieve health and educational equity. PMID:20634448

  10. Toward a healthy high schools movement: strategies for mobilizing public health for educational reform. (United States)

    Ruglis, Jessica; Freudenberg, Nicholas


    Although research shows that education and health are closely intertwined, health professionals have difficulty using this evidence to improve health and educational outcomes and reduce inequities. We call for a social movement for healthy high schools in the United States that would improve school achievement and graduation rates; create school environments that promote lifelong individual, family, and community health and prevent chronic illness, violence, and problems of sexual health; and engage youths in creating health-promoting environments. Achieving these goals will require strengthening and better linking often uncoordinated efforts to improve child health and education. Only a broad social movement has the power and vision to mobilize the forces that can transform educational and health systems to better achieve health and educational equity.

  11. An Evaluation on Iran International Public Health Summer School in Relation to its Efficacy Based on Participants' Experience and Opinions. (United States)

    Parnia, Aidin; Yamani, Nikoo; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Badihian, Shervin; Manouchehri, Navid; Fakhri, Maryam


    A serious challenge to educate health staff for public health is to appear encouraging enough to persuade them for learning issues on this field and implementing new educational methods and innovative ways. Iran International Public Health Summer School (IPHS) made an effort to provide medical sciences students with a fortune to get familiar with and involved in public health. This study intended to evaluate the efficacy of this event. This cross-sectional study was performed in March-April 2015 by the help of an electronic self-administered questionnaire filled out by 49 Iranian participants 6 months after IPHS2014. The questionnaire assessed the main goals in seven main domains: Interest, activities, and general knowledge in the field of public health, general skills, educational methods, educational and executive schedules, and general satisfaction. Average scores of all domains were >3 (the mean), and all were statistically significant. The highest average score belonged to educational methods (3.92) and the lowest was calculated for the item regarding participants' activities on public health (3.5). No significant difference was found between positive answers of individuals who were interested or active in public health prior to the event and those who had no background. We believe IPHS was a unique instance in Public Health Education in Iran. Considering the level of success of this program to reach its goals for both students' with or without any previous background on public health, it is recommended as a general model to be simulated in other developing countries.

  12. SCHIP Directors' Perception of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance (United States)

    Price, James H.; Rickard, Megan


    Background: Health insurance coverage increases access to health care. There has been an erosion of employer-based health insurance and a concomitant rise in children covered by public health insurance programs, yet more than 8 million children are still without health insurance coverage. Methods: This study was a national survey to assess the…

  13. Main competences and skills to perform Essential Public Health Operations, offered by Schools of Public Health in four European countries: a short pilot report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Otok, Robert


    ASPHER’s lists of generic core competences for public health professionals constitute a comprehensively developing information bank, the result of academic reporting and analysis with empirical backup. In the Repository of ASPHER’s European Public Health Reference Framework (EPHRF), competences...... are assigned to action, thus forming a logical structure with potential to form the basis of public health human resources planning and individual public health education, training and career planning. More specific competences lists are needed for health professionals performing public health functions...... in the field, as are lists specific for selected health phenomena and lists focusing on living conditions, population health and health systems....

  14. Faculty performance evaluation in accredited U.S. public health graduate schools and programs: a national study. (United States)

    Gimbel, Ronald W; Cruess, David F; Schor, Kenneth; Hooper, Tomoko I; Barbour, Galen L


    To provide baseline data on evaluation of faculty performance in U.S. schools and programs of public health. The authors administered an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire using PHP Surveyor. The invited sample consisted of individuals listed in the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) Directory of Accredited Schools and Programs of Public Health. The authors explored performance measures in teaching, research, and service, and assessed how faculty performance measures are used. A total of 64 individuals (60.4%) responded to the survey, with 26 (40.6%) reporting accreditation/reaccreditation by CEPH within the preceding 24 months. Although all schools and programs employ faculty performance evaluations, a significant difference exists between schools and programs in the use of results for merit pay increases and mentoring purposes. Thirty-one (48.4%) of the organizations published minimum performance expectations. Fifty-nine (92.2%) of the respondents counted number of publications, but only 22 (34.4%) formally evaluated their quality. Sixty-two (96.9%) evaluated teaching through student course evaluations, and only 29 (45.3%) engaged in peer assessment. Although aggregate results of teaching evaluation are available to faculty and administrators, this information is often unavailable to students and the public. Most schools and programs documented faculty service activities qualitatively but neither assessed it quantitatively nor evaluated its impact. This study provides insight into how schools and programs of public health evaluate faculty performance. Results suggest that although schools and programs do evaluate faculty performance on a basic level, many do not devote substantial attention to this process.

  15. Thrive Public Schools (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015


    Thrive Public Schools, a K-8 charter school in San Diego, expands the concept of school beyond core academics to encompass social-emotional intelligence and "real world" understanding. The blended learning model at Thrive integrates technology throughout a curriculum built upon project-based learning, targeted instruction, and tinkering.…

  16. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen


    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...... a common curriculum in PHN and common online courses (MOOC).  Academic institutions from each of the Nordic countries are represented in the network. The network is open for all Nordic academic institutions offering public health nutrition education or courses....

  17. Historically black medical schools: addressing the minority health professional pipeline and the public mission of care for vulnerable populations. (United States)

    Norris, Keith C; Baker, Richard S; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J; Riley, Wayne J; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y; Gibbons, Gary


    Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need.

  18. Assessing the connection between health and education: identifying potential leverage points for public health to improve school attendance. (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Coller, Karen; Guerrero, Lourdes R; Wong, Mitchell D


    We examined multiple variables influencing school truancy to identify potential leverage points to improve school attendance. A cross-sectional observational design was used to analyze inner-city data collected in Los Angeles County, California, during 2010 to 2011. We constructed an ordinal logistic regression model with cluster robust standard errors to examine the association between truancy and various covariates. The sample was predominantly Hispanic (84.3%). Multivariable analysis revealed greater truancy among students (1) with mild (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.01) and severe (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.13) depression (referent: no depression), (2) whose parents were neglectful (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.21, 4.03) or indulgent (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.82; referent: authoritative parents), (3) who perceived less support from classes, teachers, and other students regarding college preparation (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.95), (4) who had low grade point averages (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.49, 4.38), and (5) who reported using alcohol (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.34, 5.14) or marijuana (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.38) during the past month. Study findings suggest depression, substance use, and parental engagement as potential leverage points for public health to intervene to improve school attendance.

  19. Participatory Action Research in Public Mental Health and a School of Nursing: Qualitative Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership


    Mahone, Irma H.; Farrell, Sarah P.; Hinton, Ivora; Johnson, Robert; Moody, David; Rifkin, Karen; Moore, Kenneth; Becker, Marcia; Barker, Margaret


    An academic-community partnership between a school of nursing (SON) at a public university (the University of Virginia, or UVA) and a public mental health clinic developed around a shared goal of finding an acceptable shared decision making (SDM) intervention targeting medication use by persons with serious mental illness. The planning meetings of the academic-community partnership were recorded and analyzed. Issues under the partnership process included 1) clinic values and priorities, 2) re...

  20. Evaluation of the school environment of public and private schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the school environment of public and private schools in Enugu to ensure child health promotion. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between ...

  1. The Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations in Development of Schools of Public Health: An Example from Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Overall


    Full Text Available The international non-governmental community has played a major role in developing schools of public health and continues to do so. Nearly a century ago, seminal investments of the Rockefeller Foundation played a pivotal role in developing schools of public health in North America and several abroad. Today, involvement of non-governmental organizations in continuing development of schools of public health is needed, as many countries throughout the world continue to battle the burden of disease with insufficient numbers and quality of trained public health workers. In this paper we discuss in particular the roles of the Open Society Institute working together with the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region to foster the development of schools of public health in formerly socialist countries. We describe the development process in three example countries (Ukraine, Lithuania, and Macedonia, along with the difficulties they have faced. Government support and accreditation processes are needed to sustain the efforts to launch new schools of public health and to ensure their quality. The lessons learned in these initiatives are relevant to future development of public health education to provide the workforce required to address needs of professional public health in the 21st century.

  2. CDC Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12) Responses to Influenza during the 2009-2010 School Year (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009


    This document provides guidance to help decrease the spread of flu among students and school staff during the 2009-2010 school year. This document expands upon earlier school guidance documents by providing a menu of tools that school and health officials can choose from based on conditions in their area. It recommends actions to take this school…

  3. NHV and child public health. (United States)

    Köhler, Lennart


    One of the main interests of the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in both education and research was child public health, i.e. an area based on the broad World Health Organisation (WHO) health ideology and on public health methods, while concentrating on the special needs and characteristics of children. The fields of study and action, training, research and service, had the ultimate task to consider the health of children in their full social, economic and political context. Regular courses on child public health were offered as part of the general program in Public Health from 1979 until the closing down of the school, named: Social Paediatrics; Child Health; Child Public Health; and finally, Measuring Children's Health - A Public Health Perspective. Numerous national, Nordic and international conferences were held, and several textbooks were written and edited. A major research project, NordChild, was initiated as a cross-sectional postal study of a random sample of children aged 2-17 years from the five Nordic countries, performed in 1984, 1996 and 2011. So far, 10 doctoral theses and more than 130 other publications from the studies have been produced. Furthermore, the Nordic Network on Research of Refugee Children was created, and a special interest has been devoted to indicators for children's health, both internationally, nationally and locally, which has been demonstrated in major EU projects as well as locally in Sweden and Greenland. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Sustainability and public health nutrition at school: assessing the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in Vancouver schools. (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro


    To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.

  5. Evaluation of the School Environment of Public and Private Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 23, 2018 ... materials. Nuisance/health hazard. There was an industrial population (mechanic and welding workshop) adjacent to a private school. Six schools (two private and four public) had animals within the compound, six public schools usually meet feces in the classrooms. There were neither open drainages nor.

  6. A Gateway to Health Careers for Urban High School Students: Collaborative Front-Line and Allied Workforce Development Program among High Schools, Public Hospitals and Public Colleges. Program Results Report (United States)

    Jablow, Paul


    From 2005 to 2011, the Gateway Institute for Pre-College Education partnered with three public entities in New York City--the Department of Education, the City University of New York and the Health and Hospitals Corporation--to introduce, educate, and prepare urban high school students for careers in the health professions. Gateway was launched in…

  7. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse...

  8. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse...

  9. How Effective Are Public Health Education Programs, Unfettered Farm Markets and Single Sex Schools? (United States)

    Fox, Jonathan Franklin


    My dissertation examines the effectiveness of three policy choices in meeting socio-economic goals. The first analyzes the impact of public health education and poverty relief on child mortality in the early twentieth century, when infant and child mortality rates in the United States were startlingly high. During the 1920s, the rates dropped…

  10. A study of psychosocial challenges of public secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The Public health Nurses and School health nurses should work with school administrators to enhance mental health of school children with a view to ensuring conducive learning environment that will promote academic performances. Keywords: Psychosocial, Challenges, Mental health, Public schools, Ore ...

  11. Applying Kotter's Model of Change to Sustaining Community-Engaged Scholarship within a School of Public Health and its Parent University (United States)

    Belliard, Juan Carlos; Dyjack, David T.


    This paper reflects on strategies employed by a private, faith-based school of public health to integrate community-engaged scholarship into its institutional fabric. The school, a member of the Community-Engaged Scholarship for health Collaborative, followed Kotter's eight steps to leading organizational changed at favoring intentional community…

  12. Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory. (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha


    Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. A description and comparison of these methods. Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Promoting public health workforce training for developing and transitional countries: fifty-year experience of the Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neumark, Yehuda; Manor, Orly; Berry, Elliot M


    ...) program, PhD training, and short-term training workshops in Israel and abroad--has built a network of public health scholars in low-, transition- and high-income countries who benefit from academic...

  14. E-Learning and North-South collaboration: the experience of two public health schools in France and Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemin Francis


    Full Text Available Introduction: Distance learning (e-learning can facilitate access to training. Yet few public health E-learning experiments have been reported; institutes in developing countries experience difficulties in establishing on-line curricula, while developed countries struggle with adapting existing curricula to realities on the ground. In 2005, two schools of public health, one in France and one in Benin, began collaborating through contact sessions organised for Nancy University distance-learning students. This experience gave rise to a partnership aimed at developing training materials for e-Learning for African students. The distance-learning public health course at Nancy teaches public health professionals through a module entitled "Health and Development." The module is specifically tailored for professionals from developing countries. To promote student-teacher exchanges, clarify content and supervise dissertations, contact sessions are organized in centres proximate and accessible to African students. The Benin Institute's main feature is residential team learning; distance-learning courses are currently being prepared. Outcome: The two collaborating institutions have developed a joint distance-learning module geared toward developing countries. The collaboration provides for the development, diffusion, and joint delivery of teaching modules featuring issues that are familiar to African staff, gives the French Institute credibility in assessing research work produced, and enables modules on specific African issues and approaches to be put online. Lessons learned: While E-learning is a viable educational option for public health professionals, periodic contact can be advantageous. Our analysis showed that the benefit of the collaboration between the two institutions is mutual; the French Institute extends its geographical, cultural and contextual reach and expands its pool of teaching staff. The Benin Institute benefits from the technical

  15. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses' assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children...

  16. Partnering with public schools: a resident-driven reproductive health education initiative. (United States)

    Kuo, Kelly; Zhu, Tao Y; Raidoo, Shandhini; Zhao, Lulu X; Sammarco, Anne; Ashby, Karen


    To assess the impact of a resident-driven sexual health educational initiative in an inner-city Cleveland middle school. 10 resident physicians and 57 students in 7(th) and 8(th) grade participated in this prospective cohort study. Residents taught 3 sessions on the topics of basic anatomy and physiology, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STI), contraception, and safe relationships. Outcome measures included the percentages of students able to name at least 3 different STIs and contraceptive methods; to name potential complications of STIs; and to correctly identify condoms and abstinence as the only contraceptive methods also protective against STI transmission. Significant improvements were noted in students' baseline knowledge of human anatomy, contraception, and safe sex practices after completion of the curriculum. The percentage of students able to name at least 3 forms of birth control increased from 1.7% to 70.7% (P schools. The socioeconomic burden of teen pregnancy justifies comprehensive efforts to improve reproductive health education. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Training Public Health Advisors. (United States)

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L


    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  18. [Perceived health and academic performance among adolescents from public schools in the city of Córdoba]. (United States)

    Vitale, Romina; Degoy, Emilse; Berra, Silvina


    During adolescence, school performance may be related to health, and academic achievements at this age can have an impact on the future. Our objective was to assess the relationship between academic performance and perceived health among adolescents, considering sociodemographic characteristics of their families. Cross-sectional pilot study conducted in a sample of adolescents attending common basic courses of three public secondary schools in the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Academic performance was calculated as the average grade in all subjects; performance was considered satisfactory if equal to or higher than 6. Perceived health was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire, which scores ten dimensions. In addition, age, sex, maternal education level, socioeconomic level and household composition were also recorded. Univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were conducted. Five hundred fifty-four adolescents participated, 52% of them were girls. Unsatisfactory academic performance (27.6%) was more common among adolescents who evidenced a worse relationship with parents (OR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.22-5.85) and a better relationship with peers (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.82). Stratification by socioeconomic level showed differences: among those with a high socioeconomic level, an unsatisfactory performance was more common among adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low autonomy, while it was more common among those who perceived a worse school environment in the middle-low socioeconomic level. Academic performance was associated with psychosocial dimensions of health, such as relationship with family members, peers, autonomy and school environment.

  19. Evaluation of student outcomes in online vs. campus biostatistics education in a graduate school of public health. (United States)

    McGready, John; Brookmeyer, Ron


    To compare student outcomes between concurrent online and on-campus sections of an introductory biostatistics course offered at a United States school of public health in 2005. Enrolled students (95 online, 92 on-campus) were invited to participate in a confidential online survey. The course outcomes were compared between the two sections adjusting for differences in student characteristics. Seventy-two online (76%) and 66 (72%) on-campus enrollees participated. Unadjusted final exam scores for the online and on-campus sections were respectively 85.1 and 86.3 (p=0.50) in term 1, and 87.8 and 86.8 (p=0.51) in term 2. After adjustment for student characteristics, the average difference in scores between the two sections was -1.5 (95% CI: -5.4, 2.5) in term 1, and 0.8 (95% CI: -2.7, 4.3) in term 2. The results demonstrate that online and on-campus course formats of an introductory biostatistics course in a graduate school of public health can achieve similar student outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Violence in public schools and health promotion: reports and dialogues with students and teachers - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Ovídia José de Souza


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze perceptions about the interaction between health and environment, from the reports and conversations with teenagers and teachers from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on violence and health promotion. Methods: Descriptive and qualitative study, conducted from February to June 2009, involving 153 students of two public schools in Rio de Janeiro and 17 teachers. Data collection among students was carried out by means of participant observation with notes in a field diary, a semi-structured questionnaire and focus groups. Among teachers, participant observation with notes in a field diary and study group were adopted. A thematic analysis was performed, seeking to establish units of meaning. Results: The reports of the students presented discussions on three forms of violence: urban, school and sexual violence within the family. About urban violence, the students highlighted the issue of lack of public safety, especially in their entertainment area. School violence has been characterized as: a violence in school (physical and psychological violence among students, bullying and against school property; b violence of the school (through derogatory comments of teachers on students; c violence against the school (devaluation of the teacher and the outcomes of school violence on teacher’s health. Students also commented on sexual violence within the family, the teenager as a victim or the perpetrator towards a family member. Conclusions: Violence coping strategies should be established as a health promotion measure for students, teachers and families.

  1. Public health ethics related training for public health workforce: an emerging need in the United States. (United States)

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A


    Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  2. Discover: What Is Public Health? (United States)

    ... Membership Contact About Membership Contact Discover What is Public Health? Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, communities, and populations, locally and globally. Public health is personal. Public health professionals focus on preventing ...

  3. [Oral health in 12 year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil]. (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimaraes Bahia; Gonçalves, Michele Martins; Balbo, Patrícia Lima; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues


    To compare 12-year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in terms of the prevalence of caries, periodontal conditions, dentofacial anomalies, and fluorosis. In 2003, the 2002-2003 Oral Health Conditions in the Brazilian Population project (SB Brasil) was expanded to Goiânia as a cross-sectional study, as described in the present article. The sample included 1 947 students from urban schools: 1 790 (91.9%) attended public schools and 157 (8.1%) attended private schools. Data on the following oral conditions were collected through clinical examination: dental caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth index, DMFT), periodontal condition (Community Periodontal Index, CPI), dentofacial anomaly (Dental Aesthetics Index, DAI), and dental fluorosis (Dean index). The groups were compared using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were differences between the public and private schools for all the variables. DMFT, CPI, and DAI indexes were higher in children from public schools (P schools (P school was associated with the oral health condition of the children in this sample. Investments in actions and services to mitigate this inequality and its effects should be made as part of the policies to promote oral health.

  4. Transportation and public health. (United States)

    Litman, Todd


    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  5. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.


    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  6. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.


    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  7. Verkeersveiligheidseffecten Nota Wonen : deelrapportage van “Mensen, Wensen, Gezond Wonen”. In opdracht van Netherlands School of Public Health, Ondersteuningsfunctie Facetbeleid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.


    The in 2001 published Housing Memoradum from the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment was tested for possible health effects by the Netherlands School of Public Health. The present report about the road safety effects of the Housing Memorandum is one of the section studies of

  8. The ethical basis for promoting nutritional health in public schools in the United States. (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia B; Gosliner, Wendi; Kayman, Harvey


    Schools may have an ethical obligation to act in response to the precipitous increase in the incidence of obesity among children. Using a bioethics framework, we present a rationale for school programs to improve the nutritional quality of students' diets. Because children are required to spend half their waking hours in school and because they consume a substantial portion of their daily food there, school is a logical focus for efforts to encourage healthy dietary behaviors to prevent obesity and its consequent individual and collective costs. We suggest that beyond strategic considerations, the concept of the common good justifies actions that may appear to conflict with freedom of choice of children, parents, and school staff, or with the interests of food and beverage companies.

  9. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools. (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  10. Relationship between number of sexual intercourse partners and selected health risk behaviors among public high school adolescents. (United States)

    Valois, R F; Oeltmann, J E; Waller, J; Hussey, J R


    To examine the relationship between number of sexual partners and selected health risk behaviors in a statewide sample of public high school students. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to secure usable sexual risk-taking, substance use, and violence/aggression data from 3805 respondents. Because simple polychotomous logistic regression analysis revealed a significant Race x Gender interaction, subsequent multivariate models were constructed separately for each race-gender group. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals was calculated from polychotomous logistic regression models for number of sexual intercourse partners and their potential risk behavior correlates. An increased number of sexual intercourse partners were correlated with a cluster of risk behaviors that place adolescents at risk for unintended pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and other sexually transmitted infections. For Black females, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and dating violence behaviors were the strongest predictors of an increased number of sexual partners; white females had similar predictors with the addition of physical fighting. For white males, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, physical fighting, carrying weapons, and dating violence were the strongest predictors of an increased number of sexual intercourse partners. Black males had similar predictors with the addition of binge alcohol use. Prevention of adolescent sexual and other health risk behaviors calls for creative approaches in school and community settings and will require long-term intervention strategies focused on adolescent behavior changes and environmental modifications.

  11. American Public Health Association (United States)

    ... individual mandate and eliminate billions in public health spending. This would be a disaster … Each year in ... Awareness Program (ADAP) increased #depression literacy among participants, & students approache… Poor sleep among blacks linked to health ...

  12. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch


    "Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...

  13. The Microbiological@mind project: a public engagement initiative of Turin University bringing microbiology and health education into primary schools. (United States)

    Scalas, Daniela; Roana, Janira; Mandras, Narcisa; Cuccu, Sonia; Banche, Giuliana; Marra, Elisa Simona; Collino, Nicoletta; Piersigilli, Giorgia; Allizond, Valeria; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria


    Despite ongoing global efforts, antimicrobial resistance continues to threaten the treatment of an ever-increasing range of bacterial infections. There is substantial evidence that public education programs that foster microbial literacy amongst young school audiences may improve correct knowledge of specific health issues, such as prevention of microbial infections and responsible use of antibiotics. The aim of the Microbiological@mind project was to engage primary school students with the subject of microbiology, to promote both scientific interest and awareness towards correct behaviors that may ensure a safer lifestyle. Interactive workshops based on a full ''hands-on'' approach were carried out by an expert team from the University of Turin to over 1200 children aged 9-11 years at primary schools in Turin. A questionnaire (pre- and post-activity test) on the main topic (i.e. antibiotics) was used to assess project effectiveness. The workshops provided a useful means to strengthen the understanding of basic microbiology concepts amongst students. Students' baseline knowledge of antibiotics was quite low, as low percentages of correct answers on antibiotic action and use (5.0% and 12.1%, respectively) were found in the pre-activity tests. A significant increase (P <0.0001) in correct knowledge was observed in the post-activity tests, after implementation of the teaching activity. Our findings support the idea that microbial literacy in early childhood through hands-on educational programs is of great importance to foster children's interest in science learning, and to provide young people with information about general and specific health-related issues, such as prudent antibiotic use, for a more responsible citizenship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of students’ perspectives about master of public health program in medical school of Shiraz University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Integration of public health and medical education has been thought to have an important role in medical students’ training. Shiraz University of Medical Sciences has developed an MD/MPH dual degree educational program for the talented volunteer students. The aim of this study was to assess the students’ viewpoints about various aspects of Shiraz MD/MPH program. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on Shiraz undergraduate medical students, who were enrolled in MD/MPH program. A self-structured questionnaire in Persian consisting of 4 parts was used; it included demographic factors including 16 questions which evaluated the students’ perspective of the goals, content, skill development, applicability and meeting their expectations; 7 questions evaluating the self-reported increase of knowledge; and 3 multiple choice questions to assess the students’ motivations and opinions on the impact of the program on their future career. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results: All MD/MPH students (89 with a mean age of 21.4±1.34 participated in this study. Forty one of the students (46.1% were male and 48 (53.9% female. Overall, 86.1% of them had positive views about the goals of the program; also, 83.5%, 81.2% and 81.9% of them reported a positive viewpoint about the contents, the applicability and development of specific skills, and meeting their expectations, respectively. The students’ most frequent motivation was “learning how to research systematically” (73%. The majority of the students reported this program to be moderately to highly effective in increasing their knowledge in the provided courses. Conclusion: The students had a positive view about almost all of the aspects of the MD/MPH program; this may be indicative of the program being successful in delivering the goals, increasing the students’ knowledge and skills, and meeting their expectations to date. Students’ enthusiasm for

  15. Health Problems at School (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Health Problems at School Page Content Article Body There is ... not have access to health care. Acute Health Problems Most illnesses and injuries that arise during school ...

  16. The Governmentality of Childhood Obesity: Coca-Cola, Public Health and Primary Schools (United States)

    Powell, Darren; Gard, Michael


    In this paper, we examine the emergence of what might seem an unexpected policy outcome--a large multinational corporation, frequently blamed for exacerbating childhood obesity, operating as an officially sanctioned driver of anti-obesity initiatives in primary schools across the globe. We draw on Foucault's notion of governmentality to examine…

  17. School Health (United States)

    ... alcohol and tobacco use, or bullying Encourage healthy habits like exercise and healthy eating Deal with specific health problems in students, such as asthma, obesity and infectious diseases The ...

  18. Sending Public School Students to Private Schools. (United States)

    Fox, Jonathan


    Public schools often contract with private schools to meet the needs of special-education students. When disagreement exists about placement, parents can forego the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) placement process in exchange for private education which is only partially subsidized by the government. Vouchers would provide…

  19. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  20. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students. (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R


    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  1. Public health and peace. (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli


    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  2. Physical education Teachers' and public health Nurses' perception of Norwegian high school Students' participation in physical education - a focus group study. (United States)

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Omfjord, Christina S; Rohde, Gudrun


    High quality physical education programs in high schools may facilitate adoption of sustainable healthy living among adolescents. Public health nurses often meet students who avoid taking part in physical education programs. We aimed to explore physical education teachers' and public health nurses' perceptions of high school students' attitudes towards physical education, and to explore physical education teachers' thoughts about how to facilitate and promote students' participation in class. Prior to an initiative from physical education teachers, introducing a new physical education model in two high schools in the South of Norway, we conducted focus groups with 6 physical education teachers and 8 public health nurses. After implementation of the new model, we conducted two additional focus group interviews with 10 physical education teachers. In analyses we used Systematic Text Condensation and an editing analysis style. In general, the students were experienced as engaged and appreciating physical education lessons. Those who seldom attended often strived with other subjects in school as well, had mental health problems, or were characterized as outsiders in several arenas. Some students were reported to be reluctant to expose their bodies in showers after class, and students who seldom attended physical education class frequently visited the school health services. Although the majority of students were engaged in class, several of the students lacked knowledge about physical fitness and motoric skills to be able to master daily activities. The participants related the students' competence and attitude towards participation in physical education class to previous experiences in junior high school, to the competence of physical education teachers, and to possibility for students to influence the content of physical education programs. The participants suggested that high school students' attitudes towards participation in physical education is heterogeneous

  3. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations. (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L


    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Trends in Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use among College Students: Results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys--1993-2001 (United States)

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry


    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study…

  5. Children's Health Publications (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  6. Mental Health Screening and Follow-up Care in Public High Schools (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Sheridan, Marian; McGuire, Leslie; Olfson, Mark


    Objective: Despite increased interest in screening adolescents for mental health problems and suicide risk, little is known regarding the extent to which youth are identified and connected with appropriate services. Method: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 4,509 ninth-grade students were offered screening. We reviewed the records of the 2,488…

  7. Disguised Racism in Public Schools (United States)

    Brodbelt, Samuel


    The public school serves as an example of institutional racism which allows a cycle to come into effect: the institution says you are inferior, the individual is judged to be inferior, and the individual finally becomes inferior. (Author/MB)

  8. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon


    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  9. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.


    me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  10. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M


    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...

  11. Public Schools and Money

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Guthrie; Elizabeth A Ettema


    ...; and adhering to mandated limits on class size. In place of the practices above, states and districts can adopt strategies that foster efficiency at both the school and district level, such as adopting "activity-based cost" (ABC) accounting...

  12. New York's Biracial Public Schools (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth


    In his testimony, before a May 1974 public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights, the president of the Metropolitan Applied Research Center charges that New York City is operating a segregated school system, a dual school system, of the kind that the Supreme Court "Brown" decision declared to be illegal and…

  13. Examining Public Perceptions about Lead in School Drinking Water: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Twitter Response to an Environmental Health Hazard. (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; McElwain, Cora-Ann; Sprague, Nadav


    Exposure to lead has long been a community health concern in St. Louis, Missouri. The objective of this study was to examine public response to reports of elevated lead levels in school drinking water in St. Louis, Missouri via Twitter, a microblogging platform with over 320 million active users. We used a mixed-methods design to examine Twitter user status updates, known as "tweets," from 18 August to 31 December 2016. The number of tweets each day was recorded, and Twitter users were classified into five user types (General Public, Journalist/News, Health Professional/Academic, Politician/Government Official, and Non-Governmental Organization). A total of 492 tweets were identified during the study period. The majority of discourse on Twitter occurred during the two-week period after initial media reports and was driven by members of the General Public. Thematic analysis of tweets revealed four themes: Information Sharing, Health Concerns, Sociodemographic Disparities, and Outrage. Twitter users characterized lead in school drinking water as an issue of environmental inequity. The findings of this study provide evidence that social media platforms can be utilized as valuable tools for public health researchers and practitioners to gauge public sentiment about environmental health issues, identify emerging community concerns, and inform future communication and research strategies regarding environmental health hazards.

  14. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178 (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel


    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  15. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer


    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  16. Yoga in Public Schools (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann


    Classroom management has always been a challenge for most teachers. But what if student concentration could be augmented with several calming breaths and a chance to stretch desk-cramped young bodies? That is the question a growing number of schools are exploring by introducing yoga classes and practices into their buildings. And a limited--but…

  17. School Health and Nutrition Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Yabanci


    Full Text Available Schools play an effective role for adopt and maintain healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. Schools are an important part of national efforts to prevent chronic diseases such as childhood obesity, coronary heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. Nutrition programs in schools can help children and adolescents participate in full educational potential; improve academic performance and health quality. To ensure a healthy future for our children, school-based nutrition education programs must become a national priority. Governments, community leaders, doctors, dieteticians, nurses, teachers, and parents must commit to implementing and sustaining nutrition education programs within the schools. School health and nutrition programs which part of public health and education are summarized in this review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 361-368

  18. Aphorisms and short phrases as pieces of knowledge in the pedagogical framework of the andalusian school of public health. (United States)

    González-García, Lorena; Chemello, Clarice; García-Sánchez, Filomena; Serpa-Anaya, Delia C; Gómez-González, Carmen; Soriano-Carrascosa, Leticia; Muñoz-de Rueda, Paloma; Moya-Molina, Miguel; Sánchez-García, Fernando; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel


    Bearing in mind the philosophical pedagogical significance of short phrases for the training of researchers in the health care ambit, we hence have studied the aphorisms and striking phrases expressed during the epidemiology course at the Andalusian School of Public Health. Belonging to the qualitative type and applied through the establishment of a multidisciplinary focus group made up of ten post-graduated students, where one of them acted as a moderator. The collection of information lasted four months. Information was classified in two ways: Firstly, aphorisms and short phrases with a pedagogical impact; and secondly, data with statistical, epidemiological, epistemological, pragmatic, or heuristic component, and for scientific diffusion. It was decided to perform a triangulation that included a descriptive presentation and a basic categorical analysis. The two teachers with a highest interpretative load have been identified . A total of 127 elements, regarded as of interest by the focus group, were collected. Forty-four of them (34.6%) were aphorisms, and 83 were short phrases with a pedagogical load (65.3%). Most of all them were classified as statistical elements (35.4%) followed by epistemological (21.3%) and epidemiological (15.7%) elements. There was no tendency towards aphorisms or short phrases (P > 0.05) among the teachers with more informative representation. There has been a tilt in the contents towards the statistical area to the detriment of the epidemiological one. Concept maps have visualized classifications. This sort of qualitative analysis helps the researcher review contents acquired during his/her training process.

  19. A Public Health Perspective on School Dropout and Adult Outcomes: A Prospective Study of Risk and Protective Factors From Age 5 to 27 Years. (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E


    This study aimed to advance a public health perspective on links between education and health by examining risk and protective factors that might alter the relation between dropping out of high school and subsequent negative outcomes. A community sample (N = 585) was followed from age 5 to 27 years. Data included self and parent reports, peer sociometric nominations, and observed mother-teen interactions. High school dropouts were up to four times more likely to experience individual negative outcomes (being arrested, fired, or on government assistance, using illicit substances, having poor health) by age 27 years and 24 times more likely compared to graduates to experience as many as four or more negative outcomes. Links between dropout and negative outcomes were more pronounced for individuals who were in low socioeconomic status families at age 5 years, rejected by elementary school peers, and became parents at a younger age; the dropout effect was decreased for individuals who had been treated for a behavioral, emotional, or drug problem by age 24 years. Addressing school dropout as a public health problem has the potential to improve the lives of dropouts and reduce societal costs of dropping out. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola


    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  1. School Psychology: A Public Health Framework: I. From Evidence-Based Practices to Evidence-Based Policies. (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly; Johnson, Jacqueline


    Describes current perspectives on evidence-based practices in psychology, medicine, and education; discusses challenges in the implementation and dissemination of research-based findings into schools; describes differences between current models of organizational behavior as studied in children's mental health services and in education; and…

  2. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K


    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  3. Leaving Public Schools for Home Schooling: Implications for School Public Relations. (United States)

    McLeod, Suzanne E.; Osterman, Karen F.


    Addresses the sources of dissatisfaction from parents who had removed their children from public schools to begin home schooling. Implications for public schools' community relations and practice specifically focus on three areas of greatest concern: student grouping practices, peer relationships, and the extension of the school day via homework.…

  4. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central Africa schools of public health: enhancing capacity to design and implement teaching programs. (United States)

    Nangami, Mabel N; Rugema, Lawrence; Tebeje, Bosena; Mukose, Aggrey


    The role of health systems research (HSR) in informing and guiding national programs and policies has been increasingly recognized. Yet, many universities in sub-Saharan African countries have relatively limited capacity to teach HSR. Seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa undertook an HSR institutional capacity assessment, which included a review of current HSR teaching programs. This study determines the extent to which SPHs are engaged in teaching HSR-relevant courses and assessing their capacities to effectively design and implement HSR curricula whose graduates are equipped to address HSR needs while helping to strengthen public health policy. This study used a cross-sectional study design employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. An organizational profile tool was administered to senior staff across the seven SPHs to assess existing teaching programs. A self-assessment tool included nine questions relevant to teaching capacity for HSR curricula. The analysis triangulates the data, with reflections on the responses from within and across the seven SPHs. Proportions and average of values from the Likert scale are compared to determine strengths and weaknesses, while themes relevant to the objectives are identified and clustered to elicit in-depth interpretation. None of the SPHs offer an HSR-specific degree program; however, all seven offer courses in the Master of Public Health (MPH) degree that are relevant to HSR. The general MPH curricula partially embrace principles of competency-based education. Different strengths in curricula design and staff interest in HSR at each SPH were exhibited but a number of common constraints were identified, including out-of-date curricula, face-to-face delivery approaches, inadequate staff competencies, and limited access to materials. Opportunities to align health system priorities to teaching programs include existing networks. Each SPH has key strengths that can be leveraged to

  5. Globalisation and public health. (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K


    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  6. Ostracism and Peer Victimization in Adolescents With and Without Mental Health Diagnoses in a Public Middle School Setting. (United States)

    Heithaus, Jennifer L; Twyman, Kimberly A; Braddock, Barbara A


    To better understand adolescents experiencing peer victimization, ostracism, and emotional health problems, this study aimed to describe a cohort of middle school students identified as having school peer-related social difficulties as 2 groups: those with mental health diagnoses (MHDs; n = 17) and those without diagnoses (n = 8). Participants were administered a test battery to examine communication ability, social responsiveness, social activity, ostracism, victimization, and emotional health. Results showed that adolescents with MHDs, relative to those without, scored significantly lower on measures of communication ability, social responsiveness, and social activity but similarly on measures of victimization, ostracism, and internalizing/externalizing factors. Results suggest that adolescents with and without MHDs can endure ostracism and peer victimization to a similar extent. Because ostracism and victimization have serious morbidity in adolescents, physicians and caregivers must look for signs in all adolescents, irrespective of MHD. Recommendations for appropriate primary care management are discussed.

  7. Colorado School Health Education Survey 1992. Report. (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of the 1992 Colorado School Health Education Survey, which targets public secondary schools with grades 7 through 12. Results provide a basic sketch of the extent of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) prevention and health education being implemented in Colorado's secondary schools. The survey,…

  8. School Health Services

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, you’ll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement.  Created: 9/13/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2017.

  9. Exploring Foodscapes at a Danish Public School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine


    to nuance understandings of how food and eating are situated in school life. The article draws on ethnographic studies carried out at a Danish public sports school following two classes from fifth to seventh grades (age 11–14). By adopting a practice perspective and the analytical concepts of foodscapes...... and emotional spaces, the article analyses how emotions (affects and feelings), discourses, materialities, and social relations within the school interact. The findings show that many students find eating at school unpleasant. Students want to eat in an un-stressful place away from the gaze of others. They want...... to the importance of addressing the emotional dimensions of eating in efforts to promote school health....

  10. Drug Testing in Public Schools. (United States)

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.; Gluckman, Ivan B., Ed.


    Public concern about use of drugs by young people in the United States remains high and efforts to counter drug abuse through education and intervention continue. While drug testing of athletes at the collegiate level is fairly common, legal restraints make testing less common at the secondary school level. After citing numerous statistics…

  11. Dental sealants: a public health perspective. (United States)

    Isman, Robert


    This article discusses the oral health status of California children, including sealant prevalence, and reasons why sealants are underutilized, including current reimbursement levels. The article also explains similarities and differences between sealant use in private practice versus public health settings, as well as the effectiveness and economic aspects of school-based sealant programs. Finally, the article briefly discusses the advantages of combined topical fluoride and sealant programs in public health settings.

  12. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras


    Niyi Awofeso


    Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how e...

  13. Facebook and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    This paper reports on a survey about the perceptions and practices of social media managers and experts in the area of public health. We have collected Facebook data from 153 public health care organizations and conducted a survey on them. 12% of organizations responded to the questionnaire...... of actions (value share). Calculation of performance with number of actions in the numerator and number of posts in the denominator reduces possible bias in the conclusions due to the varied size of organizations on social media. Moreover, our survey attempts to better understand the behaviour....... The survey results were combined with the findings from our previous work of applying clustering and supervised learning algorithms on big social data from the official Facebook walls of these organizations. In earlier research, we showed that the most successful strategy that leads to higher post engagement...

  14. Facebook and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao


    This paper reports on a survey about the perceptions and practices of social media managers and experts in the area of public health. We have collected Facebook data from 153 public health care organizations and conducted a survey on them. 12% of organizations responded to the questionnaire....... The survey results were combined with the findings from our previous work of applying clustering and supervised learning algorithms on big social data from the official Facebook walls of these organizations. In earlier research, we showed that the most successful strategy that leads to higher post engagement...... is visual content. In this paper, we investigated if organisations pursue this strategy or some other strategy that was successful and has not been uncovered by the machine learning algorithms. Performance of each organisation on Facebook is based on the number of posts (volume share) and the number...

  15. Geomatics and public health. (United States)

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P


    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance.

  16. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  17. Lessons in Suicide Prevention from the Golden Gate Bridge: Means Restriction, Public Health, and the School Psychologist (United States)

    Miller, David N.


    Youth suicide is a global public health problem and some lessons for more effectively preventing it can be found in a perhaps unlikely source: the Golden Gate Bridge. Issues discussed include means restriction and method substitution, the stigma associated with suicide and the consequences of it, myths and misconceptions regarding suicide, and…

  18. Activities Carried Out Under the Veterans' Administration Medical School Assistance and Health Manpower Training Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-541), An Annual Report Prepared by the Veterans' Administration. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    The third annual report (fiscal year 1979) of the activities carried out under the Veterans' Administration Medical School Assistance and Health Manpower Training Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-541) is presented. Under this special authority grants have been made to assist in the establishment of new state medical schools, to existing medical schools,…

  19. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott


    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  20. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders


    ) as well as practical (skills) competences stated in ASPHER’s comprehensive list of public health core competences.4 The lists have, since 2006, been developed with the participation of public health researchers, practitioners and decision makers and in conferences and workshops. In 2012, they were...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...... and disease prevention, health economics and leadership, health sociology, ethics, etc.—unified under the comprehensive public health umbrella. This approach will contribute to the prevention of silo thinking and isolated, particularistic action. Conversely, just thinking in and engaging specialists...

  1. Adolescent and School Health (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... help strengthen their capacity to improve child and adolescent health. More > DASH Home About DASH At A ...

  2. [Hygiene and Infection Prevention in Medical Institutions, Kindergartens and Schools - Statutory Basis, Infection Control Practice and Experiences of the Public Health Services]. (United States)

    Heudorf, U


    Infection prevention is one of the main tasks of the public health services. The "Protection against infection act" places all medical institutions and facilities for children (kindergartens and schools) under the obligation to assume responsibility and to cooperate. Duties of the institutions are described, and public health services are obliged to perform hygiene control visits.Regarding medical institutions, the guidelines of the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Control have to be observed, and the counties were obliged to publish hygiene enactments. Subsequently, good improvements in hygiene management in medical institutions were achieved. In schools, however, severe hygienic problems (i.e. sanitary hygiene, indoor air hygiene) are detected, without any improvement - obviously due to a missing sense of responsibility in the school community. Causes for poor behaviour prevention (hand hygiene, ventilation) and missing situational prevention (i.e. cleaning) are discussed. Without reversion to the obviously needed but nearly forgotten subject school hygiene, obligatory guidelines and the assuming of responsibility, permanent improvements cannot be achieved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Training public health superheroes: five talents for public health leadership. (United States)

    Day, Matthew; Shickle, Darren; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas


    Public health leaders have been criticized for their policy stances, relationships with governments and failure to train the next generation. New approaches to the identification and training of public health leaders may be required. To inform these, lessons can be drawn from public health 'superheroes'; public health leaders perceived to be the most admired and effective by their peers. Members and Fellows of the UK Faculty of Public Health were contacted via e-newsletter and magazine and asked to nominate their 'Public Health Superhero'. Twenty-six responses were received, nominating 40 different people. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis, based on 'grounded theory', was conducted. Five leadership 'talents' for public health were identified: mentoring-nurturing, shaping-organizing, networking-connecting, knowing-interpreting and advocating-impacting. Talent-based approaches have been effective for leadership development in other sectors. These talents are the first specific to the practice of public health and align with some aspects of existing frameworks. An increased focus on identifying and developing talents during public health training, as opposed to 'competency'-based approaches, may be effective in strengthening public health leadership. Further research to understand the combination and intensity of talents across a larger sample of public health leaders is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. European Accreditation of Public Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Otok


    Full Text Available The European Agency for Accreditation in Public Health Education (APHEA was launched in 2011. This followed nearly two decades of efforts in a variety of programmes supported by international donor agencies, and others that provided experience and field testing of peer review systems for schools of public health in Europe. The Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER Public Health Education European Review (PEER project, devised with the aid of WHO EURO in the early 1990s and later by the Open Society Institute (OSI within the framework of a joint ASPHER-OSI Program from 2000-2005, helped to develop a cadre of expertise on the process of international peer review and standards that are compatible with a full accreditation process.The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the background, criteria and current pilot phase of European accreditation for the Master of Public Health degree and equivalent study programmes. Undergoing the accreditation process will help longstanding and new schools review their programmes to meet new European accreditation system standards and provide students, graduates and potential employers with confidence in the future acceptability of their credentials. The new accreditation agency was established by a consortium of European public health organisations and represents a new phase for development of standards and quality of education systems in Europe to face the challenges of workforce development for a “New Public Health” era in the 21st century.

  5. The Role of the Family Atmosphere in Relation to Public Health through High school Female Students in the City of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rahavi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of the family atmosphere in relation to public health of high school female students in Yazd. Family as a social system is with basic needs, like: Self-esteem, physical security, belonging and intimacy, dependency, responsibility, need to be motivated and approved by others, pointed out the need for happiness, success, and spiritual needs. Every family situation is unique and emotional space and office procedures and practices are different. If people, especially parents, knew the effect of family atmosphere and their performance on health and prosperity of children , they will try to balance and support their children. Therefore, we decided to study the relationship between public health and family atmosphere of students . Methods:This study is a descriptive survey method. The data was collected by the General Health Questionnaire( GHQ 28 and family atmosphere questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive analytic test. Results: The results showed that all students of different scale of public health (physical symptoms scale, scale of anxiety, social functioning scale and a scale of depression were slightly mild. The results showed there was negative significant difference(P<0.001 between all of the Structures Inventory family atmosphere and scales of GHQ28With the exception of the structure, openness to others. Conclusion: The results of this study and comparison with other studies is good guide for education and training of children and students and Parents can use them to improve the health of their children.

  6. Challenges in Sustaining Public Health Interventions (United States)

    Altman, David G.


    Sustainability remains a key challenge in public health. The perspective article by Fagen and Flay adds to our understanding of technical factors associated with sustaining health interventions in schools. In this commentary, the Fagen and Flay article (2009) is considered within the broader literature on sustainability. By taking a broad view,…

  7. Nanotechnology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas of our daily lives. 

  8. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute. (United States)

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner


    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  9. School Progress Report 2013. Montgomery County Public Schools (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014


    The 2013 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels for the 2012-2013 school year. Montgomery…

  10. School Progress Report 2012. Montgomery County Public Schools (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013


    The 2012 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels. Montgomery County primary schools are…

  11. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv


    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  12. Refereeing the public health. (United States)

    Harvey, Hosea H


    Between January 2009 and October 2013, 49 states and the District of Columbia passed laws focusing on mitigating the consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in organized youth sports. Using historical, contextual, and empirical methods, this Article describes the content, goals, and structure of youth sports TBI laws, while hypothesizing about their underlying legislative logic and long-term public health consequences. The Article's empirical evidence suggests two key findings: first, that a dominant interest group, the National Football League, helped to define the problem and its associated solutions for the vast majority of states, thus curving the legislative story are in favor of its policy prescriptions; second, that existing youth sports TBI laws are focused on secondary, not primary, prevention, and may thus shift attention away from more comprehensive solutions. Finally, the Article explains why such state laws will likely fail to substantially resolve the larger untackled problem--significantly reducing the overall rate and number of TBIs in youth sports. After explaining why existing state youth sports TBI laws fail to accomplish this broader goal, the Article queries whether alternative policy or public health measures might offer more robust solutions.

  13. Critical perspectives in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labonté, Ronald (Ron) N; Green, Judith


    ... the contemporary roles of 'critical voices' in public health research and practice from a range of disciplines and contexts. The book covers many of the pressing concerns for public health practitioners and researchers, including: * * * * * the implications of new genetic technologies for public health; the impact of globalisation on local practice...

  14. A study of the importance of education and cost incentives on individual food choices at the Harvard School of Public Health cafeteria. (United States)

    Michels, Karin B; Bloom, Barry R; Riccardi, Paul; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C


    To investigate the importance of cost and awareness of health- or disease-promoting properties of foods and meals for choices by customers of a cafeteria. A non-randomized intervention study. A medium size cafeteria in the Harvard School of Public Health. Customers of the cafeteria mainly consisting of public health students, faculty, and school staff and workers from the medical campus. The purchase of healthy foods and dishes was subsidized and their prices reduced by 20%. This promotion was accompanied by the distribution of educational material. Change in consumption of healthy and less healthy foods. The geometric mean was used to calculate the change in consumption. During the intervention, we observed a 6% increase in the consumption of healthy foods (95% confidence interval [CI]; 5% to 8%), and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; -1% to -4%). After the prices returned to their original levels, the consumption of healthy foods increased further to 17% (95% CI; 13% to 20%) and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; % 1 to -5%) persisted. Subsidizing healthful meals and educating consumers about the importance of a healthy diet can result in a modest increase in the selection of healthy foods and meals that can be maintained beyond the periods of subsidy and promotion.

  15. Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools (United States)

    Davis, Tomeka M.


    Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

  16. Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom


    This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…

  17. Feminism and public health ethics. (United States)

    Rogers, W A


    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  18. Feminism and public health ethics (United States)

    Rogers, W A


    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

  19. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann


    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  20. Nottingham Trent University and Makerere University School of Public Health partnership: experiences of co-learning and supporting the healthcare system in Uganda. (United States)

    Musoke, David; Gibson, Linda; Mukama, Trasias; Khalil, Yesmean; Ssempebwa, John C


    Partnerships between developed and developing country institutions are increasingly becoming important in addressing contemporary global health challenges faced by health systems. Inter-university health collaboration such as the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and Makerere University School of Public Health (Uganda) partnership provide opportunities for working together in training, research and service delivery while strengthening health systems. This paper shares the experiences, achievements and opportunities of this partnership in co-learning and supporting the health system in Uganda. This includes a project being implemented to strengthen the training, supervision and motivation of community health workers in rural Uganda. Training and research are a key focus of the partnership and have involved both staff and students of both institutions including guest lectures, seminars and conference presentations. The partnership's collaboration with stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health (Uganda) and local health authorities has ensured participation necessary in supporting implementation of sustainable interventions. The partnership uses several channels such as email, telephone, Skype, Dropbox and WhatsApp which have been useful in maintaining constant and effective communication. The challenges faced by the partnership include lack of funding to support student mobility, and varying academic schedules of the two institutions. The experiences and prospects of this growing partnership can inform other collaborations in similar settings.

  1. [Compromising conscientiously with reality but not with conscience. Reflections on the occasion of 75th anniversary of A. Stampar School of Public Health]. (United States)

    Jaksić, Zelimir


    Changes in the activities and working conditions of the A. Stampar School of Public Health are reviewed following their anniversaries in the 25-year intervals. The differences have been described in understanding of major fields of work between: (1) social medicine (people's health) and public health; (2) health education following philosophy of Enlightenment and learning in the information era; (3) formal administrative organisation stressing implementation of given laws and entrepreneurial management in a society in transition; and (4) transfer of technology through international collaboration and under pressure of market oriented globalisation. Two basic points of view are identified: a social concern as opposite to technology-oriented productivity. It is concluded that a compromise of intentions and reality was always present looking for a balance between the described points of view. In relation to the present and future activities, the necessary compromise has to be conscientious, following the idea of preventive and social orientation applied to actual living problems of people and health care, namely people's health.

  2. [A framework for assessing essential public health nursing skills and achievement levels required for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse in Japan]. (United States)

    Asahara, Kiyomi; Omori, Junko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Hirano, Yuko; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Arakida, Mikako; Oki, Sachiko; Okamoto, Reiko; Okuyama, Noriko; Kaihara, Itsuko; Sudo, Hiroko; Nagae, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Misako; Murashima, Sachiyo


    This study aimed to develop a framework for essential skills and the achievement levels necessary for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse (PHN) in Japan. Two rounds of questionnaire-based investigations using the Delphi methodology were conducted. Subjects were 197 PHNs from municipalities or companies and 146 nurse educators from universities, colleges, junior colleges, or technical nursing schools. (1) The essential skills framework consisted of three (macro, intermediate and micro) levels. Macro-level items were based on the principle of justice, a primary pillar of health care: (A) community assessment to identify health problems; (B) solving and improving particular health problems in collaboration with people to enable them to promote their own health; (C) promoting equitable access and distribution of community resources for health and daily living. Micro-level items had four achievement levels: (I) independent; (II) instructor-guided; (III) laboratory exercise; (IV) theoretical understanding. Micro-level items for A and B had two domains for achievement: individual/family and group/community. (2) In the first round over 70% of respondents said "very important," "important" or "acceptable" for all micro-level items. In the second round, over 90% said all micro-level items fit within macro and intermediate-level items. (3) In the second round, micro-level items attained 70% consensus among PHNs and nurse educators were 71 of 93 (76.3%). Micro-level expression was used for adjustment and the final framework of essential skills yielded 3 macro, 8 intermediate and 59 micro-level items and 95 levels of achievement. (4) In the final framework, the level of achievement for "individual/family" (Macro-level A and B) was almost level I, and for "group/community" almost II or III. The number of micro-level items at level IV for C was 14 of 21 (66.7%). (5) Compared with PHNs, educators generally

  3. Teaching-service integration and social impact in 50 years of public health history School of Dentistry of the “Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemre Adas Saliba


    Full Text Available To verify the projects and programs developed during the course of 50-year history of School of Dentistry Aracatuba of the “Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (State of São Paulo -Brazil, in the public health area, in agreement with the dental models of attendance and considering the background and the progress of the Public Health policies in Brazil, with the aim of reporting on the experience of integrating teaching-service, professional education and the social impact. A documentary research of a descriptive nature was conducted, by consulting the institutional files of the Dental Faculty, considering; official texts, reports, documents, databases and publications, with reference to the period from 1957 to 2007. The descriptive analysis demonstrated that the main actions developed were: Campaign for home filters, Campaign for construction of Wells and Sewages, Campaign for Fluoridation of the Araçatuba and Area Water Supply, Epidemiologic Surveys, Extramural Dental services, Extension projects; Attendance to pregnant women, the elderly and children, Oral cancer prevention program, Program for Heterogeneous Fluoride control, Creation of master’s degree program, Municipal health counselor training courses, Training of State of São Paulo Family Health Program community agents and teams, Advisory services to municipalities and production of didactic-pedagogic materials for health education. Several programs have been and are being developed, with successful health practices in the area, accompanying the progress of health policies and promoting professional education with integration of the university into the local health and community services.

  4. Technology in the public schools? (United States)

    Lipman, D.


    An evaluation of the forces operating on the public schools which might influence their disposition toward the utilization of technology is presented. It is suggested that the wide-ranging technology and know-how generated by the Federally sponsored research and development programs can be adapted and applied to the solution of problems found in education. It is suggested that three major developments in society have great bearing on the utilization of technology in educational programs. The extent to which these factors are manifested and interrelated, and the potential significance of their combined impact are analyzed.

  5. Assessing School Facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated school facilitates in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the state of the facilities, the types of maintenance carried out on the facilities by school administrators, the factors encouraging school facilities depreciation and the roles of school ...

  6. The National Institute of Public Health: Shaping Public Policy to Advance Population Health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magaña-Valladares


    Full Text Available The Mexican School of Public Health was founded in 1922 by the Mexican government and was the first school of public health in Latin America. It has become one of the largest public health institutions in the developing world and is the leading institution for teaching, research and service to improve public health in Mexico and Latin America. The Institute is an important player in shaping public policy in Mexico through its mission-oriented research. Through its research initiatives, the Institute has influenced policies regarding tobacco, obesity, milk and flour fortification, malaria, cancer, environmental health, and other public health priority areas. The Institute responds to changing health workforce training needs. It currently offers 28 competency-based graduate degree programs and trains annually more than 10,000 in-service public health workers through continuing education courses. The Institute offers multiple educational formats to accomplish its mission, including face-to-face, virtual, and blended learning. It has been accredited by both national and international agencies and collaborates closely with international institutions. The Institute contributes to global health by promoting health equity, strengthening health systems, and generating evidence-based strategies to improve population health in Mexico, the Americas, and around the world.

  7. Public health and media advocacy. (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner


    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  8. Public Health Education in the United States: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rosenstock


    Full Text Available It was against a background of no formal career path for public health officers that, in 1915, the seminal Welch-Rose Report1 outlined a system of public health edu­cation for the United States. The first schools of public health soon followed, but growth was slow, with only 12 schools by 1960. With organization and growing numbers, accreditation became an expectation. As the mission of public health has grown and achieved new urgency, schools have grown in number, depth and breadth. By mid-2011, there were 46 accredited schools of public health, with more in the pipeline. While each has a unique character, they also must possess certain core characteristics to be accredited. Over time, as schools developed, and concepts of public health expanded, so too did curricula and missions as well as types of people who were trained. In this review, we provide a brief summary of US public health education, with primary emphasis on professional public health schools. We also examine public health workforce needs and evaluate how education is evolving in the context of a growing maturity of the public health profession. We have not focused on programs (not schools that offer public health degrees or on preventive medicine programs in schools of medicine, since schools of public health confer the majority of master’s and doctoral degrees. In the future, there likely will be even more inter-professional education, new disciplinary perspectives and changes in teaching and learning to meet the needs of millennial students.

  9. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014


    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.

  10. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance, 2016 (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016


    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…

  11. The Organizational Origins of Public School Psychology. (United States)

    Slater, Robert


    Traces public school psychology from 1899 to the 1970s with emphasis on the identity of the first public school psychologists, how and why they came to be associated with the schools, and how they viewed education in its relation to psychology. (Author/DB)

  12. Enrolled Home Study Partners with Public Schools (United States)

    Lines, Patricia M.


    Home-based programs provide opportunities at a level far beyond what a traditional public school program can offer. To stem enrollment losses to homeschooling, or simply to help families interested in home-based option, public schools are enrolling children and sending them home, where they follow the school's curriculum under their parents'…

  13. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso


    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  14. Health status and public health in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bontempi


    Full Text Available After the thematic issues devoted to Public Health in Eastern Europe [1] and in the Americas [2], in the current issue the Italian Journal of Public Health six articles will face different aspects regarding themes of health status and public health in Asia, giving a description of infection, nutritional and health care organization problems, and linking them to social, demographic and religious features. In each article indeed strictly health topics can be understood considering the peculiar and heterogeneous characteristics of the developing countries.

  15. Public Health 101 Nanocourse: A Condensed Educational Tool for Non–Public Health Professionals (United States)

    Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C.; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.


    Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)—have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health. PMID:25706019

  16. Social marketing in public health. (United States)

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A


    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  17. Why School? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2016


    Why school? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools included questions about the purpose of schooling, standards, homework, school funding, and parents' relationships with their schools. The 2016 poll, which was conducted by Langer Research Associates, was based on a telephone poll of 1,221 adults during April…

  18. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.


    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  19. [Drug use in the public health debate]. (United States)

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe


    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use.

  20. The crucible of public health practice: major trends shaping the design of the Management Academy for Public Health. (United States)

    Johnson, James H; Sabol, Barbara J; Baker, Edward L


    Public health leaders and managers need new leadership and management skills as well as greater entrepreneurial acumen to respond effectively to broad demographic, socioeconomic, and political trends reshaping public health. This article asserts that the need for such training and skills was the impetus for the conceptualization, design, and launch of the Management Academy for Public Health--an innovative executive education program jointly offered by the schools of business and public health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  1. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre


    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries...... of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?...

  2. Social media in public health. (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend


    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  3. [Terrorism, public health and health services]. (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge


    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  4. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie


    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  5. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie


    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  6. Violence Prevention after Columbine: A Survey of High School Mental Health Professionals (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, M. Franci; Filaccio, Marylynne; Gottfried, Linda


    The authors examined changes in mental health services and violence prevention strategies in public high schools since the shootings at Columbine High School. Surveys were mailed to school mental health professionals at public high schools in Colorado. Respondents included school counselors, school psychologists, school social workers, principals,…

  7. Periodontal health and global public health. (United States)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C


    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal/oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging local, national and international resources to assure that people can be healthy. Social determinants of health, environmental hazards and unhealthy lifestyles are prioritized in modern public health-care. Disease prevention and health promotion are cornerstones in actions for public health. This volume of Periodontology 2000 is entitled ‘Periodontal health and global public health’; the 12 articles of this volume discuss different aspects of this statement. It covers a range of subjects from public health issues to patient care. This monograph intends to stimulate community action research in the field of periodontology in order to help the development of appropriate public health intervention and relevant surveillance programs. It also expects to stimulate health authorities and professional organizations to initiate and support actions to promote periodontal health in their respective countries.

  8. Comprehensive school health in Canada. (United States)

    Veugelers, Paul J; Schwartz, Margaret E


    The Canadian education system is among the best in the world academically. In contrast, students' (children and youth) eating and activity levels are so poor that they have led to prevalence rates of overweight that are among the highest in the world. Given the enormous public health burden associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, Canada needs to address this health risk. Comprehensive school health (CSH) is a promising approach to promoting healthy eating and active living (HEAL). This article provides a review of CSH and discusses its four essential elements: 1) teaching and learning; 2) social and physical environments; 3) healthy school policy; and 4) partnerships and services. It also provides a common understanding of the implementation and broader benefits of CSH, which, in addition to health, include student learning and self-esteem. The article further discusses some complexities of a rigorous evaluation of CSH, which comprises proof of implementation, impact and positive outcome. Though such an evaluation has yet to be conducted, some studies did confirm successful implementation, and another study observed positive outcomes. Rigorous evaluation is urgently needed to provide a stronger evidence base of the benefits of CSH for learning, self-esteem and disease prevention. This evidence is essential to justify devoting more school time to promote HEAL and more resources to implement and support CSH to the benefit of both learning and health.

  9. Global public health and the information superhighway. (United States)

    LaPorte, R E


    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  10. Oral health-related quality of life of 11- and 12-year-old public school children in Rio de Janeiro. (United States)

    Castro, Rodolfo de A L; Portela, Margareth C; Leão, Anna T; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio T L


    The objective of this study was to assess the association between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), measured through the Child-OIDP, and demographic characteristics, self-reported oral problems, and clinical oral health measures, among 11- to 12-year-old school children in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted, having as its target population 11- and 12-year-old students of both sexes, formally enrolled in 6- and 7-year school classes at public schools. A probabilistic sample with complex design was used. OHRQoL was assessed by the Brazilian version of Child-OIDP. Oral exams were conducted, and the presence of dental biofilm, gingival bleeding, DMFT, fluorosis, enamel defects, dental trauma, and malocclusion were recorded. A total of 571 school children participated with a mean age of 12.0 years and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) from 11.9 to 12.1. A total of 88.7% of the school children presented the impact of oral problems in at least one of the eight daily performances. The activities that had most impacts were eating (81.3%), cleaning mouth (40.5%), and smiling (32.2%). The mean Child-OIDP index was 7.1 with 95% CI from 6.2 to 8.1. The highest scores were in relation to eating (mean = 25.0; 95% CI from 22.4 to 27.6), cleaning mouth (mean = 12.0; 95% CI from 9.1 to 14.9), and smiling (mean = 10.0; 95% CI from 7.5 to 12.5). In the logistic regression model, the Child-OIDP was associated with dental caries experience and with the perception of sensitive teeth, perception of gingival bleeding, and perception of inadequate position of the teeth. In the multinomial regression, we found that the odds of having higher levels of Child-OIDP were positively associated with dental caries experience. Self-reported dental caries, mobile milk teeth, tooth position, bleeding gums, and bad breath were associated with worst OHRQoL. It can be concluded that there is an association between dental caries experience and the Child

  11. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations. (United States)

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H


    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers.

  12. Charter Schools and Student Compositions of Traditional Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevbahar Ertas


    Full Text Available One of the most contentious urban education policy issues in the United States today is the expansion of charter schools and its repercussions. Does the expansion of charter schools affect the racial and socioeconomic composition of traditional public schools in the United States? This study provides empirical evidence on this question by relying on a panel design that uses school-level data from two states that have experimented with charter schools for more than 15 years: Ohio and Texas. Using county-level, spatial, and enrollment-based measures of charter exposure, the changes from pre- to post-charter-legislation stages in the student compositions of public schools that do and do not face competition from charters are examined. The results suggest that charter school presence contributes to aggregate-level changes in the share of non-Hispanic White and free-lunch-eligible students in traditional public schools in both states in different ways.

  13. Factors Affecting Applications to Professional Schools of Six Professions (Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing, Law, Social Work, and Public Health). (United States)

    Watson, Susan; And Others


    Future demand for professional education is examined through demographic trends, enrollment trends, professional manpower demands, the role of values and attitudes, and the current responses of the professional schools to change. (MSE)

  14. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  15. Applying Marketing in the Public School Setting (United States)

    Pettinga, Deidre M.; Angelov, Azure D. S.; Bateman, David F.


    Traditional public schools no longer have a guaranteed market share of students, or tax dollars, based on geographic location. Families with little to no options in the past about where their child would attend school, now have many. In response to the expanding options available to them--in the form of charter schools and vouchers--families today…

  16. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations (United States)

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith


    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  17. School Public Relations: Personnel Roles and Responsibilities (United States)

    Norton, M. Scott


    This article emphasizes the paramount importance of the human resources function in the school system--specifically, in the implementation of an effective school public relations program and in the quality of leadership given by the administrators and the professional and classified staffs. The article submits that school administrators at every…

  18. Home Schooling in Alabama: Perspectives of Public School Superintendents and Home Schooling Families. (United States)

    Kozlowski, Anna T.

    This paper describes home schooling in Alabama from the perspectives of public-school superintendents and home-schooling families. It is based on a study that investigated the extent, causes, and experiences of home schooling; concerns about the practice of home schooling; and the relationship between home schoolers and public-school systems. Home…

  19. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch


    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  20. [Anomie and public mental health]. (United States)

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J


    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools (United States)

    Smith, Jodi Renee Abbott


    The focus of this descriptive research study was to compare charter and traditional public schools on the academic knowledge of fifth grade students as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in a suburb of a large southwestern city. This analysis also compared charter and traditional public schools on AYP status. It was…

  2. Homeschooling within the public school system


    Horsburgh, Fergus Bruce Norman


    Homeschooling through the public school system is a relatively new trend in education. This qualitative study focuses on the experiences of six families participating in public school homeschooling programs in British Columbia, Canada. (Parents were interviewed and the interviews were recorded with transcripts becoming the primary data for this research.) Parents' motivations for homeschooling through the public system, rather than homeschooling on their own, are centered on financial advanta...

  3. 46 CFR 167.05-35 - Public nautical school. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school. 167.05-35 Section 167.05-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-35 Public nautical school. The term public nautical school means any school...

  4. Independent School Success Challenging the Danish Public School System (United States)

    Ringsmose, Charlotte


    Denmark has had a long history of placing a high priority on education and public schooling. It is a declared goal of the Danish welfare system to provide comprehensive schooling, where children from different socioeconomic backgrounds can go to school together and have the same opportunities through education. It is also a declared goal for…

  5. School-Based Health Care State Policy Survey. Executive Summary (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2012


    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) surveys state public health and Medicaid offices every three years to assess state-level public policies and activities that promote the growth and sustainability of school-based health services. The FY2011 survey found 18 states (see map below) reporting investments explicitly dedicated…

  6. School Health Connection Goes Electronic: Developing a Health Information Management System for New Orleans' School-Based Health Centers. Program Results Report (United States)

    Rastorfer, Darl


    From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health…

  7. Personalism for public health ethics. (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo


    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  8. Discover: What Is Public Health? (United States)

    ... care, controlling infectious disease, and reducing environmental hazards, violence, substance abuse, and injury. It spans many disciplines and is regularly spotlighted in popular culture and media . The impact is measurable. In the past century, public health ...

  9. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini


    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  10. Photovoice and Photodocumentary for Enhancing Community Partner Engagement and Student Learning in a Public Health Field School in Cape Town (United States)

    Wainwright, Megan; Bingham, Shantell; Sicwebu, Namhla


    Background: Field school research, which begins by considering community partners as pedagogues and thus exploring their perspectives on student learning, is uncommon. Photovoice is a method for self-expression of such marginalized voices. Purpose: Describe the photovoice to photodocumentary process and present results of its evaluation.…

  11. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness. (United States)

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K


    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  12. A public health hazard mitigation planning process. (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J


    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  13. Social marketing and public health


    Petersen, J.


    The public health field exists to safeguard the general public from health risks by controlling risk factors, classically through immunization programmes that prevent or control epidemics, or through actions such as monitoring the quality of drinking water. In our post-industrialised society, risk factors other than the environment, such as diet, exercise, tobacco and alcohol use, have grown in importance. The policy response to the growing demand upon healthcare services arising from chronic...

  14. Influencing public health without authority. (United States)

    Suresh, K


    This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate's is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals' roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals.

  15. Using Data to Inform Decision Making in Recruitment of Prospective Public Health Students (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Amadi, Chioma; Alam, Amina; Krudysz, Margaret A.; Hernandez, Gabriela


    The objective of this study was to compare recruitment methods for prospective students to the public health programs at the CUNY School of Public Health. Recruitment data on prospective Masters and Doctoral Public Health students were gathered during the period of July 2014 to July 2015, using 4 recruitment methods: Schools of Public Health…

  16. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass


    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  17. Targeted marketing and public health. (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki


    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  18. Biomarkers, dementia, and public health. (United States)

    Wright, C F; Hall, A; Matthews, F E; Brayne, C


    Public health is defined as the organized efforts of society to improve health. This is often framed in terms of prevention, with primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention representing, respectively, fundamental prevention through understanding of causation, to alteration of natural history, through understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and palliation. Biomarkers play a role in all of these levels of prevention of dementias. The clearest application of biomarkers from a public health perspective is in the setting of screening. Screening has particular meaning for public health and includes early detection as a core element, coupled with treatments or preventative actions to reduce the burden of disease. Here, we will cover the range of evidence required if biomarkers are to play a part in population prevention of dementia, including scientific and technical aspects together with ethical, legal, and social considerations. Ensuring research activity that addresses these wider perspectives is essential.

  19. Mexico: perspectives in school health. (United States)

    Allensworth, D M; Greene, A G


    The school health program in Mexico, directed by the Office of School Hygiene (la Unidad de Higiene Escolar), is in a state of flux. The program will change substantially if an initiative between the national offices of health and education is enacted. The initiative would establish a national commission to be replicated at state, county, and district levels. Commissions would oversee integration of the health services component, social participation, and research into the school health program which currently only focuses on health instruction and a healthy school environment. The initiative would restore and improve a former model that incorporated health services as a part of the school health program. The history of the school health program, which can trace its roots to 1861 and President Benito Juarez, is provided.

  20. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana


    Full Text Available The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA. Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then peer-reviewed and were subject to editorial approval again.

  1. Citizen Science for public health. (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie


    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Nonhuman Animals, Public Health, and Ethics: A First Step, But…. (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha


    In December 2015, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health held the first-ever summit on the intersection between nonhuman animal ethics and human health. The conference covered a variety of issues where animal health intersects with human health, including the wildlife trade, animal agriculture, and animal experimentation. This article provides a brief overview and critique of the summit.

  3. Mental Health Screening in Schools (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon


    Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and…

  4. School food environments and policies in US public schools. (United States)

    Finkelstein, Daniel M; Hill, Elaine L; Whitaker, Robert C


    The purpose of this study was to describe school food environments and policies in US public schools and how they vary according to school characteristics. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment study by using a nationally representative sample of 395 US public schools in 129 school districts in 38 states. These 2005 data included school reports of foods and beverages offered in the National School Lunch Program and on-site observations, in a subsample of schools, of competitive foods and beverages (those sold in vending machines and a la carte and that are not part of the National School Lunch Program). Seventeen factors were used to characterize school lunches, competitive foods, and other food-related policies and practices. These factors were used to compute the food environment summary score (0 [least healthy] to 17 [most healthy]) of each school. There were vending machines in 17%, 82%, and 97% of elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, and a la carte items were sold in 71%, 92%, and 93% of schools, respectively. Among secondary schools with vending and a la carte sales, these sources were free of low-nutrient energy-dense foods or beverages in 15% and 21% of middle and high schools, respectively. The food environment summary score was significantly higher (healthier) in the lower grade levels. The summary score was not associated with the percentage of students that was certified for free or reduced-price lunches or the percentage of students that was a racial/ethnic minority. As children move to higher grade levels, their school food environments become less healthy. The great majority of US secondary schools sell items a la carte in the cafeteria and through vending machines, and these 2 sources often contain low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, commonly referred to as junk food.

  5. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications. (United States)


    threat to DSCS III: A technical ass esssent Pie pared for Defense Communications Eng. Ctr., Res ton Va. Naval Postgraduate School, (NPS-61-81-029) , Jan...Meteorological and 0cacrpi o, nv fOtwMy2-8 92 INimshr- cavo .2,p 7 18) [ 272 K.S -I L NAVAI POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL !lcnterey, California DEPARTMENT OF...Final report for period Oct., 1979 -Sept., 1980. PIE arEd for Defense Nuclear Agency SPS 5, Was lington, D.C. Naval Postgraduate School, (NES-6 9-8 1

  6. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.


    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  7. Bringing Science Public Outreach to Elementary Schools (United States)

    Miller, Lucas; Speck, A.; Tinnin, A.


    Many science "museums” already offer fantastic programs for the general public, and even some aimed at elementary school kids. However, these venues are usually located in large cities and are only occasionally used as tools for enriching science education in public schools. Here we present preliminary work to establish exciting educational enrichment environments for public schools that do not easily have access to such facilities. This program is aimed at motivating children's interest in science beyond what they learn in the classroom setting. In this program, we use the experience and experiments/demonstrations developed at a large science museum (in this case, The St. Louis Science Center) and take them into a local elementary school. At the same time, students from the University of Missouri are getting trained on how to present these outreach materials and work with the local elementary schools. Our pilot study has started with implementation of presentations/demonstrations at Benton Elementary School within the Columbia Public School district, Missouri. The school has recently adopted a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) centered learning system throughout all grade levels (K-5), and is therefore receptive to this effort. We have implemented a program in which we have given a series of scientific demonstrations at each grade level's lunch hour. Further enrichment ideas and plans include: addition demonstrations, hands-on experiments, and question and answer sessions. However, the application of these events would be to compliment the curriculum for the appropriate grade level at that time. The focus of this project is to develop public communications which links science museums, college students and local public schools with an emphasis on encouraging college science majors to share their knowledge and to strengthen their ability to work in a public environment.

  8. Variation in exemptions to school immunization requirements among New York State private and public schools. (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Kuang; Nadeau, Jessica; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Shaw, Jana


    School immunization requirements have ensured high vaccination rates and have helped to control vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccine exemptions have increased in the last decade. This study compared New York State private versus public schools with respect to medical and religious exemption rates. This retrospective study utilizes New York State Department of Health Immunization Survey data from the 2003 through 2012 academic years. Schools were categorized as private or public, the former further categorized by religious affiliation. Rates of medical and religious vaccine exemptions were compared by school category. From 2003 to 2012, religious exemptions increased in private and public schools from 0.63% to 1.35% and 0.17% to 0.29% (Spearman's R: 0.89 and 0.81), respectively. Among private schools, increases in religious exemption rates during the study period were observed in Catholic/Eastern Orthodox, Protestant/Other Christian, Jewish, and secular schools (Spearman's R=0.66, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.93), respectively. Exemption rate ratios in private schools compared to public schools were 1.39 (95% CI 1.15-1.68) for medical and 3.94 (95% CI: 3.20-4.86) for religious exemptions. Among private school students, all school types except for Catholic/Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal affiliates were more likely to report religious exemptions compared to children in public schools. Medical and religious exemption rates increased over time and higher rates were observed among New York State private schools compared to public schools. Low exemption rates are critical to minimize disease outbreaks in the schools and their community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C


    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  10. European accreditation and the future public health workforce. (United States)

    Goodman, Julien D; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Cavallo, Franco; Kalediene, Ramune; Kuiper, Tom; Otok, Robert


    In 2011 the Agency for Public Health Education Accreditation (APHEA) was initially launched focusing on Master level (second cycle) education. Between 2012 and 2013 the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region, APHEA and partner schools conducted a study on the compliance of Master level programmes of public health to the accreditation criteria. A web-based survey of second cycle programmes of public health across 29 countries was conducted using the APHEA criteria. The 29 countries were categorized into four regions: Northern, Southern, Central and Eastern and Western. We applied a Chi square test to identify regional differences with regard to the compliance of the programmes to the criteria. Data from 51 out of 71 schools contacted were analyzed. The compliance to the two themes of student and faculty exchange and quality management were lowest for programmes of public health throughout the EHEA. There were significant differences in the compliance between the regions with higher compliance in the Northern European region. Student and faculty exchange and quality management are essential for schools and programmes of public health to improve the quality of their education through expanding international knowledge and the pertinence of skills taught within European and national contexts. The results show that there are intrinsic issues with exchange and quality management as well as the role of national accreditation agencies in defining public health education for the future workforce. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Getting Religion Right in Public Schools (United States)

    Haynes, Charles C.


    Contrary to culture-war rhetoric from the Right, there is more student religious expression and more study about religion in public schools today than at any time in the last 100 years. And contrary to dire warnings from the Left, much of the religion that goes to school these days arrives through the First Amendment door. Of course, this isn't to…

  12. Legal Forum: Drug Testing in Public Schools. (United States)

    White, Janet M; Thomas, Stephen B.


    This article reviews court decisions concerning drug testing among prisoners, military personnel, public employees, and school employees. Fourth Amendment considerations of unreasonable search and seizure are discussed. In developing drug testing policies school districts must review these decisions in order to both protect individual rights and…

  13. Zoning, equity, and public health. (United States)

    Maantay, J


    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  14. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  15. Crowdsourcing applications for public health. (United States)

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M


    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  16. Staff Report to the Senior Department Official on Recognition Compliance Issues. Recommendation Page: Council on Education for Public Health (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010


    Between 1945-1973, the American Public Health Association (APHA), a membership organization for public professionals, accredited graduate programs in public health. In 1974, the APHA and the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH), a national association representing deans, faculty, and students of accredited schools of public health,…

  17. Assessment of Public Health Infrastructure to Determine Public Health Preparedness (United States)


    eight-year-old James Phipps with Cow Pox. When the boy later proved to be immune to Small Pox humanity was on its way to taming the microbe. Between...33 Anjum Hajat, Carol K. Brown and Michael R. Frazer , Local Public Health Agency Infrastructure : A Chartbook., 2001 ed...Care, Housing & Human Services and 42 George W. Bush, Homeland Security Presidential Directive

  18. Health Reforms and Public Health in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminashvili, D.


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Starting from 90‘th, the Government of Georgia (GoG made several attempts to transform Georgian health care system into one with improved efficiency, accessibility, and quality services. Mandatory social health insurance which was introduced in the 1990s was abolished and private health insurance has been promoted as its replacement. The main principle of health care reform since 2006 was the transition towards complete marketization of the health care sector: private provision, private purchasing, liberal regulation, and minimum supervision.This paper aims to analyze an impact of ongoing reforms on public health and population health status.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was conducted through national and international organization reports; key informant interviews were conducted with major stakeholders. RESULTS: The country has attained critical achievements in relation to improved maternal and child health, national responses to HIV, TB and Malaria. Life expectancy has increased from 70.3 years in 1995 to 75.1 years in 2010. Under-5 mortality indicator has improved from 45.3 to 16.4 per 1000 live birth in 2005-2010 meaning a 64% decrease. However, Georgia is still facing a number of critical challenges securing better health for the population. Cardiovascular diseases are by far the largest cause of mortality, respiratory diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and have doubled during last decade. Georgia has one of the highest rates of male smoking in the world (over 50%.CONCLUSION: Governmental efforts in health promotion and disease prevention can have significant impact on health status by preventing chronic diseases and detecting health problems at a treatable stage. Government should consider increasing funding for public health and prevention programmes with the focus on prevention of the main risk factors affecting the population’s health: tobacco and drug use and unsafe

  19. Global health, international health and public health: which relationship? (United States)

    Rosso, A; Civitelli, G; Marceca, M


    The international scientific community has recently seen a growing debate on global health, and what similarities exist between this, public health and international health. Going through the definitions of global health found in the literature, we will highlight points of contact and differences, and discuss the definition of global health provided by the Italian Network Global Health Education. Finally, we will stress the need to incorporate the global health approach in the training of future medical doctors,in particular public health specialists, with the aim of providing current and future health professionals with the skills to deal with the challenges posed by globalization at the local level.

  20. Lessons from Catholic Schools: Promoting Quality in Chicago's Public Schools. (United States)

    Hudolin-Gabin, Janet


    Argues that Chicago's northwest and southwest public schools should enroll all students in a common core curriculum to reap benefits similar to those seen in Catholic schools: high standards, smaller gaps in minority achievement, and a strong sense of community. Considers that traditional academic education is appropriate for all students. (SK)

  1. Status Offenders and Public Schools (United States)

    Thomas, Mason P., Jr.


    Reviews recent changes in North Carolina law and policy affecting compulsory school attendance and status offenders. Status offenders are children who commit offenses that are unique to children--such as being truant, running away from home, or being beyond the disciplinary control of their parents. (Author/IRT)

  2. Public Schooling: A Historical Perspective. (United States)

    Burgess, Charles


    Discusses the 1983 "A Nation at Risk" report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education in terms of the history of schooling in the U.S. from the late 1890s to the present. Questions the materialistic emphasis of the commission's definitions of the purposes of education and of the "national interest." (CB)

  3. [National public health information system]. (United States)

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea


    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies.

  4. Health promoting factors in public work places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylva Fjell


    Full Text Available

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to explore potential health-promoting work factors and their specific associations with self-rated general and mental health, life satisfaction, and low levels of musculoskeletal pain among women and men employed in the public sector.

    Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted among 2523 public employees (87% women in 124 work places. The workplaces were distributed between five occupational sectors: the provincial hospital, schools, home care services, domestic/catering, and administrative services. The response rate was 92%. Analyses of variance were used to compare the mean scores of the groups. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to assess the associations between the work factors and the health measures.

    Results:Many of the potential health promoting work factors were associated with the measures of self-rated health. However the correlations differed according to both gender and occupational sector. The main differences between the sectors were the characteristics of decision latitude-influence and learningdevelopment with the best conditions in the administrative services and schools, and the worst in home care services. Men rated higher in decision latitude-influence than women and had significantly better “opportunities to learn new and to develop in the profession”. Having enough time to complete the work tasks had the highest overall correlation with good health. In addition good relations with and support of supervisors were crucial for well-being among the employees.

    Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of high levels of decision latitude-influence, learningdevelopment, and a fair and impartial attitude among supervisors for the promotion of good health in public work places.

  5. Prevalence of depression among successful and unsuccessful students of Public Health and Nursing-Midwifery schools of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Baghiani Moghaddam


    Conclusion: Public Health and Nursing- Midwifery students in Yazd had a high prevalence of depression. Therefore planning is required to support advisory services to control and prevent depression among students.

  6. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series. (United States)

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  7. Paying for Public Schools. Issues of School Finance in California. (United States)

    Levin, Betsy; And Others

    This publication offers interested citizens of California a brief analysis of the problems the State faces in financing its public school system, a brief presentation of general financing alternatives, and a look at legislative measures which have been proposed or are being proposed to implement these alternatives. The research that produced these…

  8. A Study of Psychosocial Challenges of Public Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    school children with a view to ensuring conducive learning environment that will promote academic performances. INTRODUCTION. One third of ... JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE AND PRIMARY HEALTHCARE VOL 28 NO 1, MAR 2016. 59. Journal of ... the psychosocial and health challenges of children in public ...

  9. 34 CFR 200.44 - Public school choice. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public school choice. 200.44 Section 200.44 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.44 Public school choice... enrolled in the school with the option to transfer to another public school served by the LEA. (2) The LEA...

  10. Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006. (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Brener, Nancy D; McManus, Tim


    To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS 2006. SHPPS 2006 assessed the status of 8 components of the coordinated school health model using a nationally representative sample of public, Catholic, and private schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected from school faculty and staff using computer-assisted personal interviews and then linked with extant data on school characteristics. Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that a number of school policies and programs varied by school type (public, Catholic, or private), urbanicity, school size, discretionary dollars per pupil, percentage of white students, percentage of students qualifying for free lunch funds, and, among high schools, percentage of college-bound students. Catholic and private schools, smaller schools, and those with low discretionary dollars per pupil did not have as many key school health policies and programs as did schools that were public, larger, and had higher discretionary dollars per pupil. However, no single type of school had all key components of a coordinated school health program in place. Although some categories of schools had fewer policies and programs in place, all had both strengths and weaknesses. Regardless of school characteristics, all schools have the potential to implement a quality school health program. © Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. A Bargain Half Fulfilled: Teacher Autonomy and Accountability in Traditional Public Schools and Public Charter Schools (United States)

    Oberfield, Zachary W.


    Public charter schools (PCS) are thought to succeed because they have greater autonomy and are held more accountable than traditional public schools (TPS). Though teachers are central to this expectation, there is little evidence about whether teachers in PCS enjoy more autonomy and are held more accountable than teachers in TPS. Also, it is…

  12. Achieving Consensus on Principles of Good Practice for School Health in Independent Schools: A Delphi Study (United States)

    Marshall, Miguel G.; Allegrante, John P.


    Background: Although the 8 components of the coordinated school health (CSH) framework have been implemented to various degrees in the nation's public schools, principles of good practice (PGPs) to guide health promotion efforts in independent schools do not exist. The purpose of this study was to generate PGPs and rate their feasibility of…

  13. Mental Health Handbook for Schools


    Atkinson, M; Hornby, G


    This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.

  14. For-Profit Charter Schools and Threats to the Publicness of Public Schools (United States)

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.


    Media portrayals and education policies have combined with anecdotes about charter school successes to produce a favorable assessment of charter schools by two-thirds of Americans. Such media celebrations often group an array of charter school types together, thereby disguising their differences. Indeed, the public seems unaware there are…

  15. Public Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This set of data represents the most current public schools in the State of California as of June, 2009. Information about each public school includes: school name,...

  16. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue" (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010


    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  17. [Recent progress in international public health]. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming


    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China.

  18. Public Health Educational Information Other Resources (United States)

    This page provides educational information and resources to assist public health officials, air quality managers, health care providers and others in providing information on the health effects of wildfire and wildland fire smoke to the public.

  19. Good governance competencies in public health to train public health physicians. (United States)

    Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Silenzi, Andrea; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Franchino, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Agnese; Baldo, Vincenzo; Ricciardi, Walter; Damiani, Gianfranco


    This study aimed at assessing public health residents' perceived health system governance (HSG) training needs and to define a competency framework for "good governance" to improve Public Health physicians' curricula. A questionnaire was administered to all Italian medical residents on postgraduate courses in Hygiene and Preventive medicine. Twenty-five (78.1%) of the 32 Italian Schools of Public Health and 299/535 residents (55.9%) took part in this survey. The public health governance competency framework was developed from roles and responsibility at different levels of governance in the Italian Health System context. The questionnaire revealed that residents felt the need for more training on all the proposed HSG-related topics. Different governance functions, strategic planning, operational planning, and operational programming were considered when defining roles and responsibilities. More efforts should be made to provide organic training plans tailored to the needs of local and national health system. The competencies framework for good governance could be useful for planning professional training in both the academic and the health system settings.

  20. Teaching undergraduate nursing students about environmental health: addressing public health issues through simulation. (United States)

    Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb


    Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer gold standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health


    Towne, Samuel D.; Anderson, Kelsey E.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Kellstedt, Debra; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Ory, Marcia G.


    Background Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. We examined the effects of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on organizational capacity to meet requirements to become CEO Cancer Gold Standard Accredited. Methods We conducted an online survey to assess perceived organizational values and support for the five CEO Cancer Gold Standard Pillars for cancer prevention: tobacco cessati...

  2. Competency-based preparedness training for public health practitioners. (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Sollecito, William; Alexander, Lorraine K


    The bioterrorism preparedness training needs of the public health workforce have been described in several studies, assessments, and surveys. To meet these needs, the North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness (NCCPHP) and the Public Health Leadership Program (PHLP) at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health developed a new distance learning course, Introduction to Public Health Preparedness for Disasters and Emergencies. After a review of assessment data to identify training needs, we conducted a literature review of methodology and concluded that a distance learning course would be the best approach. The course curriculum is based on the Bioterrorism and Emergency Readiness Competencies for All Public Health Workers. This paper describes the course development process and methods used to make this course an effective training tool.

  3. Schools for health and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka


    in Denmark with its aims of ensuring overall school improvement, increasing pupil wellbeing and improving academic outcomes. Analysis of international policy documents, as well as of research literature in both fields, shows that school-based health education (HE) and education for sustainable development...... in this chapter focuses on a common tendency when health and sustainability education in schools are framed in national action plans: certain critical educational aspects are lost by narrowing the concepts of health and sustainability to fit particular school subjects (e.g. physical education or science......This chapter addresses the relationships between international and national (Danish) policies regarding sustainability and health promotion which have the potential to affect school-based health education/promotion and education for sustainable development. Based on policy mapping and analysis...

  4. OBESITY: health prevention strategies in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Ferreira Todendi


    Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.

  5. [Social marketing and public health]. (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G


    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Silveira Bonilla


    Full Text Available Since the presentation of the Green Book of the Society of Information Program in Brazil, in 2000, the discussion about digital inclusion takes national scene, however, starts being incorporated by the schools since 2007, with the Proinfo reformulation. Although the thematic is present in the documents, is far of pedagogic practices yet. This article discuss this problem since the analysis of public policies for digital inclusion in Brazilian schools, underling critical points of that articulation and indicating as a possibility of getting over the instrumental perspective of school, the opening for the digital culture entire living.




  8. Medical Student Decision Making Regarding Pursuit of a Public Health Degree

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarland, Sarah L; Meyers, Peter; Sautter, Robin; Honsvall, Amanda; Prunuske, Jacob


    Few US medical school graduates receive a public health degree. We sought to identify factors involved in medical students' decisions to pursue dual medical and public health degrees and describe the decision-making process...

  9. Frequent fliers, school phobias, and the sick student: school health personnel's perceptions of students who refuse school. (United States)

    Torrens Armstrong, Anna M; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Brindley, Roger; Coreil, Jeannine; McDermott, Robert J


    This study explored school personnel's perceptions of school refusal, as it has been described as a "common educational and public health problem" that is less tolerated due to increasing awareness of the potential socioeconomic consequences of this phenomenon. In-depth interviews were conducted with school personnel at the middle school (N = 42), high school (N = 40), and district levels (N = 10). The findings focus on emergent themes from interviews with school health personnel (N = 12), particularly those themes related to their perceptions of and role in working with school-refusing students. Personnel, especially school health services staff, constructed a typification of the school-refusing student as "the sick student," which conceptualized student refusal due to reasons related to illness. Personnel further delineated sick students by whether they considered the illness legitimate. School health personnel referenced the infamous "frequent fliers" and "school phobics" within this categorization of students. Overarching dynamics of this typification included parental control, parental awareness, student locus of control, blame, and victim status. These typifications influenced how personnel reacted to students they encountered, particularly in deciding which students need "help" versus "discipline," thus presenting implications for students and screening of students. Overall, findings suggest school health personnel play a pivotal role in screening students who are refusing school as well as keeping students in school, underscoring policy that supports an increased presence of school health personnel. Recommendations for school health, prevention, and early intervention include the development of screening protocols and staff training. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  10. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools. (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F


    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  11. Public and Private Health Care Financing with Alternate Public Rationing


    Katherine Cuff; Jeremiath Hurley; Stuart Mestelman; Andrew Muller; Robert Nuscheler


    We develop a model to analyze health care nancing arrangements and under alternative public sector rationing rules. Health care is demanded by individuals varying in income and severity of illness. There is a limited supply of health care resources used to treat individuals, causing some individuals to go untreated. We examine outcomes under full public finance, full private finance, and mixed, parallel public and private finance under two rationing rules for the public sector: needs-based ra...

  12. [Internal medicine and public health]. (United States)


    A special Committee on Internal Medicine and Public Health was established by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) in April 2007 with the duty to write a Consensus Paper on the interaction between both branches of medical profession. The main objective was to find the common grounds on which to construct a positive approach to regain space for Internal Medicine, based on prevalent epidemiológical features related to adult health issues. The authors describe the reasons to explain the gap between clinical medicine and population health and identify the nature and evolution of chronic diseases as the point of encounter between both. With Chilean health surveys data, they state that chronic diseases explain the high proportion of burden of disease, mortality and disability, and stress that by the year 2025 one in every five inhabitants will be over 65 years of age, with ageing as another main problem for the health care sector. Population with multiple risks and multimorbidity is the most important challenge for the Chilean Health Care System. A new model of care is needed to tackle this scenario with new skills regarding psychosocial determinants of health. The leading role of internists and ideally geriatricians, will be crucial in this process and will help the implementation of sound population based interventions. Both individual and community level interventions will help to improve quality of life of Chilean families.

  13. Asthma and food allergy management in Chicago Public Schools. (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Rivkina, Victoria; DeSantiago-Cardenas, Lilliana; Smith, Bridget; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Whyte, Stephanie A


    This study aimed to characterize asthma and food allergy reporting and management in Chicago Public Schools. Demographic and health data for students who have asthma and food allergy were extracted from the Chicago Public Schools database. Demographic and geographic variability and the existence of school health management plans were analyzed, and multiple logistic regression models were computed. Home addresses were geocoded to create maps of case counts per community area. Approximately 18,000 asthmatic and 4000 food allergic students were identified. Of asthmatic students, 9.3% had a food allergy; of food allergic students, 40.1% had asthma. Asthma odds were significantly higher among black and Hispanic students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3 and 1.3, respectively), whereas food allergy odds were significantly higher among black students (OR = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.3) and significantly lower among Hispanic students (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9). Only 24.3% of students who had asthma and 50.9% of students who had food allergy had a school health management plan on file. Odds of having a school health management plan were significantly higher among students with both conditions, but the likelihood of having a plan on file was significantly lower among racial/ethnic minority and low-income students, regardless of medical condition. Only 1 in 4 students who have asthma and half of food allergic students have health management plans in schools, with lower numbers among minority and low-income students. Improving chronic disease reporting and access to school health management plans is critical. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. The pedagogical value of a student-run community-based experiential learning project: The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Public Health Screening. (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Tay, Clifton M; Lee, Jeannette J M; Koh, Gerald C H


    We assessed the pedagogical value of a student-led community-based experiential learning project called the Public Health Screening (PHS) run by medical and nursing students of the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (NUS YLLSoM). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymised questionnaire on medical and nursing students who participated in PHS using the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience at the PHS. The participation rate was 93.1% (576/619) for medical students and 100% (37/37) for nursing students. All participants gave the PHS learning experience a high rating (median = 8 out of maximum of 10, inter-quartile range, 7 to 9). A majority of participants felt that PHS had helped them to improve across all domains surveyed. For medical students, those in preclinical years and females were independently more likely to feel that PHS had helped them to improve in communication skills, teamwork, ability to identify social issues, taking action, and gaining and applying their knowledge than those in clinical years and males. Improved ability to interact with patients (β=1.64, 95%CI, 1.01-2.27), appreciation of challenges to healthcare faced by Singaporeans from lower income groups (β=0.93, 95%CI, 0.49-1.37), thinking of others (β=0.70, 95%CI, 0.04-1.37) and tolerance of different people (β =0.63, 95%CI, 0.17-1.10) were strongly associated with the overall rating score. PHS was a positive learning experience in a wide range of domains for all students involved. This suggests that student-organised community-based experiential learning projects have potential educational value for both medical and nursing students.

  15. Global health education in Swedish medical schools. (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L


    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pmedical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Teaching information technology and research skills for public health. (United States)

    Binns, C W; Lee, M K


    The acquisition of information technology and research skills is fundamental for all students in Public Health because of its fundamental emphasis on population studies. In the Curtin University, Division of Health Sciences the School of Public Health has the responsibility of introducing communication and IT skills to all students, both undergraduate and postgraduate. A special program of information technology skills is offered. The age of the Internet has meant added temptation for students in terms of plagiarism and all students and staff must be aware of their ethical obligations in this area. The advent of flexible learning strategies will provide many opportunities for Schools of Public Health, both in the education of their students and in the continuing education of public health practitioners. APACPH member institutions could usefully pool their resources to develop flexible learning resources.

  17. Success of the Undergraduate Public Health Program At Tulane University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luann Ellis White


    Full Text Available Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (SPHTM launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the enrollment is steadily increasing. The majority of the BSPH graduates continue onto competitive graduate and professional degree programs. Those who seek jobs find employment related to their public health education, but outside of the traditional governmental public health agencies. The combined BSPH/MPH degree is a pipeline for students to pursue a MPH and increases the likelihood students will pursue careers in public health. The range and depth of study in the bachelors program is continually examined. Topics once within the purview of graduate education are now being incorporated into undergraduate courses. Undergraduate public health is one of a number of factors that is influencing changes in the MPH degree.

  18. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo


    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  19. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster


    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  20. The Public Schools Cannot Do It Alone (United States)

    Watkins, J. Foster


    The longstanding concerns of the author relative to society's tendency to make the public schools "responsible for all of society's problems" is addressed. The concerns as updated in this article have been expressed over the years as the author moved around the southeast in several letters to editors along the way.

  1. Public Schools and Weberian Bureaucracy: A Summary. (United States)

    Allison, Derek J.

    The author's dissertation, summarized in this presentation, was primarily concerned with the question, "Are public schools like Max Weber's conceptualization of bureaucracy?" From a survey of the literature discussing the nature of organizations, a taxonomy of organizational facets was used, first, to identify and classify the features…

  2. Accounting for the Danish Public School System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Marie Engstrøm

    Studying and thereby enhancing the understanding of the behavioral impact of the formula funding models used to allocate funds from the Danish municipalities to the local public school districts is the aim of this dissertation. A framework is proposed which, based on the theoretical understanding...

  3. Engineering Checklist for Public School Facilities. (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This reference document for public school facility designers includes code items, principles that experience has shown to be desirable and practical, and best practices from a variety of professional sources. Organized into the four major engineering categories of electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and structural, these guidelines represent the…

  4. Vietnamese Students in the Public School. (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The purpose of this booklet is to familiarize teachers and administrators with the background of Vietnamese immigrant students in Canadian public schools. A historical and cultural overview is provided which briefly describes Vietnamese customs, attitudes, roles of family members, and religion. The need for supporting and enhancing the self esteem…

  5. "International Education" in US Public Schools (United States)

    Parker, Walter C.


    This study focuses on the recent adoption of "international education" (IE) by US public schools. Theoretically, it conceptualises this phenomenon as a social movement and a dynamic arena of knowledge construction and contestation. Methodologically, it combines fieldwork, interviews and critical discourse analysis. The central finding is…

  6. 121 Tips on Advising High School Publications. (United States)

    Downs, William D., Jr.


    Lists 121 suggestions for advisors of high school publications, including making it clear to students that most readers are lazy and have to be motivated to read, sending letters to parents praising the work of their children, and maintaining a positive attitude. (DF)

  7. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school...

  8. What Will Characterize International Education in US Public Schools? (United States)

    Carber, Steven


    This article develops a working model for international education in US public schools with consideration of the curricula and accreditation standards utilized by the broad group of overseas institutions known as "international schools". It addresses the public international school identity question in a decade in which public schools in many…

  9. Nutrigenomics, individualism and public health. (United States)

    Chadwick, Ruth


    Issues arising in connection with genes and nutrition policy include both nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics considers the relationship between specifc nutrients or diet and gene expression and, it is envisaged, will facilitate prevention of diet-related common diseases. Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effects of individual genetic variation (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on response to diet, and in the longer term may lead to personalised dietary recommendations. It is important also to consider the surrounding context of other issues such as novel and functional foods in so far as they are related to genetic modification. Ethical issues fall into a number of categories: (1) why nutrigenomics? Will it have important public health benefits? (2) questions about research, e.g. concerning the acquisition of information about individual genetic variation; (3) questions about who has access to this information, and its possible misuse; (4) the applications of this information in terms of public health policy, and the negotiation of the potential tension between the interests of the individual in relation to, for example, prevention of conditions such as obesity and allergy; (5) the appropriate ethical approach to the issues, e.g. the moral difference, if any, between therapy and enhancement in relation to individualised diets; whether the 'technological fix' is always appropriate, especially in the wider context of the purported lack of public confidence in science, which has special resonance in the sphere of nutrition.

  10. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo


    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  11. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael


    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  12. Nutritional status among primary school children in rural Sri Lanka; a public health challenge for a country with high child health standards. (United States)

    Naotunna, N P G C R; Dayarathna, M; Maheshi, H; Amarasinghe, G S; Kithmini, V S; Rathnayaka, M; Premachandra, L; Premarathna, N; Rajasinghe, P C; Wijewardana, G; Agampodi, T C; Agampodi, S B


    Nutritional status of pre adolescent children is not widely studied in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status among pre-adolescent school children in a rural province of Sri Lanka. A school based cross sectional study was carried out in North Central Province in 100 rural schools, selected using multi stage cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size. Children in grade one to five were enrolled with a maximum cluster size of fifty. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained data collectors and venesection was done at site by trained nurses. WHO AnthoPlus was used to calculate the BMI, height for age and weight for age Z scores. Survey design adjusted prevalence estimates with linearized standard errors were generated using svy function of STATA. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was calculated using methaeamoglobin method. Screening for iron deficiency and thalassemia trait was done using peripheral blood films. Height and weight measurements were done for 4469 of children and the Hb data was available for 4398 children. Based on the survey design adjusted estimates, prevalence of severe thinness, thinness, overweight and obesity in this population was 8.60% (SE 0.94), 2.91%(SE 0.74), 2.95%(0.26) and 2.43%(SE 0.92) respectively. Similarly, survey design adjusted prevalence of underweight and stunting were, 25.93% (95% CI 24.07-27.89%) and 43.92%(95% CI 40.55-47.56%). Adjusted mean estimates for hemoglobin was 12.20 (95% CI 12.16-12.24) g/dL. Prevalence of anemia was 17.3% (n = 749). Prevalence of mild and moderate anemia was 9.4 and 7.6% respectively. This study confirms that malnutrition is still a major problem in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

  13. Nutritional status among primary school children in rural Sri Lanka; a public health challenge for a country with high child health standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. G. C. R. Naotunna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional status of pre adolescent children is not widely studied in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status among pre-adolescent school children in a rural province of Sri Lanka. Methods A school based cross sectional study was carried out in North Central Province in 100 rural schools, selected using multi stage cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size. Children in grade one to five were enrolled with a maximum cluster size of fifty. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained data collectors and venesection was done at site by trained nurses. WHO AnthoPlus was used to calculate the BMI, height for age and weight for age Z scores. Survey design adjusted prevalence estimates with linearized standard errors were generated using svy function of STATA. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb was calculated using methaeamoglobin method. Screening for iron deficiency and thalassemia trait was done using peripheral blood films. Results Height and weight measurements were done for 4469 of children and the Hb data was available for 4398 children. Based on the survey design adjusted estimates, prevalence of severe thinness, thinness, overweight and obesity in this population was 8.60% (SE 0.94, 2.91%(SE 0.74, 2.95%(0.26 and 2.43%(SE 0.92 respectively. Similarly, survey design adjusted prevalence of underweight and stunting were, 25.93% (95% CI 24.07–27.89% and 43.92%(95% CI 40.55–47.56%. Adjusted mean estimates for hemoglobin was 12.20 (95% CI 12.16–12.24 g/dL. Prevalence of anemia was 17.3% (n = 749. Prevalence of mild and moderate anemia was 9.4 and 7.6% respectively. Conclusion This study confirms that malnutrition is still a major problem in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

  14. Practicing management and leadership: creating the information network for public health officials. (United States)

    Baker, Edward L; Porter, Janet


    The Management Moment" is a regular column within the Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. Janet Porter, PhD, and Edward Baker, MD, MPH, MSc, are serving as The Management Moment Editors. Dr Porter is Associate Dean for Executive Education, The North Carolina Institute for Public Health, School of Public Health, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Dr Baker is Director of The North Carolina Institute for Public Health, School of Public Health, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This column provides commentary and guidance on timely management issues commonly encountered in public health practice.

  15. An Analysis of Cyberbullying Policies In Virginia Public School Districts


    Poole, G. Wesley


    Wes Poole Abstract The study examines the acceptable computer system use policies of each of the public school districts in the Commonwealth of Virginia, as well as the Virginia School Boards Association and the National School Boards Association policies as they relate to cyberbullying. Public middle school and public secondary school administrators across the Commonwealth were surveyed to determine to what extent cyberbullying is an issue in their schools, and to d...

  16. Ensino de saneamento do meio nas escolas de saúde pública Teaching environmental sanitation in schools of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Engracia de Oliveira


    programmes needed. Environmental sanitation must be teached from primary school to college. In the schools of Public Health usually it is ministered at the undergraduate level, in courses for students that have already concluded some undergraduate courses, and at the graduate level, as in programmes for ancillary personnel. Some aspects of environmental sanitation could be ministered in shorter specialization courses. The programme of environmental sanitation of any course must be oriented in order to give a broad knowledge in this field, and according to the needs of the country, region or state, and the professional we want to prepare; the role of the school, or, in other words, according to the level of preparation of personnel - International, National, Interstatal or Statal, must influence the programmes of environmental sanitation. Researches must be intensified. In the developed countries as in those undergoing development, the researches must be more practical and simple. Exchange with developed countries could be useful for both.

  17. Sick Schools 2009: America's Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010


    Everybody knows that healthy school buildings contribute to student learning, reduce health and operating costs, and ultimately, increase school quality and competitiveness. However, 55 million of the nation's children attend public and private K-12 schools where poor air quality, hazardous chemicals and other unhealthy conditions make students…

  18. The changing nature of public schools: implications for teacher preparation. (United States)

    Cleary, M J; Gobble, D


    The changing nature of public schools in America reflects an increasing demand for accountability in public institutions. One outgrowth of this change is the "agency" orientation of the school. This orientation requires schools to participate fully in the larger social service network supporting many of America's students. The teacher's role in this new school environment is discussed and strengths and weaknesses of current training of teachers is highlighted. Particular emphasis is placed on the changing nature of the entering teaching major. Teacher thinking styles that promote success in general, and success in health teaching in particular, are identified. The need to make incoming teachers aware of the "realities" of the teaching environment is discussed. Person-environment fit issues are reviewed in terms of their implications for teacher training. The importance of the teaching minor is discussed focusing on the new demands of health educators in schools, and recommendations are offered to increase the potential success of the health educator as a change agent.

  19. Physical education teacher effectiveness in a public health context. (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L; Lounsbery, Monica A F


    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school effectiveness studies has been student engagement. Thus, in PE, it is important to assess the teaching and learning processes related to expected outcomes, including what students and teachers do and how lessons are delivered. Within a public health context, it is then important to assess how teachers provide students with ample health-enhancing physical activity to help them become physically fit and to learn generalizable movement and behavioral skills designed to promote physical activity and fitness outside of class time. In this article, we emphasize that the future of PE in our nation's schools will depend on the ability of schools to provide programs that are perceived to be of importance to the public; moreover, we believe that the future of PE rests on the effectiveness of PE teachers to operate within a public health context. In addition, we also provide a summary of teacher effectiveness research within a public health context and offer visions for the future assessment and evaluation of PE teacher effectiveness that move beyond the PE lesson to include components of the comprehensive school physical activity model.

  20. School choice: challenge to Sharpeville public school principals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    If all data are available, an external "auditor" will be able to determine whether the findings are in accordance with the data of the research, and other researchers will be able to judge whether the findings may be applicable to their circumstances. Demarcation of the research. The research focused on public primary school ...

  1. High School Science Technology Additions, Midland Public Schools. (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2001


    Discusses design goals, space requirements, and need for mobile furniture and "imagination stations" at Michigan's Midland Public High School science technology addition. Describes the architectural design, costs, and specifications. Includes floor plans, general description, photos and a list of consultants, manufacturers, and suppliers…

  2. School Gardens: Cultivating Food Security in Nova Scotia Public Schools? (United States)

    Carlsson, Liesel; Williams, Patricia L; Hayes-Conroy, Jessica S; Lordly, Daphne; Callaghan, Edith


    A small but growing body of peer-reviewed research suggests that school gardens can play a role in building community food security (CFS); however, to date little research exploring the role of school gardens in supporting CFS is available. This paper begins to address this gap in the literature. A qualitative, exploratory, single-case study design was used. The focus of this case study was the school food garden at an elementary school in the River Valley, Nova Scotia, school community. Results provide useful information about potential CFS effects of school gardens in addition to the environmental effects on school gardens important to their effectiveness as CFS tools. Findings suggest children gained food-related knowledge, skills, and values that support long-term CFS. A local social and political landscape at the community, provincial, and school board level were key to strengthening this garden's contributions to CFS. We support Dietitians of Canada's nomination of school gardens as an indicator of CFS with theoretical and practical evidence, underscore the importance of a supportive environment, and need for further research in this area. Health professionals and community organizations provide critical support, helping to weave gardens into a greater movement towards building CFS.

  3. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho


    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209

  4. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Bevc, Christine A; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; Davies, Megan; MacDonald, Pia D M


    In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness...

  5. What is the evidence based public health?


    Hernández F., Luis J.


    Evidence based Public Health is the execution and evaluation of the efficiency of interventions, plans, programs, projects and politics in public health through the application of the scientific principles of reasoning, including the systematic use of information and information systems. Evidence based public health involves the use of methodologies similar to those applied in evidence-based clinical medicine, but differs in its contents. In public health two types of evidence are described. ...

  6. Translating science into action: periodontal health through public health approaches. (United States)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sayaka


    Clinical and public health research data have shown that a number of individual, professional and community health measures may be valuable in preventing the major oral diseases. The fundamental gap in knowledge, however, is not confined to 'what to do' but rather 'how' to translate the scientific findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other chronic diseases. Research on the causative role of tobacco use in periodontal disease is strong because of the fact that tobacco-induced disease ultimately may lead to the loss of teeth. Studies also indicate that wound healing may be negatively affected by the use of tobacco. Likewise, research has shown that extreme use of alcohol, poor diet and nutrition, and psychological stress all have negative effects on periodontal health. Research on sociobehavioral risk factors has great implication to prevent periodontal disease. The case for tobacco is illustrated in this report. The global exposure to tobacco use in adults and adolescents is outlined. Because of the global Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (2003), the solid research on the harmful effect of tobacco is now being widely used for public health. The importance of tobacco prevention within the context of health-promoting schools is emphasized. Research on other population-directed strategies and their implications on public health would be instrumental to integrated prevention of chronic disease and periodontal disease. Community interventions and delivery of preventive oral care by oral health services may have positive outcomes for periodontal health but periodontal research needs to be further strengthened by the provision of sound evidence. It is somewhat remarkable that research on true population

  7. Public Health Issues – Promise and Peril

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    has broad perspective in public health that has been vigorously advocated by many public health professionals with convincing justifications. Public health professionals are frustrated when they witness egregious social ills such as poverty, discrimination and inequality, homelessness, violence and war, and there has been ...

  8. An introduction to public health and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unwin, Nigel; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Carr, Susan


    ... provides a multi-professional introduction to the key concepts in public health and epidemiology. It presents a broad, interactive account of contemporary public health, placing an emphasis on developing public health skills and stimulating the reader to think through the issues for themselves. The new edition features additional material on: * His...

  9. Interest in public health careers among undergraduate student nurses. (United States)

    Zahner, Susan J; Henriques, Jeffrey B


    Public health workforce trends demonstrate threats to a vital national resource. The current shortage of public health nurses is due to a variety of factors. One route to addressing the public health nursing shortage is to increase the level of interest in public health as a career option for nurses. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship of nursing education program and field experience characteristics on the level of interest in a public health career among student nurses. Cross-sectional, online surveys of undergraduate student nurses were conducted over 6 semesters to assess the relationship of field practicum characteristics and level of interest in a public health career. Undergraduate student nurses (N = 882) enrolled in traditional baccalaureate nursing programs (n = 18) and online associate to baccalaureate degree completion programs (n = 2) in one US state participated in the survey after completing the required community or public health coursework and field experiences. Level of interest in a career in public health was measured using a 4-point Likert-type scale anchored by "no interest" and "very strong interest." Overall, 46% of respondents expressed either moderate or strong interest in a future career in public health. Having had a field experience in a local health department was the only type of experience associated with stronger interest in a public health career. Enrollment in baccalaureate completion programs was associated with higher interest, and enrollment in programs located in a region of the state where students were significantly less likely to have field experiences in local health departments was associated with lower interest. Career interests for nurses are developed in part through field experiences while in nursing school. Interest in public health careers may be nurtured through field experiences in local health departments.

  10. Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. (United States)

    Karnik, Sameera; Kanekar, Amar


    Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. The purpose of this manuscript is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this epidemic. In order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier databases was carried out for the time period 1999-2011. Some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. The effective school-based interventions were seen targeting physical activity along with healthy diet education. The major challenges faced by these intervention programs are financial, along with stigmatization of obese children. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical activity. In conclusion, childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.

  11. Violence in public school: reports of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carneiro Ferreira


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the perception of violence from the reports of teachers of elementary and high school in a public state school in Fortaleza, Ceará. Method: A qualitative descriptive study conducted with 26 teachers, in the period from January to May 2006. To collect the data we adopted the following procedures: the discussion on school violence during the meetings of the teacher training week; the reading of the school regulations and the distribution of an instrument with the guiding question about the concept of violence as from the school reality, among the participants of the study. Afterwards, the thematic analysis of the reports was carried out. Results: Through the reports of teachers emerged the following categories: physical aggression, verbal aggression and fights as the most cited; to hide personal belongings, cursing, shoving and disrespect for the teacher and pranks were also mentioned. Conclusion: From the reports it appears that violence is perceived in physical, dimension moral and symbolic, and these “typologies” corroborate the descriptions found in literature as bullying or incivility, which dominate the school context.

  12. Methodological innovations in public health education: transdisciplinary problem solving. (United States)

    Lawlor, Edward F; Kreuter, Matthew W; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Anne K; McBride, Timothy D


    In 2008, the faculty of the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis designed a Master of Public Health program centered on transdisciplinary problem solving in public health. We have described the rationale for our approach, guiding principles and pedagogy for the program, and specific transdisciplinary competencies students acquire. We have explained how transdisciplinary content has been organized and delivered, how the program is being evaluated, and how we have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for a Master of Public Health degree.

  13. Survey of accredited master of public health (MPH) programs with health education concentrations: a resource for strengthening the public health workforce. (United States)

    Woodhouse, Lynn D; Auld, M Elaine; Livingood, William C; Mulligan, Lori A


    The authors designed survey research to assess accredited master of public health (MPH) programs with health education concentrations. A Web-based survey was distributed to program directors and was used to collect characteristics of program faculty, students, graduates, internships, employment, and competency development. Results indicate that students and graduates are diverse; 72% of students complete internships and 61% of graduates work in government or community public health-related agencies; 98% of faculty hold a doctoral degree and 67% have at least one degree from an accredited public health school or program; and 85% of programs build competencies in most of the Institute of Medicine-suggested areas. The authors conclude that accredited MPH programs with a concentration in health education train diverse public health practitioners highly likely to work in a government or community public health agency with competencies to enhance public health.

  14. EMS Activations for School-Aged Children From Public Buildings, Places of Recreation or Sport, and Health Care Facilities in Pennsylvania. (United States)

    Catherine, Andrew T; Olympia, Robert P


    To determine the etiology of emergency medical services (EMS) activations in 2011 to public buildings, places of recreation or sport, and health care facilities involving children aged 5 to 18 years in Pennsylvania. Electronic records documenting 2011 EMS activations as provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Health's Bureau of EMS were reviewed. Data elements (demographics, dispatch complaint, mechanism of injury, primary assessment) from patients aged 5 to 18 years involved in an EMS response call originating from either a public building, a place of recreation and sport, or health care facility were analyzed. A total of 12,289 records were available for analysis. The most common primary assessments from public buildings were traumatic injury, behavioral/psychiatric disorder, syncope/fainting, seizure, and poisoning. The most common primary assessments from places of recreation or sport were traumatic injury, syncope/fainting, altered level of consciousness, respiratory distress, and abdominal pain. The most common primary assessments from health care facilities were behavioral/psychiatric disorder, traumatic injury, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and syncope/fainting. When examining the mechanism of injury for trauma-related primary assessments, falls were the most common mechanism at all 3 locations, followed by being struck by an object. Of the 1335 serious-incident calls (11% of the total EMS activations meeting inclusion criteria), 61.2% were from public buildings, 14.1% from places of recreation or sport, and 24.7% from health care facilities. Our identification of common EMS dispatch complaints, mechanisms of injury, and primary assessments can be used in the education of staff and preparation of facilities for medical emergencies and injuries where children spend time.

  15. Defining the Role of Public Health in Disaster Recovery: An Evaluation of State Public Health Planning Efforts (United States)


    vaccinating children for school or responding to a case of whooping cough. Public health is capable of ramping up resources to provide nurses to work in...U.S. government, universities, professional associations, non-profit research corporations, journals, and completed theses. Significant resources were...discovered.69 A frequently cited and recent public health event of significance is the H1N1 pandemic flu virus from 2009. The response to the event

  16. A national agenda for public health informatics. (United States)

    Yasnoff, W A; Overhage, J M; Humphreys, B L; LaVenture, M; Goodman, K W; Gatewood, L; Ross, D A; Reid, J; Hammond, W E; Dwyer, D; Huff, S M; Gotham, I; Kukafka, R; Loonsk, J W; Wagner, M M


    The American Medical Informatics Association 2001 Spring Congress brought together the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions on funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes: (1) all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research and (2) informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health.

  17. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska


    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  18. [Social medicine, public health and governance for health]. (United States)

    Holčík, Jan

    Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.

  19. East African Journal of Public Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Journal of Public Health is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing scientific research work from a range of public health related disciplines including community medicine, epidemiology, nutrition, behavioural sciences, health promotion, health education, communicable and non-communicable disease.

  20. East African Journal of Public Health: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Aims, scope and policy: The East African Journal of Public Health is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing scientific research work from a wide range of public health related disciplines including community medicine, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavioral sciences, health promotion, health economics, ...

  1. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A


    The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005.......The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005....

  2. Public Schools, Nevada, 2009, Nevada Department of Education (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Nevada Department of Education locations of public schools for the 2008-2009 school year. List of schools furnished by NDE. Locations furnished by the US EPA Region 9.

  3. Neoliberal Policies and their Impact on Public Health Education: Observations on the Venezuelan Experience


    Oscar Feo


    This article discusses the impact of neoliberal policies on the training of specialists in Public Health and describes the Venezuelan experience. In Venezuela, like other countries of the American continent, Public Health Schools had been transformed from institutions under the direction of the Ministry of Health to a model in which training took place under market conditions. Education in Public Health became a private good for individual consumption, and schools, lacking official funding, s...

  4. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies. (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott


    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  5. Secondary Traumatic Stress in Public School Teachers: Contributing and Mitigating Factors (United States)

    Caringi, James C.; Stanick, Cameo; Trautman, Ashley; Crosby, Lindsay; Devlin, Mary; Adams, Stephanie


    Although research has examined secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health workers, child welfare workers, and other human service professionals, such examination among public school teachers has only recently begun. This study represents the first investigation to examine the factors that influence STS levels in public School teachers.…

  6. Sex education in the pedagogical practice of public school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Borges Rufino


    Full Text Available This descriptive study was performed with 29 teachers from three public state schools in Goiânia, Goiás state. The teachers answered a semi-structured questionnaire that aimed at verifying the pedagogical practice in sex education, difficulties related to the theme, and the need for training. Most teachers were male (69% and aged between 25 and 35 years (74%. Half held a graduate degree (54% in human sciences (49%. Nearly all teachers find difficulties in working the topic (89% and need training (93%. Contents on sexuality were not addressed in the Political Pedagogical Projects (76% and the biology program aimed at teaching the theme (55%, a reality that disagrees with the National Curricular Standards, which is based on transversality. Partnerships between health and education must be established, particularly between the Family Health Strategy the higher education institutions, providing public school teachers with the necessary didactic-pedagogical support to address sexuality in the classroom. Descriptors: Sexuality; Schools; Nursing; Public Health.

  7. Public health problems of urbanization. (United States)

    Mutatkar, R K


    Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope.

  8. Improving Mental Health in Schools (United States)

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.


    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARUSHA SCHOOL DENTAL HEALTH. PROGRAMME. Dr. MOSHA H. T. Senior Dental Surgeon,. Ministry of Health, Dar es Salaam. DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRICT. Arusha District is one of the 6 districts of. Aruska region. It consists of an urban part and a suburban part. Arusha Town has a population of. 88155 people ...

  10. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine? (United States)

    Hilton, Warren


    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  11. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  12. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah


    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  13. Educated Public Relations: School Safety 101. With Engineering Consent. (United States)

    Greenbaum, Stuart; And Others

    This book is designed to enable school administrators to actively participate in planning and implementing school safety and public relations activities. It provides a conceptual framework of the public relations process and shows its practical application to the problems of school crime and student misbehavior, through discussion of school public…

  14. Gender sensitivity to public school enrolment in Ondo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the total number of public schools in Ondo, Nigeria which gives information on the name of the school, males and females in each school from JSS1 to SS3 in the eighteen local government areas. Systematic sampling was used to select forty eight schools from the two hundred and eighty eight public ...

  15. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet


    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  16. 34 CFR 76.659 - Use of public school personnel. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of public school personnel. 76.659 Section 76.659... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.659 Use of public school personnel. A subgrantee may use program funds to make public personnel...

  17. Associations between family characteristics and public health nurses' concerns at children's health examinations. (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina


    The family and the way it functions have a key role for the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Approximately 10-30% of children grow up in families where their health and well-being may be endangered or weakened. There is very little research data on public health nurses' concerns in connection with children's health examinations related to family characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of children's gender, age, family structure, mother's employment status and parents' perception on the sufficiency of income with public health nurses' concerns on physical and psychosocial health at children's health examinations. In 2007-2009, information about children's health and well-being and their background factors was collected from the health examinations of altogether 6506 children in Finland using a cross-sectional design. Associations between family characteristics and nurses concern related to physical and psychosocial health and development of children were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Physical health and psychosocial issues of school-age children raised most concern in public health nurses. Especially, public health nurses felt concern for the psychosocial development of boys both under and of school age. Family structure and the family's financial situation were associated with public health nurses' concern for children's physical health, psychosocial development and the presence of at least one concern. The fact that public health nurses found cause for concern during health examinations was associated with the child's gender, development stage and family characteristic. The research findings may be utilised in planning and targeting health counselling and services in child and school health care. Understanding the role of family characteristics in health and well-being challenges in children is useful in promoting multidisciplinary work in health care. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Use of the Means/Ends Test to Evaluate Public School Dress-Code Policies (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Studak, Cathryn M.


    The purpose of this article is to explain how a means/ends test can be adapted for the school environment. Public school officials can use a means/ends test to document an analysis of whether dress-code policies will be effective in diminishing risks to the health, safety, or morality of the school population. Elements of policy evaluation--ends,…

  19. Escuelas saludables y participativas: evaluación de una estrategia de salud pública Healthy and participative schools: evaluation of a public health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ramos


    Full Text Available Objetivo: ¡Hagamos salud! es una estrategia de promoción de la salud aplicable en centros educativos que se basa en la evidencia, la participación, el consenso y el compromiso de la comunidad educativa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar esta estrategia según la consecución de dos objetivos específicos: 1 la percepción de la comunidad escolar respecto al proceso de implantación y 2 los cambios producidos. Métodos: Durante el curso 2010-11 se llevaron a cabo: 1 un estudio cualitativo descriptivo para evaluar el proceso de implantación mediante la identificación de factores facilitadores, barreras, necesidades y propuestas de mejora, a través de grupos focales y entrevistas en profundidad; 2 un estudio cuasiexperimental antes-después con grupo control mediante encuestas con el fin de evaluar la participación y el nivel de ajuste a los parámetros de las Escuelas Promotoras de Salud. Las fuentes de información utilizadas fueron profesionales del ámbito de la salud y la educación. Resultados: Los principales factores facilitadores fueron la implicación de la estructura directiva y la formación durante la implantación. La principal barrera fue la escasez de tiempo y recursos. Los centros ¡Hagamos salud! cumplen en mayor medida los criterios de Escuelas Promotoras de Salud que el grupo comparación: son más participativos, realizan un mayor número de acciones preventivas e incorporaron decisiones de salud en la programación y la normativa del centro. Conclusiones: ¡Hagamos salud! es una estrategia participativa y comunitaria que, basándose en los criterios de las Escuelas Promotoras de Salud, permite crear entornos promotores de la salud.Objective: Let's foster health¿ is an intervention strategy in health promotion for use in primary and secondary schools and based on evidence, participation, consensus and the commitment of all members of the educational community. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this

  20. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools. (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal


    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. School Psychology and Childhood – a public school experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Cintra da Silva


    Full Text Available This work reports an activity performed as part of coursework in Psychology class during a school semester which aimed to provide students an effective experience of what public school psychologists do, based on the critical presumptions about Psychology and also aimed to present reflections on the performance of this professional together with children. The proposal involved encounters with teachers and children and the undergraduates were responsible for the preparation and execution of activities under the supervision of professors. The Psychology students highlighted the importance of this practice for their professional training, which provided discussions on key questions such as childhood, education and the impact of School Psychology in the Brazilian educational scope.

  2. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives


    Orvik, Arne


    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutio...

  3. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program. (United States)

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Bevc, Christine A; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; Davies, Megan; MacDonald, Pia D M


    In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness and response system.

  4. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz Milissa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. Methods We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1 elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2 examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Results Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Conclusions Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public

  5. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  6. Public key infrastructures for health. (United States)

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd


    Introducing the technological step into this new 3rd millennium, advanced communication means like global networks including the Internet become more and more important for a fast and convenient information exchange across regional and even national borders. Concerning the sector of public and private healthcare and welfare, new health information system, or citizens' information systems in general, are coming up to meet the needs of the whole information society. Thus, developing and implementing those systems is one of the most important aims of the present and the near future. Access to, and communication of, relevant patient-related administrative and medical information items always means a secure and trustworthy way of dealing with data. Concerning the main aspects of specific legal, social, ethical, technical, organisational, and even political requirements for secure access and secure communication of health data in terms of data protection, data security, privacy, safety and quality using unprotected networks as, e.g., the Internet, there is a strong and even growing need for the fundamental technology of Trusted Third Parties to meet the whole range of the security categories as integrity, confidentiality, availability, accountability, and access control.

  7. Preparation of European Public Health Professionals in the Twenty-first Century


    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Otok, Robert


    The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European’s health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed th...

  8. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health. (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R


    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  9. Assessing Entrepreneurship in Governmental Public Health (United States)

    Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W.; Lauer, Johanna R.


    Objectives. We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Methods. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Results. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Conclusions. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs’ reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs’ current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative. PMID:25689182

  10. Active Agents of Health Promotion? The School's Role in Supporting the HPV Vaccination Programme (United States)

    Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; McNaughton, Rebekah


    By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as…

  11. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro


    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  12. A community-based participatory research partnership to reduce vehicle idling near public schools. (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H


    The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.

  13. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health. (United States)

    Leipert, B D


    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  14. Sports profile in public elementary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else


    In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...... as reproducing or as an arena for social mobility. Finally a discussion of the possibilities for either sports policy development or school policy development through single initiatives is presented....

  15. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice. (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K


    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  16. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel


    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  17. Health disparities and gaps in school readiness. (United States)

    Currie, Janet


    The author documents pervasive racial disparities in the health of American children and analyzes how and how much those disparities contribute to racial gaps in school readiness. She explores a broad sample of health problems common to U.S. children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma, and lead poisoning, as well as maternal health problems and health-related behaviors that affect children's behavioral and cognitive readiness for school. If a health problem is to affect the readiness gap, it must affect many children, it must be linked to academic performance or behavior problems, and it must show a racial disparity either in its prevalence or in its effects. The author focuses not only on the black-white gap in health status but also on the poor-nonpoor gap because black children tend to be poorer than white children. The health conditions Currie considers seriously impair cognitive skills and behavior in individual children. But most explain little of the overall racial gap in school readiness. Still, the cumulative effect of health differentials summed over all conditions is significant. Currie's rough calculation is that racial differences in health conditions and in maternal health and behaviors together may account for as much as a quarter of the racial gap in school readiness. Currie scrutinizes several policy steps to lessen racial and socioeconomic disparities in children's health and to begin to close the readiness gap. Increasing poor children's eligibility for Medicaid and state child health insurance is unlikely to be effective because most poor children are already eligible for public insurance. The problem is that many are not enrolled. Even increasing enrollment may not work: socioeconomic disparities in health persist in Canada and the United Kingdom despite universal public health insurance. The author finds more promise in strengthening early childhood programs with a built-in health component, like Head Start; family

  18. A package of interventions to reduce school dropout in public schools in a developing country. A feasibility study. (United States)

    Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Oswald, Sylvia; Comassetto, Júlia Obst; Kieling, Christian; Gonçalves, Renata Rocha; Rohde, Luis Augusto


    School dropout rates are staggeringly high in developing countries, even for elementary school children. This study aims to assess the feasibility and initial efficacy of a package of interventions tailored to reduce school dropout in public schools in an urban city in Brazil. Two public schools with similar high rates of dropout in elementary grades were selected. In one of them, a package of universal preventive interventions was implemented during a school year, including two workshops with teachers, five informative letters to parents, three meetings with parents at school, a telephone helpline at school, and a 1-day cognitive intervention. For children who stayed ten consecutive days out of school without reason, mental health assessment and referral to mental health services in the community were offered. In the second school, no intervention was implemented. After this 1-year intervention, there were significant differences between the two schools in rates of both dropout (P school, 18 (45%) youths returned to school after intervention among the 40 at-risk students. Moderate engagement of school staff was the main logistic problem. Our findings suggest that programs combining universal primary preventive strategies and interventions focused on at-risk students can be implemented and useful in developing countries to reduce school dropout.

  19. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John


    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  20. Florida's tuberculosis epidemic. Public health response. (United States)

    Witte, J J; Bigler, W J


    Florida ranked fourth in the nation with 1,707 tuberculosis cases reported in 1992 for a rate of 12.7 per 100,000 population. Thirteen percent of these patients had AIDS. Recent cases in prisons, shelters, hospitals and schools have stimulated interest and media coverage. Resurgence of strains of multiple-drug resistant tuberculosis is a serious concern. The Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, in collaboration with allied agencies, has utilized several initiatives in response. The most significant, Tuberculosis Epidemic Containment Plan, details intervention strategies needed to eliminate TB in the state by the year 2010. Successful implementation depends upon local TB prevention and control coalitions that include private and public sector providers.

  1. The Pill Not Taken: Revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.


    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to…

  2. Multiple Choice: How Public School Leaders in New Orleans' Saturated Market View Private School Competitors (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.


    School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…

  3. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights. (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L


    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Public health genomics: origins and basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Zimmern


    Full Text Available Knowledge and technologies arising from the Human Genome Project promise in time to offer new opportunities for the treatment and prevention of disease. The enterprise of public health genomics aims to bridge the gap between advances in basic research and their responsible and effective implementation in clinical services and public health programmes. Public health genomics stresses the importance of understanding how genes and environment act together to influence health; avoiding genetic exceptionalism; appreciating the social and political context of genomic advances; and encouraging critical evaluation of proposed new tests and interventions. New international networks and collaborations are being established to develop public health genomics and further its aims.

  5. [Health education in primary school: Alicante city (Spain) teachers' opinions]. (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; García de la Hera, Manuela; La Parra, Daniel


    This study explores the opinions of primary school teachers about health activities carried out in schools in Alicante city (Spain). An exploratory study was conducted through qualitative content analysis. Three focus groups were conducted with 25 primary school teachers (14 women and 11 men) working in 14 public and 7 private schools in the city of Alicante. Participants were asked about the health activities carried on in their schools. Teachers distinguished between health education activities promoted by the school and those included in external programmes promoted by public and private institutions. External programmes were considered as impositions, lacking continuity and chosen according to passing fads. Although teachers demonstrated a more positive attitude towards activities arising from their own initiative, they identified health education as a secondary task. Teachers considered that improving their own health education training and promoting the involvement of parents, health professionals and public institutions were the most appropriate ways to promote health education in the school. Teachers showed a more positive opinion and greater commitment towards health activities that complement and facilitate their teaching tasks. Their didactic programme and opinion should be taken into account to maximise the efficiency of the health promotion and education activities promoted by external organisations. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Seeking Election: Evaluating a Campaign for Public School Board Trusteeship (United States)

    Mueller, Robin


    Canadian public school board trustees are generally chosen by way of public ballot in civic elections. A comparison of board governance literature to a local narrative account of public school board elections exposes several gaps between espoused democratic ideals and the realities of public engagement in trustee selection. I investigate the…

  7. Indoor environmental health in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, B.M. [Envirodesic Certification Program, Stouffville, ON (Canada)


    Indoor health is a concern today because unhealthy environments can cause adverse health effects, poor learning and teaching and increased costs. The holistic view of the environment and human health links sick kids, absenteeism, teacher illness, education costs and mouldy schools. An historical perspective is provided on the problem and its treatment referring to: 1962 and chemical susceptibility, 1975 and open systems theory, 1978 and high risk groups, 1985 and pollution and education in Toronto, 1987 and health environments for Canadians, 1995 and the National Education Association in the U.S., 1997 and a U.S. Executive Order, 1998 and the Texas Dept. of Health, 1998 and the U.S. EPS website 'IAQ Tools for Schools', and 1998 and 'The air children breathe.' It is known that pollutants adversely affect health, that children are highly susceptible, that the role in schools has being known for decades, and that information is now available worldwide through the Internet. The reasons why mould is a problem are listed, and the effects of an unhealthy indoor environment are referred to. The benefits of a healthy indoor environment are listed, and the various means of creating a healthy indoor environment are outlined. New developments are referred to including: fresh air, building envelope, building leakage, airtightness of buildings, tight envelope and air supply, low-emission materials, maintenance and cleaning, strategy and financing, collaboration, and the possibility of healthy schools.

  8. Healing the schism: medicine and public health in Pakistan. (United States)

    Pappas, Greg; Glasser, Jay H; Akhter, Mohammad; Nayani, Parvez B


    The relationship between medicine and public health has a long and complex co-evolution. In developing countries where the health needs are greatest and resources are few, this relationship is of critical importance. This paper provides a case study of the development of the relationship between medical and public health at the Aga Khan University (AKU), a leading educational institution in Pakistan, which was founded with a vision of reuniting medicine and public health. Rapid growth and development have led to successful medicine and public health programs, but have fallen short in creating the synergies needed to address the population health problems of the country. In a twenty-five year history of strong growth and development, the AKU has recreated the schism that marked US institutional development in the 20th century, despite strategic consideration to address population health in the design of the University. We recommend the creation of public health schools that focus on leadership to renew an emphasis on unifying health concepts and actions following successful examples to bring medicine and public health together.

  9. The HPV vaccine: knowledge and attitudes among public health nurses and general practitioners in Northern Norway after introduction of the vaccine in the school-based vaccination programme. (United States)

    Nilsen, Karin; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw; Klouman, Elise


    To investigate knowledge of and attitudes to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, cervical cancer, related sources of information and factors associated with willingness to vaccinate one's own daughter among primary health care (PHC) personnel. Cross-sectional study. PHC. All public health nurses (PHNs) and general practitioners (GPs) in Northern Norway were invited to answer a structured electronic questionnaire; 31% participated (N = 220). Self-reported and actual knowledge, information sources, attitudes and willingness to vaccinate their (tentative) daughter. 47% of respondents knew that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. PHNs had higher self-reported and actual knowledge about HPV vaccination and cervical cancer than GPs. PHNs used the Norwegian Institute of Public Health's numerous information sources on HPV, while GPs had a low user rate. 88% of PHNs and 50% of GPs acquired information from the pharmaceutical industry. 93% PHNs and 68% of GPs would vaccinate their 12-year-old daughter. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, willingness to vaccinate one's daughter was positively associated with younger age, being PHN (OR = 5.26, 95%CI 1.74-15.94), little concern about vaccine side effects (OR = 3.61, 95%CI 1.10-11.81) and disagreement among experts (OR = 7.31, 95%CI 2.73-19.60). Increased knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination is needed, particularly among GPs. Those least concerned about side effects and disagreements among experts were most likely to vaccinate their daughter. These findings are of interest for public health authorities responsible for the Norwegian vaccination and cervix cancer screening programmes, and providers of training of PHC personnel. Key points One year after introduction of HPV vaccination among 12-year-old schoolgirls in Norway, a cross-sectional study in Northern Norway among general practitioners (GPs) and public health nurses (PHNs) showed that

  10. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi


    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  11. The new genetics and the public's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunton, Robin; Petersen, Alan R., Ph. D


    ...; discusses the role of the media in framing debate about genetics, health and medicine. The New Genetics and the Public's Health addresses the emerging social and political consequences of the new genetics and provides a stimulating critique of current research and practice in public health. Alan Petersen is Professor in Sociolo...

  12. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee


    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  13. International environmental law and global public health. (United States)

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O


    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health.

  14. Job Satisfaction in Public and Private Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Foged, Søren Kjær


    is that dissimilar functional areas are studied which makes it difficult to isolate effects of privatization as such. We respond to these challenges by carrying out an empirical analysis of job satisfaction among teachers who teach Danish to immigrants. The teachers work in comparable schools, carry out the same...... task, and are subject to the same performance management system, but some of the schools are public, some are private, and some have been subject to competitive tendering. We demonstrate that competition has a greater impact than ownership upon job satisfaction. We also show that one of the key...... mechanisms which translate competition into reduced job satisfaction relates to changing relations between managers and employees. Advocates and opponents of privatization alike should pay more attention to specific aspects and mechanisms related to privatization, in particular the element of competition....

  15. School Nurse Role in Electronic School Health Records. Position Statement (United States)

    Hiltz, Cynthia; Johnson, Katie; Lechtenberg, Julia Rae; Maughan, Erin; Trefry, Sharonlee


    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are essential for the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) to provide efficient and effective care in the school and monitor the health of the entire student population. It is also the position of…

  16. Best practices in school food and nutrition units of public schools of Bayeux, PB, Brazil. (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho; Pinto, Helen Ramalho Farias; Costa, Deborah Camila Ismael de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, Robson de Jesus; Aquino, Jailane de Souza


    The occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks is increasing in schools, and due to the number of children who consume school meals as the only daily meal, this factor becomes even more worrisome. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-health aspects of Food and Nutrition Units (SFNU) of public schools of Bayeux / PB in relation to the adoption of best practices in school food and nutrition. Data were collected through SFNU checklist during visits to units in 29 schools. The health risk of units evaluated was from regular to very high regarding structure and facilities, hygiene of food handlers, environment and food preparation. It was found that 10.3% of handlers used clean and adequate uniforms, and environment and equipment showed poor conservation status in 75.9% and 89.7% of Units, respectively; control of urban pests and vectors was not effective and cleaning of fresh produce was incorrectly conducted in 51.7% of SFNU of schools evaluated. It could be concluded that the production of meals in SFNU of schools evaluated does not meet the requirements established by the best practices in school food and nutrition.

  17. [Public health ethics and reproduction]. (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S


    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  18. Obesity and Aerobic Fitness among Urban Public School Students in Elementary, Middle, and High School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ruth Clark

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk among urban public school students through a collaborative school district and university partnership.Children and adolescents in grades K-12 from 24 urban public schools participated in measurements of height, weight, and other health metrics during the 2009-2010 school year. Body mass index (BMI percentiles and z-scores were computed for 4673 students. President's Challenge 1-mile endurance run was completed by 1075 students ages 9-19 years. Maximal oxygen consumption (⩒O2max was predicted using an age-, sex-, and BMI-specific formula to determine health-related fitness. Resting blood pressure (BP was assessed in 1467 students. Regression analyses were used to compare BMI z-scores, fitness, and age- and sex-specific BP percentiles across grade levels. Chi-square tests were used to explore the effect of sex and grade-level on health-related outcomes.Based on BMI, 19.8% were categorized as overweight and 24.4% were obese. Included in the obese category were 454 students (9.7% of sample classified with severe obesity. Using FITNESSGRAM criteria, 50.2% of students did not achieve the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ; the proportion of students in the Needs Improvement categories increased from elementary to middle school to high school. Male students demonstrated higher fitness than female students, with 61.4% of boys and only 35.4% of girls meeting HFZ standards. Elevated BP was observed among 24% of 1467 students assessed. Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores revealed low correlation with BMI z-scores.A community-university collaboration identified obesity, severe obesity, overweight, and low aerobic fitness to be common risk factors among urban public school students.

  19. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations (United States)

    Darr, Kurt J.


    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  20. Nonpublic Competition and Public School Performance: Evidence from West Virginia


    Cebula, Richard J.; Joshua C. Hall; Maria Y. Tackett


    In this study, we investigate whether nonpublic school enrollment affects the performance of public school districts. If homeschooling and private schools act as competition, public school districts test scores should be positively associated with nonpublic enrollment. Using data on West Virginia county school districts, and controlling for endogeneity with an instrumental variables approach, we find that a one standard deviation increase in relative nonpublic enrollment in a county is associ...

  1. Tribute to the legend Mr. Veterinary Public Health, Professor James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author was also destined during his Sabbatical Leave to have an interactive interview session with Prof James Steele after attending the 20th Annual James Steele lecture/ 99th birthday Dinner of Professor James Steele 4th and 6th April 2012 at the Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA. The interview ...

  2. disasters: implications for public health and health care system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The impacts of disasters are numerous and devastating on both the health of the human populations and the vital infrastructure. Public health therefore views disasters ... disasters on public health and the health care system within the fundamental principles that guide the ..... An uncontrolled fire occurring in vegetation more.

  3. Health behaviour and school environment among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, therefore health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment (particularly unrealistic scholastic expectations from teachers and parents) on health behaviours of school-aged children. Die hoofdoelwit van die studie ";Health Behaviour among School-aged Children"; ...

  4. Genetics, health care, and public policy: an introduction to public health genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Alison


    ... initiative About this book Further reading and resources Principles of public health The emergence of public health genetics The human genome project and 'genomic medicine' Community genetics Current developments in public health genetics Genomics and global health 2 Genetic science and technology Basic molecular genetics Genes and the geno...

  5. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...... managers and professionals in dealing with work health problems not only on an individual and group level, but also on an organizational and interorganizational level.......The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...

  6. Two decades of post-graduate training in Applied Public Health: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work is to describe the experience of the Uganda Public Health School Without Walls (PHSWOW) in training public health professionals at post-graduate level to offer leadership in planning, delivery of health services and research within a decentralized health system. As one of the constituents of the ...

  7. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example. (United States)

    Carman, Angela L


    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky's College of Public Health to Kentucky's LHDs seeking national public health accreditation.

  8. Environmental public health tracking: driving environmental health information. (United States)

    Charleston, Alex E; Wilson, Holly R; Edwards, Peter O; David, Felicita; Dewitt, Shannon


    Historically, public health professionals lacked the capacity to evaluate and conduct key investigations into the health of their environment. By bringing together environmental and health effects data from a variety of data sources, the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking) allows users to easily analyze and research the relationships between human health and the environment. As the Tracking Network has matured, its information has been used to guide public health actions, generate hypothesis, and demonstrate relationships between environment and health outcomes. The Tracking Network is composed of state, local, and national environment and public health partners. The Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is part of the National Center for Environmental Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tracking standardizes existing data from diverse sources while leveraging technologies and applying sound communication practices to provide a user-friendly interface for the data system by all types of users.

  9. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending. (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P


    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  10. Systematic review of public health branding. (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L


    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  11. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ


    "This text combines an examination of how the physical environment affects our health with a description of how public health and urban planning can work together to create environments that improve...

  12. A translational framework for public health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J


    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment...

  13. Public Health Nutrition as a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial to develop a qualified public health nutrition workforce to reduce the NCD burden. Professionals with broad capacity within the field of public health...... nutrition are necessary to identify and respond to the current health challenges. However, public health nutrition has not been recognized as a profession in all countries. Public health nutrition (PHN) is an evolving profession within nutrition science that focuses on solving nutritional problems affecting...... population groups rather than those of individuals. Central elements of the profession are to assess the impact of various aspects of the food systems on the nutritional status, health and health inequalities of population groups, and to develop, recommend and implement evidence-based measures to improve...

  14. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ


    ... human health and well-being. The author covers a wealth of topics including foundations, the joint history of public health and urban planning, transportation and land use, infrastructure and natural disasters, assessment tools...

  15. Do black lives matter in public health research and training? (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Townes, Ashley; Bengtson, Angela M


    To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans. In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL) across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications) by race using linear spline models. We also compared the number of courses available at the top schools of public health relevant to the top causes of death contributor to PYLL for black and white Americans. Homicide was the number one contributor to PYLL among black Americans, while ischemic heart disease was the number one contributor to PYLL among white Americans. Firearm-related violence accounted for 88% of black PYLL attributed to homicide and 71% of white PYLL attributed to homicide. Despite the high burden of PYLL, homicide research was the focus of few federal grants or publications. In comparison, ischemic heart disease garnered 341 grants and 594 publications. The number of public health courses available relevant to homicide (n = 9) was similar to those relevant to ischemic heart disease (n = 10). Black Americans are disproportionately affected by homicide, compared to white Americans. For both black and white Americans, the majority of PYLL due to homicide are firearm-related. Yet, homicide research is dramatically underrepresented in public health research investments in terms of grant funding and publications, despite available public health training opportunities. If left unchecked, the observed disproportionate distribution of investments in public health resources threatens to perpetuate a system that disadvantages black Americans.

  16. Comparative Study Of Private And Public Schools Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this the utility and validity of indicators that make up the public accountability of schools is seldom questioned. Student perceptions of school engagement (i.e., sense of connection to school, teachers and peers), motivation to learn, self-esteem, and student safety are part of a range of public accountability indicators.

  17. Independent Schools: Charitable Status, Public Benefit and UDI (United States)

    Palfreyman, David


    In England and Wales "independent schools" ("private schools" or, confusingly, "public schools") almost always have "charitable status". Hence, they are now subject to the new "public benefit" test imposed in the Charities Act 2006. There is much discussion as to whether this test will be a…

  18. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future. (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C


    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  19. [Public Health is an important tool of health care]. (United States)

    Holčík, Jan


    Public Health as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts of society has a long tradition and promising results in the Czech Republic. In the contemporary financial and economic crisis Public Health in the CR does not use its potential. In the article some problems of Public Health in the CR are presented (e.g. terminology, finance, education and training). Possible solutions are outlined.

  20. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J


    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  1. District of Columbia Public Schools: School Year 2014-2015. Parental Right to Know Guide (United States)

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2014


    School-Parent Compacts are a component of school-level parental involvement policies, and must be developed by the school, teacher, and parents as a description of how parents, the entire school staff, and students themselves will work together for improved student academic achievement. This District of Columbia Public Schools School Year…

  2. Nutritional Renaissance and Public Health Policy. (United States)

    Campbell, T C


    The science of nutrition has long been entrapped in reductionist interpretation of details, a source of great confusion. However, if nutrition is defined as the integration of countless nutrient factors, metabolic reactions and outcomes, biologically orchestrated as in symphony, its relevance for personal and public health would be less confusing and more productive. This more wholistic interpretation may be observed at the cellular and physiological levels and may be described, in part, by the concept of pleiotropy (multiple cell-based effects from one nutrient source), together with its more expansive cousin, epitropy (multiple cell-based effects from multiple nutrients). There are many consequences. First, wholistic interpretation helps to explain the profound but little-known health benefits of whole plant-based foods (not vegan or vegetarian) when compared with whole animal-based foods and/or with the nutritionally variable convenience foods (generally high in fat, salt, refined carbohydrates and low in complex carbohydrates). Second, wholistic interpretation explains why the U.S. Dietary Guidelines and related public policies, which are primarily conceived from reductionist reasoning, serve political agendas so effectively. If diet and health advisories were to acknowledge the biological complexity of nutrition, then make greater use of deductive (top down) instead of inductive (bottom up) reasoning, there would be less confusion. Third, wholistic nutrition, if acknowledged, could greatly help to resolve the highly-polarized, virtually intractable political debate on health care. And fourth, this definition tells why nutrition is rarely if ever offered in medical school training, is not one of the 130 or so medical specialties, and does not have a dedicated research institute at U.S. National Institutes of Health. Nutrition is a wholistic science whereas medical practice is reductionist, a serious mismatch that causes biased judgement of nutrition. But this

  3. Health and School Performance among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    This study examines the impact of a wide range of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). The key questions raised are whether different health problems lowers school performance contributing to a health selection process that could lead to lower...... and grades). Results indicate that childhood health is associated with grades in the expected direction (i.e. more health problems are associated with lower grades). The fact that different health measures contribute to lower grades independently points to the existence of multiple causal pathways linking...... health and school performance....

  4. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives


    Roberto, Christina; Gorski,Mary


    Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearl...

  5. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health (United States)

    Heuer, Chelsea A.


    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  6. Public relations and marketing of Nigerian School Library Media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This wisdom paper focused on public relations and marketing of Nigerian School Library Media Centre (SLMC) products and services. The paper explains public relations in School library Media Centre (SLMC), need for public relations in a SLMC, some clarifications about marketing as a concept, marketing SLMC products ...

  7. The role of public health informatics in enhancing public health surveillance. (United States)

    Savel, Thomas G; Foldy, Seth


    Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology.

  8. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students. (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon


    Homeschooled students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschooled students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n = 245) and homeschooled students (n = 162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschooled students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschooled students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health.

  9. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool vs. Public/Private School Students (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon


    Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschool students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

  10. Integration Models for Indigenous Public Health Curricula (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne; Lee, Vanessa; Robinson, Priscilla


    All graduates of Master of Public Health (MPH) programmes in Australia are expected to achieve a core set of Indigenous public health competencies designed to train "judgement safe practitioners". A curriculum framework document was developed alongside the competencies to assist programme providers to integrate appropriate Indigenous…

  11. Routledge handbook of global public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Richard G; Sommer, Marni


    ... processes such as the growth of inequalities between the rich and the poor in countries around the world, the globalisation of trade and commerce, new patterns of travel and migration, as well as a reduction in resources for the development and sustainability of public health infrastructures. The Routledge Handbook of Global Public Health explores ...

  12. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  13. Identifying core competencies for public health epidemiologists. (United States)

    Bondy, Susan J; Johnson, Ian; Cole, Donald C; Bercovitz, Kim


    Public health authorities have prioritized the identification of competencies, yet little empirical data exist to support decisions on competency selection among particular disciplines. We sought perspectives on important competencies among epidemiologists familiar with or practicing in public health settings (local to national). Using a sequential, qualitative-quantitative mixed method design, we conducted key informant interviews with 12 public health practitioners familiar with front-line epidemiologists' practice, followed by a web-based survey of members of a provincial association of public health epidemiologists (90 respondents of 155 eligible) and a consensus workshop. Competency statements were drawn from existing core competency lists and those identified by key informants, and ranked by extent of agreement in importance for entry-level practitioners. Competencies in quantitative methods and analysis, critical appraisal of scientific evidence and knowledge transfer of scientific data to other members of the public health team were all regarded as very important for public health epidemiologists. Epidemiologist competencies focused on the provision, interpretation and 'translation' of evidence to inform decision-making by other public health professionals. Considerable tension existed around some potential competency items, particularly in the areas of more advanced database and data-analytic skills. Empirical data can inform discussions of discipline-specific competencies as one input to decisions about competencies appropriate for epidemiologists in the public health workforce.

  14. Public health physicians: an endangered species. (United States)

    Tilson, H H; Gebbie, K M


    Questions have arisen regarding the competency levels of the various professions within the public health sector, including those of physicians. Protection of the nation's health requires that physicians on the public health team be competent practitioners of both medicine and public health. Physicians practicing in this arena are required to possess a vast array of knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be effective contributors in the field. Using focus groups of key informants in public health, the context of practice, inventory of required competencies, current competencies, and identified gaps in these competencies, measures to address the situation were identified and discussed. Recommendations from the focus groups include: use of distance-based learning, development of educational materials and programs, use of the American College of Preventive Medicine as a facilitator, improved remuneration, changes to the certification process, utilization of mentoring programs, introduction of new marketing strategies, use of professional publications, and increased governmental/agency support. Contributors to this endeavor are identified. While we strive to improve the physician workforce entering the field, creative strategies for continued lifelong learning are urgently needed to facilitate ongoing development of physicians in the current public health workforce. This situation presents a major research agenda for public health practice. Identification of the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes for public health physicians is the first step toward narrowing gaps in required competencies.

  15. Fluorides in dental public health programs. (United States)

    Kumar, Jayanth V; Moss, Mark E


    The use of fluorides in dental public health programs has a long history. With the availability of fluoridation and other forms of fluorides, dental caries have declined dramatically in the United States. This article reviews some of the ways fluorides are used in public health programs and discusses issues related to their effectiveness, cost, and policy.

  16. Careers in Infectious Diseases: Public Health. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arjun


    Public health offers infectious disease physicians a variety of rewarding career options. Our training and skills make us well suited to a variety of roles in public health. This article summarizes some of the options for careers in public health and describes why ID physicians are so well suited to them. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. [Application of Internet technology in public health]. (United States)

    Satoh, T; Takahashi, K; Yahata, K; Nakagawa, S; Wojtczak, A; Takizawa, Y; Tajima, N; Kohyama, A; Akazawa, S; Higashi, T; Yamaguchi, N; Sekikawa, A


    Recent advances in telecommunication technology have been enormous. Application of this technology in public health has the potential to markedly improve global health through better surveillance and information systems. With this assumption the GHNet was established in 1994 by representatives from academia, WHO, Pan American Health Organization, the World Bank, NASA, IBM, and AT & T. The GHNet consists of seven components: 1) promotion of networking with the Internet among people in public health; 2) disease tele-monitoring; 3) distance learning system with the internet; 4) connection of non-governmental health organizations; 5) training cyberdocs who are educated in both public health and telecommunications; 6) establishment of an electronic scientific research server; and 7) a home page on the World Wide Web (WWW). In order to effectively incorporate the Internet into the field, connectivity and knowing how to use it are of critical concern. More and more facilities are connected to the Internet in Japan. However, few courses teaching how to utilize the Internet are provided for people in this field. An Internet training course for people in public health was held as joint venture of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Health Network (GHNet) on October 31, 1996, at the 55th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society of Public Health. Most of the participants for the course were from local public health departments and very few had previous experience with the Internet before the course. During this course participants learned how to use e-mail, how to find health resources on the WWW, how to construct a home page, and how the Internet could be utilized to improve public health, with their computers actually hooked to the Internet. From this experience, we found that this kind of course is feasible and beneficial and hope that this course would serve as a model for training people in public health.

  18. State farm-to-school laws influence the availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunches at US public elementary schools. (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa; Turner, Lindsey; Schneider, Linda; Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank


    State laws and farm-to-school programs (FTSPs) have the potential to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) availability in school meals. This study examined whether FV were more available in public elementary school lunches in states with a law requiring/encouraging FTSPs or with a locally grown-related law, and whether the relationship between state laws and FV availability could be explained by schools opting for FTSPs. A pooled, cross-sectional analysis linked a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools with state laws. A series of multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for school-level demographics were performed according to mediation analysis procedures for dichotomous outcomes. Roughly 50% of schools reported FV availability in school lunches on most days of the week. Schools with the highest FV availability (70.6%) were in states with laws and schools with FTSPs. State laws requiring/encouraging FTSPs were significantly associated with increased FV availability in schools and a significant percentage (13%) of this relationship was mediated by schools having FTSPs. Because state farm-to-school laws are associated with significantly higher FV availability in schools-through FTSPs, as well as independently-enacting more state legislation may facilitate increased FTSP participation by schools and increased FV availability in school meals. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. Injury and violence: a public health perspective. (United States)

    Rockett, I R


    This report examined injury and violence from a public health perspective. The discussion focuses on the magnitude of the problem, age and regional patterns, war mortality, motor vehicle accidents, natural disasters, US injury and violence mortality and morbidity trends by age, the history of injury, the relationship between energy and injury, similarities between disease and injuries, injury and violence prevention, risk factors, and medical care. The US has two Centers for Disease Control surveillance systems for monitoring behavior that increases the risk of injury or disease. A youth surveillance system surveys high school students about high risk behavior, such as use of weapons and nonuse of seat belts. The surveillance system misses the homeless and people without telephones and undersamples minorities, low income people, and males. Youth surveillance misses groups with high dropout rates, such as Blacks and Hispanics. Lower income people have higher disease and injury rates. US Black males are particularly vulnerable. Health professionals that aim to reduce injury risks must address underlying conditions that perpetuate poverty, such as residential segregation, racial discrimination, unemployment, and inferior educational opportunities. Survival of the injured is dependent on the speed with which Emergency Medical Teams can treat the injury. Treatment within the first hour is a critical determining factor. Specialized trauma centers and emerging technologies, such as geographic information systems, improve survival. The global diffusion of beliefs, values, and practices can promote or inhibit injury and violence.

  20. The Impacts of Public Charter Schools on Students and Traditional Public Schools: What Does the Empirical Evidence Tell Us? (United States)

    Silvernail, David L.; Johnson, Amy F.


    The goal of this Brief was to compile and analyze the available evidence of the impacts of public charter schools on students and schools. Using a series of five common claims made by proponents and opponents of public charter schools as an organizer, the existing empirical evidence was reviewed. The analysis revealed that student performance in…

  1. The need for professional doctors of public health. (United States)

    Roemer, M I


    Planning, organizing, and operating today's complex health care systems or heading Federal, State, and city public health agencies in the United States and other countries require professionals broadly prepared in the meaning, philosophy, and strategies of public health. It is and has been recognized that the best trained clinical physician could not be expected to know the policies and practices of official public health programs. The chief health official of a State or other jurisdiction, for example, deals with the epidemiology of many diseases; with all aspects of the environment; with hospitals, drugs, health manpower, and nutrition; with issues of health economics, finance, and politics; and with administration. For these tasks, most of medical education is irrelevant. To produce the needed specialists, candidates with a BA degree would be educated as doctors of public health. The proposed 5-year postgraduate curriculum is as demanding as the training for the MD degree, but completely different. The 38 subjects or courses in the curriculum are grouped into four categories: basic tools of social analysis, health and disease in populations, protection of health and prevention of disease, and health care systems and management. At present, MPH degree holders take only a handful of core and elective courses and emerge with little systematic knowledge about the majority of problems they face. The DrPH candidates at schools of public health spend most of their time on research and dissertation writing--adequate preparation for university teachers, but academia is not the goal of most candidates, nor the greatest need of society. Recruits for the proposed new doctorate in public health may be found among the thousands of young people who want to do "community health work" but see no way to play a significant role without getting an MD degree first.

  2. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  3. Public health: a best buy for America. (United States)

    Rein, Andrew S; Ogden, Lydia L


    Public health has considerable capacity to reduce the drag of health spending on our nation by preventing the leading causes of disease, death, and disability with cost-efficient, population-based interventions and innovative, boundary-spanning approaches that link clinical care and community prevention. Public health is uniquely able to identify the burdens of disease and analyze the best strategies for addressing them. A 3-pronged strategy can help assure the value needed from our public health investments. First, we must center our efforts on prevention. Second, we must optimize our public health investments to achieve the greatest value for our investment. Third, public health must collaborate with traditional and new partners on initiatives and in funding. How we finance public health is critical to maximizing public health's benefits and requires thoughtful analysis of how federal funding affects state and local health agencies' programming and how allocation drives choices and design, among other topics, as discussed in this special issue of the journal.

  4. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health (United States)

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul


    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  5. Redistributive effects in public health care financing. (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel


    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  6. Student Dress Codes in Public Schools: A Selective Annotated Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joan Pedzich


    P1 In an attempt to curb the rising presence of gangs in public schools and to reduce disciplinary conflicts, officials in school districts across the United States are implementing dress codes or introducing uniforms...

  7. Public Schools, Hawaii, 2009, Hawaii Department of Education (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Locations represent Hawaii's public schools. List of schools was furnished by the Hawaii Department of Education (DOE). Locations were developed by the US EPA Region...

  8. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public University Students in South-West, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2017) > ... The study specifically investigates the school organizational climate, curriculum ...

  9. disasters: implications for public health and health care system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    population epidemics of communicable diseases ... A. U. Akpan-Idiok, Department of Soil Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, ... (American. Public. Health. Association, 1996). This paper examines concept of disasters, impacts of disasters and implications on Public Health and Health Care System.

  10. Assessment of CEPH accredited institutions offering Public Health programs in the United States: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish eJoshi


    Full Text Available Aims: Examine the distribution of the CEPH accredited institutions offering public health educational programs in the United States, and characterize their various attributes.Methods: A search was conducted during the period of June 2014, using the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health database (ASPPH, and individual university websites to obtain a complete list of CEPH accredited institutions offering programs in Public Health at the Certificate, Masters, and Doctoral levels in the United States. Detailed information were abstracted from the various programs offerings including: school/program information, school type, geographic location, admission cycle, education delivery format, public health concentration, number of credits, presence of a global component, joint programs and tuition. The data was analyzed in August 2014. Results: A total of 85 CEPH accredited institutions designated as either Schools of Public Health, or individual Programs of Public Health were present in the ASPPH database at the time of this data collection (2014. These institutions offer programs in public health at the Certificate (61%, n=52, Masters (100%, n=85 and Doctoral (44%, n=37 levels in the US. More than half of the programs offered were provided by schools of public health (58%, N=49, which were mostly public universities (75%, n=64, concentrated in the Northeast (22%, n=19 and mainly admitted students during the fall semester. Ninety three concentrations of Public Health currently exist, of which 25 concentrations are predominant. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which examines the distribution of existing CEPH accredited Public Health educational programs offered by US institutions. We suggest future areas of research to assess existing Public Health workforce demands, and map them to the curriculums and competencies provided by institutions offering Public Health educational programs in the United States

  11. Waterbury Public Schools and Connecticut Academy for Education: School Improvement Support Team (SIST). External Evaluation Study. (United States)

    Curriculum Research and Evaluation, Chaplin, CT.

    The Connecticut Academy for Education implemented the School Improvement Support Team (SIST) in the Waterbury, Connecticut, Public Schools during the 1998-99 school year. The main goal of the SIST is to provide a comprehensive and cohesive set of programs and activities for improving student performance in the Waterbury Public Schools. The…

  12. Review of "Everyone Wins: How Charter Schools Benefit All New York City Public School Students" (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.


    The report examines whether increasing competition from charter schools has a causal effect on the achievement of public school students in New York City, using a three-year longitudinal database of student test scores. As a measure of competition, it considers the percentage of students who left a public school for a charter school in the prior…

  13. School-Based Management: Views from Public and Private Elementary School Principals. (United States)

    Apodaca-Tucker, Mary T.; Slate, John R.


    Analyzed data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to determine the extent to which school-based management was reported as having been implemented differently by public and private elementary school principals. Findings based on 866 principals show that public school principals have implemented school-based management to a…

  14. A translational framework for public health research. (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J


    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment. We therefore outline a translational framework for public health research. Our framework redefines the objective of translation from that of institutionalising effective interventions to that of improving population health by influencing both individual and collective determinants of health. It incorporates epidemiological perspectives with those of the social sciences, recognising that many types of research may contribute to the shaping of policy, practice and future research. It also identifies a pivotal role for evidence synthesis and the importance of non-linear and intersectoral interfaces with the public realm. We propose a research agenda to advance the field and argue that resources for 'applied' or 'translational' public health research should be deployed across the framework, not reserved for 'dissemination' or 'implementation'.

  15. The individual, social justice and public health. (United States)

    Peñaranda, Fernando


    A theoretical reflection on public health from a standpoint of social justice, which does not overlook the individual, is presented. Based on a conceptualization of social justice, human rights and health in the framework of an epistemological analysis, a particular perspective on social justice and its implications for public health praxis, using a public health program as an example, is revealed. Some routes are identified in order to orient and put into practice the actions developed in public health programs. This requires a different way of understanding the scenarios and interchanges among people in the field of clinical practice. It is understood that these fields can also be seen as a suitable opportunity for the establishment of individuals and individualities committed to the political struggle for human rights, equity in health and recognition of a life worthy of human dignity.

  16. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu


    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  17. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Mental Health Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  18. Strategic Methodologies in Public Health Cost Analyses. (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie; Atherly, Adam; VanRaemdonck, Lisa; Lampe, Sarah

    The National Research Agenda for Public Health Services and Systems Research states the need for research to determine the cost of delivering public health services in order to assist the public health system in communicating financial needs to decision makers, partners, and health reform leaders. The objective of this analysis is to compare 2 cost estimation methodologies, public health manager estimates of employee time spent and activity logs completed by public health workers, to understand to what degree manager surveys could be used in lieu of more time-consuming and burdensome activity logs. Employees recorded their time spent on communicable disease surveillance for a 2-week period using an activity log. Managers then estimated time spent by each employee on a manager survey. Robust and ordinary least squares regression was used to measure the agreement between the time estimated by the manager and the time recorded by the employee. The 2 outcomes for this study included time recorded by the employee on the activity log and time estimated by the manager on the manager survey. This study was conducted in local health departments in Colorado. Forty-one Colorado local health departments (82%) agreed to participate. Seven of the 8 models showed that managers underestimate their employees' time, especially for activities on which an employee spent little time. Manager surveys can best estimate time for time-intensive activities, such as total time spent on a core service or broad public health activity, and yet are less precise when estimating discrete activities. When Public Health Services and Systems Research researchers and health departments are conducting studies to determine the cost of public health services, there are many situations in which managers can closely approximate the time required and produce a relatively precise approximation of cost without as much time investment by practitioners.

  19. Public engagement on global health challenges. (United States)

    Cohen, Emma R M; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A


    Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  20. A Physicist's Odyssey in the Public Schools (United States)

    Blatt, S. Leslie


    My colleagues and I developed our "Discovering Physics" course a dozen years ago based on the best available research on (predominantly pre-college) student learning in the sciences. The hands-on small-group approach we subsequently adopted works quite nicely in the university environment, as well. As a major side benefit, we began consulting with and eventually working closely with teachers in the Worcester Public Schools. Over the years, we developed a regular collaborative cycle: 1.) A curriculum team of Clark faculty and K-12 teachers meets during the academic year for discussions and to design activities built around a "big idea" in the sciences; 2.) A summer institute is offered, for a larger group of teachers, based on the work of the curriculum team; 3.) A "Ways of Knowing in the Sciences" course is offered in the fall for Education Department students, centered on the previously-tested science content coupled with a variety of pedagogical approaches, as well as observations in the schools; and 4.) The cycle resumes with a new team and a different "big idea." The experience continues to be both rewarding and eye-opening.

  1. Public versus private health care in a national health service


    Brekke, Kurt Richard; Sørgard, Lars


    This paper studies the interplay between public and private health care in a National Health Service. We consider a two-stage game, where at stage one a Health Authority sets the public sector wage and a subsidy to (or tax on) private provision. At stage two the physicians decide how much to work in the public and the private sector. We characterise different equilibria depending on whether physicians coordinate labour supply or not, the physicians’ job preferences, and t...

  2. The University-Public Health Partnership for Public Health Research Training in Quebec, Canada. (United States)

    Paradis, Gilles; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Malowany, Maureen; Levy, Joseph; Rossignol, Michel; Bergeron, Pierre; Kishchuk, Natalie


    Enhancing effective preventive interventions to address contemporary public health problems requires improved capacity for applied public health research. A particular need has been recognized for capacity development in population health intervention research to address the complex multidisciplinary challenges of developing, implementing, and evaluating public health practices, intervention programs, and policies. Research training programs need to adapt to these new realities. We have presented an example of a 2003 to 2015 training program in transdisciplinary research on public health interventions that embedded doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in public health organizations in Quebec, Canada. This university-public health partnership for research training is an example of how to link science and practice to meet emerging needs in public health.

  3. Health promotion in Swedish schools: school managers' views. (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina


    Schools are recognized worldwide as settings for health promotion, and leadership has a bearing on schools' ability to be health promoting. School managers have a great influence on what is prioritized in school, which in turn affects students' school performance and health. There is lack of research into school managers' views on health promotion, and what they consider to be central to health promotion. The aim was therefore to examine school managers' views about what health promotion in schools include. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was performed. In-depth interviews were conducted with all 13 school managers of a middle-sized municipality in central Sweden. The analysis had both manifest and latent content and three categories: 'Organization and Collaboration', 'Optimize the arena' and 'Strengthen the individual', and 10 subcategories emerged. The theme, 'Opportunities for learning and a good life', describes the latent content of these categories. Taking into account the views of school managers are important because these views help form a more complete picture of how school managers work with health promotion and what is needed to enhance health promotion to improve students' opportunities for learning and a good life. The Ottawa Charter for Health promotion is thereby transformed into practice. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. School absence and treatment in school children with respiratory symptoms in the Netherlands: Data from the Child Health Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186

  5. Is globalization really good for public health? (United States)

    Tausch, Arno


    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Improving the public health sector in South Africa: eliciting public preferences using a discrete choice experiment. (United States)

    Honda, Ayako; Ryan, Mandy; van Niekerk, Robert; McIntyre, Diane


    The introduction of national health insurance (NHI), aimed at achieving universal coverage, is the most important issue currently on the South African health policy agenda. Improvement in public sector health-care provision is crucial for the successful implementation of NHI as, regardless of whether health-care services become more affordable and available, if the quality of the services provided is not acceptable, people will not use the services. Although there has been criticism of the quality of public sector health services, limited research is available to identify what communities regard as the greatest problems with the services. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken to elicit public preferences on key dimensions of quality of care when selecting public health facilities in South Africa. Qualitative methods were applied to establish attributes and levels for the DCE. To elicit preferences, interviews with community members were held in two South African provinces: 491 in Western Cape and 499 in Eastern Cape. The availability of necessary medicine at health facilities has the greatest impact on the probability of attending public health facilities. Other clinical quality attributes (i.e. provision of expert advice and provision of a thorough examination) are more valued than non-clinical quality of care attributes (i.e. staff attitude, treatment by doctors or nurses, and waiting time). Treatment by a doctor was less valued than all other attributes. Communities are prepared to tolerate public sector health service characteristics such as a long waiting time, poor staff attitudes and lack of direct access to doctors if they receive the medicine they need, a thorough examination and a clear explanation of the diagnosis and prescribed treatment from health professionals. These findings prioritize issues that the South African government must address in order to meet their commitment to improve public sector health-care service provision. Published

  7. An Evaluation of the Health Status of the School Environment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The provision of a Healthful School Environment is a prerequisite for the protection and promotion of the health of learners and attainment of Millennium Development Goal 2. This study sought to evaluate the availability of components of a healthful school environment in public primary schools in Bonny Local ...

  8. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.


    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  9. Athletic Trainer Services in Public and Private Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Pike, Alicia M; Pryor, Riana R; Vandermark, Lesley W; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J


     The presence of athletic trainers (ATs) in secondary schools to provide medical care is crucial, especially with the rise in sports participation and resulting high volume of injuries. Previous authors have investigated the level of AT services offered, but the differences in medical care offered between the public and private sectors have not been explored.  To compare the level of AT services in public and private secondary schools.  Concurrent mixed-methods study.  Public and private secondary schools in the United States.  A total of 10 553 secondary schools responded to the survey (8509 public, 2044 private).  School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. Descriptive statistics depict national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis.  A greater percentage of public secondary schools than private secondary schools hired ATs. Public secondary schools provided a higher percentage of full-time, part-time, and clinic AT services than private secondary schools. Only per diem AT services were more frequent in the private sector. Regardless of the extent of services, reasons for not employing an AT were similar between sectors. Common barriers were budget, school size, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. Unique to the public sector, remote location was identified as a challenge faced by some administrators.  Both public and private secondary schools lacked ATs, but higher percentages of total AT services and full-time services were available in the public sector. Despite differences in AT services, both settings provided a similar number of student-athletes with access to medical care. Barriers to hiring ATs were comparable between public and private secondary schools; however, remote location was a unique challenge for the public sector.

  10. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice (United States)

    Watson, Tyler


    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  11. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  12. School-Based Health Centers (United States)

    ... enrolls through school newsletters or websites or at parent-teacher events like back-to-school nights. Why Have ... Getting Involved at Your Child's School Gifted Education Parent-Teacher Conferences School and Asthma School and Diabetes Special ...

  13. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen


    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  14. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey


    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  15. Public health preparedness evaluation and measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Savoia


    Full Text Available

    Dear Sir;
    Public health preparedness refers to the ability of different local, state, and federal entities to carry out a prompt,effective response to any public health threat.[1] Indeed,it is clear that the term “threat”could embrace
    a myriad of elements. Recently, the main focus has been on bioterrorism, defined as the terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive weapons of mass destruction.

    However, preparedness also involves other threats such as seasonal influenza epidemics, earthquakes or electricity failures. Programs aimed at improving the level of preparedness of different types of agencies (such as law enforcement, public health agencies, fire services, emergency medical services etc. in case of terrorist attacks could largely improve the overall ability of the public health system in addressing any threat to health, in particular those related to infectious diseases.[2]

  16. PUBLIC HEALTH Health problems flow freely across borders ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Oct 25, 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.

  17. Reading Is a BLAST! Inside an Innovative Literacy Collaboration between Public Schools and the Public Library (United States)

    Genest, Maria T.


    Public libraries have long supported the literacy goals of public schools in their communities by providing access to printed and electronic resources that enhance learning and teaching. This article describes an ongoing collaboration between the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh's BLAST outreach program and the Pittsburgh Public Schools that has…

  18. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.


    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  19. The Development and Implementation of the Chicago Public Schools Emergency EpiPen® Policy (United States)

    Zadikoff, Emily H.; Whyte, Stephanie A.; DeSantiago-Cardenas, Lilliana; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Gupta, Ruchi S.


    Background: Food allergy affects 1 in 13 children, or 2 children per classroom. Food allergies are the leading cause of anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction that can result in death. In fact, 25% of first-time anaphylactic reactions among children occur in school. To address this, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) Office of Student Health and…

  20. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects. (United States)

    Kolbe, Lloyd J


    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated education outcomes. First, for context, I briefly portray the nature of our related political and public health systems. I then frame this retrospective by illustrating how my serial employment within other public health system organizations led to, and then resulted from, my work within these two federal public health agencies. To represent the many talented individuals in each organization with whom I had the good fortune to work, I name only one in each organization. I then characterize how these individuals and organizations progressively shaped my work and career. I conclude by speculating about prospects for academic institutions to more purposefully prepare students and faculty to work within federal government public health agencies. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.